BRANT COUNTY, ONTARIO

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PROFILES OF BRANT COUNTY COMPANIES, BANKS, SOCIETIES, & CHURCHES

These Brant County, Ontario company profiles have been transcribed by Bill Bowman from Warner and Beers History of Brant County 1883. They are being posted as Bill completes them. A big thank you to Bill for his hard work!

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The Farm and Dairy Utensil Manufacturing Company was organized in 1881, with a capital stock of $50,000. A charter was obtained on the 27th of July of the same year by M. Whiting, Wm. J. Scarfe, H. M. Wilson, A. D. Cable, M. F. Hale, and Robert Smyth. The officers of the company are: M. Whiting, President; H. M. Wilson, Vice-President; M. F. Hale, Secretary; R. C. Smyth, Treasurer. The business of which this is an outgrowth was established in the beginning of 1881 by Mr. Whiting, who had all his goods manufactured to order. Early in 1882 he purchased the present location of the company's works on Duke and Waterloo Streets, which was then known as Jones' Foundry, and here built the commodious factories which are known as above. The main building is 140 feet by 50 feet, two stories high; the factory 60 by 25; the blacksmith shop 24 by 50; and the dry kiln 18 by 36. The latter, which is used for seasoning and drying lumber, is of an improved pattern, and one of a very few in Canada. The products of this factory are: The Improved Wide-Awake Separator; Bickford's Combined Force, Lift Tank and Suction Pump; the Weller Independent Spring-tooth Cultivator, with broadcast spreader attached; and the Monarch Fanning Mill. They employ about twenty men. A twenty-five horse-power engine is used for driving the machinery. More to follow.

A. Harris, Son & Co., Manufacturers of Improved Harvesting Machinery. -this great industrial establishment was founded about the year 1860, at the Town of beamsville, Ontario, by Alanson Harris, Esq. In 1871 Mr. Harris removed his business to Brantford, where he formed a partnership with Messrs. J. Harris and J. K. Osborne, under the style and title of A. Harris, Son & Co. This firm was incorporated in 1881 under the laws of the Dominion of Canada, since which time it has been known as A. Harris & Co. (Limited). the energies of this corporation are devoted entirely to the production of harvesting machinery, of the class known as reapers and mowers, self-binders, &c. These are all manufactured under patents owned by the firm. The shops on Colborne Street that were erected in 1871 soon became insufficient for the business for which they were built and in 1877 the capacity was doubled by an ample extension; but these enlarged facilities soon became cramped again, so that it became necessary to build additional shops. These were erected in 1882, on the grounds south of the old canal, on what are locally known as Cockshutt's Flats. Here is the new blacksmith shop, a building of 150 by 50 feet, fitted up with all the modern appliances that genius could invent for the prosecution of this branch of industry. A short distance further south is the new moulding shop, a building 200 by 60 feet. On the west end is place a cupola with a capacity of melting ten tons at one time, and on the other end is a large tank ten feet in diameter always kept filled with water, and connected with pipes throughout the whole building. In the spring the company intend erecting a large building of 400 feet frontage, south of the new shops, to meet the increasing demand of their trade. No less than ten general agents are constantly on the road, exclusive of the Manitoba branch. The officers of the company are: J. Harris, President and Superintendent; J. K. Osborne, Vice-President; A. Harris, Secy. Treas.; F. Grobb, Mechanical Superintendent. Manitoba branch- L. M. Jones, Manager; J. H. Housser, Sec.-Treas. The product of these works in the year 1882 was 1,000 mowers, 1,273 reapers, and 1,000 self-binders. The annual consumption of leading items of material is as follows: Pig iron 1,000 tons; bar iron, 250 tons; coal 250 tons; binding twine, 250 tons; binding wire, 50 tons; malleable iron, 100 tons. The working of this great amount of material gives steady employment to about one hundred and fifty artisans and labourers, and also keeps in motion an extensive assortment of costly machinery. The power for this establishment is supplied by two highly improved steam engines of the most modern type; these are of eighty and thirty horse power respectively.

J. O. Wisner, Son & Co.-- This firm was established in this city in the year 1857. They are now the largest manufacturer of the class of agricultural implements they turn out to be found in Canada. Although they commenced upon a small scale, yet, with indomitable perseverance and attention to business, they soon attained to the high position they now occupy in the manufacturing world. Seven years ago the premises then occupied by them being too limited, they built a factory at the corner of Wellington and Clarence Streets. The corner next to Wellington is occupied as reception room and offices. The principal implements manufactured are one and two horse drills, drill and broad-cast seeders combined, single broad-cast seeders, spring tooth cultivators, spring tooth harrows, and sulky rakes, of which they will turn out over 5,000 this year, and will employ from 100 to 120 hands. Like all establishments of the kind which are at all progressive, there has been a constant increase of machinery and appliances during the last few years. To operate these a steam-engine of thirty-six horse power is used. There is little doubt that all shops which produce this class of implements in the Dominion of Canada have a bright future before them; as the tendency to use agricultural machinery expands, there must be a corresponding increase in supply.

Brantford Brewing and Malting Company.- this establishment was started over twenty years ago by H. & T. Spencer. Thomas Spencer was the next proprietor, and continued the business until the property came into the hands of Humphrey Davis. In 1876 George White became the owner and manager, and so continued until the establishment was purchased by Joseph Jackson, the present proprietor, in 1879. The "plant" is one of the most complete in this part of Canada, and has a capacity for producing two thousand gallons of ale and porter, a week. In 1872 a large extension was built, various improvements have been added from time to time, until it is now in every respect a first class brewery.

Spring Bank Brewery.- This establishment was formerly owned by Wm. Spencer, afterwards by a Mr. Lafferty. In 1856 George White, who had been a practical brewer in the place for several years, began the business on his own account. The weekly product is about sixty barrels of lager beer, that being the only variety of malt liquor made at this brewery. The weekly consumption of malt is one hundred and forty bushels. In 1863 Mr. White quitted the brewing business and the building was converted into a tannery, which was operated by one McCulloch until 1874, when it was destroyed by fire. In 1880 Mr. White rebuilt the establishment, and has continued the business of brewing to the present time. there are five men employed here.

Workman & Watt, Brick-makers and General Dealers in Brick.- Calvin Houghton opened this yard as long ago as 1833; he was succeeded by Hugh Workman, who conducted the business until the year 1880, when the present firm assumed the proprietorship. There are three varieties of brick produced at this yard, namely: red brick, white brick and spiral-shaped brick for wells, etc. The average number made is one hundred and twenty-five thousand per week, to accomplish which the services of six men are required. This enterprise has added much to the facilities which Brantford possesses for the erection of good buildings.

Blacker Bros.' Brantford Steam Brick-Yard was established by Edward Blacker about 1836, near the brick-yard by Workman & Watt, on the Hamilton Road. He was there five or six years, and then removed on the farm now owned by Mrs. Laycock, then changed it to *Tutelar Heights, on the 'Landing Road," or road leading to Newport. He was probably the first brick manufacturer in the county, coming here from Hamilton. He started on a small scale at first. In 1879 he bought his present brick-yard, and carried on the two yards till 1881, when he retired from business in favour of his two sons, R.R. and W. Blacker. The present Brantford steam brick-yard covers about four acres, is located one mile from the city limits on the left side of the Mount Pleasant Road, and is probably the largest brick-yard, west of Toronto, in Ontario. The bricks are pressed by steam and this is the only firm that manufactures both red and yellow brick. they manufacture from 2,000,000 to 2,500,000 bricks per year, and employ about 26 men and boys, and use from 1,200 to 1,500 cords of wood per year. They have a farm of 30 acres here, and clay is found close to the machines. Most of the brick for the past year were used in Brantford. They have about $16,000 to 18,000 invested in business and the weekly pay roll runs from $180 to $200. The junior partner, William Blacker, has charge of the yard and superintends the manufacture and sale of the brick. They find a good sale for brick made, use three Townley Stock Brick Machines, and make from ten to twelve thousand per day apiece. *Bill's note! Tutelar in book should be Tutela.

City Broom Factory.- Was started in 1877 by C. Jarvis Jr. It is situated on Canal Street, near the Cotton Mill, in Holmedale. The labour is performed by hand and results in a weekly output of seventy-five dozen brooms. There are employed from five to ten hands. Mr. Jarvis is also a wholesale dealer in and importer of French Whisk and bass from France and Belgium.

Brant Canning Company.- In 1868, Mr. J. R. Shuttleworth commenced the purchase and sell of fruit and its products as an especial industry; this business soon expanded to such successful compass that an increase of force became desirable, and Mr. J. M. Shuttleworth was admitted as a partner with his brother; this was in 1875. Four years later J. M. Shuttleworth took up his residence in Liverpool, England, in connection with the export and import business. The canning of fruits and vegetables was undertaken in a small way in 1879; this enterprise also proved remunerative, and an extensive business has been developed therefrom. The firm now occupy a large brick building on the north-west corner of Dalhousie and King Streets, where they have ample facilities for putting up five thousand cans of fruit each day, and give employment to sixty operatives, many of whom are women. The interest of Mr. J. M. Shuttleworth was purchased by his brother, George H. Shuttleworth, in 1882. The firm are large importers of foreign fruits, fancy groceries, etc., and are extensively engaged in the handling of native apples, large quantities of which are annually exported to European markets. This establishment is one of the largest and most complete of its kind in the Dominion.

Brantford Carriage Works - This establishment has developed from a modest beginning made in January, 1866, by two brothers, Thomas and John Hext, who were both practical workmen. Their first shop was a small building on the corner of Dalhousie and Queen Streets, but in 1870 their business had increased beyond the capacity of that place, and they erected the front or main portion of the present works on Dalhousie Street. In 1877 a two story addition was made, and in 1881 another extension, three stories in height, was added, so that there now is an extensive system of shops. This industry gives employment to twenty-five mechanics, and has facilities for turning out one hundred carriages and an equal number of sleighs each year. In July of the year 1875, Mr. Thomas Hext was called to his final rest, and the surviving brother became the sole proprietor, and so continues to this date. The work manufactured by Mr. Hext is intended for local use, and is principally disposed of in Central Ontario, although a respectable percentage is marketed in the North-West, and some even goes to foreign countries. The establishment consumes a large amount of material, both domestic and foreign, much of which is imported directly by the proprietor.

The City Carriage Works were founded by Adam Spence in the year 1857. This event was to a certain degree a matter of necessity, as from the failure of the firm of Smith & McNaught, Mr. Spence was thrown out of employment as a journeyman, and to open up a little place of his own was the only way he saw toward earning a living. Accordingly with no capital save his health and skill, he commenced business in a small shop on the north-west corner of Colborne and Clarence Streets. This was in the fall of 1857, and just at the opening of the well-remembered hard winter of 1858. There was little to be done, and the new shop encountered its full share of worthless customers, so that when spring came the collectible debts of the young citizen were insufficient to the necessary expenses of an economical living. But time, and a more intimate acquaintance with the people, gave a better class of customers, and the "wolf" was driven from the door for a time at least. Slowly but surely the attention of a few worthy citizens was drawn towards the efforts of Mr. Spence in his struggle for a business foothold; the little shop began to be crowded with orders, and prosperity seemed to be already assured. On the morning of June 12th, 1864, the whole establishment was destroyed by fire. As there was no insurance on the property, Mr. Spence found himself once more with nothing but perseverance and a good business character for working capital. Business, tools, stock, hope itself almost had been swept away; but at this juncture came the encouraging support of "friends in need." He was advised to purchase a site and rebuild at once. One man offered to put up the new shops and wait and wait the final success of the enterprise for his pay. Others came forward with proffers of aid and confidence, and, as a result, the new shops were ready for occupancy in five weeks from the burning of the original ones. These new shops were the buildings which now serve as workrooms on the eastern flank of the establishment. In 1868-9 Mr. Spence purchased the structure which has been used for a hospital by the troops while stationed here; to this he added a large and commodious front of sufficient capacity to accommodate the various departments of a finishing shop, repository, offices, etc. All kinds of waggon and carriage work is turned out here; much attention is also given to general jobbing and repairs. there are employed some 18 or 20 mechanics, which force is equal to the production of 100 buggies and 75 sleighs per year, besides much other work. The annual number of articles turned out has perhaps never equalled the above statement, although a fair rating of the capabilities of Mr. Spence and his facilities seems to indicate these figures. Much of the material consumed in this establishment is imported directly from foreign producers, while other amounts are secured through local dealers, thus adding to the general industry of the city.

Craven Cotton Mill.- The building of the above mill was begun in May, 1880, and the first manufactured goods turned out were shipped in April, 1881. The mill is 170 feet long by 70 feet wide, and four stories high. It is built of white brick, with a mansard roof, and makes quite an imposing appearance. The machinery consists of 10,000 spindles and preparation, and 250 looms. the goods manufactured are grey domestics, or what are commonly called factory cottons. the quantity of cotton annually used by the mill is about 2,000 bales of 500 pounds each. The output is about 62,500 yards per week, or 3,125,000 yards per annum. This establishment was built and operated by Clayton Slater until May 1, 1882, when it became a joint stock company, with a paid-up capital of $225,000. Mr. Slater is a large stockholder and general manager of the work.

Cigar and Paper Box Manufactory.- Founded in 1875 by the present owner, Walter fowler, and gives employment to about sixteen hands, ten of whom are women. There is in use all necessary modern machinery for the various details of the business; this is driven by a steam engine of an improved type. The products of this shop are used principally in and near brantford by the starch, confectionery, cigar and tobacco manufacturers.

A. Fair's Cigar Factory.- Ten years ago Mr. Fair was induced to embark in the business of manufacturing cigars, and after commencing upon a small scale and making a first-class article, his fame soon spread through the Province, and the demand for Fair's cigars was so great that it became evident that he must increase his shop capacity to meet the numerous orders pouring in upon him. With that end in view he accordingly moved his factory to more extensive premises a little to the west of his grocery establishment at the corner of Colborne and Murray Streets, in the East Ward. Since then the business has increased to such an extent that it was found necessary to procure still larger premises, and consequently the brick building on the east side of Murray Street was purchased and the factory removed into it. the facilities are now such that a large number of hands are employed and the output for the last four weeks was respectively 29,900, 24,800, 32,200, 35,000; aggregating no less than 122,000 cigars, the majority of which were the favourite Punch, Patience, Prize Leaf, all first-class cigars. This large amount was far less than required to fill the orders on the books of the proprietor. Mr. Fair, although paying the highest wages demanded, finds great difficulty in obtaining a sufficient number of hands to enable him to keep up with the demand. The building now used is a story and a half, with a frontage of 88 feet on Colborne Street and 60 feet on Murray Street. The ground floor is used as a workshop, stripping room, curing room, packing room and bond room, while the upper floor is used for drying purposes. The room adjoining on the east side is the packing room, where the cigars are all assorted by three experts and packed. The principal markets outside the Province of Ontario are England and Manitoba. According to the trade and Navigation Returns, and the shipping book of the factory, he exports more cigars to England than any other manufacturer in the Dominion. Manitoba has also been a good customer, and to such and extent that he has been obliged to send an agent there to look after the interests of his business. In connection with the cigar trade, Mr. Fair does a very extensive grocery and liquor business, both retail and wholesale. In foreign liquors and wines he imports direct from the vineyards, thus guaranteeing the genuine article.

Connell & Co., Cigar Makers, produce from fifteen to twenty-five thousand cigars per week, for which six to eight hundred pounds of leaf tobacco are consumed. The work is performed by hand, and gives employment to a force of fifteen to twenty hands, one-third of them are women. Paterson's Wholesale Confectionery and Cigar Manufactory.- The above enterprize was established by Leeming and Paterson, in the west end of the building now occupied by the factory, in April, 1863. They employed about fifteen or sixteen hands, and manufactured certain lines of candies and cigars. In 1872 Mr. Leeming withdrew from the firm, and since then Mr. Paterson has been sole proprietor of the business. Owing to the rapid growth of the business, he purchased the adjoining building, which he now occupies, and in the near future he will again enlarge his factory. He employs seventy-five hands, and uses about one ton of sugar a day, and about twenty-three barrels of flour per diem. He manufactures annually about 1,500,000 cigars and all his goods find quick and ready sale in the markets of Ontario. The power for his machinery is furnished by a large steam engine. His manufactures consist of plain and fancy candies, biscuit, and Havana and seed leaf cigars, the tobacco for the latter being purchased at New York and in the Connecticut markets. He employs five travelling salesmen, and has four waggons on the road. At his branch house at Belleville five men are employed. Another branch is located at St. Catharine's. Mr. Paterson's business has doubled itself in the past five years, and has reached such dimensions that he is obliged to increase his facilities and enlarge his quarters for manufacturing more extensively.

The Globe Mutual Fire Insurance Co.- The above enterprise, which is another monument of the progressive spirit of Brantford citizens, was organized on the 5th September, 1873, with seventy-eight members and the following first officers: Hon. S. J. Jones, Pres.; T. S. Shenston, Vice-Pres.; G. R. VanNorman, Secretary. It was incorporated under 36 Vic., chap. 44, Ontario Statutes, and is, as the name indicates, purely a mutual company. When the risk is accepted a premium note is taken, on which an annual assessment is made whether a fire occurs or not. There are now in force about 900 policies, involving risk to the amount of over $600,000. The following are the officers for the ensuing years: John Strickland, President; Alfred Watts, Vice-President. Directors: G. W. Howell, Oakland; L. B. Lapierre, Paris; J. R. Douglas, Burford; P. Huffman, Northfield; S. Whitaker, Brantford; P. S. Howell, St. George. Managers: E. Sims & Son.

The Kerby Mills, situated on Grand River at the western end of Adelaide Street, are among the ancient landmarks of the oldtime Town of Brantford. These mills were erected by Abram Kerby about the year 1838, and have withstood all sorts of mishaps by floods and the breaking of dams, etc. There are three run of stones, and the necessary bolting and refining machinery for producing fine flour, cornmeal, buckwheat flour and chops. four hands are employed, who produce about two hundred barrels of flour per week. the power is supplied from Grand River, and is one of the oldest mill sites in Brant County.

A. Watts' Flouring Mills.- This important industrial establishment is located on the old Grand River Navigation cut-off. In 1853 the brick mill building, then owned by Mr. Wilkes, was destroyed by fire; this property was on the site of the present mill owned by Mr. Watts. In 1856 Alexander Bunnell erected the mills which were known for several years as the Bunnell Merchant Mills. The property finally came into the hands of the present proprietor, who has kept pace with all the improvements in machinery and processes which modern experience has offered to the world. This mill, which does an immense flouring business, and now has a capacity for turning out 250 barrels a day, has been thoroughly overhauled and refitted; the burr stones have been replaced by rollers, or roller brakes, said to be much superior to stones, and capable of producing a much finer grade of flour. Eighteen sets of rollers have been placed in with their attendant bolts, elevators, etc. and purifiers, separators, scourers and brushing machines of most intricate and prefect designs, with a view to manufacturing the highest grade flours. Four double chests of bolts, containing sixteen reels, have been put in, the bolting cloth being finest silk. The Richmond separator removes all the straw and chess, and sends the wheat beautifully clean to the scourers and thence to a brushing machine, where it is all brushed in a most ingenious manner. It is morally impossible for any dirt or even foreign substance to follow the wheat into the rollers after passing through this course of cleaning. The middlings and bran are also purified and brushed, and come from the purifiers in a thorough state. This mill is driven by four 56-inch wheels, and a wheel known as the Little Giant, all of the turbine pattern. A. Watts' brand of flour, which he manufactures chiefly for the Maritime Provinces, is considered a sufficient guarantee of its purity, and its sale is never difficult to effect. The expense in connection with the improvements effected in the mill, and its general reconstruction within, has been about $12,000, and the name of the Brant Mills is doing more probably to advertise Brantford than any other institution in the city.

Holmedale Mills.- In the month of September, 1856, George S. Wilkes, Esq., completed a dam across Grand River, at Holmedale, for the purpose of supplying power to the new mills which he had already made preparations to build. Times were hard and there was much discouragement in Brantford, so much so that Mr. Wilkes' enterprise was looked upon by many as another useless outlay of capital. But the same spirit that impelled the Wilkes family to forego the pleasures of an older country and become pioneers, moved him to persistent effort to carry out the plans which he had adopted. There is no precise record at hand to fix the date of the building of the mill, but it was probably put in operation during the year 1857, and was for several years owned and managed by Mr. Wilkes. The property fell into the hands of Ker and Coleman; then Mr. Ker alone controlled it for a time, until in January 1867, Mr. David Plewes succeeded to the proprietorship, and so continued until now. this mill property is among the best on Grand River, has a high "head and fall" with an abundance of water at all seasons. the weekly product is one thousand barrels of good merchantable flour, an important item in the industries of the City of Brantford. There are employed in this connection about a dozen men, besides the more indirect advantages to various others who supply barrels and other packages.

The Brantford New Mills are situated on the south bank of the old canal or "Navigation" and are very convenient of access from both town and country. This property was originally built by Wm. Gibson. The mills were burned, and rebuilt in 1864. After changing hands once or twice, Mr. Thomas Robson became the proprietor, and so has continued until now (1883). The product is six hundred barrels of flour per week. All common varieties of milling are turned out, and much attention paid to custom grinding. The mills derive power from the canal, and are rated at fifty horse-power. There are six hands employed in the establishment. The proprietor has an office upon Colborne Street, and is one of its reliable business men of the day.

Victoria Foundry was established in 1858 by William Buck the present proprietor, in a building on the east end of Colborne Street. About eighteen years ago he occupied the building in which his business is now carried on. This building is brick, two and three stories high, and faces about three hundred feet on Cedar Street, and as many of Dumfries Street, the buildings being about fifty feet wide. The moulding floor covers nearly twenty thousand square feet. The building was originally not so large, having been enlarged considerably by the present proprietor. It was built by George S. Wilkes, and was occupied for a time by H. N. Taft & Co. for a foundry. When Mr. Buck began business he employed about twenty hands; he now employs one hundred and fifty. there are in the foundry the following departments: the moulding and casting rooms, electro-plating room, machine shops, tin smithing shop, blacksmith shops, wood-working shops, and pattern fitting rooms. A fifty horse-power engine supplies the force necessary to propel the large amount of machinery in the establishment. Mr. Buck controls and manufactures the "Radiant Home" Baseburner stove, and "Smyth's Patent Duplex Grates," for Canada; and in addition to these, he manufactures a great variety of wood and coal heating and cook stoves.

The Grand Trunk Railway Workshops of Brantford.- The Grand Trunk Railway of Canada has played no unimportant part in developing the resources of this country. The history of a mighty corporation whose ramification extends and is felt throughout the length and breadth of this continent must needs be written by abler pens than ours. The important part, however it has played in helping this city's prosperity is a matter that cannot fail to prove of general interest to the public at large. The number of hands employed is two hundred and twelve, and the probabilities are that this force will ere long be greatly augmented. The benefits which have accrued by the location of the Grand Trunk shops cannot be estimated, and the extension of these works at no late day will unquestionably form a most important factor in increasing the industrial interest of the city.

H. W. Petrie & CO., Machinists and General Machine Dealers.- The senior member of this firm commenced business in Brantford, as a practical machinist, in 1877. Soon after this he began to buy and sell all classes of machinery, which the times and locality demanded. By thus combining the various features of a workshop with the commercial advantages of an exchange, he has succeeded in building up a flourishing addition to the many industries of the city. In 1882 Mr. A. Petrie became associated with the original owner; since then the business has been conducted under the name and style of H. W. Petrie & Co. The shops contain the usual number and kind of sub-shops and labour-saving machinery, the power for which is supplied by a steam engine of ample size. From six to ten hands are employed, and a respectable amount of material consumed in the regular operations of the establishment.

The Brantford Planing Mill.- This is one of the oldest shops in the City of Brantford. It was built by Wm. Watt, in 1852 or 1853. On the 13th of August, 1857, a few minutes after twelve o'clock, the boiler of this establishment exploded with terrific violence. the engine house was completely demolished, but no person was injured; the loss was about $1,000, caused by the destruction of and injury to machinery. this establishment was destroyed by fire on the night of March 8th, 1858. Mr. Watt's loss was about $10,000, with $3,000 insurance. The shop was rebuilt immediately, and stocked with first-class tools and machinery. It has been extended and enlarged twice since it was first built. It is safe to affirm that more of the material details of the present City of Brantford have been constructed in this shop than in any other in this neighborhood. From twenty to sixty hands are employed in producing all kinds of joiner and building materials.

The Hop Farm of Humphrey Davis Esq., is situated on the Burford Road, adjoining the city boundaries on the west. The enterprise was begun in 1847, by Hooker, Baldwin & Davis, which firm continued the business until 1852, when Mr. Humphrey Davis became the sole proprietor, and has continued as such until the present time. There are about thirty acres under cultivation, and while the product is not exactly known, it is supposed to be on an average about seventy thousand pounds per annum. The business employs from ten to twenty hands during the summer regularly; while in the harvesting or picking season there are employed as high as three hundred men, women, boys and girls. The hops raised here find a market in all parts of the world, according to the various local demands. During the great scarcity of this article in the fall of 1882, the price was very high, reaching at one time the unprecedented figure of $1.20 per pound. W. H. Jull, on the eastern border of Brantford, is also engaged in the same business. Adjoining Mr. Davis' hop fields is one owned by Job Bingham. These industries are said to be somewhat uncertain in their results, yet with good management and proper attention to the selecting and caring for the plants, it is a reasonably sure business.

City Planing Mill.- the above manufactory was commenced in January, 1881. the building is constructed of white brick, and situate at the corner of Brant Avenue and Dalhousie Street. Its dimensions are 60 by 40 feet, two stories, with a wing on the south side of 30 by 30 feet, and also a separate brick building, 18 by 26 feet, about twenty feet to the west, used as a paint shop. The principal goods manufactured here are doors, sashes,. Venetian and other blinds, house furnishings, matched flooring, mouldings and fanning mills, the latter being the last description of articles the firm has undertaken to manufacture, they having obtained a patent in December last for certain important improvements, which they claim will supersede all others in present use, and for which they anticipate a large demand, as the price will not be more than an ordinary mill. There are quite a number already made, although work upon them was only commenced in October. The improvements covered by the patent are that two shoots are used by which three grades of grain can be obtained if necessary, and the different seeds, chess, &c., are carried into separate boxes. To the east of the building is the engine and boiler house, the former being 35 horse power and the latter 15 horse power. The number of hands employed weekly averages over twelve, although at times there are as many as eighteen or twenty. In connection with the factory there are commodious premises adjoining, where lumber and manufactured goods are stored preparatory to shipping. This firm, Costin Brothers, do considerable business by shipping prepared lumber for different parts of buildings to Manitoba, the balance of their trade being local. Although the factory has only been in existence scarcely two years, an immense amount of work has been turned out, and the coming year will witness a very large increase.

The Cockshutt Plow Company (Limited) is the name of one of the most important industrial establishments in central Ontario. It was started in the year 1877 by James G. Cockshutt, and called the Brantford Plow Works. The original building was sixty by forty feet, and three stories high: in 1878 a foundry was added, and the year following a machine room. In 1880 a new foundry was erected, and the old one converted into a blacksmith shop; a boiler room was put up in 1881, and in 1882 a new main building fifty by sixty feet and three stories high, was built. >From the foregoing record of advancement the reader can judge of the thrift of this enterprise. These shops are full of new and improved machinery and tools, for the production of the various implements for which the owners are widely celebrated. The attention of this firm is devoted to the manufacture of six varieties of farm machinery, namely: plows, gang-plows, sulky-plows, cultivators, rollers and corn-planters. The patents covering what is known as the "Scientific Iron Plow Beam" and "Diamond-Point Cultivator" are held by this house, thus enabling it to put into market some of the best and most practical devices that modern ingenuity has offered as an abridgment to the labours of the husbandman. It is believed that this establishment is the most extensive plow factory in the Dominion of Canada; if not, it certainly ranks among the very first in point of capacity, product and good management. the opening of the new North-West has already given an impetus to several industrial enterprises here in Brantford, but none perhaps have better prospects in that new field than the Cockshutt Plow Company. There are at present employed about fifty men, in all departments, of skilled and common labour. The motive power is steam, rating as equal to that of forty horses, while the annual consumption of materials adds an important item to the carrying trade of the city.

Waterous Engine Works.- The above establishment was founded in 1844 by P. C. VanBrocklin, who commenced making stoves, and subsequently engaged in the manufacture of threshing machines. In 1849 C. H. Waterous began the manufacture of steam engines and mills, taking a one-fourth interest in the concern. This business was continued until 1857, when, in connection with Messrs. Ganson, Goold and Bennett, he purchased the plant and tools, and commenced operating under the name of Ganson, Waterous & Co. In 1864 Mr. Goold, the last of the former, withdrew, and Mr. G. H. Wilkes was admitted into partnership, and the name of the firm changed to C. H. Waterous & Co. Business was continued under this style until 1874, when a stock company was formed under the Limited Liability Act, which operated under the name of the Waterous Engine Works Company, as it is now known. Mr. Waterous is still general manager of the company, and the stock is all owned by himself and family. The business has increased in a marked degree since 1849; then twenty-five hands were employed, and the annual production amounted to about $30,000; to-day one hundred and eighty men are employed, and work to the value of $285,000 produced annually. The products consist chiefly of agricultural engines, small grist-mills, saw-mills, shingle-mills &c. The works comprise eight departments, viz.: Finishing, moulding, carpenter, pattern, blacksmithing, erecting, boiler making and painting. The machinery is operated by a forty-horse power motor.

Bradley and Garretson & Co., Publishers of Standard Religious Works.- This enterprising book concern is one of the leading houses of the west; Its branches are located at Philadelphia, Pa., Chicago, Ill., Columbus, Ohio, St. Louis, Mo., Nashville, Tenn., San Francisco, Cal., Brantford, Ont., St. Johns, N. B., and at many other of the towns and cities of the American continent. The local branch of this house was established by Mr. D. R. Wilson on the 15th of July, 1876, since which time it has grown to be one of the most important houses of its kind in Canada. Some idea of its business may be formed by the amount expended for postage, which item is equal to no less than about three hundred dollars per month (estimated to be near 0ne-seventh of the mail business of the city). The force employed at Brantford is composed of from fifteen to twenty corresponding clerks and other assistants. All the modern appliances for saving time, labour and money, are in use at this office. Type-writing machines, shorthand writers, etc., are used to all possible advantage. The business for the past four years has been under the sole management of Rev. T. S. Linscott, a gentleman of high business qualifications, ample education and natural resources. Since his management of the business it has increased more than fourfold, and from the energetic way business is being pushed, it is fair to judge that the business is destined to greatly increase and grow to mammoth proportions. The firm are thinking of manufacturing their books in Canada, and thus save large import duties. If they decide to do this, it will necessitate moving their head Canadian house to Toronto; still, it is intended to continue a branch house at Brantford. It would be a great loss to the community to have so enterprising a firm move away. There would, as seen by the above figures, be a great falling off in the Post Office. business, and from the local Customs Department. From Brantford is controlled all Canadian territory west of New Brunswick, taking in the provinces of Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, British Columbia, and all the North-West Territories; scattered through these provinces there were over one thousand agents appointed in the year 1882; these new agents, together with old agents previously appointed number between two and three thousand men. Until recently, the Maritime Provinces were controlled by the Brantford house, but about a year ago Mr. J. W. Kerly, of this city, was sent to St. John, N. B., to establish a business, which bids fair to become a leading business in that territory. Notwithstanding the large proportions of the above business, no adequate knowledge exists of it in the city, the business being entirely wholesale; and outside of the printing establishments and the Post Office and Customs Departments, very few are aware of the flourishing condition of this house; but it has now a Dominion-wide reputation, there being scarcely a city, or town, or township without a representative. This house is doing a great work for the moral and religious education of the people. The books they handle are all of a high class character; besides, they are chiefly religious books, written by standard authors, and in scattering them by the tens of thousands as they are doing, a great work is being accomplished.

The Sheep-Skin Tannery of Franklin and John Ott, Oxford Street, was established in 1853 by Franklin Ott. In 1879 the building, which was of framework, was burned down, and during the same year was replaced by the brick edifice now occupied by the firm. It stands next to the Lorne Bridge in West Brant. From twenty to twenty-five hands are constantly employed in this and the Greenwich Street Factory, and about 100,000 sheep-skins tanned per annum, the principal productions being morocco and russets. The partnership is not registered but the partners enjoy an equality in the business. They are wide-awake energetic business men, thoroughly conversant with all the details of their trade, and control one of the most important branches of manufacture in the city.

The Greenwich Street tannery was established as a tannery in 1880 by franklin Ott, and from it heavy leather of several varieties is produced. It is operated by steam power. The building was erected in 1863 for a vinegar factory, by D. Stevenson, who occupied it for a few years for the purpose intended. Subsequently it was occupied as a private dwelling house until about the year 1880, when the Otts entered it and converted it into a tannery.

The Brantford Soap Works was begun by Charles Watts in 1856, and has increased until it is one of the most extensive establishments of the kind in Ontario. fourteen varieties of goods are produced, ranging from the finest toilet soap to the most improved brands of laundry bars. the weekly consumption of tallow amounts to about sixteen thousand pounds, besides a like proportion of other stock; the various manipulations are conducted under two general heads or departments, known respectively as the staple and fancy departments. there are fifteen men employed; also machinery used, which is propelled by a steam engine of fifteen horse-power. the premises have been extended from time to time to accommodate the requirements of the growing trade. The soaps from this house find their way to all parts of the Dominion of Canada, including the new North-West Territories. The present proprietors are Mr. Alfred Watts and Mr. Robert Henry, under the name and style of A. Watts & Co. This factory has been for the past twenty-five years under the management of Chas. Jarvis, whose long connection with the business has made him king over all, and to-day the soaps manufactured by this firm take the lead throughout the Dominion.

British American Starch Company (Limited).- The starch manufacturing industry had its inception in Brantford several years ago, out of a vinegar works speculation. Imlach & Howell entered into the manufacturing of vinegar in the building known as Jarvis' Broom Factory, under patent for producing the article from corn. the process was to produce starch from the corn , thence saccharine matter, and from that vinegar. Charles Romaine, Inland Revenue officer, however, pounced down on the works, which were consequently abandoned. Imlach & Gould then commenced the manufacturing of starch only, at the same place. About 1871 Andrew Morton bought out Gould's interest and continued with Imlach till about 1873, when Morton bought out Imlach's interest also, and carried on the business by himself. He erected at that time a brick factory at the "locks," three miles down the canal bank. This was destroyed by fire on the 31st July, 1881. In 1877 George Foster entered into partnership with Andrew Morton. After the fire a joint stock company was formed, and the large brick building on the canal, at first used as a woollen mill and subsequently as a furniture factory by Builder, was bought and fitted up, with considerable additions and improvements, for the starch works as they now exist. They are run by water-power, and give employment to about thirty hands, producing from eight to nine thousand tons per annum of blue and white laundry starches. as well as a large quantity of prepared corn for culinary purposes. There are nine dwelling houses for the employees attached to the works, all occupied.

W. E. Welding's Manufactory of Stoneware.- The above enterprise was started in 1849 by Justice Martin, of Lyons, New York, under the name Justice Martin & Co. He employed about six men, and occupied a frame building which stood where the business is now carried on, corner of Dalhousie and Clarence Streets. It was the first enterprise of this character in Canada, and in the beginning produced about $8,000 worth of ware per annum. After various firm changes the business came into the hands of Welding & Belding in 1868, and about five years later the factory was destroyed by fire. Shortly after the destruction of the building Mr. Welding retired from the firm, and Mr. Belding undertook to close out the business; but a few months later Mr. Welding repurchased the estate, rebuilt the building in brick, and since then has been sole proprietor of the concern. There are four departments in the factory, viz.: one for preparing the clay, the turning room, the moulding room, and the burning department. Fifteen men are employed, and the most extensive pottery business of Canada is carried on here. The ware produced is of a superior quality, and finds ready sale in the market at the highest figures.

Brantford Stove Works.- This enterprise was established by the present proprietor, B. G. Tisdale, in 1850 , in the brick building on the south side of Dalhousie Street, between Market and Queen Streets. Mr. Tisdale manufactures on a large scale several varieties of stoves and stove furniture, consuming some twenty tons of iron per week, and employing forty hands. The machinery is run by steam power, and the establishment is complete in all the departments necessary for carrying on a foundry on an extensive scale.

Sweet Corn Canning Factory.- This industry was inaugurated by Mr. D. M. Baldwin in the year 1880, at what is known as "Eagle Place," a finely situated point about one and one-half miles south of Brantford. A tract of eighty-five acres of land is devoted to the raising of an extra quality of sweet corn; this corn is all husked by hand in a careful manner; the corn is then cut from the cob by appropriate machinery and the grains or kernels are prepared for canning, which is done while the corn is in a raw state. The next process is the cooking, which is accomplished after the cans are closed, thus preserving the natural flavour and virtue of the corn, as by this method all evaporation of the aroma is prevented. This establishment is conveniently arranged for the various manipulations that are performed therein. Each department has its distinctive character, and throughout the whole there is an air of cleanliness and order equal to the kitchen of a tidy housewife. The different pieces of apparatus and machinery are all of the best modern style, and are supplied with steam and power from a forty horse-power steam engine with good boilers. This plant was completed at a cost of about six thousand dollars, and gives employment to seventy-five men during the canning season, which lasts only about eighteen days. All goods produced here find a ready market in the Dominion of Canada, and add materially to the list of palatable articles produced in this county.

The Varnish Manufactory of Messrs. Whiting & Scarfe.- One of the most unpretentious, and at the same time one of the most vigorous, local manufacturing interests is the one named above. Established over seven years ago, it may be said to have reached that stage where all doubt as to its success have passed. The present proprietors, although not the original inceptors, are nevertheless the gentlemen to whom are due the credit for the present prosperous and vigorous position which it has attained as one of the leading industries in Brantford. The factory is situated on Victoria Street, and is built of white brick 45 x 30 feet, two stories; the upper floor is used temporarily as an office, and the lower one exclusively for storing and varnishes, which are kept in large tanks holding from 250 to 350 gallons each. The present capacity is about $85,000 annually, and at the present rate of increase there is but little question but that next year's figures will reach the sum of $200,000, if not more. The works cover an area of over three-quarters of an acre, and a substantial brick dwelling is upon the premises, where a trusty night watchman resides. The Varnishes are put up ready for shipment in tin cans holding from five to ten gallons, and in barrels and half barrels. In brief, the works and their products have more than a local reputation, and in this respect Messrs. Whiting & Scarfe are aiding to build up what may become one of the most prominent manufacturing enterprises of the Province.

The Holmedale Woollen Mills were started in 1875 by Wm. Slingsby. In 1877 the firm was changed to Wm. Slingsby & Sons. This mill is run entirely upon one variety of goods, viz., blankets, of which three hundred and sixty pairs are produced per week, to accomplish which three thousand pounds of wool are required. There are employed twenty-two men and ten women. In 1876 the mill was destroyed by fire, and was rebuilt by the present firm in 1877.

The Craven Wincey Mill was erected by Clayton Slater, who commenced the work of construction in September, 1882. The main building is 152 feet long by 50 feet wide, and three stories high. It was built of white brick. The machinery consists of four complete sets of woollen machinery, also 2,500 spindles and preparation for spinning cotton warp, and 100 looms. The mill is built for the manufacture of winceys, flannels, and other union or all wool goods.

Customs Department - Brantford became a port of entry in 1852, with Valentine Hall as first Collector. On his resignation in 1853, David Curtis was appointed to the office. In 1854 J. E. Fitch was appointed surveyor, and John C. Davis Landing-Waiter. In 1858 Mr. Fitch being promoted to the collectorship at Windsor, Alexander Gordon became his successor, and held the position till his death. A. S. Wilson was appointed clerk in 1862, and Solon W. McMichael in October, 1872. The present officers are: H. B. Leeming, Collector; S. W. McMichael, Chief Clerk and Landing-Waiter; and Thomas Foster, Landing-Waiter and Searcher. The office of the Customs Department has been moved from place to place frequently since its inception in Brantford, the first one being at a landing wharf on the Grand River Canal. Finally it was moved on June 26th, 1880, into the handsome edifice built by the Government for Government offices, on the north-east corner of George and Dalhousie Streets. By way of comparison and to show the increase of returns for the port of Brantford between the years 1856 and 1882, a few brief statistics may be of interest:
1856
Amount Imports ........................ $236,636 00
Duty Collected 26,298 23
Entered for Home Consumption 245,526 00
Exports 140,487 00
1882
Amount Imports..........................$845,254 00
Duty Collected 138,269 16
Entered for Home Consumption 839,977 00
Exports 312,981 00
The tariff in 1856 ranged from 15 down to 2 1/2 per cent., and in 1882 from 35 to 5 per cent., in many cases a specific duty over and above the ad valorem duty being charged.

Inland Revenue Department - This department was separated from the Customs as an independent branch about the year 1862. From that date up to 1867, the year of Confederation of the Provinces, the business was divided into "collectors," each collector doing his own job. In 1867 the department was reorganized into "collection divisions," the arrangement that at present exists, and Mr. Hart was appointed Collector. John Spence has filled that office for the past year for what is now called the "Brantford Division," and which comprises the City of Brantford and the Counties of Brant, Oxford and Norfolk. He is assisted by W. L. Hawkins, Book-keeper and Deputy, and George Henwood, Outside Officer. The offices of the Inland Revenue are in the Post Office building and adjoining the Customs. In 1872 the collection amounted to $80,707, and in 1882 the amount was $113,600, showing an increase in the decade of $32,893.

Banking Companies

Bank of British North America, Brantford Branch - This highly serviceable supplement to the mercantile interests of the County of Brant was introduced in 1846, with James Christie as first Manager. On his death in 1754*, Charles F. Smithers, now President of the Bank of Montreal, became his successor. He was followed, in 1856, by James C. Geddes, who in turn was succeeded by the present Manager, Alexander Robertson, in 1864. The first building in Brantford in which this branch bank did business was on the north side of Colborne Street, where D. Clifford's furniture store now is. It was subsequently burnt down and rebuilt. The bank was in 1858 moved into the present structure on Darling Street, next to Zion Church.

Canadian Bank of Commerce, Brantford Branch - This banking establishment may be said to be but in its comparative infancy in Brantford, it having been established as late as 1872, in the building at present occupied by it, on the corner of Colborne and Queen Streets. J. H. Plummer was the first Manager, and was succeeded, in about a year from his appointment, by james Pollock, who in turn was followed, in 1877, by the present Manager, William Roberts, under whose efficient charge this branch has made rapid progress.

Bank of Montreal, Brantford Branch - This useful adjunct to the commercial interests of the County of Brant was opened in Brantford with William Muirhead as its pioneer agent, and as such he is well remembered by the early business men of the vicinity. He was succeeded by Archibald Creer (who afterwards organized the Canadian Bank of Commerce, and became its first cashier). A. Hess, Esq., was the third agent, and was followed by W. J. Buchanan, as Manager. Mr. Buchanan is now the General Manager of the bank, and upon his assuming that important trust, the position of Local Manager was given to Samuel Read, who filled the place until a few years since, when he retired. The present Manager, Walter Lindsay Creighton, is a gentleman of great experience and ability in positions of this character. He is a native of Canada, and is a son of Colonel Creighton, late of H. M. Seventieth Regiment.

The Brantford Loan and Savings Society was organized in July, 1878, as a stock company, with $150,000 capital. The officers are at present: Alfred Watts, President; Humphrey Davis, Vice-President; J. Pollock, Manager. Their place of business is on the south side of Colborne Street, west of Market.

The Royal Loan and Savings Company was organized on the 1st of June, 1876, with the following officers: Thomas S. Shenston, President; William Watt, Vice-President. The paid-up cash capital is $204,000; the total assets, $661,000. The loans made here are upon real estate only, while the house receives money on deposit, and allows interest thereon. The first office occupied by this institution was in Tainsh's building on Market Street. In July, 1882, they moved into the finely situated suite of rooms in the Commercial Block, corner of Dalhousie and George Streets. R. S. Schell, Esq., is the present Manager.

The Board of Trade 1883 This organization, which numbers among its contributors all the prominent manufacturers and many of the merchants of the city, was established more than fifteen years ago, largely through the efforts of George H. Wilkes, the present Secretary of the Board, who was at that time a member of the firm of Waterous & Co. The meetings of the Board were held at stated intervals with great regularity for a number of years, but the interest afterward seemed to flag, and finally the meetings were discontinued. About four years ago the Board was reorganized under more favourable auspices, and in pursuance to the Act passed favouring the formation of such boards. The organization is now in successful operation, with membership of over eighty. The meetings are presided over by George Watt, the President of the Board, from whom the foregoing facts were obtained.

Lodges, Societies and Bands

Gore Lodge, No. 34, I. O. O. F.- During the summer of 1854 a deputation of such as were interested in the progress of Oddfellowship proceeded to Buffalo, New York, and were there formally initiated into the work of the Order by Hesperian Lodge of that city. In September of the same year these brothers were pleased to apply to the Grand Lodge of the United States, then in session, for a charter enabling them to open a lodge in Brantford. The request was granted, and on the 27th of December, 1854, Past Grand G. W. Malloch, assisted by brother T. Parsons, Deputy Grand Sire, of Buffalo, instituted Gore Lodge, No. 34. The names of the above mentioned pioneers of Oddfellowship are incorporated with the charter; they are: John Cameron, James Woodyatt, George Varey, Thomas Broughton and Amos B. Currier. The first officers chosen were: John Cameron, N.G.; Jas. Woodyatt, V.G.; G. Varey, P.S.; Jas. F. Wheaton, R.S.; Thomas Broughton, Treasurer. On the 17th of February, 1860, the lodge room of this subdivision was destroyed by fire, together with its furniture, books, records, emblems and regalia. This was a discouraging event in the history of Gore Lodge, but the same spirit which prompted the fathers of the organization to go abroad for the charter carried them through the difficulty, and in due time they were again at work. When, in course of events, the Order came to the formation of a Grand Lodge for the Province of Ontario, a new charter was issued by that body to Gore Lodge. This instrument is signed by Samuel G. Dolson, as Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Ontario, and bears date at St. Catharines, August 6th, 1861. The third of a century will have past ere long since Gore Lodge began the good work of mutual assistance and charity; many who once sat in her fraternal seclusion have taken a "final card" from all the orders on earth; others have gone forth upon the various missions of life, while a few only of those who were "at the christening" remain to recount the details of her early history. Among the veterans of Oddfellowship are two worthy members of Gore Lodge, Viz.: James Woodyatt, Esq., a charter member and the first Vice-Grand; having "passed the chairs" of his own lodge, was chosen Representative to the Grand Lodge of Ontario in 1858; Grand Secretary and Treasurer in 1862; Grand Master in 1863; and in 1867 he was elected Grand Representative to the Sovereign Grand Lodge, the supreme body of the order in America, which honourable station he yet fills with great credit to himself and the brotherhood. J. B. King was initiated by Gore Lodge in 1858, removed to Cincinnati, Ohio, and became a member of Queen City Lodge; returned to Brantford and to his home Lodge in 1862; chosen Vice-Grand in 1863, and Noble Grand the same year; in 1865 he was sent to the grand Lodge of Ontario as Representative; there he was appointed Grand Guardian. In 1866 he was elected Grand Secretary and Treasurer, the duties of which he performed until the two offices were separated in 1870, when he was chosen Grand Secretary, and has held that position ever since. It is needless to add that these venerable and faithful members of this great fraternity have the esteem and confidence of all their brethren, especially of the younger and more active members of the present. The following is a roster of the officers who are now serving this lodge: William Douglas, N.G.; A. Ball, V.G.; R. W. Brooks, R.S.; R. S. Schell, P.S.; G. E. Adams, Trea.; Wm. Spence, War.; Wm. McIntosh, Con.; John Campbell, I.G.; L. Fisher, O.G.; E. J. Stephenson, R.S.N.G.; H. Ellis, L.S.N.G.; P. Purves, R.S.V.G.; J. Doringer, L.S.V.G.; F. Austin, R.S.S.; G. Slaght, L.S.S.; W. Finlayson, Chap.

Brant Encampment No. 4, I.O.O.F., was instituted September 15th, 1868, by H. C. Bingham, District Deputy Grand Sire, although the charter bears the date August 6th of the year following. The charter members were as follows: A. D. Clement, L. Jackson, J. B. King, E. Chalcraft, C. H. Clement, P. B. Hatch, John Noble. In July, 1882 Brant Encampment took up permanent quarters in its fine new hall in the Heyd Block, corner of Dalhousie and George Streets. Having two healthy subordinate lodges near at hand to supply it with advancing members, it is in a flourishing condition with about eighty Patriarchs on its rolls. The present officers are: J. J. Dickson, C.P.; Wm. Cowherd, H.P.; M. Truesdale, S.W.; R. J. Fraser, J.W.; F. O. Grenny, Scribe; James Woodyatt, G.; H. C. Montgomery, C.S.; C. Griss, J.S.; J. C. Heaton, Guide; J. L. Dalrymple, 1st W.; J. W. Tutt, 2nd W.; J. C. Greenless, 3rd W.; L. fisher, 4th W.

Harmony lodge, No. 15, I.O.O.F., was organized by the following five members from Gore Lodge in 1873, viz.: Alexander Clement, Charley Clement, E. Cameron, John Noble and George Hardy. The lodge met with the parent society until April, 1882, when they leased a room in Commercial Block, corner George and Dalhousie Streets, where the meetings are now held. There are now 82 members of the society. The present officers are: H. C. Montgomery, J.P.G.; S. M. Thompson, N.G.; Robert Armstrong, V.G.; L. F. Hade, P.S.; J. C. Heaton, R.S.; J. J. Dixon, Treasurer.

Brant Lodge No. 45, A.F. & A.M.- Soon after the incorporation of the Town of Brantford, a lodge of the masonic fraternity was organized and continued in successful operation until about the time of the Morgan excitement, when the interest greatly flagged, and meetings were only held at long intervals, and finally the lodge ceased to exist. Of its officers or the number of members we are unable to speak, as the most diligent inquiry fails to discover any trace of this, the pioneer lodge of masons. After the Morgan excitement had subsided and Masonry had begun to revive, several citizens of the town began to agitate the subject of organizing another lodge. In 1853 a dispensation was obtained and a charter granted by the Grand Lodge of Ireland for the formation of Brant Lodge No. 45, and the lodge was duly instituted, with about a dozen members and the following officers: Dr. Henwood, W.M.; D. Curtis, J.W.; and Bro. Scott, Secretary. In 1868 the society received a severe blow in the loss of their entire property by fire, nothing having been saved except the charter. With this a new beginning was made; and now, after having its numbers diminished by the formation of another lodge, Brant Lodge numbers nearly a hundred members. A room in Tisdal's Building, which has been leased for that purpose is occupied as a lodge room. The present officers are: E. Kerster, W.M.; B. H. Rothwell, S.W.; S. Page, J.W.; George Lindsley, Secretary.

Doric Lodge No. 121 A.F & A.M., was instituted November 25, in the year of Masonry 5859 (A.D. 1859), with seven members. The first officers were: Matthew William Pruyn, W.M.; John Orr, S.W.; Thomas Cheesman, J.W.; Reginald Henwood, Secretary. The lodge met in the Brant Lodge room, and with that lodge lost its property in the fire of 1868. This lodge now has a membership of about sixty. The present officers are: Robert Ashton, W.M.; Henry A. Penfold, S.W.; Job Wood, J.W.; Charles Heyd, Treasurer; James P. Excell, Secretary; William E. Winshall, S.D.; James Fisher, J.D.; Wesley Howell, D. of C.; James Tattersall, J.G.; Wm. Roope, Tyler.

Mount Horeb Chapter No. 20, A.F. & A.M., was chartered by the grand Chapter at their annual meeting in Belleville, on February 20th, 1861, and was instituted by R.E. Comp. Thomas Duggan, Grand Superintendent of the Hamilton District, assisted by R.E. Comp. T. B. Harris, Grand Scribe E.; Wm. Bellehouse, Grand Treasurer; and Companions W. Reid, James M. Rogerson, M. F. Shaler, Thomas McCracken, J. W. Murton, Johnson Waddell, Jacob Chase, Alexander Gordon, and others, on the 31st of January, 1861, under a dispensation dated the same month. There were eleven charter members. The first officers were: David Curtis, First Principal Z.; A. Huntington, Second Principal H.; E. R. Sullivan, Third Principal J.

St. Andrew's Society.- The Brantford St. Andrew's Society was founded at a meeting at Yardington's Hotel, on the 30th day of November, 1850 (St. Andrew's Day). There were present John Steele, Alexander Kirkland, James Wallace, James Walkinshaw, John Cameron, William Watt, Henry Kirkland, John Lennox Knox, Henry M. Finlayson, P. S. Stewart, James McKay, and John W. Petrie. The first officers were appointed as follows: John Steele, President; Alex. Kirkland, 1st Vice-President; James Wallace (tanner), 2nd Vice-President; James Wallace (grocer), Treasurer; Henry Kirkland, Secretary; J. Walkinshaw, W. Watt, Allan Cleghorn, Committee of Management; Rev. Alexander Drummond, Chaplin; - Bowie, M.D., Physician. At this meeting a constitution was adopted and the full name of the society given as the "St. Andrew's Benevolent Society of the Town and Township of Brantford. Its objects are thus defined: " To relieve the wants of destitute Scotchmen, members who may become indigent, and the widows and children of members, to aid emigrants from Scotland by advice and assistance, and to render all aid to their distressed countrymen in their power." The society has been in active existence since its foundation, both in the carrying out of its benevolent objects, and also as a social and national bond of union amongst the sons of Scotia in the district. their annual celebrations have always been highly characterized by "britherly" feeling among the members and their friends of other nationalities, in speech, mirth and song. The Presidents of the society have been as follows: 1850-1 John Steele; 1852, A. Kirkland; 1853-4, E. Roy; 1855, Duncan McKay; 1856 to 1861, Allan Cleghorn; 1862, Alexander Robertson; 1863, W. H. DeLisle; 1864-65, W. Watt, Sr.; 1866, Wm. Grant; 1867-68, Alex. Robertson; 1869, J. T. Gilkison; 1870-1, Thos. McLean; 1872-3, W. Paterson, M.P.; 1874-6, Robert Henry; 1877, J. K. Osborne; 1878-9, D. Leslie Philip, M.D.; 1880-81, W. Watt, Jr.; 1882-3, Alexander Robertson. The present officers of the society are as follows: A. robertson, President; Charles Milne, 1st Vice-President; Robert Russell, 2nd Vice-President; Robert Lindsay, Secretary; W. Watt, Sr., Treasurer; Rev. Dr. Cochrane, Chaplin; D. L. Philip, M.D., Physician; D. L. Philip, M.D., A. Cleghorn, and George P. Buchanan, Charitable Committee.

Hackett true Blue Lodge, No. 28, was organized May 30th, 1878, by W. Holmes, G. Marshall, M. Albion, and W. Watson, of Hamilton. The first officers elected were: John Sinclair, W.M.; T. Ballantine, D.M.; R. J. McKenzie, Secretary; D Watson, Treasurer; John Dawes, D. of C.; A. Poole, Assistant D. of C.; William Hall, 1st C.; A. Feeley, 2nd C.; John Duncan, 3rd C.; T. Westbrook, 4th C.; W. McLellan, 5th C.; George G. Austen, Chaplain; A. J. Cromar, Guardian; T. Davidson, Outside Tyler. There are at present about thirty-three members in good standing, all of whom are highly interested in the work of the Order, and take an active part in the ceremonies. the society are a separate body in themselves, and have adopted a uniform, regalia, etc. they have also adopted a scheme for the payment of benefits, which will go into effect during the present year. In February, 1880 a number of members withdrew from the Lodge and formed Enniskillen True Blue Lodge No. 22. These societies are founded on the principles of the Bible, and it is the object of the Order to defend the Queen and British liberties, and to join no other body that is antagonistic to their own. The present officers of Hackett Lodge are: Thomas Ballantine, W.M.; Thomas Gardner, D.M.; George G. Austen, Secretary; C. Blagbrough, Treasurer; A. Bernhard, Chaplain; J. Winegardner, D. of C.; George E. Currie, Guardian; S. reeves, I.T.; W. Savage, O.T.

Nassau Lodge, Loyal Orange Young Britons, No. 15, was organized with a good membership in 1874, the charter being granted under the hands of the following grand officers: Mackenzie Bowell, G.M. and Sovereign; James Ferguson, G.M., O.Y.B.: Peter Arnott, G. Secretary, O.Y.B. The lodge is still in successful operation and meets in Stewart's Block on George Street.

Sanctuary Victoria No. 5987, Ancient Order of Shepherds, was organized May 29, 1882, with nine charter members. The society is a higher degree of the Lodge of Foresters. The first officers, who are also the present officers, were John H. Adams, Pastor; William Davison, Sub-Pastor; J. Ashton, Treasurer; W. Banford, Scribe. The society now numbers twelve members, and meets on the first friday night of each month.

Brantford Lodge No. 71, A.O.U.W., was organized in June, 1880, with twenty-three members and the following officers: Adam Spence, Master Workman; W. Wisner, P.M.W.; Thomas Elliott, Foreman; Edward Brophey, Overseer; Thomas Spence, Guide; Frank Grobb, Secretary; W. t. Harris, Medical Examiner; Edward L. Gould, Receiver; W. H. Shapley, Financier. The lodge now numbers fifty-nine members, and meets at the corner of Queen and Colborne Streets on the second and fourth Wednesdays of the month. The present officers are: Thomas Elliott, M.W.; Job VanFleet, P.M.W.; Thomas Goode, F.; Wm. Earon, Overseer; Frank Grobb, Sec'y; W. T. Harris, Med. Ex.; Alfred Cox, F.; Wm. Beer, Receiver.

Court Glen No. 9, Foresters, was organized in 1878 with seventeen members. The first officers were John McCann, C.R., Wm. Ashbury, Vice C.R.: Henry Green, Chap.; George Landon, Secretary; James P. Excell, Treasurer. The lodge now has thirty-two members and is presided over by the following officers: W. G. Dillon, C.R.; Charles Tanner, V.C.R.; W. G. Watt, Chap.; L. J. Pool, Sec.; J. P. Excell, Treasurer.

Court Brant No. 85, Canadian Order of Foresters, was organized in the spring of 1882 with eighteen members. The first officers were C. B. Lewis, C.R.; Henry Canfield, V.C.R.; Andrew Gibson, Chap.; John Moore, Treas.; James Grant, Sec'y. There are now thirty-five members. the following gentlemen are the present officers: Arthur Gammage, C.R.; Fred Quirk, Chap.; James Grant, Sec.; James Armstrong, Treas.

Court Endeavour No. 5987, Ancient Order of Foresters.- The above society was instituted October 12, 1874, the the officers of Hamilton United District; the charter members were F. Guest, J. Davison, L. Rose, W. White, T. Rice, W. March, C. VanBrocklin, and G. Barber. The court has leased and furnished a hall for their own use in Heyd's Block, opposite the Post Office, and now has a membership of about one hundred. the object of the society is to provide for its members during illness and to pay their funeral expenses at death. A weekly benefit of four dollars is paid to a brother in illness, $100 is paid to their families at the death of the member, and $50 is paid to the member at the death of his wife. The present officers are: W. Harris, Chief Ranger; H. Harrison, Sub-Chief Ranger; A. Webster, Senior Woodward; A. Bond, Junior Woodward; J. Kirchmer, Treas.; T. Logan, Senior Beadle; C. Flatt, Junior Beadle; A. J. Stevens, Secretary; J. Gillispie, Sub-Secretary; H. Waddington, P.C.R.; J. Shaw, J. H. Adams, W. Bamford, Trustees; W. Harris, A. Brown, J. Gillispie, Auditors; W. T. Harris, M. d. Medical Officer.

Tutela Council No. 487 Royal Arcanum, was organized June 1st, 1880 under a dispensation from the Supreme Council. Its charter was granted in June, 1881, and bears the names of Joshua T. Johnston, P. G. Walsh, W. E. Walsh, N. T. Hunter, A. J. Stewart, Richard Forde, T. W. Holme, E. P. Para, George Skimin, W. W. Buckwell, Thomas Ausebrook, James Pollock, E. Hart, R. E. Nicholls and D. Taylor. The first officers were: Joshua T. Johnston, Regent; N. H. Hunter, Vice-Regent; E. Para, Orator; P. G. Walsh, Past Regent; T. W. Holme, Secretary; P. Forde, Collector; J. Pollock, Treasurer; E. Hardy, Chaplain; A. J. Stewart, Guide; R. Nicholls, Warden; D. Taylor, Sentry. The present officers are: Regent, Jas. N. Peer; Vice-Regent, Dr. E. Hart; Orator, Ed. Denton; Past regent, W. C. Hately; Secretary, J. W. Holme; Collector, P. G. Walsh; Treasurer, Jas. Pollock; Chaplain, J. M. Aikman; Guide, David Taylor; Warden, W. W. Buckwell; Sentry, W. D. Tye; Trustees, Dr. E. Hart, Thos. Ausebrooke, W. E. Walsh; Medical Examiner, D. Leslie Philip, M.D. The subjoined sketch of this popular order is given as a contribution to the history of the social and mutual aid combinations of modern times: "The Supreme Council of the Royal Arcanum was organized in Boston, Mass., June 23rd, 1877, and incorporated under the General Laws of Massachusetts Nov. 5th of that year. The First Annual Session was held in Boston, April 23rd to 26th, 1878, the body being composed of the incorporators, together with representatives admitted from Grand Councils of Massachusetts, Ohio and Michigan. At that session there were reported 82 councils scattered over a large portion of the United States and part of canada, with a total membership of about 3,000, composed of the very best class of gentlemen. three deaths had occurred, and a full benefit paid on each, necessitating three assessments. During the following fiscal year the number of Councils was increased to 308, and the membership to 10,500, located in 23 States and 3 Canadian Provinces. Grand Councils were instituted in New York, Pennsylvania and Wisconsin, 30 deaths reported, and 7 assessments called. The Third Annual Session was held in Detroit Mich., April 27th to May 3rd, 1880. During that year then ended, Grand Councils were formed in Indiana, Illinois, Virginia, Maryland, Tennessee and Georgia, the number of Councils was increased to 470, and the membership to 20,500; 61 deaths were reported, and 6 assessments called. At the fourth Annual Session, held in Cincinnati, O., April 26th, 1881, there were reported 572 Councils, with a membership of 28,011 located in 26 States, the Canadian Provinces, and the District of Columbia. The Fifth Annual Session was held in Baltimore, April 25th to May 2nd, 1882, when there were reported 664 Councils, with 35,000 members. the average membership for the year was 30,617, and the average death rate was 5.45 per thousand. At the present time there are 710 Councils, having 39,000 members. Since organization June 23rd, 1877, there have been 526 deaths, on each of which the full amount of the benefit has been paid, aggregating upwards of one and a half millions of dollars disbursed to the dependants of deceased members, and but 39 assessments have thus far been called, an average of less than eight per year. the operations of the order are restricted by law to territory in the United States and Canada which is free from epidemics, the States of texas, Louisiana, Arkansas, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, South Carolina and parts of Kentucky, Tennessee and Georgia, being excluded from its benefits on that Account."

Beaver Lodge No. 33, Protestant Association of 'Prentice Boys of B.N.A.- This lodge was instituted on the 1st of July, 1878, by a delegation of brethren from Union Lodge, No. 5, of Hamilton Ont. These were Brothers William Peebles, - Wilson, -Stearns, and some others, among whom was Brother Colling, of Simcoe. The original members were John Glennon, Henry Hunt, John Copeland, Arthur S. Irwin, Thomas Ballentine and James Sim. The first officers chosen appear to have been as follows: John Glennon, W.M.; A. S. Irwin, D.M.; W. S. House, Secretary; Wm. E. Kerr, Treasurer; H. Hunt, D.C.; G. F. Buckham, Chaplain. the last election held by this body resulted in the subjoined list of officers: Jas. McDowell, W.M.; Jas. Hazel, D.M.; W. S. House, Sec.; W. J. Taylor, Treas.; Wm. Davison, D.C.; A. J. Cromar, Chaplain. The Rev. J. A. Coombs was a member of this lodge during his residence in Brantford, and took great interest in its affairs. After a short but pleasant career, this lodge became so reduced in numbers by the removal of many of its members to distant towns, that it was deemed inexpedient to try to continue its maintenance; accordingly, on the 28th of April, 1882, the warrant was formally surrendered to the Grand Lodge, and it ceased to exist.

L.O.L. No. 197, Brantford, was organized by Henry Lemmon, County Master, in 1868. The following are the present officers. Joseph McLean, W.M.; A. J. Cromar, D.M.; Thomas Glover, Chap.; Wm. Taylor, Sec'y; John Savage, Treas.; Wm. Campbell, Sen. Com.; A. J. Cromar, L.P.M. The lodge meets in the Stewart Block , George Street, on the first and third Tuesdays in each month.

The Grand Royal Black Chapter, Ireland, was organized in 1866, and reorganized in 1878. the original members were: John McKay, Master A.M.; James Wade, Deputy Master I.A.; Robert Stevens, Registrar J.J.; Thomas Minnes, Pursuivant E.D. This lodge is in a flourishing condition, and meets in the Stewart Block, George Street. The Grand Officers of the L.O.L. in 1868 were: John Hilliard Cameron, Grand Master and Sovereign; John Coyne, Provincial G.M.; Henry B. Ostler, G. Chap; Thomas Keys, G. Sec'y; James H. Bessey, G. Treas.

Temperance organization.- A Temperance Organization existed previous to 1836, and held its meetings in the old school and meeting house that then stood on the Market Square, close to where the City Hall now stands. Prominent among "Temperance" advocates in those days were Tupper Keep VanBrocklin and others, and some very amusing incidents have been related in connection with their temperance lectures. It may be added that fifty years ago, and for some time later, to become a member of the Brantford Temperance Organization did not prohibit the subject from indulging plentifully in beer and wine.

The Grand River Division, No. 68, Sons of Temperance, was organized in 1870, with the following members: James J. Hargraves, William Grant, George Varey, J. J. Inglis, James Tutt, Hy. Creery, Andrew Hudson, Andrew N. Ogilvie, Samuel Morphy, Stephen B. Medley, M. E. Welding and Charles Walker. The division is still existing, and is in a prosperous condition. The regular meetings of the lodge are held in Stewart Block, on George Street.

The Woman's Christian Temperance Union was organized on the 21st of March, 1876, at a meeting which was held in Wycliffe Hall, and which was presided over by Mrs. Yeomans. Mrs. S. J. Jones was chosen President; Mrs. Charles Powley, 1st Vice-President; Mrs. W. E. Welding, 2nd Vice-President; Miss B. Lightbody, Secretary; Mrs. Langford, Treasurer. The following pledge was adopted as expressing the object and spirit of those who signed it: "We the undersigned women, hereby severally pledge ourselves in integrity and honour before God, to abstain from the use of and from traffic in all intoxicating liquors as a beverage, and that we will not offer the same to others to be so used; and we further solemnly covenant before God, henceforth to work and prayer for the suppression of intemperance as a sin against God and man, and that in our work we will use such means, and forward such measures, as God shall direct through the Holy Spirit in answer to prayer." Much moral strength was attained by this banding together of Christian women, and, though comparatively silent in their earnest labours, great good has been accomplished by way of watchfulness and warning to those who were in danger. The present officers of the Union are: Mrs. H. Brethour, President; Mrs. Alfred Watts, 1st Vice-President; Mrs. Thomas White, 2nd Vice-President; Mrs. George Dempster, Secretary; Mrs. Charles Powley, Treasurer.

St. George's Society.- to have to say no such beneficent society as this exists at the present day in a community in which the english element so largely preponderates, is a source of regret. Such, however, has existed in brantford from time to time, but allowed through lack of enthusiasm to lapse into the list of the things that were. The first St. George's Society was organized at the Kerby House on the evening of the 24th of February, 1859. The following were the officers: R. R. Bown, President; Thos. Botham, Vice-President; - Low, Financial Secretary; E. R. Dewhurst, Cor. Secretary; Charles Watts, Treasurer.

The Farringdon Debating Society was originally organized on the 9th day of October, 1861, in connection with Farringdon Independent Church. The first meeting was held in the rooms adjoining that church, which is situated at Tutelar* Heights, adjacent to the City of Brantford. Meetings were held at that place for some years. The objects of the society were mutual improvement in literature, and to cultivate the art of public speaking. the first President of the society was H. B. Leeming, Esq., now Collector of Customs at this port. The first Secretary, Wm. Paterson, Esq., now M.P. for South brant; Treasurer, Thomas brooks, now President of S.B.A.S. The total membership consisted of 21 members, many of whom are at present occupying honourable and responsible positions in different parts of the Dominion. Among the Past Presidents of the society might be mentioned the following names: Messrs. W. F. Cockshutt, L. F. Heyd, Robert Leeming, and S. M. Thompson. The officers for the present year are as follows: President, James Harley, Esq.; Vice-President, John Thompson, Esq.; Secretary, A. H,. Elliott, Esq.; Treasurer, T. M. Harris, Esq. The society changed its place of meeting in the year 1875 to the rooms at present occupied in the cockshutt Block. Shortly after its removal to said rooms it adopted the mode of procedure followed by the Dominion House of Commons. In order to increase its field of discussion it arrogated to itself the right of debating Imperial and Provincial as well as Dominion questions. this society was probably the first in the Dominion to adopt the Parliamentary form of debate, and experience has proved this successful beyond the most sanguine expectation of its founders. At the opening of each session the Governor-General, or his deputy, accompanied by his suite, goes down to the House and opens the proceedings with due form and ceremony by reading an appropriate speech from the Throne. On these occasions it is customary for members of the Government and leading members of the Opposition to appear in Windsor Uniforms, all ordinary members in full dress. the usual dignitaries of the House are represented in full force. The ladies gallery is well filled, and its graceful occupants evince much interest in the proceedings, while the intellectual dignity of the House is increased by the presence of the civic, judicial and ecclesiastical functionaries of the Dominion. The principal bills of the Session are foreshadowed in the speech from the throne, and have at various times comprised national, educational, commercial, and social reforms. Officers of the House for the present Session are: Speaker, J. H. McLean, Esq.; Clerk, W. D. Shannon, Esq.; Premier, W. G. Raymond, Esq.; member for Winnipeg, while the Right Hon. Jno. Thompson, member for Victoria B.C., leads her Majesty's loyal Opposition. Fifty-one members have seats on the floor of the House, many of whom have already proved themselves to be possessed of more than ordinary debating ability, and well skilled in Parliamentary usage.

The Brantford Caledonian Society was first instituted in Brantford by the efforts of Capt. J. J. Inglis, and old citizen, and several other gentlemen in the autumn of 1878. The newspapers at that time intimated that steps were being taken to form such a society in the city and county, and at the request of a number of gentlemen who had subscribed themselves to become members of the organization, a special meeting was called in the Kerby House Parlour on the evening of October 31st, 1878- Hallowe'en. Mr. John Paterson was elected Secretary pro tem., and a special meeting was arranged to be held in the same place on December 27th, 1878, to elect officers and transact other business. Accordingly a number of gentlemen were present, and the following officers were elected: Patron, The right Honourable the Most Noble the Marquis of Lorne, K.T., G.C.M.G., Govenor-General of the Dominion of Canada; Chief, Wm. Paterson, M.P.; 1st Chieftain, Allan Cleghorn; 2nd Chieftain, Charles Milne; Secretary, J. H. Mclean; Assistant Secretary, John Paterson; Treasurer, Robert Lindsay; Piper, Donald McIntyre; Chaplain, Rev. Wm. Cochrane, D.D.; General Committee, H. C. Montgomery, Capt. J. J. Inglis, W. Harvey, P. McCauley, Jno. Shaw, A. Campbell, D. Webster, D. McIntyre, P. Robertson, G. Ritchie, R. A. Watt, Jas. Allan. At this meeting a constitution and by-laws were adopted; also a badge of appropriate national character, a description of which is given at the end of this article. The object and nature of the society is well set forth by the following extracts from the constitution: Article I., Section 1, says: " This society shall be called the 'Caledonian Society of the City of Brantford,' and shall have for its object the encouragement of the national costume and games, the cultivation of a taste for Scotch music, history and poetry, and the uniting more closely of Scotchmen and those of Scotch descent." . . . . . . Article V., Section 1, says: The annual gathering for the celebration of games shall be held during the month of May. The games shall be celebrated according to the rules of the North American Caledonian Association. Some of the games, or all of them, may be thrown open, under certain restrictions, to non-members." Section 2. " the badge of the society shall consist of the crest of the society in silver, suspended from or inserted in a rosette of silk ribbon of Campbell Tartan." Section 3. " At all processions, festivals and gatherings, the members shall wear the badge of the society displayed on the left breast." In the spring of 1879 a set of bagpipes was imported from Scotland. This instrument was selected by Duncan McKay, piper to the earl of Breadalbane, Taymouth castle, Aberfeldy, Perth House. On the 1st of july, 1879, a deputation from this society was sent to witness and take part in the annual games of the St. Catharines' Society. The 31st of October of this year was marked by an entertainment given in Wycliffe hall, at which Professors D. C. and A. M. Bell gave select ed readings; " Ta Gran Hielan Bagpies" elicited great applause. In August of this year Captain Inglis was sent to represent the society in the Convention of North America, which was held at Montreal. The Burns Anniversary was celebrated by a dinner given under the auspices of this society at "Woodbine" Hotel, on January 25th, 1880. Wm. Paterson, M.P., presided; there were over one hundred people present, and the affair was highly pleasurable one to all concerned. The present officers of the Society are as follows: Chief, Capt. J. J. Inglis; 1st Chieftain, H. C. Montgomery; 2nd chieftain, Alex. Stewart; Secretary, J. H. McLean; Treasurer, Robt. Lindsay; Assistant Secretary, A. O. Gill; Standard Bearers, R. McGregor, F. McCallum; Auditors, H. Wylie, J. F. Grant; General Committee, Alex. Duncan, H. Wylie, D. McBain, A. Trotter, T. Terris, R. O. Tuttle, F. McCallum, J. F. Grant, R. McGregor.

Victoria Curling and Skating Rink.- This popular resort was opened to the public and its patrons in the autumn of 1882, and during the amusement season that followed, which was decidedly favourable by reason of the continued cold of the winter of 1882-3, it at once became one of the favourite places for wWith* (winter) sport in the city. the subjoined is from a local paper of Nov., 1882: "inter**(With) the marked growth of the city grow the resorts for amusement and recreation, and with this idea a number of gentlemen, principally curlers, conceived the idea of another curling and skating rink. A company was formed stock subscribed, a contract let and now upon the south bank of the canal stands a commodious, light and well ventilated rink. The building is 154x72 feet, and in the centre 26 feet high: near the door are three separate dressing rooms, which will be well heated; the building is supplied with gas, and the light from 11 gasaliers will furnish abundant light. The centre of the rink, 36 feet wide, will be devoted to skaters alone, while the sides, 18 feet wide, will be used by curlers, except on carnival nights, when the whole will be thrown open to skaters. Three large ventilators have been placed in the roof, and health studied as well as capacity. The building opens at the south end upon a large open rink 210x138 feet, which has been enclosed by a neat tight board fence, and which in fine weather will be no doubt used to a very great extent. The building and fences cost $1,925, and the whole sum expended in building, land, etc., will reach $3,000. A four-inch pipe is laid in from the canal, and by simply drawing a lever the whole rink can be flooded in a very few minutes. The contract was given to Mr. A. Grantham, and has been performed in a very workmanlike manner, creditable alike to the company and the Contractor." This rink is devoted mainly to the game of curling. Bill's note: the asterisks denote errors in the book and corrections as to what they should read.

The Brantford Curling Club.- On the 3rd of January, 1879, a number of gentlemen who are lovers of the 'roarin' game," assembled at the Kerby house, in the City of Brantford, and organized themselves into a body with the above title by electing the following officers: Wm. Paterson, M.P., Patron; Allen Cleghorn, President; John H. Stratford, 1st Vice-President; Thomas McLean, 2nd Vice-President; W. Mahaffie, Secretary; Wm. Watt, Jr., Treasurer; Rev. R. Starr, Chaplain; who were associated with the subjoined as composing the original membership of the club: G. P. Buchanan, Robert Henry, John Tainsh, J. Y. Morton, John Bishop, H. McK. Wilson. The club was mainly instrumental in the erection of the fine brick Curling and Skating Rink on Darling Street, in 1880, and during the year 1882 the members erected the "Victoria Curling and Skating Rink" on the south bank of the Grand River Canal. this property comprises nearly one acre, and in addition to the commodious covered rink, there is a large outside skating rink of over half an acre. the club is a member of the Royal Caledonian Curling Club (Ontario Branch), and won the district Medal of that club for 1881, in competition with the point Edward Curling Club.

Brant Lacrosse Club.- Of all of the associations for recreation and pleasure which have a home in Brantford, none probably contributed more to her fame than the "Lacrosse Club." Composed of young men of mature and well developed physical constitutions and cultivated tastes, who possessed a keen appreciation of the advantages which the game affords as a medium through which to gain both exercise and amusement, it is not surprising that the club should have won not only the favourble opinions of those abroad, but the hearty support and confidence of the best citizens at home. The present organization had its origin in the body formerly known as the " Young Canadians," which was formed in 1870, and contained the following named gentlemen among its prominent players the first season: Robert Welsh, President; Charles Waterous, Vice-President; Horace Hale, Secretary; John Lewis, Treasurer; R. M. Orchard, Captain; James Watt, Charles Stratford, R. W. Bennett, W. Walsh, G. F. Sproule, J. Harrington and Joseph Craig. This opening campaign of the new club was sufficient to demonstrate its value as a party of successful lacrossemen, for out of five matches they were fortunate enough to win four. The season of 1871 found the club again in the field, where it made a clean sweep by winning every one of the ten match games in which it took part during the campaign. About this time the general interest in the game of lacrosse declined, so that but few clubs in the country remained intact. The Young Canadians, however, turned their attention to cricket playing, and thus preserved their organization until February, 1877, when they resumed their former practice, and became known as the Brant Lacrosse Club, with the following as officers and members: W. A. Wilkes, President; Frank Howell, Vice-President; J. A. Wallace, Secretary and Treasurer; R. M. Orchard, Field Captain; J. H. Simmons, R. M. Copeland, H. Carrol, R. A. Watt. For 1882: John Workman, President; H. C. Montgomery, Vice-President; A. T. Stewart, Secretary; E. Hart, Treasurer; R. M. Orchard, Field Captain. The members of the Brant Lacrosse Club have been highly successful in their career as sportsmen, as appears from the subjoined record of their work for a period of six consecutive years:

1877 ... 6 matches .... 5 won ..... 1 lost
1878 ... 7 matches .... 5 won ..... 2 lost
1879 ... 11 matches ... 9 won ..... 2 lost
1880 ... 10 matches ... 7 won ..... 3 lost
1881 ... 15 matches ... 13 won .... 2 lost
1882 ... 8 matches .... 7 won ..... 1 lost
Total 57 Matches 46 won 11 lost

None of the original members have died, although many of them are absent from Brantford in the various duties of life, while three retain their active membership. As will be seen from the list of officers, Mr. R. M. Orchard has filled the position of Field Captain from the first, and to him is awarded much credit for the high degree of proficiency which the club has attained. Messrs. D. S. Sager and J. H. Simmons have also been continuously active since the organization of the club. The "Brants" now hold the National Association Medal for the championship of southern Ontario. In 1881 they won the championship of western Ontario without a single defeat; this trophy is a beautiful Silver Cup, and is highly prized by the members and their patrons. In the autumn of 1880 they sent a "team" to Detroit, Michigan, where they won two matches out of three. The next season the team took a trip to Montreal, stopping by the way to engage with the clubs at Cobourg and Kingston. At the latter places they were easily victorious, but were defeated by the Montreal men. By steady attention and harmonious good management this local body of players has risen from the status of a fourth rate rural club to that of an "A No. 1" group of sportsmen, who are second to none in the Dominion of Canada, save the champions at Montreal and Toronto.

The Brantford Golf Club.- There is perhaps less known of this very ancient pastime than any other of the many athletic sports which receive attention in these modern times. Something concerning its history may be gleaned from the following extract from the sporting columns of the Toronto Mail: " It may be new, and of some interest to lovers of golf, now deservedly becoming popular, to know that in the reign of James I, of Scotland, the 'game' was put down by Act of Parliament in 1424, in order, it was said 'to encourage the shooting at the butts with bow and arquebuse.' So far as we know this Act stands unrepealed at the present day, although, like the game itself, it is somewhat ancient." The original home of this game was Scotland, whence so many of the sports of nowadays have been derived; no wonder then that of that well remembered land should seek to preserve from oblivion the amusements and frolics which their fathers loved. Brantford Golf Club has the honour of having been the first one organized in Ontario. This was accomplished in the year 1879, under the leadership of Alexander Robertson, Esq., with whom were associated several other well known prominent gentlemen. The subjoined exhibit shows the personnel of the club as at first organized: Alexander Robertson, Captain; W. Lindsay Creighton, Secretary; John W. Stratford, Treasurer; George H. Wilkes, James K. Osborne, James Y. Morton, Alfred J. Wilkes, members of Council; Hon. A. S. Hardy, T. Lord Whitehead, S. W. McMichael, Theo. J. Wilkes, James E. Lees, James W. Digby, M.D., G. Charles Patton, John Clay, Jr. The list of officers remains unchanged to this date. The grounds (technically called the "links") belonging to this club are beautifully situated along a crest of hills which overlook the City of Brantford, and are justly acknowledged to be the finest of the kind in the Dominion. Besides this local organization there are clubs in Toronto, Niagara, Montreal and Quebec, with growing tendency to inaugurate others in several of the principal cities and towns. As stated elsewhere, this particular game is little known among the people; as its features and advantages become unfolded by these pioneer clubs, it is believed that it will become one of the most popular means of promoting out-door exercise and amusement.

The Brantford Horticultural Society.- The society as it now exists was organized in the year 1868, under the Act authorizing the formation of such societies, and providing certain benefits to accrue to the organizations so formed. Previous to this, as early as about the year 1852, a society was organized, largely through the instrumentality of the elder Dr. Digby and the late A. B. Bennett. Mr. Bennett was an enthusiastic horticulturist and the prime mover in the organization of the society, in which he remained an active and efficient member for many years. The society held meetings at stated intervals, usually in September of each year, the place of meeting being for a long time Young's Hotel on the south side of Colborne Street. Subsequently two meetings were held each year, in the last of June and first of September, and still later in the first part of July and in September. Since the reorganization in 1868, the annual meetings are held on the second thursday of January, and other meetings are held on the call of the president or secretary. The society makes no ostentatious display, but holds its meetings quietly, and pursues the even tenor of its way without any endeavour to attract public attention. The meetings are well attended and interesting to a marked degree. Prizes are given for the best display, and the collections of fruits, flowers, &c., are usually very fine. The present board of officers consists of the following named gentlemen: Robert russell, President; J. S. Hamilton, Vice-President; J. B. Hay, Secretary; and E. C. Passmore. There are now about fifty members enrolled.

The Grand Trunk R. R. Literary Association and Library.- This association may be said to have had its conception some ten years ago in the establishment of a circulating library, reading-room and dramatic company. The latter institution commenced with from fifteen to twenty members, who dissolved on the opening of Stratford's Opera House in 1881. The circulating library boasts of about 1,200 volumes, while the reading-room is supplied with nine daily and several weekly newspapers, general, scientific, agricultural and humorous. There are also hot and cold baths in connection with the reading-room; in fact, everything that might militate to the comfort and intelligence of the large body of artisans employed at the Grand Trunk Works. The library, reading-room and baths are in a large building in the yard to the rear of the present G.T.R. Station.

The Grand Trunk R.R. Fire Brigade was organized in 1876 with a strength of thirty members, and has the same number at the present time. The brigade has a fire engine, but its services are hardly ever required, as there are powerful hydrants placed all over the yard convenient to the several workshops and other buildings. The men are drilled from time to time in the handling of the hydrants, hoses, &c., and have proved themselves an efficient body. The present officers are: John Kerr, Captain; James Coyle, 1st Lieutenant; Maxwell Craig, 2nd Lieutenant; John Savage, Secretary.

Grand Trunk Band.- This excellent band, which numbers, under the leadership of R. Quilly, some twenty pieces, both brass and reed instruments, is the outgrowth of the enterprise of one "Tom" Paterson, at one time foreman of the locomotive works of the G.T.R. in this city. It was the occasion of the visit to Brantford of Mr. C. J. Brydges, General Manager, previous to the purchase of the Buffalo and Lake Huron line by the Grand Trunk R.R. Company. "Tom," fully realizing the immense importance of such an event, had mustered a big drum and one or two brass instruments, which he forthwith drilled day and night in the soul-stirring strains of "Rule Britannia." On Mr. Brydges' arrival at the station this band gave him a gush of "Rule Britannia," and wherever he betook himself the remorseless, unrelenting drum and collaterals, close at his heels, ceased not, till refreshments were happily suggested, to remind him in agonizing strains that "Britons never shall be slaves." The band is now allowed to be one of the finest, of its strength, in the Province.

Stratford's Opera House Orchestra.- This orchestra, which was organized August, 1882, under the conductorship of R.R. Wimperis, is acknowledged to be one of the best west of Toronto. The instruments are: 1st violin, R.R. Wimperis; 2nd violin, W. West; pianoforte, Mrs. Wimperis; double bass, Frank Schlonpka; flute, W. Edwards; cornet, - Gillespie; and trombone, D. Callahan.

The Dufferin Rifles' Band was reorganized from local musicians in June, 1882. It has a numerical strength of twenty-one members, with R.R. Wimperis as leader, and is in all respects equal in organization and discipline to a full military band, and stands second to few in the Province.

Brantford Young Men's Christian Association.- The corner stone of the handsome edifice for the young Men's Christian Association of Brantford, was laid at noon, July 1, 1874, with appropriate and imposing ceremonies. The day was all that could be desired, and the attendance proportionately large. Occupying more or less prominent positions on the platform erected for the occasion were observed W. Wilkinson, Esq., President of the Association, who presided; W. P. Crombie, Secretary; Dr. Nichol, Vice-President; Ignatius Cockshutt, Esq.; Wm. Paterson, Esq., M.P.; A. S. Hardy, Esq., M.P.P.; Mayor Matthews, Rev. John Wood, Rev. John Alexander, Rev. Wm. Cochrane, M.A.; Rev. W. H. Porter, M.A.; Rev. B. B. Keefer, and Messrs. Alfred Watts, Geo. Foster, D. R. Blackader, James Mills, Thomas McLean, T. S. Shenston, James Wilkes, Geo. Watt, W. E. Welding, Wm. Buck, Wm. McIntosh, James Ker, H. B. Leeming, and the leading business men of the town. The exercises were begun by singing the following appropriate lines, composed for the occasion by the Rev. Mr. Wood, Mr. Tutt presiding at the organ, and Mr. Hamlyn acting as chorister: "Head of the Church, to thee we bow Our Saviour and our Master thou, Behold and bless our deed this day, While in Thy name this stone we lay. Type of that precious Corner-stone Which God shall build His Church upon, May this we lay Thy token be Of strength, and peace, and unity! To Thee we trace each good design, The praise and glory all be Thine! Accept Thine own, our cause maintain, For without Thee we build in vain. Bring Thou the topstone forth with joy, Then own the efforts we employ To save the young from Satan's sway, And lure them to Thy heavenly way." Rev. Mr. Porter then read the scriptures, the passages selected being 8th chapter of Proverbs, and portions of the 28th chapter of Isaiah and 22nd chapter of revelation, and the Rev. Mr. Alexander offered up the dedicatory prayer. the treasurer, Mr. D. R. Blackader, then read the following historical statement of the association from its establishment in 1859 to the present date. The first Young Men's christian Association of Brantford was organized at a meeting in the basement of Zion Church, on Monday, the 19th of April, 1860. The following were the officers of the association: President, Judge Jones; Vice-Presidents, Messrs. H. Cox, G. Foster, E.C. Passmore, and James Woods; Treasurer, Mr. T. S. Shenston; Secretary, Mr. James T. Boyd. A room was rented in Mr. james Moore's building on the south side of Colborne Street to be used for their meetings and as a reading-room. A Sabbath school was conducted by its members in West Brantford, and the work of tract distribution and cottage prayer meetings was carried on. This association was kept up for about three years, when owing to the removal of some of its active members and other causes, it was for the time given up. At a meeting held in the Congregational Church, in November, 1868, the subject of reorganizing the association was discussed, and at an adjourned meeting, held in Zion Church on the 16th December, it was formally organized, and a constitution and by-laws adopted. A suitable room was engaged on Market Street, opposite the Market, and at the first regular meeting, held there on the 28th of December, the following officers were elected: President, Mr. G. R. VanNorman; Vice-President, Mr. George Foster; Secretary, R. W. Craig; Treasurer, C. B. Moore; and Librarian, S. Tapscott. The regular meetings of the association were held weekly during the winter months and monthly during the summer; the exercises, in addition to the regular business, consisting of essays, debates, &c.
During the winter months of each year a course of lectures was given under the auspices of the association. The reading-room was well supplied with the leading papers and magazines, and kept open from 8 a.m. to 9.30 p.m. At the first annual meeting held in November, 1869, Mr. VanNorman was reelected President, holding that office for two years, when he resigned, and Mr. C. B. Moore was chosen. At the meeting in November, 1871, the Rev. G. H. Bridgman was elected; but being removed from the town in June, the duties again devolved on Mr. Moore, the 1st Vice-President, till the meeting in November, 1872, when he was succeeded by Mr. W. Wilkinson, who still holds office. In June, 1870, the first cottage prayer meetings in connection with this association were organized, and a Sabbath afternoon prayer meeting held in the rooms. In October 1872, the association removed to its present rooms on the south side of Colborne Street, in Mr. Cockshutt's new block. During the year the reading room, which had been nominally reserved for the use of the members and strangers visiting town, was thrown open free to all. >From this time the meetings of the association were held weekly all the year round on Monday evening. Reunions, the entertainment of which consisted of readings, addresses and music, were commenced. The temperance work was taken up and meetings held in the ward school houses and in the Town Hall. A Sabbath evening service was also held for the winter in the King's Ward school house, conducted by the members. During the month of August, 1873, a Young People's Sunday evening service was commenced in the rooms; but as the attendance increased, the town hall was kindly granted for the purpose. This still continues to be one of the best meetings of the association.
In the winter a preaching service on the Sunday evening was begun in the Village of Newport, which is well attended. During August of last year our association was visited by Mr. Wilkie, Secretary of the Toronto Association, and Mr. Morse, of the Executive Committee of the Association of the United States and Canada, who strongly urged the necessity of a general secretary for our work. The appeal for the necessary funds was promptly responded to by the friends of the association and Mr. W. P. Crombie, our present Secretary, engaged. The annual meeting in November, held in the Baptist Tabernacle, was a large and enthusiastic gathering. Towards the close it was announced that Mr. Cockshutt was willing to give $2000 towards a building fund, provided other $4000 could be raised; other friends of the association came forward with subscriptions, and before the close it was announced that $7000 had been subscribed. This amount was increased during the next few days to over $12000. The ladies of the town also kindly came to our assistance, and raised funds by bazaar to furnish the building.
A Building Committee, consisting of two members from each denomination, was appointed to select a suitable site and go on with the work. After carefully examining a number of suitable places, Lot No. 23 on the south side of Colborne Street, opposite the Market, was selected. Suitable plans having been procured, the work was commenced on the 18th May. An Act of Incorporation was obtained for the association on the first day of April, 1874. The corner stone was laid by Ignatius Cockshutt, Esq., on the first day of july, at eleven o'clock in the forenoon, in the year of our Lord, 1874, in the 38th year of the reign of of her Majesty Queen Victoria; His Excellency the Right Honourable the Earl of Dufferin, K.P., K.C.B., being Governor-General of Canada; the Hon. Alex. Mackenzie being Premier of the Dominion; Hon. John Crawford being Lieutenant-Governor of Ontario; and Hon. Oliver Mowat being Premier of Ontario; Wm. Paterson, Esq., being member of the House of Commons of Canada; and A. S. Hardy, Esq., being member of the House of Assembly for South Brant; and Wm. Mathews, Esq., being Mayor of the Town of Brantford. The large assemblage then joined in singing the hymn- "Builder of mighty worlds on worlds, How poor the house must be That with our human, sinful hands We may erect for Thee."
Mr. Wilkinson then introduced the special work of the day in a few appropriate remarks. ........ This building was intended for no sect, but for all who loved the Lord Jesus Christ. It was erected by the contributions of young and old- the widow's mite and the larger offering of the wealthier citizen bad been alike generously offered. He called upon all present to have some part in the completion of the building. ..... Mr. Wilkinson then called Mr. Cockshutt to the platform, and presented him with an elegant silver trowel, expressing the hope that many wealthy men like Mr. Cockshutt might disburse their means, while living, towards such good objects as the present. The trowel bore the following inscription:

Presented to IGNATIUS COCKSHUTT, Esq., On the occasion of his laying the foundation stone of the Young Men's Christian Association Buildings. Brantford, July 1st, 1874

Mr. I. Cockshutt then proceeded to lay the stone in the usual form, during which a photograph of the scene was taken by Messrs. Campbell & Smith. In the stone were deposited, in addition to the historical statement given above, lists of the officers and committees of the Y.M.C.A. fr 1874, the names of the Building Committee, Architects, Superintendent of Works, County Judge and Officials, Ministers of the town, &c., and copies of the Globe, Mail, Expositor, Courier, Brant Union, Montreal Witness, and denominational paper, with the coins of the realm. Mr. Cockshutt having returned to the platform, then addressed the assembly. .......... Mr. Barnfather then sang " Fair Canada" after which Mr. Wilkinson introduced the Rev. Mr. Wood, remarking how sorry the association was at the prospect of his leaving town. The next speaker was Mr. Cochrane ....... Mayor Mathews then addressed the assembly in a few words, expressing his great pleasure at being present on such an interesting occasion. the erection of such a building was creditable to the association and to this the largest town in the Dominion. W. Paterson, Esq., M.P., having been next called upon, in his usual happy and vigorous manner spoke of the auspiciousness of the day and the entire circumstances connected with the ceremony. In warm terms he eulogized Mr. Cockshutt, who, unlike many rich men, devoted his means while living to the cause of God. ......... Mr. Clark, the Secretary of the Woodstock Young Men's Association, then made a few remarks, after which the proceedings were brought to a close, the audience joining in the National Anthem, and the Rev. Mr. Porter pronouncing the benediction. In due time the building was completed and opened to the public for the purposes for which it had been erected. Below will be found some interesting details and facts concerning its structure; also an account of the opening exercises; both of which have been transcribed from articles found in the issues of the local press which were published at the time.

Wycliffe Hall, the Y. M. C. A. Building.- As this beautiful structure has now been brought to completion, we lay before our readers a full description of what has been appropriately named and is henceforth to be known as Wycliffe Hall, which for taste and elegance and completeness in all its parts, will be readily conceded to be not only the finest public building in Brantford, but one of the finest structures erected by the Y. M. C. A. in the Dominion. The dimensions of the building are one hundred and ten feet deep by sixty feet wide. Height three stories, with mansard roof and surmounted by a dome. The material is white brick, from the yard of Hugh Workman, Esq. The style of architecture is peculiar, and is very handsome. Entire cost, including site, about $22,000. The main entrance leading up to the lecture-room and down to the gymnasium is fourteen feet wide by forty-eight feet in depth.
The lecture-room is a well-proportioned rectangle sixty-eight by fifty-seven feet, and, with the gallery which stretches across the entire rear of the room, has a seating capacity of about nine hundred. the room is chastely finished in stucco-work, and the walls are decorated, on the right, with the mottoes, "God is Love," "Christ died for our sins;" on the left, the association mottoes, "Our Aim, God's Glory," " Our Strength, God's Grace," "Our Guide, God's Word." The platform is semicircular, eleven by twenty-four feet, and is to be richly furnished by the ladies. The ceiling over the platform is vaulted and is well adapted for throwing the sound forward to the audience. Directly in the rear of the platform a door opens into a narrow hall connecting with two anterooms, and immediately over this door stands in relief the British crown and coat of arms, above which in a recumbent position are the Cross and Crown, and the motto "Stand up for Jesus." Six large windows flood this hall with light by day, and at night a magnificent gasalier, with a six-feet reflector and thirty-six jets illumines every part of the room. The seats, consisting of comfortable forms, each adapted for five, were furnished by Mr. John Builder. The plastering and stucco-work has been done by Messrs. Wood & Fisher, and reflects creditably upon their taste and ability. At the head of the stairway, to the right, a door opens into the reading-room, fifty by twenty-one feet. This connects by folding doors with the lecture-room, and can be made available as an auditorium, thus making the seating capacity about one thousand. To the left of the main entrance is the parlour, a fine room forty-one by twenty-one feet. Between these two rooms, and directly over the entrance hall is the Secretary's room, a square of eighteen feet, in the rear of which is a gorgeous, stained glass window from the Stained Glass Works, London. This is a present from a prominent citizen.

We now proceed to the third flat, from which the gallery opens, and upon the right front we enter a room forty-two by twenty-one feet. This is to be occupied by the Mechanics' Institute. On the left front is a similar room to be used for evening classes, lecturing and debating purposes. These are all well adapted to the uses for they were designed. From the third story, if you are of an aspiring and inquisitive turn of mind, you may ascend to the dome, where charon-like , you survey the entire town and all the country round about; but it is advisable to have some Hermes along to whose hand you may cling. Descending to the first floor, and off the passage leading to the gymnasium are two bathrooms. The gymnasium itself is an immense square of sixty feet. Here it is supposed the great feats of the gymnasts of ancient Greece and Rome will be enacted anew; or, possibly in accordance with the modern notion, it will be made the theatre for the development of muscular Christianity. Off this room there are two bathrooms, two closets, a washroom and a dressing-room; and in the rear of the gymnasium are the caretaker's apartments. There is also a balcony overlooking the gymnasium. The plans and specifications were furnished, in part, by John Turner and in part, by Mellish & Son, architects, of this town. The brickwork was done under the superintendence of Thos. Broughton, Esq., and the moulding and wood-finishing by Mr. James Tutt. The painting and graining has been done by Mr. John Tainish, and is certainly a creditable piece of workmanship. The slating was done by the Brown Bros., slaters of this town; and the iron and tin work by T. Cowherd & Sons. The front of the first story is to be occupied as stores, one on either side of the entrance. A beautiful stone arch, containing the words "Wycliffe Hall," spans the doorway. The facade of the building presents an imposing appearance, containing sixteen large windows, besides six smaller ones in the attic and four in the dome. Brantford may well be proud of Wycliffe Hall. It is "a thing of beauty," and will doubtless prove a joy to many for many a day.

The Y. M. C. A., and especially their indefatigable Secretary W. P. Crombie, Esq., deserve not only the thanks but the substantial support of people of Brantford, and we have no doubt a generous public will evince its appreciation of their zeal, and of the benefits which through their instrumentality have been conferred upon the town by the erection of Wycliffe Hall. >From the Expositor we also take the following account of the opening services: Last Monday evening this beautiful edifice was formally opened as the home of the Young Men's Christian Association of Brantford. At an early hour the capacious hall was filled with an appreciative audience of the citizens, together with a large number of persons from the country round about, and not a few from Paris, Ingersoll, Woodstock, Dundas, Hamilton, Toronto and other places. And by the time the exercises commenced the gallery and aisles were crammed, many being obliged to stand. Upon the platform were Wm. Nichol, M.D., President of the Association; Wm. Wilkinson, M.A., Vice-President; Daniel Wilson, LL.D., University College, Toronto; Rev. A. T. Pearson, of Detroit, Rev. John Wood, of Toronto, formerly of this town; Rev. B. B. Keefer, Rev. Wm. Cochrane, M.A., Rev. Canon Salter, Rev. Thomas Lowry, Rev. Mr. Chance, Rev. W. H. Porter, M.A., His Honour Judge Jones, Rev. A. Langford, Rev. W. C. E. McColl, M.A., Rev. J. P. Bell, Rev. H. P. cutter, and Messrs. Plewes, Wilkie, of Toronto, T. S. Shenston, I. Cockshutt, Geo. Foster, and W. H. C. Kerr, M.A. The opening hymn was a doxology "Praise God from whom all blessings flow." This was followed by old "Coronation," the hundreds of voices, lead by the choir, filling the immense hall with the melody of this grand old hymn, after which the Rev. Mr. Porter read the scriptures, being suitable selections from different portions of the Word of god. The Rev. John Wood led in prayer; and that popular hymn, "Hold the Fort, for I am coming," was sung with fine effect. then the President made a few brief remarks. I. Cockshutt, Esq., Chairman of the Building Committee, was next introduced. He considered it was a proud day for Brantford, when by favour and blessing of God, the Y. M. C. A. Association had been permitted to see their fond hopes realized in the dedication of Wycliffe Hall.

After the singing of a hymn, the President introduced to the audience Daniel Wilson LL.D., who he said, was ever found ready to assist the Y. M. C. A. by the munificence of a richly-stored mind, and the warmth of a noble Christian heart, whenever called on. ...... The choir next sang, " Whiter than Snow," in which the congregation united. Mr. Kimpton rendered a solo, " Remember now thy Creator," Miss - Kimpton playing the piano accompaniment. Miss Glassco sang a solo also, Mr. Harpin presiding at the organ. Both were well rendered. The Rev. Mr. Pearson followed in a very able and eloquent address. ..... T. J. Wilkie, Esq., next addressed the meeting. He looked upon the present building as a token of divine favour, and as an evidence that good work had been done by the association for the glory of God in the salvation of souls. After the collection had been taken up, subscriptions were circulated, during which brief remarks were made by Rev. Mr. Cochrane, Mr. Plewes and others; and it was half-past ten before the audience had dispersed. The collections and subscriptions amounted to $604. This sum was perhaps much less than had been anticipated; but it must be borne in mind that, apart from the pressure in commercial matters, within the past year the citizens of Brantford have been called upon for large sums for one object or another. Zion Church has just completed important changes and improvements internally as well as externally. So also of the Primitive Methodist Church. Brant Avenue people have their hands fully occupied yet in connection with the finishing of their magnificent church. The First Baptist Church are just on the eve of remodelling the present building, besides the further cost of erecting a new house of worship in the East Ward. Socials and bazaars for some church or charity are of almost daily occurrence. When all these things are considered in relation to the large amount originally subscribed, the result cannot be surprising. The evening was all that could be desired; so that upon the whole we think the Young Men's Christian Association of Brantford may be congratulated upon the successful opening of Wycliffe Hall.

The Dufferin Rifles.- By General Order of 28th September, 1866, the Commander-in-Chief of the Forces- the Right Honourable Charles Stanley, Viscount Monck- was pleased to authorize the formation of the 38th Brant Battalion of Infantry, with headquarters at Brantford, and composed of the following independent companies, and numbered as follows: # in Batt. Gazetted Company Designation Co. HQ. Captain 1 June 26th, 1856 Rifle Company Paris Andw H. Baird 2 Dec. 13th, 1861 No. 1 Rifle Company Brantford David Curtis 3 July 3rd, 1862 No. 2 Rifle Company Brantford John J. Inglis (Highland) 4 Jan. 30th, 1863 Infantry Company Mt. Pleasant Crossley Heaton 5 June 1st, 1866 Infantry Company Brantford Henry Lemmon 6 Aug. 17th, 1866 Infantry Company Burford Edmund Yeigh 7 June 30th, 1863 Infantry Company Drumbo John Laidlaw The Field Officers and Staff appointed were: Lieutenant-Colonel, Captain William Patton, from No. 1 Company, appointed October 12th, 1866; Major, Captain Hiram Dickie, from No. 2 Company, appointed November 30th, 1866; Adjutant, Lieut. S. W. Fear, from No. 4 Company, appointed november 30th, 1866; Assistant Adjutant and Drill Instructor, Ensign David Spence, from No. 3 Company, appointed April 19th, 1867; Paymaster, Capt. William Grant, from No. 3 Company, appointed November 30th, 1866; Quartermaster, Sergt. B. Felmingham, appointed November 30th, 1866; Surgeon, Edwin Theodore Bown, M.D., appointed January 25th, 1867; Asst.-Surgeon, Duncan Marquis, M.D., appointed December 13th, 1867.

The Mount Pleasant Company having been removed from the list of the Volunteer Militia, the remaining companies of the regiment were, on the 5th January, 1871, renumbered as follows: No. 1 company, Paris; No. 2 Company, Brantford; No. 3 Company, Brantford; No. 4 Company, Brantford; No. 5 Company, Burford; No. 6 Company, Drumbo. On the 24th March, 1871, by General Order, the regiment was changed from infantry to rifles. By General Order of 3rd July, 1874, and by special permission of His Lordship the Earl of Dufferin , then Governor-General of Canada, the regiment was permitted to assume the additional design of "The Dufferin Rifles." The regiment was one of the first to re-enrol under the provisions of the Militia Act of 1863. The following have been the commanding officers of the regiment since its formation: Lieut.-Colonel William Patton, from 12th October, 1866, to 3rd September, 1875; Lieut.-Colonel Hiram Dickie, from 11th February, 1876, to 28th January, 1881; Lieut.-Colonel Charles S. Jones, from 3rd June, 1881 (at present commanding) Since the appointment of Colonel Jones to the command of the regiment, the headquarters of No. 6 Company have been removed from Drumbo to Brantford, by general Order of 16th December, 1881; the headquarters of No. 1 Company from Paris to Brantford, by General Order of 15th September, 1882; and the headquarters of No. 5 Company from Burford to Brantford by General Order of 11th May, 1883; the regiment now being gazetted a "City Battalion," all the companies have their headquarters in the City of Brantford. The companies now stand as follows;
No. 1, Headquarters at Brantford, no Captain as yet.
No. 2, " " " George Smartt, Captain.
No. 3, " " " George H. Young, Captain.
No. 4, " " " Burrows H. Rothwell, Captain.
No. 5, " " " Solon W. McMichael, Captain.
No. 6, " " " George Hervey McMichael, Captain.

The regular badge and ornaments, by permission of Lord Dufferin and as authorized by general Orders of 3rd May, 1878, and 1st March, 1879, are given below:

Badge.- The badge and device of the battalion shall consist of the Earl of Dufferin's crest comprising a cap of maintenance surmounted by a crescent, underneath which are the numerals 38; the whole encircled by a scroll or garter, clasped with a buckle, and bearing the legend "Dufferin Rifles" and his Lordship's motto "Per vias rectas," the whole surmounted by the Imperial Crown. the badge shall be silver for officers, and bronze for non-commissioned officers and men.

The Cross Belt Ornaments are lion's head, chain and whistle, in silver, with a centre ornament on a polished silver plate between two wreaths of maple leaves, conjoined at the base, encircling a Maltese cross of frosted silver, fimbriated with polished silver; between the arms of the cross four lioncels passant-gardant; charged upon the cross plate of frosted silver, inscribed with the words "Dufferin Rifles;" over all the Imperial Crown in silver resting upon a supporting tablet of the same. A centre ornament of silver on pouch back of belt, consisting of the numerals 38, surrounded by a bugle; the whole surmounted by the Imperial crown.

The list of officers for May, 1883, are: Field and Staff Officers: Lieut.-Colonel Charles S. Jones; Major John Ballachey; Adjutant, William Henry Hudson, Capt.; Paymaster, Frank J. Grenny, Hon. Capt.; Quartermaster, John D. Pettit, Hon. Capt.; Surgeon, Wm. T. Harris, M.D.; Asst. Surgeon, Wm. E. Winskel, M.D. Company officers: No. 1 has no officers yet. No. 2, George Smartt, Captain; George Glenny, Lieutenant; Louis F. Heyd, 2nd Lieutenant; No. 3, George H. Young, Captain; Thos. Henry jones, Lieutenant; No 4, Burrows H. Rothwell, Captain; Charles L. Daniel, Lieutenant; Thomas S. Wade, 2nd Lieutenant; No. 5, Solon W. McMichael, Captain; Wm. D. Jones, Lieutenant; No. 6, George Hervey McMichael, Captain; Richard R. Harris, Lieutenant; John H. McLean, 2nd Lieutenant.

On December 23, 1864, during the civil war in the United States, the Brantford Rifle Company, under command of Capt. Wm. Grant, with Lieut. Inglis and Ensign Spence as his subalterns, was ordered into active service and was stationed in barracks at Sarnia for five months, and during their stay materially assisted in maintaining neutrality between Great Britain and the United States. On March 8, 1866, at the time of the Fenian excitement, all the companies of the regiment were called out for active service, and remained under arms for some time, the Brantford companies guarding numbers of Fenian prisoners who were confined in the Brantford Gaol. On September 9, 1879, the regiment had the honour of being invited to take part in the Grand Military Review in Toronto, before Her Royal Highness the Princess Louise, and attended in full force, its appearance on parade and manoeuvres in the field being most favourably commented on by the press of Toronto. The regiment of late years has taken a good place among the most efficient and best equipped of the force, and is held in high esteem by its sister militia regiments. As a mark of this the regiment was, on the thirteenth of March, 1883, presented by the Queen's Own Rifles of Toronto -Canada's crack corps- with a very chaste and handsome silver cup and case illuminated address, the presentation being made by Col. Otter, in the Opera House, which was filled with the elite of the City of Brantford, on which occasion Col. Jones of the Dufferin Rifles replied to the address, and accepted the cup on behalf of his regiment. The regiment at the present time is in a most efficient shape, the officers being well up in their duties besides being very popular with the men of the regiment, while the ranks are filled with a class of men of which any regiment might well be proud. The fine regimental brass and reed band, under the leadership of Mr. Wimperis, adds much to the popularity of the regiment.

The Dufferin Rifles' Rifle Association.- The above association in connection with the regiment is well organized and complete in every respect, and is considered in point of efficiency one of the best in the country. At the last annual prize meeting of the Ontario rifle Association, the Dufferin Rifles' team obtained one of the five team prizes offered by the association competing against the best association teams in the Dominion, the individual members of the team also standing well up in the grand aggregate prize list. The association has been fortunate in being able to secure one of the best ranges in the Province, a short distance from the city; the use of the range having been granted to the association by Robert Ashton, Esq., the Superintendent of the New England Company. Adjoining the range lie the remains of the gallant Indian warrior, Capt. Joseph Brant from whom Brantford derives its name. Here also stands the old Mohawk Church of historic renown, with its solid silver communion service presented to the Indians by Queen Anne. In this church Prince Arthur was made a chief of the Six Nation Indians. Many valuable silver cups and medals belong to the association, the same being competed for at the annual matches- the Merchant's Cup, Officer's Cup, Company Cup (presented by Judge Jones), Bull's-eye Cup and Queen's Own Cup (presented by the Queen's Own Rifles). Through the kindness of Lord Dufferin (the patron of the association), a bronze medal, with the profiles of Lord and Lady Dufferin thereon is shot for annually, a new medal being forwarded by his Lordship for each annual match. The first medal presented by Lord Dufferin was won at the last annual matches by Surgeon Harris with a good score. The officers of the association are: President, Lieut. Colonel Jones; Vice-Presidents, Major Ballachey and Surgeon Harris; Secretary, Lieut. Daniel; Treasurer, Lieut. Glenny; Range Officer, Capt. Young; Council, Lieut.-Col. Jones, Major Ballachey, Capt. Smartt, Lieut. Harris, Lieut. Glenny and Lieut. Daniel.

The Churches

Grace Church (Episcopal) This is the oldest congregation in the City of Brantford, and probably had its origin among the very earliest efforts to establish society here. For several years previous to 1830, the Christians of this persuasion worshipped in the old Mohawk Chapel, on the then Indian reservation; Chief Brant, who was a consistent member of the Church of England, proposed that if the people would build a church in the Village of brantford, he would set apart a block of ground containing about three acres for the use and benefit of said church, either as an endowment or for immediate disposal. this offer was accepted, and in the year 1831 the late A. K. Smith and Mrs. Margaret Kerby gave several lots on the corner of Albion and Cedar Streets, the same to be used as a site for the church edifice and for a burial ground. In 1832 a framed church was erected on this ground; the building would accommodate about four hundred people, but by the addition of galleries, which was made in time following, its capacity was increased to seat about seven hundred. The church was used until the year 1856, when more room being necessary, the original part of the present building was erected. This is one of the handsomest churches in the Dominion; is purely gothic, with full clear-story-elevation; the original cost was twenty-two thousand dollars. During the year 1882 several improvements were made, among which was an extension of the chancel, and a general renewal of the interior. This work cost nine thousand dollars, and so enlarged the structure as to give sittings for one thousand persons. There is in this church one of the finest organs in central Ontario, which cost something over four thousand dollars.

The first rector was the Rev. James Campbell Usher, afterward Canon Usher. this able divine served the congregation of Grace Church for a period of forty years; his memory is cherished by many worthy members of his former flock, as having been a faithful and devoted worker in this pioneer field of Christian advancement. He was succeeded by the Rev. Arthur Sweatman, M.A., the present Bishop of Toronto, who filled the position for two years, when the Rev. Reginald H. Starr, M.A., was called to the rectorship, and remained three years. The present Rector is the Rev. G. C. Mackenzie, Rural Dean of Brant, who entered upon the duties of his charge in 1879. The first Church-wardens were Reuben Leonard and William Richardson, whose official career began in 1832. The present Wardens are Thomas Botham, Esq., and Charles S. Mason, Esq.; there is also a select Vestry of eight members. The Building Committee of the present church was composed of Thomas Botham, Archibald Green, Charles Watts, Abner Bunnell, Henry Lemmon and James Smith. The last named gentleman had the entire charge of the work as superintendent on behalf of the committee. Mr. Botham has been a member of this church for forty years, during which time he has held the office of Church-warden eighteen years. he also served as auditor of the accounts of the church for a long period of time.

St. Jude's Episcopal Church - Is situated on Peel Street, corner of Dalhousie in the East Ward. It is of Gothic style of architecture and built of brick, with a square tower of the same material having a bell in it. Owing to the increase of Church of England members in the East Ward and neighbourhood, it was deemed necessary some twelve years ago to organize a church in that ward, and as a result, in 1872, St. Jude's was erected at a cost of about $6,000. It has a seating capacity of about 400. The several clergymen appointed to this church are, in rotation as follows: Revs. Moffatt, Canon Salter, C. D. Martin, T. R. Davis, and the present incumbent, Mr. Young, who succeeded Mr. Davis, May 1, 1882.

The First Presbyterian Church - This congregation was the first organized Presbyterian body in Brantford. The property on the corner of Wellington and George Streets, consisting of two lots, was originally the property of the American Presbyterian Church. This church for only a short time had a pastor, and about the year 1844 it became the property of the body called United Associate Missionary Synod of the Canadas, which afterwards in 1847, became the United Presbyterian Church, Which in time, by union with the Free Church in 1861, became the Canadian Presbyterian Church, and now by the union of all Presbyterian Churches in the Dominion, is the Presbyterian Church in Canada. The following facts may be interesting regarding the history of the congregation: On the 9th of December, 1845, the members of the congregation of the United Associate Presbyterian Church, St. George, in and around Brantford, who occasionally had service in a school house which stood on what is now the Market Square, Brantford, petitioned the West Flamboro' Presbytery to be formed into a congregation in Brantford, under the inspection of the pastor of St. George, the Rev. James Roy. The petition was granted Mr. Roy being appointed to take the necessary steps to organize the congregation and form a session. The members of the first session then appointed were Messrs., John Dodds, David Christie (afterwards the Hon. D. Christie), and Charles Steward, the latter acting as Clerk. On the 13th July, 1847, Rev. J. Roy resigned the oversight of the congregation, the congregation having in the meantime become part of the United Presbyterian Church, and on the 17th of August, of the same year the congregation gave a call to the Rev. A. A. Drummond, who was ordained on the 20th of October, 1847. The members of the West Flamboro' Presbytery present at the ordination were Messrs. Caw, Christie, Roy, Ritchie, Barrie, Torrance and Fisher, ministers; with Messrs. R. Christie, J. Millar and D. Christie, ruling elders. Rev. Caw preached, and Rev. Mr. (afterwards Dr.) Barrie addressed the minister and people. The congregation at that time numbered about forty communicant members. the congregation had in the meantime purchased the property on which the present church stands. On this property there stood a church building which was not completed, and the congregation set to work to complete the place of worship, and soon effected their purpose. Under the Rev. A. A. Drummond, now of Newcastle, Ont., the church prospered. The congregation increased, and a manse was built for the pastor. Additional elders were elected- James Crawford and D. MacNaughton, in 1850; James Johnston and George Clark in 1853; W. Renwick and W. Turnbull in 1855. In the year 1857 Mr. Drummond received a call to the congregation of North Easthope and Mornington, and on the 15th of December the Presbytery of Brant agreed to the dissolution of the pastoral tie between Mr. Drummond and the congregation in Brantford. After a vacancy of several months the Rev. Joseph Young was inducted into the pastorate by the Presbytery, on the 6th July, 1858. In 1859 Messrs. Kerr, Muir and Morice were elected and ordained additional elders, who, with Messrs. Dodds, Crawford, MacNaughton and Turnbull, constituted the session of the church at that time. In the year 1861 the union between the United Presbyterian and Free Churches in Canada took place, and in connection with this proposals were for union between two Presbyterian Churches then in Brantford. The negotiations, however, failed, and the union was not affected. In the early part of the year 1863 Mr. Young was laid aside from his pastoral work by illness, and towards the end of the year died. After a long vacancy the Rev. thos. Lowry was inducted in the pastorate in the year 1866, on the 25th December, by the Presbytery of Paris. In the year 1867 Messrs. McArthur and Randall were elected elders, in 1870 Messrs. Russell and Lyle, and Mr. Charles Green in the year 1881. In the year 1877 steps were taken to build a new church edifice on the same site as the new* one. The congregation in the meantime worshipped in the Court House, which was kindly put at its disposal. On the 20th January, 1878, the present neat and commodious place of worship was opened. In July, 1881, the rev. T. Lowry, who for several months had been in poor health, resigned his charge, after a faithful pastorate of nearly fifteen years. Mr. Lowry at this date is still alive and in much better health. He resides in Toronto, and is able to preach still. After another vacancy of several months, the Rv. F. R. Beattie, B.D., of Baltimore and Coldsprings, was called as pastor, and inducted on the 9th of May, 1882. He is the present pastor of the congregation. * Bill's Note this should read old.

Zion Church (Presbyterian) - In 1854 Zion Church congregation was first organized, the rev. John Alexander, of Niagara, being called as minister. At that time services were conducted in the Town hall, until a suitable edifice could be erected. It was necessarily some time before the building was thoroughly completed; and the congregation met in the present lecture room until 1857, when the church was formally opened. In 1860 Mr. Alexander resigned his pastorship, and for some two years the church was without a minister, when the Rev. Dr. Cochrane was called from New york. From that time until now the reverend gentleman has faithfully fulfilled his arduous duties, until at the present he presides over one of the largest and most influential congregations on this continent. His sterling worth and ability is acknowledged throughout America, and for evidence of the great respect in which he is held by the ministers of his own denomination, it is only necessary to refer to his appointment last year as Moderator of the general Assembly. In 1867 it was found that the church was overcrowded, and the seating accommodation was accordingly enlarged by the addition of galleries. In 1876 an alcove was added, and the pulpit and present handsome organ (made by Warren & Son, Montreal) put in. Since that time the demand for additional seats and other improvements has been force from year to year upon the Board of Management, until last year it was definitely decided to enlarge, refurnish and redecorate the church throughout. For some months past workmen have been busily engaged in effecting the desired alterations, and it is safe to say that for beauty and elegance Zion Church is now unsurpassed by any other in the Dominion. The edifice has been enlarged by the addition of sixty by thirty-one feet at the rear portion. The organ has been placed on the right hand side, while on the left the light streams through two beautifully stained glass windows, the gift of Mr. J. K. Osborne. The instrument has been considerably improved, and with its remodelled exterior now presents a most handsome appearance. The pulpit has been richly decorated with iron work, and the platform ornamented by two handsome urns for flowers, the gift of Mr. W. E. Welding. The seats, which throughout are new, are made of native butterwood highly polished. The iron work at the ends is especially designed. the pews have been arranged in semicircular form, with an inclination of twenty-one inches from rear to front. This arrangement enables all in the church to obtain an equally good view of the pulpit. The church has been recarpeted and recushioned throughout. The carpet, which was especially woven in Scotland, is of two shades in crimson, and the cushions of rep, imported from England, are of a like colour. The galleries all round have been brought forward eighteen inches, thus enabling the seats to be removed six inches further apart. Three new handsome gasaliers, with sidelights to match, have been placed in position at a cost of about $400. The new ceiling has been delicately panelled and frescoed. In the down-stairs portion of the building four new class rooms for Sunday School purposes have been added, together with a handsome vestry for the minister. This room has been suitably carpeted and furnished throughout with secretaire, dressing stand and other appurtenances. The addition to the church was built by William Watt. The estimated cost of the whole improvement is $14,000. The carpets and cushions were provided by the ladies of the church at a cost of $1,700.

Methodist Church - A quarterly meeting was held at Woodhouse of 6th September, 1836, Rev. Wm. Ryerson in the chair. The time of the meeting was taken up almost entirely in electing trustees to fill vacancies. At the second quarterly meeting, held at Governor's Road on the 12th December, 1836- Rev. W. Ryerson in the chair- the following officers were nominated by Rev. Joseph Messmore: Francis G. Swayze, Recording Steward; Wesley Freeman, Joseph Carpenter, Alva Townsend, Circuit Stewards; J. Horton, Matthew Whiting, David Smalley. The first quarterly meeting of the Brantford Circuit was held at Brantford on the 19th September, 1835, at which meeting it was reported that they had purchased two lots at the Crown Lands' sale, one for a chapel at #16 5s. and the other for a parsonage at #15. The Committee appointed to solicit subscriptions having secured #215, it was decided to erect a chapel. On February 7th, 1845, the quarterly meeting adopted a resolution to sell the parsonage lot, and apply the funds received towards the chapel fund. At a quarterly meeting held on September 11th, 1851, Rev. K. Creighton was authorized to take out the deed for a lot for a church site. It was also resolved "that it is deemed advisable to sell the pews in said church." At a special quarterly meeting held at Brantford Parsonage, 2nd july, 1853, it was resolved that Robert Sproule, Herbert Biggar, Thomas O. Scott, Lewis Burwell, William Hocking, John H. Moore, William H. Morgan, Rev. Hamilton Biggar, Rev. Peter Jones, Samuel Morphy, James Moore and James Gardham, be and are hereby appointed a committee to secure the deed of a lot for the purpose of erecting a new Wesleyan Methodist Church thereon. The old church which stood on the site of the present Park Hotel, and fronting the square now called "Victoria Park," having been burned down by lighted cinders, carried by the wind from a fire near the iron bridge on Colborne Street, in the spring of 1853, services for the Methodists were held in the court Room until the completion of the present Wellington Street Church. At a meeting held on 8th April, 1853, having previously obtained the lot on Wellington Street from L. Burwell for #200, and having asked for tenders for the erection of a church, the following were received: W. Hocking, mason and plasterer's work, finding materials, #1,259 14s. 6d.; Mellish & Russell, for completion of the building, #2,180; Messrs. Turner & Sinon, #2,600. the tender of Messrs. Mellish & Russell, being the lowest, was adopted, after which it was resolved to sell the old church and property, and apply the proceeds to the construction of the new one. Consequently, on the 22nd June, 1853, it was sold by auction to Messrs. Mellish & Russell for $700. In order to complete the building, it was resolved to raise the sum of #500 sterling, to be borrowed on ten years' credit, the trustees to be personally responsible with the mortgage on the new property. The following names were added to the Trustees as a Building Committee: A. K. Smith. R. R. Strobridge, John Heaton, Judge Jones, William Matthews, John Kendall and Thomas Glassco. On April 3rd, 1854, the Trustees and Building Committee appointed John Turner as architect during the erection and completion of the church, at the sum of #70 for his services. This church underwent a thorough repair, and was reopened on the 27th December, 1874, by Divine services on the Sunday, which were followed by a tea meeting on the following evening. Bill's Notes: # is used in place of the British pound sign.

Brant Avenue Methodist Church - The society of the above church was organized in July, 1870, with a very large and successful membership, and has continued to increase in numbers and interest to the present. The membership now numbers over two hundred. In 1871 the members built a handsome brick church building on the corner of Brant Avenue and Richmond Street, at a cost of about $25,000. The building is handsomely furnished in the interior, and has a seating capacity of 650. In 1875 the society built a church in West Brantford, on Oxford Street, which was dedicated during the same year. It was built to meet the demand of the rapid growth of the church membership in that section of the town. It has since, however, become an independent organization. The Brant Avenue Church is under the pastoral charge of the Rev. Manly Benson.

Emmanuel M. E. Church - Was established fifteen years ago by Rev. W. G. Brown. Services were first held in a hall opposite Market Square, at the hour of 9.30 a.m., before the other church services in the city were held. About thirty people attended the first services. During the first year a site for a church building was purchased in the east Ward, and $700 in subscriptions procured towards its erection. This project was abandoned the following year, and an old church building , formerly occupied by the Presbyterians, and situated on the north side of Wellington Street, Queen's Ward, purchased. Worship was held in this church until the fall of 1878, when the church property known as Emmanuel Congregational Church was purchased by the congregation. This is a comfortable brick structure, situated on the corner of Queen and Wellington Streets, capable of seating 250 persons. There is now a membership of over 100 persons, and a congregation of over 200. The following have been pastors in the order named: Rev. W. G. Brown, Rev. J. A. Livingston, Rev. D. Pomeroy, Rev. B. Bristol, Rev. Thomas Athoe, Rev. J. S. Williamson, Rev. F. H. Pilcher, D.D., Rev. J. A. Combs, Rev. G. C. Squire, Rev. C. Creighton and Rev. C. M. Thompson. The latter who is the present pastor, was born in Addington Co., Ont., and educated in the Dominion. He came to this congregation from the church at St. Marys in 1882. The congregation and Sabbath School are growing numerically, financially and otherwise under his care. Preaching services are held at 11 a.m. and 7 p.m. each Sabbath, and the Sabbath School at 2.30 p.m. The following are the Board of trustees: John R. Kerr, Esq., James Harley, Esq., H. A. Harley, Esq., J. R. Van Fleet, Esq., Wm. E. Kerr, Esq., Rev. T. S. Linscott, and Abram Van Sickle, Esq.

Methodist Church of Canada This denomination in Brantford erected a small frame church on Oxford Street, west side of the Grand River, in October, 1876, at a cost of $1600. Considerable additions and improvements were made to ot in 1882, at an outlay of $1,350, and the building now presents a prominent and substantial appearance. The inside of the church has been elegantly fitted up, and will hold a congregation of about 300. The membership numbers about 70. For two years after the opening the pulpit was filled by local supply, and the first regular pastor was Rev. A. Broadway, who officiated for fifteen months, when he was succeeded by the present pastor, Rev. Mr. Boyd.

The Primitive Methodist Church Is a brick building on the west side of Market Street, near Marlborough, and was built in the year 1856. The cost was about $3,500, and it has a seating capacity of 300. This organization was formed in 1854, and numbered at that period some 76 members. At the present time the building is used only for lectures and occasional services.

The British M. E. Church (Coloured) The society of coloured Methodists was organised in 1835 with but a handful of members. Meetings were held whenever opportunity offered, and the church continued weak until 1865, when the society, having received frequent acquisitions to its membership, decided to erect a church building. Accordingly a lot was purchased on Murray Street, between Dalhousie and Darling, and a frame church built, with a seating capacity of about 300. The society is now in a more promising condition, and numbers about fifty members.

The First Baptist Church This church was organized in 1833 by Rev. Wm. Rees, agent of the American Home Missionary Society who laboured in this place for a period of eight years and was succeeded by Rev. John Winterbotham. Since then the pastors have been Rev. S. L. Davidson in 1850: Rev. John Alexander, Rev. Wm. Stewart, Rev. Dr. Hurd, Rev.- Porter and Rev. J. B. Tuttle, the latter having assumed the pastorate in October, 1880. For more than twenty years the congregation worshipped in a frame building on Cedar Street. In 1855 a brick church was erected at a cost of $7,000, which in 1857 burned down, and thus gave way to the present beautiful edifice which occupies the same site. The cost of the church building was $18,000. It is built of white brick, with cut stone trimmings, and is one hundred feet long by fifty-six feet wide. The auditorium is divided into three aisles and six tiers of pews, with a gallery at the end, and has a seating capacity of 800. The basement, which is used as a Sabbath School room and lecture room, is thirteen feet high, the ceiling, which is twenty-seven feet from the floor, being of panel work with stucco ornaments, and the walls represent bonded masonry. The windows are of stained glass; the spire is 160 feet high; and the building, which is of Romanesque style of architecture, reflects great credit on the architect. Notwithstanding the large dimensions of this building, it can hardly afford ample room for the present congregation, the membership of the church being the largest of any church of this creed in Canada.

The Tabernacle Baptist Church Was organized by those interested in the formation of a new church on the twenty-fourth of February, 1870, and an appointment of officers made. In the month of march following, a call was issued to Rev. John Alexander of Montreal, who preached for the congregation on the last Sabbath in April and the first Sabbath in May, and accepted the call, his acceptance to take effect the following autumn. In the meantime a temporary call was extended on May 15th to Rev.- Gaines, of Montreal. On the first of April a movement was made toward the organization of a Sunday school, and soon afterwards books were purchased, officers elected, and the school permanently established. On April 10th the male members of the church were constituted a committee to prepare articles of faith for the government of the new organization, and after due deliberation they adopted the articles of faith from the " Baptist Church Manual" published at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The first sacrament was administered April 29, by Deacon R. Morton, in the absence of a pastor. On May 17th the first meeting was held in the new room, Kerr's Music Hall, and on the sixteenth of the following August, the pastor elect assumed his pastorate. In November, 1870, a committee, consisting of the pastor and ten laymen was appointed to buy Kerr's Music Hall for $6,000, he to give off $1,500. The building was remodelled to some extent, and changed into a tabernacle. In October, 1875, Rev. Robert Cameron, of New York, accepted a call to the pastorate. In the spring of 1881 the tabernacle was sold to Mr. Stratford for $5,000, and the church began worshipping in the Y.M.C.A. Hall. Soon afterward a lot was purchased on the corner of George and Darling Streets of Dr. Cochrane, and the erection of the present church edifice was begun in the fall of the same year, by the laying of the corner stone with appropriate ceremony. The church began the use of the chapel in the new church in September, 1882. The building is one of the finest in the city, and reflects great credit on the congregation, as well as the Building Committee, which was composed of five men of undoubted ability. The congregation is one of the most prosperous and enterprising in the city, and now numbers 272 souls.

The Congregational Church During the early days of the city a worthy minister from Buffalo was accustomed to preach occasionally at various places in this part of the Province. His labours in Brantford were rewarded by a deep awakening of the people, who became desirous of forming a church, but there were but few comparatively, and they not fully of one mind concerning the particular denomination which they would like to represent, the reverend gentleman advised them to wait until such time as they could unite in their action by common consent. These were held in the waggon shop of John M. Tupper, a well-known citizen of that period. At that time Henry Wilkes, now the Rev. Dr. Wilkes, of Montreal, was a student of theology in the schools of Scotland; it was agreed to ask him to secure the services of some fit clergyman in that country to come over and take charge of the organization and growth of a church which should be formed from the material prepared by the evangelist from Buffalo. Accordingly the Rev. Adam Lilly, D.D., arrived in course of time to assume the duties of pastor to the new flock. Upon his arrival, however, he found that the people had become divided over the question of denominational form which they would adopt. This division appears to have been brought about by the efforts of a certain over zealous clergyman who visited the people before the arrival of Dr. Lilly; at all events, those who had been instrumental in bringing him here felt it to be their duty to support him in his labours now that he was one of their number. Of course the separation of the originally small body of Christians into two distinct parts weakened both, and for the time bid fair to defeat all efforts at successful organization; but in that, as in everything else in those days, the more difficult the task the more energy was applied to its accomplishment. The followers of Dr. Lilly proceeded as best they could to embody themselves as a Congregational Society. Previous to this event, and before any division of the people had taken place, and effort had been made to erect a house of worship; but now came the real trouble. As there had been some doubt about the united ability of all interested to build a church, it was decidedly doubtful about being able to provide two such structures. After the organization of the society it met habitually in the upper portion of a large warehouse, which belonged to that sturdy pioneer, John A. Wilkes, Esq. About the year 1836-7 the congregation had become so thoroughly united and strengthened as to be able to build a comfortable church on Dalhousie Street. This building was burned in 1864, after which the present edifice on George Street was erected. Concerning the persons and incidents connected with the early history of this church, there is no record to give interesting facts and data. Rev. Dr. Lilly, after serving several years as pastor of the church, became connected with the Congregational College at Toronto and Montreal, in which capacity he was engaged until his death. The present church building was dedicated to the worship of Almighty God on Sunday, November 19, 1865; the dedication hymn was composed for the occasion by the Pastor, Rev. J. Woods. Rev. Dr. Wilkes, of Montreal, preached a beautiful discourse from 1 Tim. i. 11. In the afternoon Rev. F. H. Marling preached from Eph. ii. 20, 22, and 1 Peter, ii. 4, 5. Dr. Wilkes preached again in the evening from 2 Cor. ii. 14.

The Third, or "East Ward," Baptist Church Began its existence as a distinct Christian body on Friday evening, August 27th, 1875, at which time a meeting was held in the new Mission Chapel (now the place of worship of this congregation) in the East Ward of Brantford. This meeting was held in response to a call to determine whether the new building should be used for a mission school, or whether a new church should be organized to occupy it as a regular meeting place. There were some two hundred persons present, most of whom were members of other churches. The meeting was presided over by Mr. John Harris, of the First Baptist Church of Brantford, and Mr. T. A. Moore was chosen as secretary. "Hold the Fort, for I am Coming," was effectively rendered, after which several brethren offered prayer, and the business of the meeting was proceeded with at once. The question of the desirability of organizing a new church was carried unanimously, and the sum of $869.00 pledged in a few minutes. After this public meeting was ended an assembly of those who had signified their desire to unite with the new enterprise was held at the same place for organization. The Rev. John Alexander was called , by unanimous vote of those assembled, to assume the pastorate of the new flock, at a yearly salary of $1000.00. A deputation was sent to inform the re. gentleman of the call which had been given him, and in a short time his formal acceptance was the result. The new body took the name of the East Ward Baptist Church. This movement originated with the people of the First Baptist Church in April, 1875, and was carried to a quick conclusion by the committee into whose hands the work was given. They had secured a beautiful site, and had erected thereon a neat brick chapel, 63 feet by 35 feet, with a seating capacity for about four hundred persons, in time for this new offshoot from the established church of this denomination in Brantford. On Sunday, the 19th of September, 1875, the opening services in the church were held. The Rev. Dr. Davidson, of Guelph, preached a powerful discourse from the text found in Psalm cxviii. 25. In the afternoon the Rev. W. H. Porter, of the First Baptist Church, delivered an effective sermon from Col. i. 18. The evening service was conducted by Rev. Wm. Stewart, M.A., of Hamilton; the text selected was Proverbs ix. 1, 5. The original body of this congregation was composed od twenty-four members from First Baptist Church, and forty-eight from the Second. The chapel building, which has been mentioned, was built mainly under the supervision of Thomas S. Shenston and the Messrs. J & A. Harris. It was enlarged and refitted for church purposes soon after its purchase by the new society.

St. Basil's Catholic Church This imposing edifice is located on Palace Street, and is a very fine building of white brick, with cut stone dressings. The corner stone was laid on November 4, 1866, under the pastorate of Rev. August Carayon, the services being conducted by the Right Rev. John Farrell, D.D., Bishop of Hamilton, assisted by Rev. P. Bardon. The ceremony was very impressive and a large concourse of people assembled to witness and participate in the services. An appropriate inscription, together with copies of newspapers, coins, &c., were enclosed in a glass jar and deposited in the stone. The building is 155 feet long by 64 wide, exclusive of the buttresses. The Transepts are 90 feet in width, and the nave is 52 feet high. The ceiling of the auditorium is groined, with moulded ribs and basses. The church consists of nave, aisles, north and south chapels and sanctuary, with vestry in the rear. The front of the building is finished with two towers, the larger one rising to the height of 180 feet. The windows throughout are of handsome, stained enamelled glass. The total cost of the building was about $25,000. It now being remodelled at considerable expense, and will be when completed one of the handsomest churches, in the interior, of any in the Dominion. It has a seating capacity of about 1,200. The Church Society numbers about 2,500 members. Rev. Peter Lennon is the present pastor of the parish, and Rev. James Lennon curate.

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