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These Brant County, Ontario township histories have been transcribed by Bill Bowman from Warner and Beers History of Brant County 1883. They are being posted as Bill completes them. A big thank you to Bill for his hard work!

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Town of Paris - The European Paris- as its Latin name, Lutetia Parisiorum, imports- was named from mud: the Canadian Paris was named from gypsum. The original name of the village, which is now one of the most flourishing as well as picturesque towns in Canada, was "The Forks of the Grand River," a cumbrous heading to a letter, as Mr. Hiram Capron observed. He called a public meeting, and proposed that as so much plaster of Paris was found in their neighbourhood, they should adopt the somewhat ambitious but characteristic and suitable name of Paris. And, with consent of the proper authorities, this was done, and "King" Capron, as this gentleman was humorously styled, thus became godfather of the town as well as father of the settlement. The proverb about a prophet being without honour in his own country applies to the country as well as the prophet. One's own country is generally without honour, as far as its natural beauty is concerned, with our own people. Few were able to find out (until a Scotch nobleman who happened to visit the town informed them of the fact) the great natural beauties of Paris. Even in winter, when everything is subdued with a ghastly monochrome of white; when the river is floored with marble and the hills are miniature Alps; when the last red leaf skates on the frozen snow, and the huge icicles hang like so many swords of Damocles from the house roofs; - even then Paris is beautiful. Still more so in the faint early spring, when river and rapids have burst their barrier of ice-stalactites, and the green-grey tides from Nith and Grand River hurry their confluent waters against the opposing ice-fields. But in summer, when the stream of molten snow is blue in its first purity, or topaz-yellow as it hurries over shelving rocks, is the time to climb to the summit of the hill above the Upper Town and look down on the panorama below. Then the Nith, as ambitious in its impetuosity though inferior in majesty to the noble stream it is about to join, sweeps in a semicircle round the Lower Town. Its naiads do not disdain to minister to human industry, and their waters do yeoman service to Mr. Penman's Mills, which are a conspicuous feature of the far distance to the north-west. There lies the town straggling away to the north towards the Great Western Railway Station, and nearer, resolving itself into the three leading streets, which almost converge from the north to the south. Yonder the well-known yellow 'bus is carrying the expectant pleasure-seekers, and the keen and companionable commercial traveller, to that excellent hostelry, the Bradford House.

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The main street, Grand river Street, is gay with stores, glittering and bright coloured, to attract that sex to whom shopping is the best substitute for Paradise. There is the tower of the Congregational Church, the pinnacle of the Methodist temple. Beyond the town rises another hill, but less lofty than that at the southern end, on the top of which is the classic mansion of the late Mr. Hamilton, and the stone homestead, which witnessed the many gaieties and hospitalities of the late Mr. Hiram Capron. We descend the height, and stand on the bridge leading from the Upper Town to the flats beyond. Beneath us sweeps, dark in the shadows, sapphire-clear in the lights, the broad, shallow water of the Grand River. About half a mile to the north-east is the bridge from the Lower Town; between this and the one on which we stand is a row of several large blocks of buildings, the factories which have made Paris what it now is. Beyond the Lower Town bridge is the railway bridge, a much higher one, crossing from side to side of the northern hill. It is raised on massive stone pillars, and the train moves slowly and carefully over it. Still the height is fearful, and as one looks, one is apt to remember how on one occasion, when a freight train was passing, the last car broke loose and plunged over the fenceless verge into the abyss below. Fortunately no one was on board of that car.

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It is noon; whistles scream from the factories and a bell rings from the Town hall. There pours forth from each industrial hive a stream of employees, young men and young women, each stream, however, keeping apart, as those of the Ottawa and St. Lawrence do at their junction.

This town is beautiful from every point. As we walk towards the railway bridge, past the great factory buildings, we see the Upper Town, with the spire of the Church of the Sacred Heart and the stately tower of the Town Hall. Many a neat villa residence nestles among the trees; at the very edge of the steep hill-side is a row of buildings, out of repair, but not unpicturesque; and opposite, the rush and roar of the Nith, swollen with the spring freshets. We pass the bridge leading from the flats to the Lower Town, and are within close view of the railway bridge. It spans a space seven hundred and eighty feet, and the railway track at its summit is ninety feet above the river. It is built on iron and wood-work, on the "Howe truss" principle. There are one hundred and forty feet distance between each of its pillars of massive stone. It was built by Mr. Farrell, from the plans of a Mr. Wallace, of Buffalo. By one of those exceptional escapes which sometimes occur to baffle the common sense of experience, the builder, Mr. Farrell, while walking on the summit, lost his footing and fell ninety feet down into the river, and except for a few days' confinement was unharmed.

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The Grand River, now so harmless as it ripples over its pebbly beach, was very different during the spring freshets of thirty years ago. Then the water was so high that rafts of pine lumber were floated down to the Paris saw-mills. It was customary also to carry down in scows the gypsum from the upper beds to the landing place at the Nith, where it was conveyed by ox-teams to the plaster mill kept by Mr. Hamilton, a little further west. The only bridges then used were of wood, and were not unfrequently carried away. A story illustrating the inconveniences suffered in these days is given in Mr. Young's amusing "Reminiscences." Mr. Walter Capron has told us of a scene he witnessed when, one spring day, a number of people returning to their homes across the river found the bridge swept away; there was no bridge nearer than galt! Mr. Hiram Capron and his family were from home, so that his brother was able to accommodate the whole party for the night in that house so well known for its hospitality. They passed the evening telling stories, the Scotch and Irish farmers by turns attempting to make jokes against each other's nationality. Various were the expedients resorted to for crossing the river; a single plank bridge gave a perilous pathway over the Nith if there was a freshet; at other times there was a ford where is now the bridge to Lower Town. The Grand River was crossed by rope on which a basket was slung, in which the passenger placed himself and was drawn by another rope to the opposite bank, but this method fell in disrepute on account of an accident that took place in the spring of 1837. The waters of the Grand River were more than usually flooded and fierce, as they swept round the bridgeless Lower Town peninsula. A Mr. Torrance, father of a citizen now a resident on Grand River Street, was crossing in the basket as usual to the eastern shore. About midway the basket slipped, and trying in vain to cling to the swaying rope, Mr. Torrance was swept away by the flood. He was never seen again.

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On both sides of the Grand River, especially on the east side about a mile from the town, are almost inexhaustible deposits of gypsum. These are worked at considerable expense and labour, when the bed of gypsum is not, as it sometimes is, near the surface of the soil. The Work is carried on in subterranean galleries, through whose dim arches of clay the miners burrow.

By the river bank are found also bituminous shales, from which may be extracted a fairly good gas for the purpose of lighting street lamps. It were devoutly to be wished that these natural products could be utilized, so that the "streets of Paris" might have some better illumination than that of the oil lamps, few and far between, that now make "darkness visible." Here too are subterranean springs, whose waters derive, from the limestone doubtless through which they flow, the power of petrifying the leaves and mosses which they touch. It is curious to examine these nineteenth century fossils; every fibre of the leaf cells, every delicate filament of moss, accurately traced in stone with a grace no graver's tool could imitate. Paris has, as we have tried to point out, great natural beauty, but it is essentially the beauty of inland scenery; there is nothing wild or majestic; the hills that rise, as if close to it, above the main street of the Lower Town, are just high enough and steep enough to look picturesque; the river no longer a torrent, has the Wordsworthian charm of quiet, as we watch

"These waters, rolling from their mountain-springs, With a soft inland murmur."

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But the whole scene is well put together; town and country, shop and sylvan attractions, are blended; the visitor can hardly fail to recollect Paris as a pretty town, where the rivers rum uphill (as a fact, they do run from the Lower town to the Upper); where the people are so liberal that they become Conservative in their Liberalism; and where the chief inhabitants make their bread off the plaster of Paris.

The central figure in the early history of Paris is that of its founder, foster-father and first Reeve, Hiram Capron. Those few who remember him in the prime of his vigorous manhood recall his erect figure, dark brown hair, keen, observant, yet not unkindly-looking eyes, curt speech and frequent jest. To most of the Paris friends who have given us the advantage of their recollections of Mr. Capron he appears as an old man, still vigorous, with white hair, and compelled by rheumatic contraction of the sinews, which had almost dislocated the head of the femur from its socket, to hobble about by aid of two stout sticks. But in manhood or old age he is remembered by all as keen, shrewd, generous, under a mask of reserve. A favourite form of wit with him was that which the Greeks used to call "unexpected effect." Thus when one of the "squatters" on his land- a class of settlers, be it remarked, to whom few landowners are as lenient as he was- came to ask for a bag of flour on credit, Mr. Capron at first sternly refused; then, just as the dejected applicant was passing through the gate, he was called back and told that his request was granted. Mr. Elias Conklin, now living at paris in his eighty-second year, knew Mr. Capron more intimately and at an earlier period than any survivor of the elder generation. He has told us numerous traits of his beneficence. He was ever ready to help others; in more than one instance, when a settler came to pay him the instalment of purchase money due for his farm, Mr. Capron told him to keep the money and invest it in farm-tools or stock. He was to the settlement what Pope's imaginary philanthropist was to his native town- the Man of Ross translated into the realities of Canadian pioneer life.

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Born at Leicester, Vermont Feb. 12th, 1796, he came of a stock settled in Vermont- industrious, long-headed farmers; strong of hand and limb, and able to turn that strength to account in many ways. In 1822 he left Vermont for Canada, where he joined Mr. Joseph VanNorman in working a mine for manufacturing iron from the "bog-ore" found in the swamps of the mainland opposite Long Point on Lake Erie. It was hard work, in an unhealthy neighbourhood, and probably caused the germs of the rheumatism which crippled him in his latter years. But young Capron made money, and on May 7th, 1828, sold out to VanNorman his share of the Long Point Blast Furnace, and visiting the forks of the grand River in 1829, bought a property of 1,000 acres from Mr. William Holmes. He then began to clear and cultivate his land, which included nearly all the present site of Paris. In 1829 Mr. Capron hired a Mr. Cushman, who among many other avocations was a skilful millwright, to build a mill. this was done speedily, the mill having two run of stones, one for grinding grain, the other for plaster. It stood on the river Nith a little way from the junction of that river with the Grand River. We may remark in passing that the origin of the name Nith is Scotch, its other name, now happily discarded, as the Scotch name saves the vulgarity of "Smith's Creek," is from a settler whose farm was on the Nith, a little north of Paris. Mr. Capron built a flour mill on this stream in 1832. Cushman recommended to Mr. Capron, as a fit person to manage the mill and act as foreman to the labourers hired to do Mr. Capron's work on the estate, a young American named Chas. Conklin, whom he had known at the small village which is now the City of Buffalo.

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Conklin was engaged at what was then considered the very high wages of $16 a month, with board. He had lived for a time in the service of a wealthy English gentleman who lived in Old World style. When young Conklin entered Mr. Capron's house he expected that a man of such large property would dress magnificently, and was speculating whether one of his duties would be to drive his master's carriage to church, when to his surprise he found himself grasped by the hand of a brisk-looking Yankee farmer, and heartily welcomed as "the new boss." Mr. Conklin, like many another temperate man, had a somewhat red face, and Hiram Capron, observed to his wife, "That young man punishes the brandy bottle; but never mind ; I keep no liquor, and we have no tavern here." Bur soon afterwards, when a tavern set up by Mr. VanEvery, and Mr. Capron gave a house-warming, at which much strong drink was consumed, he was astonished to observe that young Conklin did not drink, and would not even smoke a cigar. On inquiry learning that he was a total abstainer, he found how unjust were his first impressions. Mr. Conklin had at the end of 1830, the date of his arrival here, rented the mill from Mr. Capron and built a saw-mill on the Nith, near the site of Mr. Finlayson's tannery. He threw himself into business with great energy and success, digging and grinding gypsum, making bricks, for which, as the settlement rapidly filled in, there was great demand, and sawing the pine logs of goodly size and quality that were floated down the Nith from the lumber-camps in the forests to the north. He was making money, and cleared and built a house on what is now the site of Grand River Street, close to the bridge. In 1833 he married Miss Laurie Adams, whose home was near Buffalo. He had to fetch his bride, along with a heavy load of mill irons, and many other impedimenta, all the way from Buffalo, a distance of twenty-four miles, over the frozen lake and through the woods haunted by painted savages and howling wolves. In truth, in the times of which we are writing, there were many impediments to over-hasty marriages.

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The tyranny of the State Church, which was one of the causes, as we have elsewhere shown, of the revolt of 1837, rigidly enforced a law which ordained that none but Church of England ministers could solemnize a marriage. The marriage monopoly in this part of Canada was held by the Rev. Mr. Luggard, who lived a few miles out of Brantford. Now the law of marriage fees was that a marriage solemnized at the parson's house cost only a dollar, whereas, if he was called on to drive to any distance, the fee was five dollars. Mr. Luggard accordingly was urgent in inculcating on all whom it concerned that the orthodox way to get married was to drive to a hotel in Brantford, where he would meet and unite them, receiving in return the five dollars, supplemented by the "first kiss," which was then one of the "benefits of clergy." But oftentimes the bride was of an economical turn, like the wife of John Gilpin- who

"Though on pleasure she was bent, had yet a frugal mind"

- and insisted on driving to the parsonage. This the reverend gentleman considered to partake of the nature of "shism," or "skism," as the great Bishop Strachan used to pronounce it; in fact, such marriages were immoral, and struck at the root of all true religion. To mark his displeasure, he would only consent to unite such couples in his woodshed, amid surroundings and odours anything but suggestive of sanctity and refinement. These woodshed weddings were held in abomination and the would-be brides of the settlement preferred to drive over the boundary to the States. There the marriage, which of course was perfectly valid here, was solemnized promptly enough. It was only going to the nearest magistrate, who read the formula in ten minutes. One runaway pair- the bride had escaped from a three weeks' lock-up in her room by a stern papa to join her love waiting on the road hard by with his sleigh- went in haste to a magistrate, who was asleep in bed, it being after midnight; as the case seemed urgent, he sent for them to his room, and leaning on his elbow, read the formula that made them man and wife. It is said that soon after they had retired to rest at a hotel, the parent came thundering at the door, which he threatened to break open, and only desisted on a counter threat of force being met with force by his stalwart son-in-law. They were reconciled soon after, and the bridegroom became a most successful Presbyterian minister. After two years of happy married life Mr. Conklin's first wife died, a loss which so depressed him that he left the Forks Settlement and bought a farm of two hundred acres in South Dumfries. While there he married his present wife, Miss Cornelia Hammond, daughter of a well known pioneer settler in Galt, whose name is mentioned in Mr. Young's "Reminiscences" of that town. Late in life he retired to Paris, where, at his pretty cottage on the flats, we have experienced his hospitality, and gathered from his conversation many of those authentic materials for history which become lost when the generation whose survivors alone can supply them has passed away. Mr. Conklin is now eighty-two, his figure still upright and athletic, his dark brown hair only in part turned grey. When Mr. Conklin first came to this settlement there was only one log house in the Lower Town, which stood where now is the blacksmith shop of Mr. Adams, of Grand River Street. There were two log houses in the Upper Town, one that of Mr. Showers the elder, on the site of the Catholic school house; the other on the site of the Upper Town Presbyterian Church.

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Two new buildings were then about to be finished in in the Upper Town. When that part of Paris was being planned Mr. Conklin's American friend, Cushman, shoed his sagacity by predicting that the town of the future would be on the peninsula below. Cushman himself came to this part of Upper Canada, and finally settled in Wilmot. He was however, one of those who attended the fatal circus exhibition at Galt on July 28th, 1834, which first spread the pest of Asiatic cholera. Cushman and all his household died the day after, except one little boy, who brought the terrible news to Paris, whence Mr. Conklin and several others accompanied him to the pest-stricken house, bravely resolved to bury their dead friends.

From 1833 the settlement increased rapidly. In 1830 a shoe store had been started in the Upper Town; in the same year Robert Stewart's waggon shop, and the tannery afterwards bought by Mr. Finlayson, who holds it, much enlarged and improved, at the present day. James barker started a blacksmith shop, H. T. Jackson undertook to make farm implements and T. P. Forsyth was the first Parisian tailor. His widow lives in Paris still; his daughter is a teacher in a public school. Meanwhile the South Dumfries district near Paris was being rapidly settled by the thrifty and industrious race of farmers described in our history of that township, an event which of course aided the development of trade at the "Forks of the Grand River." 1832 brought another blacksmith, Samuel Heath, from the classic regions of Mudge Hollow. An American, one of those pushing, independent , succeed-at-any-price Yankees, named Norman Hamilton, built a distillery just at the rear of where the Windsor Hotel now stands. the whiskey must have been less vitriolified and fusel-oiled than the "poison" of the present day, for it was common for boys on their way to school to walk in, take a tin cup, hold it under the end of the worm pipe, and drink. This, incredible as it seems, rests on what we believe undoubted evidence. The fire-water was sold at 18 cents a gallon, a tariff which reminds one that in the London gin houses of the seventeenth century mentioned by Macaulay in his "History," where there was a standing advertisement inviting the public to "get drunk for a penny or dead-drunk for two pence."

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Mr. Hamilton was an able and amiable man; he carried on business also as a pork dealer, and having made his fortune, gave up business and retired to his handsome mansion on the hill north of the Lower Town. he left a widow and daughter. At the same time Mr. Daniel Totten built on a small and coarse scale the first woollen mill. Mr. Totten's industry and knowledge of finance enabled him to gain a considerable fortune during the years of his life in Paris. Several of his sons now hold high positions. In 1833 Mr. VanEvery opened the first hotel or "tavern" as they were then called. He lived little more than a year after this, and had the unenviable distinction of being the first settler to occupy a lot in the new cemetery. He was brother to Mrs. Forsyth, already referred to. About the same time Mr. Sovereign bought a farm south of the Upper Town; the elder Mr. O'Neail, father of Mr. Thomas O'Neail the Mayor of the current year, began farming with a mall capital of six hundred dollars, and Mr. Daniel settled near the nith, in the present Lower Town; his daughter married Mr. Frazer, of Burford Township, where he lives, in possession of all his faculties, at the age of ninety-eight. His wife is two years his junior. Another old settler at "The Forks" is Mr. More, a Waterloo veteran, still living at the Canadian Waterloo, at the age of a Hundred and two. The patriarchal simplicity of the manners of those days is well seen from the anecdote told us by Mr. Conklin of his having brought back from Buffalo when he went there to fetch home his bride, together with many other purchases, several kegs of oysters, which he sold at Brantford, except one which Mr. Hiram Capron purchased, and at once issued a decree that every man, woman and child should come to his house for an oyster supper. When all had feasted, enough oysters were left to suffice Mr. Capron and several friends for dinner next day. Of those who met at that feast besides Mr. Conklin, only two now survive, Mr. Forsyth and Mr. Walter Capron, both at present resident in Paris.

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The earliest teacher at "The Forks" was a lady from Toronto, who taught at her own house. When, about 1834, Mr. Capron with characteristic liberality built the first school- it was on River Street, in the Upper Town, on the brow of the hill- "everyone," says an old settler, " was as glad as folks nowadays are when they have built their grand collegiate institutes and churches!" About this time Mr. Curtis introduced the first threshing machine. So the settlement of Paris grew as the years went on, and manufacturers were attracted by the natural advantages of the locality. Mr. Hiram Capron's death was generally felt, and the entire community followed his remains to the grave, where he rests beneath a monument such as the founder and benefactor of the town deserves. To him succeeded as influential public men, Mr. Finlayson, Mr. Baird and Mr. Whitlaw. Mr. Finlayson, was for many years in Parliament for the North Riding of Brant. All these gentlemen were successful merchants, and at present represent the more modern phase of industrial development at Paris. At the time of the Franco-Prussian War, Mr. Whitlaw had held back his grain, when suddenly the war concluded, and the high prices of grain collapsed, leaving Mr. Whitlaw in great difficulties. But he went to the Bank and candidly told the true condition of affairs, but was assured that such was the confidence of the Bank in his integrity and skill, that they would give him his own time and whatever assistance was required.

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With these gentlemen may be classed the heads of the great manufacturing firms which have sprung up of late years, among whom may be mentioned Mr. B. Capron, a gentleman who has inherited with his father's money not a little of his genial and generous disposition. In writing this general sketch of the history of Paris, and of the sketches if its commerce, church history, and municipal institutions which follow, we have aimed to the best of our power at originality and accuracy, and have sought among the elder folk who remember the early days of the settlement, as well as the merchants and farm land-owners of the present day, for those many small incidents and reminiscences which might enable us, by careful comparison and collation to form a tolerably complete and just idea of men and events. We are indebted to Mr. Chas. Conklin and Mr. Sovereign, to the venerable patriot, Mr. Tufford, and his wife, the daughter of Dr. Duncombe, both for information and hospitality; also to Mr. Louis Lapierre, a gentleman on the other side in politics, the late Conservative nominee for North Brant; also to Mr. Powell, J.P., to Mr. Finlayson, late M.P., and Mr. T. O'Neail, Mayor of the town; to Mr. Appleby, Messrs. John Kay, Chase, Roberts, Showers, to Dr. Dixon, and the Very Rev. Father Dowling.

In this way scraps of information have been picked up and utilized of the greatest value in writing local history. These if not collected and preserved by historians appointed to the work by the publishers of such a literary enterprise as that of the present History of Brant County, would in the course of ten or at the most twenty years be irrecoverably lost.

We shall now proceed in detail to examine the commercial and municipal history of Paris.

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Paris may justly be styled the Manchester of Ontario. The combination of exceptionally good water-privileges, with ready means of transportation by rail, have caused a number of manufactories to spring up on the flats on the west bank of the Grand River, and where the smaller but equally impetuous current of the Nith borders the northern part of the town. These have become more numerous and more flourishing during the five years of prosperity which the Dominion has enjoyed since 1878. But the town of the tall chimneys has not suffered, but has rather gained in picturesqueness by this industrial invasion. Seen from the northern or southern height, the otherwise unattractive flats on the opposite side of the Grand River become a prominent in what would without them be a somewhat tame feature in the Paris scenery, and a line of huge square many-windowed stone buildings which usually characterizes a manufactory. Standing on the bridge from the Upper town across the Grand River, it is pleasant to watch, as the evening star appears in the first dusk, a fourfold tier of gas-lit windows burst forth from each of these palaces of industry, starring with dancing lights the impetuous stream below. the Old World gave the New World a doubtful gift, fire-water: the more generous New World in return gave the Old an inestimable boon, tobacco. But tobacco, like man, requires education, and cannot attain its highest development in the savage state; it must be manufactured. On yonder hill above the junction of the two rivers, a cloud of white vapour rises from a building on the heights. It is the Paris Tobacco and Cigar Manufactory smoking its pipe of steam. This industry was established in 1865 by two American citizens, who returned home after the war when the present proprietor, Mr. N. P. Benning, who had been in partnership with Mr. Dickson for several years, undertook the business. In last September the new branch of cigar-making was added. Fifteen hands are employed, several of them girls. As we enter we notice a paper on the outer door, "Boys and girls wanted as strippers." This does not refer to any objectionable circus performance, but to a process in the tobacco manufacture presently to be described. We see first the dry tobacco leaf as it arrives in barrels from the Southern States. It is well moistened, and after a few hours taken to the "stripping room," where a rapid movement from a practised hand completely strips the leaf on both sides from the central stem. The leaf is smoothed out across the performer's knee, and then another hand classifies the different leaves according to their colour and weight; the finer qualities have a light gold colour and are of the greatest weight. The outside wrapper is separately prepared, and is moistened with a solution of gum-arabic and sugar. Then a practised hand rolls the pieces of leaf which are to form the internal part of the cigar, wrapping around it the outside envelope. It is then put into a shaping mould and the ends cut even, when after drying it is fit for use. We next visit the rooms where plug tobacco is made; it is imported from North Carolina, and is prepared as is the cigar tobacco, the lighter coloured being chosen for the most expensive brands. the stems from which the cigar tobacco has been stripped are preserved and exported to Germany, where they are made into snuff; those of the plug tobacco go to waste. The cigars and the "Royal Navy Plugs" manufactured at Paris are sent, not only through Ontario, but to British Columbia, to Montreal, to Quebec, to Newfoundland, and to Manitoba.

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We pass along the pleasant Old World street of the Upper Town across the bridge, and crossing by a smaller bridge where a rapid rush of water has been drawn from the main stream for the use of the machinery in the various factories, we enter a spacious and graceful building; it is that of the Paris Woollen Manufacturing Company, and is four stories high, with a central tower. Carts arrive with huge square bales like the travelling boxes of a giantess. These have just arrived from the railway, and contain wool, the finest from English Southdown and Scottish lambs. One of these is attached to a chain dangling from a windlass above the topmost story. Rapidly it ascends and is landed at the window; another and another follows. We enter and are shown first the raw material; it is white and soft, but must undergo purification. It is thoroughly soaked in water, and is then placed in a rapidly revolving vessel, called a hydro-extractor, where the water is extracted by centrifugal force. The Canadian wool is too coarse for the manufacture here carried on, the only wool used from this country as yet being some from Lower Canada. They import the Southdown, the Leicester and Cotswold, a fine lamb's wool from Scotland, and some of excellent quality from the Cape of Good Hope. We next enter a room where a number of steel cylinders revolve one against the other with a rapidity that scarce allows us to see the numerous small pin-like teeth with which each is studded. Between these the wool is combed and carded. To manage these machines requires skilled labour. The machines are called "scribblers." The wool is now ready for the "spinning mules," which we find at work in the next room, combining and twisting the carded wool into threads which are wound around huge wooden spools of the shape of champagne bottles. Nearly all of these were managed most deftly by the young lady employees. Next in order are the knitting machines, which weave or rather net the thread unwoven from the revolving bottle-shaped spools into the fabric used for men's underclothing. This is rolled into bales, which are then cut to the requisite length. Most of this work also carried on by women. Each piece is then carefully scanned for any holes left as sometimes occurs by the knitting machine, and the defective part is mended by hand-work. It is then cut out the requisite pattern and made up. The requisite work is done by a number of sewing machines skillfully plied by young ladies, who are spared the fatigue of working the machine with the foot, motive power being supplied by the steam-engine. A find kind of wool is used for the manufacture of clouds, scarfs and woollen wraps. This coloured of all manner of brilliant shades in the dyeing room, red, purple, light turquoise-blue and topaz-yellow. The task of guiding the weaving machine is one of great responsibility, as it requires no little taste to direct the working of the machine so that a graceful pattern may result. Many of the clouds and scarfs thus manufactured are of great beauty- light, delicate, airy fabrics; they are packed in neat boxes which are made at Berlin. Another branch of this manufacture is that of those warm woollen-sleeved waistcoats which are such useful preservatives against the cold of winter. The machinery used in this establishment was imported from England. It is worked both by the water-power of the river and by a steam-engine of 100 horse-power. The water-power at this western end of "the race" is not always to be depended on, but often it saves the steam-engine to a considerable amount. A company of those interested in these factories has purchased the water-power from the Ker estate; they are seven in number, Mr. Clay being one. This factory has passed through several vicissitudes of ownerships. Mr. Clay has always been a member of the firm. It was started in 1872 under the names of Messrs. Clay & Reith, which partnership was dissolved after two years and a half, when Mr. McCosh took Mr. Reith's place. To this arrangement succeeded the present Paris Manufacturing Company, of which Messrs. Clay and B. Capron are members. There are about a hundred and fifty employees, about half of whom are women. the youngest age allowed for an employee of either sex is fifteen.

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The adjoining factory to the north of this is that of the Canada Land Plaster Company. Here is ground and prepared for agricultural use the gypsum which is found in such abundance of the west bank of the Grand River, and in the mine recently discovered in the hill forming the Upper Town. Gypsum is, in chemical language, sulphate of lime, and must have been formed from the limestone stratum in this locality by some force connected with the geologic changes which the country has evidently undergone at a period anterior to the glacial age. Gypsum is found in two forms, a greyish aggregate of minute crystals, and a brilliantly white, resembling marble. The grey gypsum is the best for the purpose of fertilizing land, and is found at Paris; the white is found at Cayuga, and of a purer quality and in far greater quantities in New Brunswick. The grey gypsum requires to be ground into a minute powder, in order to be of use to the farmer. It is strewn over the field as soon as the blades of the young crop have shown themselves above the ground. Like all manures abounding in lime, gypsum sets beneficially on all vegetable life, increasing the stem and foliage, and attracting moisture to the plant to which its particles adhere. It has no virtue when incorporated with the soil itself, but it greatly increases the fertilizing properties of manure by its power of fixing ammonia. It is therefore of value when sprinkled on dung heaps and in stables. It is especially of use with those crops which consist in part of sulphate of lime, such as clover and peas, and when sprinkled on the leaves attracts moisture and ammonia. By its property of fixing ammonia it also, when sprinkled daily over the stable floor, will do much to save the health of horses, and to prevent lung and throat diseases, besides adding materially to the fertilizing value of the stable manure. This gypsum mill is worked by water-power. It turns out twenty-five thousand tons a year, of which six hundred are bought by the farmers in the neighbourhood. The farmers have found that it pays them to use gypsum, and it is easy to tell at a glance what land has or has not been thus fertilized. The white variety is also used to make the plaster of paris required for casts of statuary, and to a far greater extent, especially in the United States, for the stucco plaster, employed in building. As a fertilizer it is exported all over Ontario, but is not sought after by the more Conservative agriculturists of Quebec. The first mill for manufacturing gypsum was built in 1823 by William Holmes. From him it passed into the hands of Thomas W. Coleman. It is now worked by Messrs. Gill, Allan & Co., of Paris.

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The next factory is a large building with two wings stretching towards the river, occupied by the foundry of David Maxwell & Co., of Paris. Here, amid the whir of innumerable wheels and a cyclopean glow of furnaces, are manufactured some of those elaborate agricultural machines which are the glory of modern farming, and are to the Old World sickle or flail what the Martini-Henry rifle and Gatling gun are to the ancient flint-lock musket. This factory uses both steam and water power, and employs eighty men. It turns out eighteen hundred reaping machines and six hundred "sulky rakes" every year. These are sent to every part of the Dominion, especially of late to Manitoba. A considerable number have of late years been exported to Russia.

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Next in order is the clothing factory of Messrs. Adams, Hackland & Co., a large and handsome edifice very much the counterpart of that of the Paris Manufacturing Company, already described. This business enterprise, established in 1869, in 1874 passed into the hands of the present company. In 1873 their premises were completely destroyed by fire. They turn out $225,000 worth of men's underclothing yearly. The machinery is much the same as that already described at the Paris Manufacturing Company's factory, but the knitting machines here are worthy of special attention. They are of two kinds, the cylindrical and the horizontal. In either case a number of needles with reverted points seize and intertwine the threads, weaving with marvellous speed the material used for underclothing. In cutting this out there are of course a great many waste pieces. But all these are gathered up and sent to be unpicked, and then rewoven in a new fabric which is called "shoddy," and is sold at a cheaper rate. It is as to material quite as good as the more expensive fabric, but as the staple is much shorter, it will not of course last as long. The machinery in this factory was procured partly from Andover, Massachusetts, and partly from Galt. The employees of this company are two hundred, half of them girls. Both here and in the Paris Manufacturing Company's factory, the young women employed are highly spoken of both by the respective firms and by the clergy of all denominations in Paris. Many of them are of highly respectable families and connections, and all gentlemen who have sisters or daughters must rejoice at such avenues to respectable employment being opened to women. Judging from appearances these young ladies enjoy excellent health; their duties are light, requiring more taste and delicacy of touch than of actual work. Both Mr. Clay and Mr. Adams informed us that for certain departments they far prefer female work, which has a quickness and grace not obtained otherwise. This factory has a steam engine of two hundred horse power, but also makes use of the water-power from the "race." Whenever the water power is sufficient to work the machinery, the steam engine, which is of the kind called automatic in its action, suspends work of its own accord.

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We next inspect the button factory of Alexander J. Walter & Co. The buttons are made of two materials, vegetable ivory and mother-of-pearl. In the former case we examine the raw material, a nut about the size of a walnut. This is removed from its shell and sawed into discs by a keen-toothed steam saw. These are sorted, and those of a size are placed together. Then a machine punches out a number of circular discs from each side of the vegetable ivory. These are then placed in a receptacle of a lathe, when they are shaped and polished into the form of buttons. These are then pierced ready for use. Thus it is that man, who, according to the sceptical science of modern times, is but a descendant of the anthropoid ape, buttons the shirt and trousers which constitute his regalia as sovereign of creation with the product of a tree in which his monkey first cousins are still at play. The mother-of-pearl buttons are punched and polished by a similar process from the large mother-of-pearl shell found all over the coasts of East Africa and India. We have often seen enormous shells of this kind, two or three feet in diameter, on the coral beach of unknown and unvisited islands on the Mozambique and Zanzibar coasts. Such shells are rich in mother-of-pearl, several inches thick, and it may yet pay American merchants to import them. This firm was established in 1882 as Somerman & Walter & Co. They employ forty-six persons, thirteen of whom are girls. The latter exhibit great skill and dexterity in the several processes entrusted to them, and their work is of a kind which the firm consider indispensable. The factory sends its products all over Canada, including Nova Scotia and New Brunswick.

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We have now to visit Messrs. brown & Co. Nut Factory. Unlike the nuts of vegetable ivory, these are made out of bar-iron; this, the raw material of the nut, is imported from the Midland Counties of England, when from being in its rough state "pig iron," is converted by the operation of "puddling" into bar iron. Each bar is heated white hot in a furnace; it is then put into a machine which perforates and cuts off each separate nut, just as you would cut off a stalk of rhubarb. Here are made all sorts of nuts in use among machinists and farmers, as many as seventy different kinds and sizes.

Seven men are employed. The nuts when finished are packed in kegs, each keg holding a hundred. four thousand kegs are exported yearly. This factory is worked altogether by water-power, which at this part of the "race" is unfailing all through the year. It equals twenty-five horse-power. The nuts are in demand all over the Province of Ontario and in Manitoba. The present firm began the business in 1873. They have a uniform and still increasing success.

Next to this factory stands the carpenter shop of Messrs. Turnbull & Thompson. Here also the water-power of the "race" is exclusively depended on; doors,sashes and other carpenter work, are made.

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West of the button factory is a small building occupied by an American named Dickson, who carries on a manufactory unique of its kind in Canada, of needles. Here are made not the coarser sewing needles, but the more complex and delicate needles used in the Paris factory's knitting machine. The raw material is a somewhat coarse steel wire. This is then well straightened and polished by machinery worked by water-power. The straightened and polished needle is then pointed by hand upon a revolving cylinder; its point is then deflected to suit the requirements of the knitting machine. This needle factory is the only one in the Dominion of Canada. It gives employment to six men and one girl. Five thousand of these needles are manufactured every day, and are sent all over Canada. The coils of steel wire which form the raw material are imported from England. At the north-eastern part of the town where the Nith winds in a semicircle round the peninsula of the Lower town, are several factories; one a carpet factory, of which Messrs. Cambleford & Company are proprietors. We enter and are courteously invited to inspect the looms at work. The carpets are made of two materials, wool and cotton, of each of these singly or mixed in various proportions. Of course the more wool there is the more durable and expensive will the carpet be. The cotton is procured from Philadelphia. The wool is mostly from Lower Canada, although some wool of a very superior quality is obtained from Hamilton. This industry is a recent one in Paris, having been established in May last. Some of the carpets are of great richness of colour and pattern. There are sixteen employees, four winders and twelve weavers. The latter have to be workers of reliable good taste in order to secure a proper handling of the pattern. The wool and cotton are dyed previous to being wound, at Messrs. Penman's.

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Nearly opposite, and on the east bank of the Nith, is the Penman Manufacturing Company's factory. It is a spacious and stately building, quite unlike the popular ideal of a factory; four stories high, and with lofty, well proportioned apartments. this business was established by John Penman, in 1868. In 1870 the old premises were destroyed by fire; the present building took their place. four hundred persons are employed in this factory, of whom two-thirds are female. This firm manufactures all kinds of men's underclothing- shirts, drawers, jackets- besides socks, gloves, neckties and rubber cloth. They turn out four thousand dozen of shirts and drawers every week. Their specialty is the use of very fine wools. They employ both Canadian and foreign wools; Canadian from Lower Canada or from Hamilton, foreign from England and the Cape of Good Hope. The machines used are similar to those already described in the account given of Mr. Clay's factory, but one special machine is in use at Messrs. Penman's establishment; it is called the "Burson & Nelson" machine and it works automatically turning out a perfectly seamless stocking. Of these machines, which of course are patented there are only two in the States. The patent is the property of Messrs. Burson & Nelson, of Rockford, Illinois. A considerable quantity of rubber lining is also manufactured here. A cheap and serviceable article in warm quilts is also made. Messrs. Penman turn out goods to the estimated value of $200,000 yearly. There are in Paris two crockery factories, the most considerable and best managed of which is known as Henry Schuler's Paris Stoneware Works. This gives employment to five men. It was established in 1873 as a company, consisting of Schuler & MacGled, but Mr. MacGled withdrew from the partnership in the same year; it is now in Mr. Schuler's name only. The raw material of the "little stone jug" so celebrated in Bacchanalian ditties is a argillaceous clay of a light-brown colour, and known to commerce as "stoneware clay." This is found in South Amboy, in the State of New Jersey. There is none of it in Canada, although there is reason to believe that some has been discovered in the North-west.

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The cost of the material, including freight, which is fully half the total sum, is $10 a ton. The clay is well soaked with water for 26 hours, after which it is ground in a mill worked by a single horse; it is then ready for use. The cake of soft ductile clay is then placed upon the revolving disc of a wheel, where it is shaped and fashioned by hand. This is "the potter's wheel," unchanged since the days when the prophet Isaiah used it as an illustration to typify the shaping power in human destiny of the hand of a supreme directing Providence. the jar or jug so made is next exposed to heat until all the moisture is dried out; it then receives an inside coating of glaze. The glaze is a solution of some dark silicious clay, which by application of intense heat becomes a hard, glossy glaze. The glaze solution is applied by means of a force-pump. The next process is to apply some degree of ornamentation. With a few deft touches of a brush dipped in blue pigment a flower is depicted, not without artistic effect, on the body of the jar. The final process is the baking. This done in a kiln made with Scotch fire-bricks, where the jars are baked for from thirty-six to forty hours. Salt is applied to the glaze if it has overflowed to a part which is not desirable to glaze. Of these jars ten thousand are made every year.

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Two of the oldest manufacturing industries in Paris are the flour-mill on Grand River Street, and the tannery owned by Mr. H. Finlayson. The latter stands below the Nith, at the southern part of the Lower Town. It has been established for about forty years. A young man employed as clerk was subsequently admitted as a partner, the firm becoming Finlayson, McVicar & Qua. The extensive grist-mills of Messrs. Crane, Baird & Co., are situated on Grand River Street in the Lower Town. This establishment was founded on a much smaller scale by Mr. Robert Kirkland in 1840. Mr. Kirkland managed it as proprietor until 1844, when Mr. J. B. Kerr succeeded him as manager, a position which he held till 1846. Then Mr. Whitlaw carried on the business till 1878, from which time to the present it has been owned by a firm known as Crane & Baird. They employ sixteen men; the specialty of this mill is that it grinds only the finest wheat, but the firm do a considerable trade also in the coarser grains, such as barley, oats, peas and beans. The motive power is water, the value of which is estimated at eighty-one horse-power. the mill turns out seven thousand barrels of the finest flour weekly. This mill has undergone many changes. When built by Mr. Robert Kirkland in 1840, it was on a scale suited to the humble beginnings of the Paris Settlement as it then was. It had then a capacity of fifty barrels per day. As Paris grew the mill was enlarged to its present size. Such are the manufactures of this busy scene of industry. Others there were which are now extinct. A distillery, conducted for many years by Mr. Hamilton, stood behind what is now the Windsor Hotel on Grand River Street, where a pork-packing business was also carried on; the farmers trading their swine's flesh for liquor. It is to be hoped the liquor did not make swine of them. A large oil-cloth factory also stood at the foot of the Upper Town hill, near the bridge to the Lower Town flats. The good Town of Paris has had a loss in the oil-cloth factory being closed; whether the fire-water works being non-existent is a benefit or a loss is an open question.

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The catholic Church was the pioneer church of Paris, and can boast of an edifice which fr surpasses all the ecclesiastical buildings, and is in truth the architectural glory of this part of town. It is located on the corner of Washington and Main Streets, and was first used for Divine service in 1857. The clergyman is the Very Rev. T. J. Dowling, Vicar-General, and at present Administrator of the Diocese, an able preacher, a pastor of kind heart and sound common sense, beloved by his own flock, and it may truly be added, by all of every denomination in Paris. The Very rev. Father is a traveller, having visited Rome in the last year of Pope Pio Nono. The church is a fine specimen of decorated Gothic; the tower is lofty, with a very beautiful spire, surmounted by a cross of gold. The building is constructed of a very rich field stone, to which time is likely to add fresh beauty and depth of colour. The coping and caps for buttresses are of the best cut stone from Ohio. The interior of this church is very striking. The spirit of true Gothic art is carried out in the minutest detail; everything is real; there are no trashy ornaments, no painted woodwork pretending to be stone. On each side are transepts separated from the body of the nave by five massive pillars of cut stone surmounted by arches, which give the effect of distance to this beautifully proportional church and sanctuary. The roof of the nave is of open work, on each side; the light falls through the stained glass of the cler-story windows.

"Dim and deep,
While round the awful arches sweep
Such airs as soothe a hermit's sleep."

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The church is heated by hot air furnaces in the basement, and is at present lighted by oil lamps. the nave and transepts are seated with oakwood; the windows, all of stained glass, are for the most part gifts. The mullions and tracings, which are modified, are chastened examples of the decorative style, and all of cut stone. The tower of this church is fifteen feet square, and the spire a hundred and ten feet high. The nave is ninety feet by forty-five, the chancel and sanctuary twenty-four feet by twenty, and beyond this, communicating with the priest's house; is a vestry eighteen feet by fifteen. The roof is of slate. The altar is on festival occasions decorated with handsome gilt candlesticks. It is surmounted with an elaborately-carved Gothic reredos, containing in the centre a tabernacle or pyx for the Holy Sacrament, before with the perpetual lamp is burning; also above this a gilt crucifix of singular beauty, and four niches containing figures of the four Evangelists, each with the appropriate symbol- the sacrificial ox of St. Luke, the Human Figure which marks the Evangelist of the incarnation, the Lion of St. Mark, the Eagle of St. John. At the north or "Gospel" side is an oil painting, the work of a French artist, representing the baptism of Our Saviour. There are two side chapels; that to the south, of St. Joseph, that to the north of the Blessed Virgin, whose image represents a face and figure of ideal purity and benignity. The transept walls are decorated with a cheap but not inartistic series of pictures of the Stations of the Cross. The baptismal font is of white marble, carved in imitation of an ancient font at Oxford. The entire cost of the building was $20,000, mainly raised by the energy of Father Dowling. It was dedicated to the Sacred Heart of the Redeemer, in February, 1881, by Bishop Crinnon, who then appointed Father Dowling to be Vicar-General of the Diocese.

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The first church in Paris, as has been said, was a Catholic one; it is still standing, a tiny frame building with quaint round windows. Having never been consecrated, it was used afterwards as a school, and is now a dwelling house. Close by, and in a central and prominent position on the Upper Town, stands the English Church, dedicated to St. James. It is built in the cobble-stone masonwork peculiar to this district. These cobble-stones, rounded by extinct water-courses, are heaped in great hill-like banks on the west side of the Grand River. They are laid in the mortar lengthways, the ends pointing outwards, and though more expensive than ordinary stonework, form a wall which is both strong and picturesque. This church, at least the nave or main part of it was built in 1841. The roof is flat, the windows are of a kind designated by architectural expert's "Carpenter's Gothic," and the west end is surmounted by one of those nondescript belfries, terminated by a tin-covered spirelet so often seen in country churches in Canada, and whose real origin is in the renaissance style imported into Lower Canada by the French in the eighteenth century. The seats of oakwood, accommodate about two hundred. There are several windows bordered with stained glass- one in memory of "Elizabeth B. Rickart, who died February the eighth, 1868; age, 27 years 8 months, 24 days;" another in memory of the members of the family of Mr. Zimmerman, the well-known railway contractor, who died in a railway accident some years ago. On the south-east wall are two tablets- one marble, the other a well executed memorial brass to the memory of the first and of the second wife of the Rev. Adam Townley, D. D., some time rector of this church.

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In 1865, at a cost of about $1,000, a chancel, was added through the exertions of Dr. Townley, and by the beneficence of Mrs. Dickson, of Paris. the chancel presents a marked contrast to the rest of the church, being a genuine Gothic of the "early English," or "first pointed' style. The roof is of open work, of dark-stained timber. The east window is a triplet, each light bordered with stained glass, of which also there are four vesica-shaped medallions bearing the four Evangelistic symbols, and in the centre an Agnus Dei supporting a banner with the cross, "displayed.:

The first clergyman of the English Church at Paris was the Rev. Mr. Morse, an able speaker and a good classical scholar, who was also the first to introduce at a private school in his house something more than the most elementary form of primary education. Mr. Louis Lapierre was for two years his pupil. To him succeeded the Rev. Mr. Ruttan, then during the absence of Dr. Townley in England, the Rev. Mr. Cooper. Dr. Townley then resumed work, which he continued with much zeal and acceptance as long as failing long as failing health permitted. The Rev. Mr. Carswell succeeded him, and is now the deservedly popular Rector of St. James Church.

The main body of this church was built in the time of Rev. Mr. Morse. The Church, as has been said, is that of Dr. Townley. Much good feeling seems to prevail, and there is a marked absence of the "high" or "low" faction fighting, which elsewhere in Canada has been attended with such mischievous consequences to this branch of the Christian Church. The present Churchwardens are Messrs. Byall and Clarke. In the basement a well attended Sunday school is held, numbering 100 pupils. All through the year a week-day evening service is held on Wednesday, and in Lent on Wednesday and Friday. This parish has hitherto been joined to that of Princeton, but a movement is on foot, which will probably be successful, to separate them and constitute Paris into a separate rectory. This can be accomplished if the congregation agree to raise the yearly sum of $1,000 for the rector's salary.

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the Methodist denomination possesses one of the finest churches in the Lower town of Paris. It is built in a style which may be described as a free modernization of the first pointed Gothic. The windows are tall. lancet-shaped, light, bordered with stained glass; the seats arranged amphitheatre wise, and a chancel-like recess receives the organ and choir. Previous to this edifice being built, there existed an old wooden church built as far back as 1849. This was burned down some years afterward, and the present structure was erected in 1875, at a cost of $24,000 to the not very large membership of 268. The present pastor is Mr. Wynkman, D. D., formerly principal of the Collegiate Institute at Dundas. He was preceded by the Rev. Mr. Russ, M. A., the Rev. W. McDonough, and the rev. J. Philp. Over the chancel arch is a handsome scroll with an emblazonment of the text, "o worship the lord in the beauty of holiness." There is a flourishing Sunday school under Mr. W. C. Adams as Superintendent, with two hundred and thirty pupils, of whom one hundred and twenty are girls. The singing in this church is exceptionally good and hearty.

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The Congregationalist body were in possession of a church in 1840. It is an unpretending wooden structure, built with wooden pediment and pillars after the Grecian Doric order. But it has long proved too small for the requirements of the congregation, and a handsome new church has been erected lately at a cost of $13,000; it is in the renaissance Gothic style so popular in Canada. The windows are stained glass, and there is a beautiful "rose" or "St. Catherine's wheel " window at the western end, where also is a gallery for the choir and organ, the gift of the late Mr. Hamilton, of Paris, who was a leading member and most generous supporter of this church. The seats and the woodwork of the roof are of oak. The pulpit at the east end is in a small chancel-like recess. This church also has a well attended Sunday school, with ninety pupils, about two-thirds of whom are girls. The present Superintendent is Mr. C. Whitlaw. The Pastor is the Rev. Mr. Hughes, an earnest and eloquent preacher, well appreciated by his congregation. His predecessors were the Revs. Messrs. Allworth, Ebbs and Vincent.

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The River Street Presbyterian Church is a small and by no means imposing structure on River Street; the Pastor is the Rev. Mr. Grant; the members number one hundred and eighty. The Baptist Church stands on the brow of the hill overlooking the River Nith, where it joins the Grand River. It is a plain, unornamented building, but the congregation contemplate building a new and more handsome church in the Lower Town. There is a good Sunday school of some eighty children. In the Upper Town there is another Presbyterian Church, to which a considerable addition has been lately made, but which is even yet insufficient for the needs of its large congregation of four hundred; so that the members talk of a new church, and the vexed question is being agitated whether if built, it shall be located in the Lower or in the Upper Town. The present Pastor is the Rev. D.D. MacLeod, whose eloquence and zeal do credit to a name illustrious in the annuals of modern Presbyterianism. Among his predecessors in the Paris church were the Reverends Thomas McCosh, David Brown, F. W. Farrier, now Pastor of Knox Church at Ottawa, and Dr. James, now of Hamilton. There is a large Sunday school attached to this church, with a hundred and thirty pupils.

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Besides these churches, all in flourishing condition there were two others, a Methodist (Primitive) and a Dutch Methodist, which have succumbed to time.

Education was early cared for in Paris, although the primitive school was as rude as the primitive dwellings. Now Paris possesses as fine a high school as there is in Ontario, and three primary schools, one of which is carried on as a union school in the High School. There is also a separate school managed by the Sisters of St. Joseph.

The High School building is situated at the highest point of the precipitous hill which overlooks the River Nith and the Lower Town. It is a handsome structure, and a prominent feature in a most picturesque landscape; its lofty tower is a landmark visible from far. Thither may be seen, ascending a steep pathway which winds up the hill, the boy and girl pilgrims to this shrine of learning. The young people seem to enjoy a journey which would make some people dizzy to look at! There could hardly be a prettier or healthier position for a school, and a healthier and more intelligent gathering of boys and girls it would be hard to find. The building is of Italian renaissance style, simply and severely treated; it consists of two sidewings, and a central main tower sixty feet high. There are six class-rooms, and ample accommodation for five hundred pupils. It is built of white brick, the class-rooms and halls are lofty, clean, and well ventilated. The Principal is Mr. J. W. Acres, B.A., of Trinity College, Toronto, who holds the difficult-to-obtain diploma of a Licentiate of the Royal College of Preceptors, London, England. The Mathematical Master is Mr. G. H. Armstrong; the other teachers are Mr. F. Dodge, Miss Annie Capron, and Miss Bullock. The pupils number one hundred and fifty-two. We observed that the school furniture was of walnut, and that the school was in thorough working order, and was supplied with every requisite educational apparatus od maps and scientific instruments.

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This High School building, from its location, serves as the occasion of much merriment to local punsters, giving rise to jests in which, as the Vicar of Wakefield has it, " there is more laughter than wit." the school house was built in 1857, and cost $14,000. The separate school was kept up by the good Sisters of St. Joseph in the old Catholic Chapel long before the present goodly building was erected for their accommodation. It stands on the corner of Dumfries and Dundas Streets, and is a solid well built house of bluish grey stone. It is presided over by Mother Philippa, Sister Scholastica, and Sister Ambrosiana. Special attention is given to music. We heard some secular songs as well as hymns very charmingly sung. The pupils number one hundred, including one Protestant child. The public school of the Lower Town is situated on a hill at the northern end of Grand River Street. It is a handsome and commodious building; its high location ensures good drainage. The teachers are in order of their seniority, Miss H. Spencer, Miss E. M. Spencer, and Miss Barclay. The pupils are one hundred and ninety-nine, of which eighty-six are in Miss Spencer's room, forty-nine with Miss E. M. Spencer, and sixty-four with Miss Barclay. They are without exception very young children. We attended the exercises in all their class-rooms, and were much pleased with the distinct recitation and ready answering of these little people. The public school in the Upper Town is situated beyond the Catholic Church, in a small, one story building. The teachers are Miss Forsyth and Miss Hellyer. The number of pupils is a hundred and twenty-nine. They are reading the Second Book, and seemed well and carefully looked after. The school accommodation is here insufficient for the number of children when reciting in a class.

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The oldest representative of the Fourth Estate in Paris is the Star, which made its first appearance in 1849, edited by Mr. B. C. Hearle. No record was kept of its course for the first two or three years. About 1852 it passed into the hands of Benjamin Harold, now commercial editor of the Buffalo Commercial Advertiser. This gentleman was succeeded by Mr. Johnson, now assistant librarian at the Parliament Library in Ottawa. In 1855 it passed into the hands of Messrs. Oliver and Powell. In 1859 Mr. Oliver ceased to be connected with the Star, and Mr. Powell, its present able editor, became sole proprietor. The Star was for the first years of its existence on the Liberal side; it is now regarded as Conservative. This gentleman Mr. W. G. Powell, has been in connection with the Star since 1854. He is a Justice of the Peace for the County of Brant, and has occupied that position for over twenty years. He is also an issuer of Marriage Licenses, and has established a land agency in connection with his business. His residence is on Queen Street, his office in Watt's Block, Grand River Street.

The office of the Brant Review is a few doors east of the Post Office. The Review was established in 1879 by Messrs. Campbell & Baker; in 1880 it passed into the hands of Mr. A. A. Allworth. It is a bright and well edited journal, and has the reputation of being one of the best among the newspapers of the County of Brant. Its politics may be described as Independent Conservative. the Reform Party is represented most ably by the Transcript, which is published on Grand River Street, nearly opposite the office of the Star. The Transcript was first published in the Village of Ayr, in 1860; it was thence removed to Princeton, and afterwards to Paris. Mr. James Somerville, M. P. for North Brant, was one of its first directors. On January the 1st, 1882, it came under the editorship of Mr. J. D. King, a vigorous journalist, a popular citizen, and a zealous member of the Baptist Church in Paris.

The Transcript is issued weekly. Considered as a medium of local news, its management is entitled to every praise. This journal has nine columns to the page, each column being twenty-five inches long. It is published every Friday.

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The Sons of Temperance have been organized for twelve years in Paris, and have done much to spread a healthy temperance sentiment among the young men of that town. Of their present organization the Worthy Patriarch is Mr. Charles Chises; the Secretary is Mr. George Brown, and the Treasurer is Mr. Richards. The members of the Order in Paris number twenty. A Lodge of the society of Good Templars was organized in 1860; its membership at present numbers a hundred. The chief officers of this organization in Paris are: District Deputy, Mr. Robert Armstrong; Worthy Chief, Alexander Kirkpatrick; and Treasurer, J. A. Howell. There has long been a lodge of the historic Order of Ancient Free and Accepted Masons at Paris. It is styled St. John's Lodge, No. 82. The Master is Mr. J. W. Trennaman; the Senior Warden, Capt. Cox, late commanding the No. 1 (Paris) Company of the County Brant Dufferin Rifles; the Junior Warden is Mr. W. Tennant; Secretary, Mr. R. W. Baker; the Senior Deacon, Mr. D. Shepherd; the Junior Deacon, Mr. A. A. Allworth; the Treasurer, Mr. A. Campbell; the Chaplain, Mr. A. Nash; the Tyler, Mr. R. Small. The Oddfellows have a lodge at Paris known as No. 91, established in 1873. The Noble Grand is Mr. John Finlayson, of Grand River Street; the Vice-Grand is Mr. Robert Armstrong; the Treasurer is Mr. John Kay; and the Secretary is Mr. Wm. Frazer. The members number one hundred.

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There was also an Orange Lodge which continued for some years after its foundation, but has now been transferred. Among the Catholics of Paris there is the "Catholic Benevolent Society," of which Mr. O'Neail, the present Mayor, is President, and Mr. John Shepherd, Corresponding Secretary. A "Workingmen's Benefit Society" also exists; it is not a political or trades union organization, but a benefit society pure and simple.

A Court of the Ancient Order of Foresters was instituted in the town on Thursday evening, Jan. 4th, 1883. A large number of delegates were present from Brantford, Hamilton, Ingersoll, Woodstock, Toronto, Dundas and elsewhere. The new court is to be known as Court Harmony No. 6857, and starts under most favourable auspices, candidates to the number of over 40 having offered themselves for membership. When everything was in readiness the court was opened by Bro. Walter Mills, D.C.R., No. 2 Ingersoll, assisted by J. B. Buckingham, H.C.R., Hamilton; T. Priestland, H.C.S., Hamilton; Charles Lanning, P.H.C.S., Toronto, and members from Court Endeavour, Brantford. the whole of the interesting ceremony and unwritten work was fully demonstrated to the new court by the District Chief Ranger, after which the election of officers was proceeded with, and resulted as follows: Henry Almen, C.R.; Charles Newell, S.C.R.; Jonas Cannister, Treasurer; Terris Mans, Secretary; Donald Sinclair, S.W.; Henry Spearing, J.W.; Thomas Aver, S.B.; Harry Allen, J.B.; Dr. Sinclair, Surgeon. Immediately after the installation of the officers brief addresses were made by P.H.C.S., Lanning, Toronto; Dr. Bowers, Ingersoll; Bros. F. Chaplin, P.D.C.R.; Bonnett, P.C.R.; MITCHELL, C.R., and Court Secretary Izzard, of Woodstock; also by members of Court Endeavour, Brantford.

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A "Band of Hope," for the purpose of enlisting children in the temperance movement , was founded at Paris in May 1882. The President is Mr. G. V. Brown, the Secretary Miss H. Mercer; it is affiliated to the Paris Sons of Temperance. The membership is one hundred; they meet every Tuesday evening at the Band of Hope Hall, on Grand River Street, over Mr. Robertson's store. Among the young people of the Methodist Church there has been organized a "Literary Society for Young People," of which Mrs. Ferris is President, Mr. Dodge, Secretary-Treasurer. The meetings are held weekly.

There are three well organized fire companies at Paris, one at the Village of Paris Station, of which Mr. James Chaffer is Captain; and in the Town of Paris there are the Hose Company, of which Mr. Joseph Ions is Captain; and the Hook and Ladder Company, of which the Captain is Mr. McClung.

The citizens of Paris have for some time been supplied with water from wells oe springs which abound on all sides of the town, several of them being medicinal and highly charged with alkaline deposits, both phosphates and carbonates. But of late, when a movement was made in the town Council to provide a fire engine, it was urged that instead of expending some six hundred dollars on a fire engine, it would turn out cheaper in the end to get a regular water-supply from one of the springs and lakelets on the higher ground, so that the hose could at any time be turned on in case of fire. It was estimated that this would cost thirty thousand dollars. The adoption of the water-works plan was especially urged by Mr. C. H. Roberts, druggist, through whose efforts it was at last adopted by Council, and the work of constructing a reservoir, and conveying the water from the spring to the reservoir and thence to the town, was given out on a contract to Mr. I. I. Blackmore, of St. Thomas, who undertook to finish it by May, 1883. The spring from which the water is to be drawn is a romantic lake-fount in the depth of the woods, among wildflowers and ferns, and on analysis the water has been pronounced to be perfectly pure. The new reservoir is now under process of construction at the head of Main Street in the Upper Town, and on Mr. Sovereign's farm. The water-supply will be controlled altogether by the law of gravitation as there will be a fall of a hundred and eighty-five feet from the Main Street reservoir to the Lower Town; of a hundred and fifty feet to the Upper Town; and of seventy-five feet to the Paris Station.

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The Paris Volunteer Company, No. 1 of the Dufferin Rifles, has lately been transferred to Brantford. This is to be regretted as the company, which consisted of fifty men, was a fine one and a credit to the town. the officers were Captain Cox and Lieut. Frank Howell.

For athletic amusements Paris is well provided. It has a cricket club, a curling club, which has fully forty members; and there are no less than five lacrosse clubs. Of the curling club the president is Mr. James Hackland; Mr. James Brookbank is Vice-President; the "Skips" are Mr. M. Cavan, and Messrs. Torrance, Brookbank and Brown. The senior lacrosse club has for Captain Mr. John Sinclair; for President Mr. N. P. Venning; for Vice-President, Mr. John Brookbank; for Secretary-Treasurer, Mr. Duncan. There are sixty members. The game is played in a field in the Upper town. The other lacrosse clubs are the High School Club, the Maple Leaf, the Acme, the Oak Leaf, and the Clarkswell Club.

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Paris possesses an admirably managed Mechanic's Institute, organized in 1841. The President for the present year (1883) is Charles L. Newell; the Vice-President, Mr. Frank Inksater; the Secretary-Treasurer is Mr. John Kay; the Librarian, Mr. Samuel R. Reynett. There are two hundred and sixty members, and a good library of over four thousand books, well chosen, new, and kept in good order. The authorities of the Mechanic's Institute have extended the literary hospitality of their reading-room to all strangers visiting Paris, a valuable boon, the reading-room being a most comfortable one, and well furnished with newspapers and magazines. The Librarian, Mr. Reynett, is most intelligent and obliging. To this reading-room it is quite customary for the young ladies of Paris to drop in and rest while looking over the illustrated papers and serials; they seem quite at home, and in winter this cozy and warm reading-room is a pleasant break in the long walk from the High School. On great public occasions Paris is supplied with music by the local brass band, which was organized in 1874, and is at present presided over by Mr. Emerson. Besides the societies already mentioned Paris a few years ago possessed a flourishing Young Men's Christian Association, which is however, suspended. Not long ago this branch of that excellent institution possessed a full roll of members, and was in favour with all good people in Paris. But a dispute arose between the members and the honorary members on this wise. It was the rule that the "members" could only be those who were also members of some church in Paris; the honorary members were exempt from the necessity of being also church members. But it was found that the members ruled everything in the association, the honorary members being of no account. The latter objected to this, and to the compulsory rule of joining some special church in order to qualify for membership. The difficulty arising from this continued to increase, and resulted in the break up of an institution calculated to do much good to its members, could they but have lived together in unity. There is a moral in such a story, for which reason it is here recorded. For it is to be hoped that a Young Men's Christian Association, or something on the same principle, will at no distant date be revived in Paris, and that those who found it will see the wisdom of adopting less stringent rules of membership.

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As has been mentioned the Paris Volunteer Company, under Captain Baird, was one of the best drilled in the county. They had their thirty-one days drill at home in Paris of an evening, and thus got well versed in both company and battalion drill. But red-tapism grew strong in the Dominion Government's Militia Department, and the evening drill was ordered to be exchanged for camp drill. then the Ottawa Government cut down the volunteer's pay, and showed, by their treatment of Colonel Patullo, that the road to promotion was closed against the best soldiership and the longest service, if the officer whose promotion his comrades petitioned for happened to be a political opponent. So the best men in the company resigned, and its headquarters were removed to the county town. But the volunteers who served in No. 1 Company are ready to rally to the old flag if ever active service is required. For much information on these and other topics we are indebted among others to Mr. John Kay, of Paris, Agent of the Confederation Life Association, and issuer of Marriage Licenses. He was Colour-Sergeant of No. 1 Company Dufferin Rifles when in camp at Niagara the year of the Fenian raid. Mr. Kay is also Secretary-Treasurer to the Paris Mechanic's Institute, in the advancement of which he has taken an active interest. He is a member of the Board of Education, and Treasurer of the Paris Lodge of Oddfellows. Issuers of marriage licenses seem to be privileged to see some of the most comic aspects of the tender passion. A young man, who looked doleful as if he had seen a ghost, waited on the issuer of marriage licenses, accompanied by a very pretty and evidently refined young lady. there seemed something suspicious about the young man's appearance, and besides, why, living at Brantford, did they come to Paris to get married? He was asked the usual questions prescribed by law; it was demanded of him whether the bride had her parent's consent? He hesitated, and said, "What right have you to ask me that question?" He was told that the law so directed. "Oh sir!" said the young lady with many a blush, " I have got the consent of my mamma." It seemed she was the daughter of a rich citizen and alderman of Brantford, who opposed his daughter's wedding the man of her choice simply because he was a mechanic; her mother approved of the match, and undertook to bring the old gentleman round. The license issuer could not resist; Mamma was made to do duty for both parents; and the young couple having obtained their license, quickly found a parson who did not trouble them with indiscreet questions, and were made one. Papa did relent, and the bridegroom is now a prosperous citizen, with daughters who, it is to be hoped, will honour father as well as mother.

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Though in general a healthy locality, Paris had need early of the services of the practionersof the healing art. In 1834 Dr. McCosh arrived as the pioneer physician. he was a bluff, plain spoken, kind-hearted specimen of the old time Scottish doctor, and his practice extended to a radius of many miles in the adjacent townships. Soon afterwards, arrived Dr. Cook and Dr. Dickson, both gentlemen still in practice at Paris. Dr. Dickson, it will be remembered, is a son to the lady whose benefactions gave so much help to the English Church at Paris. The other members of the medical profession in Paris at present are Drs. Burt, Clarke and Sinclair; the last named is also President of the Liberal Association, and is considered an able speaker.

As has been said, Paris is- as there is hygenic reason to expect it should be- a healthy place, the malignant zymotic diseaseshaving no record there; there is, however, a certain amount of malarial fever and rheumatism; the former caused by the existence of an undrained swamp, to the north of the town, near the railway station. The local faculty prescribe the new alkaloid prepared from cinchona bark, called cinchonadine, with much success. During the dreadful visitation of the cholera in 1834, there were in Paris twenty-eight cases of true Asiatic cholera, of which but one recovered. We have learned through the courtesy of Dr. Dickson.

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There are now two legal firms practising in Paris. The longest established is that of Mr. John McMillan, who has been in practice at Paris for about ten years; Mr. Charles M. Foley arrived here a year ago. Both gentlemen are doing a good business, and are highly respected for ability in their profession. But the good folk of Paris are not litigious, and the aid of a lawyer is most generally sought for the peaceful purposes of transferring property, making wills, and securing contracts. Literature, as we have seen, is well represented in the three newspapers of Paris; besides those, the Rev. Dr. Townley's contributions to periodical literature during the last twenty years have made his name well known throughout Upper Canada.

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Nor has art been unknown to this town. Poor Tom Rhodes, and artist of the Bohemian type, wandered hither. When he could get no sale for a picture Tom was not above painting signs, and even in this, the lowest branch of the pictorial profession his deft hand and skilful colouring gave a dash and finish to his works, several of which still swing in the wind over hotels and stores in the Upper Town. Tom was " a fellow of infinite humour;" could turn a tune and cap a joke with the best. Everybody in Paris liked him; but alas, he chiefly sought those friendships which begin and end with the whiskey jar. His ready skill in portrait-painting was remarkable; some of his pictures are still preserved in the town. Constant handling of pigments containing lead, joined with his intemperate habits, brought on paralysis. He sleeps in the Town Cemetery, leaving happily no near relative to mourn over his fate.

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Paris was organized as a village in 1850. Its growth was so rapid at that time that it was incorporated as a town in 1855. Mr. Finlayson was chosen to be the first Mayor. The Mayor for 1883 is Mr. Thomas O'Neail, grain merchant and miller; Mr. Robt. Thomson is Reeve, and Mr. J. H. Hackland is Deputy Reeve. The North Ward is represented in the Council by Messrs. A. H. Baird, Peter Adams and Joseph Schaeffer; King's Ward by Messrs. Henry Schaeffer, J. H. Ahrens and F. D. Mitchell; Queen's Ward by H. Finlayson and Charles Arnold, there being a vacancy in this Ward at present; South Ward by Messrs. John Baker, W. C. Jones and John Arnold. The Paris Custom House is under direction of Thomas Hill. Mr. James Randall is Special Constable. As Paris is an exceptionally orderly and law-abiding, his active services are seldom called for. The Paris Post Office is presided over by Mr. Stanton assisted by Mr. O. Hitchcox. There is a small branch office at Paris Station Village. The Agency of the Grand Trunk and Great Western Railways, now amalgamated, is held by Mr. W. Hume. There is an Express Company, that of Messrs. B. Travers & Tennant.

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The Paris money interests are looked after by a branch of the Dominion Bank, of which Mr. Jennings is the Manager; Mr. A. G. Dickson, Accountant; and Mr. Flemming, Clerk. This branch bank was established in 1869. As the principal school is a union one, the Board of education is organized on the same plan. Their names for 1883 are as follows: Dr. Clarke, Chairman; Dr. Burt, Dr. Sinclair, the Rev. Mr. MacLeod, Mr. J. D. King, editor of the Paris Transcript. These gentlemen represent the High School. Those who preside over the public school are Messrs. C. Whitlaw, G. Hoffman, John Kay, Captain A. N. Baird, late of the Paris Company of the Dufferin Rifles, H. Finlayson, J. Walker, John Walker and J. S. Brown. These gentlemen have shown a laudable public spirit in un grudgingly expending the necessary sums for building and other purposes.

The End...



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