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Angus Ban McDonald (Munial)

In Glengarry, where so many carried the same last name (and often the same first name as well), banks, post offices and government departments carried lists of nicknames for identification purposes. Many of these names are still carried by Glengarry families, such as the Angus Ban McDonalds. In 1785 the original Angus Bàn ("Fair-haired") came from Muineil ("the neck of land") in Knoydart, that remote area known as the Rough Bounds of the Western Highlands. His family were known as the Big People, and one of his sons earned the name Big Finnan the Buffalo for his epic wrestling match with a maddened bull buffalo on the Western Prairies in 1824. Another son, known in French as Le Borgne because he was blind in one eye, became a partner in the North West Company and was a friend and supporter of the explorer Sir John Franklin. (More on this later).

From the Newspaper: Highland Paths, Dec. 22, 1997 Glengarry News

Allan and John Sandfield Macdonald were first cousins of other shipmates, Angus Ban Macdonald of Muniall, and Malcolm Macdougall, reports George Sandfield. The mothers of all four had been sisters, it seems.

From the Book: Some of the Sandfields

For her grave is thirty paces from that of Angus Ban a Mhuinneal, the old McDonald, who on the ship McDonald led ashore at Québec, in September 1786, five hundred and forty Highlanders to seek new hills and glens to hide their homes from the relentless pursuit of English policy. [The grave of Isabelle McRae (Belle John)], by Gregory Clark

Highland Paths

Monday, December 29, 1997 - Page 19

More on Gaelic names

We ended the previous column HIGHLAND PATHS with the Angus Bàn McDonalds who came to Glengarry over two centuries ago. Archibald and Isabel MacDonell and their family live on Muineil Farm here on the Summerstown Road in South Glengarry. lsabel is a direct descendant of the Angus Bans and is the sister of Angus Hughie Angus Ranald Rory Angus of St. Raphael’s. In a 1979 book "Inheritance - Ontario’s Century Farms Past and Present’ authors John and Monica Ladell had the privilege of interviewing Archibald’s mother about the barn that had been erected on the farm before she was born: "At eighty-two, Florence MacDonell knows much of the history of the family and the farm. Her notes on the construction of the barn, and on later alterations to it and other outbuildings, record the continuing process of accommodation to new farming methods and machinery. The skeleton of the fifty-by-one hundred-foot barn, she noted, was erected in a single day in 1886, when a crowd of neighbours gathered for a raising bee that had every last rafter in place by nightfall. The timber for the barn had been cut from the bush months before, then laid out in a field, where it was cut to fit by a man nicknamed "Koovish" McDonald, a skilled carpenter although he could neither read nor write". Koovish is the phonetic rendering of the Gaelic ‘cuimheas’ which means "sure of aim - unerring - an adjusted -in other words, the ideal word for a man who could frame a building. Although most of the people of Glengarry in those days spoke Gaelic, few could read or write it. It was not taught in the schools and children were often punished for speaking it, not only here but in Scotland as well. The general attitude was that the language was useless and a deterrent to the learning of English. But not everyone agreed. English may have become the language away from home, but in many families Gaelic was still the mother-tongue for many generations.

The authors of "Inheritance" make one small error when they state that the Angus Ban family "were evicted during the clearances" in 1785. To be more accurate, the notorious Highland Clearances belong more to the 19th century, and, more specifically, to the years after (he War of 1812. After Waterloo, great numbers of men were no longer needed to defend Britain ‘and British interests and landlords in the Highlands were faced with an increasing population and a worsening economy. To hold onto their lands, they had to make a choice between profitable sheep and unprofitable tenants. For the first time in history, land was cleared of people to make room for animals, and the excesses of this sad epoch of Highland history are well documented. By the middle of the 1800s vast areas were emptied of almost all human life, but Glengarry in Canada had been settled long before.

There had always been evictions in the Highlands. In the days of clan feuds, the victors often replaced the vanquished with those of their own clan. If an all-powerful chief decided, for whatever reason, to evict an individual or family from the clan lands, they were evicted. This process, or the fear of it, was certainly accelerated after the defeat of the Jacobite clans at Culloden in 1746, the destruction of the clan system and the vengeance of the government, but it would be a century before wholesale evictions became the norm. Angus Ban of Muineil was probably of the tacksmen class, the clan leaders who held a position just under that of the clan chief, and were identified by the names of their holdings, or tacks, so familiar here in Glengarry - Scottas, Greenfield. Aberchalder, and a dozen more. They were the more educated members of the clan, often schooled in Europe and speaking more than one language. Knowing that the old ways were gone forever in the Highlands, They looked across the sea to new lands and new beginnings before all was lost. And their clansmen and neighbours came with them. They had more choice in their decisions to leave than later emigrants.

These early arrivals in Glengarry seemed to have had a self assurance and confidence that may not have been so apparent in later arrivals, when generations of ill-treatment by the landlords had reduced and degraded the highland people. Many of the Macdonalds, MacLeods, the MacMillans and their kinspeople who first came here still lived in much the same way as they had in the latter half of the 18th century in the Highlands. And the Gaelic language was a basic part of that life.

From the Newspaper: Highland Paths, More on Gaelic names, Glengarry News, December 29, 1997



Alice M. Fairhurst

McRae and McDonald, Matheson and McKenzie - these names came down from my mother's mother's line. Towards the end of their lives, my mother, Elizabeth, and her two sisters would ask what new things I had uncovered about their ancestors. Sadly there had been a break in the chain from Scotland to the Canadian Wilds. Would I be the one who could heal that break?

Why did they leave Scotland? "they would ask." Can you trace them back to the beginning of each Clan? " After 20 years of work, the answer is resoundingly, " yes!

The first to come to Glengarry County, Ontario, Canada were the McDonalds and McRaes. The story of our people is found in The People of Glengarry: High/cinders in Transition, 1745 - 1829 by Marianne McLean. The drivers for this great migration were agrarian transformation, population growth, and the clans marginal, economic and social position. Absentee landlords jettisoned Celtic social values and substituted self interest for the common good. Our people emigrated communally to maintain community ties and to obtain land ownership for their families.

Our McDonalds lived at Muniall, a farm on the estate of Barisdale on the peninsula of Knoydart between Loch Nevis and Loch Hourn, on the west coast of Scotland, opposite the Isle of Skye. Today this rugged country with alpine lands, rising sharply from the sea has been allowed to revert to its natural state under the protection of the John Muir Trust. A stronghold of Clanranald, 960 Highlanders lived in Knoydart in 1764, about 450 in the Barisdale estate. In 1997 there are only 70 residents in the area.

In 1755, the society and agriculture remained essentially traditional and Donald Ban McDonell, the tenant at Muniall, had taught his 11 year old son, Angus Ban, the planting of potatoes, gray oats, and barley and the keeping of the main crop -- black cattle. But change came as the land was surveyed that year by the Commissioners of Annexed Estates. By 1760 the appointed factor, Henry Butter, insisted that the people build stone houses with proper interior divisions. Next, they must build dikes and fences between the farms so cattle could not wander. Crops planted on the small amount of arable land were strictly regulated. Oats could be grown on the same plot only every third year; the other two years must be peas or other green vegetables.

From 1755 - 1771 the number of cattle on the Barisdale Estates had increased by 31% while the number of sheep had increased 64%. Under the leadership of young Angus Ban, Muniall had increased grass and good pasture acreage from 4 to 61 acres; Angus Ban became an influential tenant farmer. The records (in Shillings) for Muniall in 1771 show sale of cattle: 250; Other Sources: no butter, wool, cheese or sheep; Tenant expenses: Meal - 48, Rent -- 133, Servants' Pay -- 100; Loss By Bone Break: 75. As for Servants' Pay, men were paid 33 shillings and women 16. Even though the clansmen were more controlled, many of the improvements did make their life better and more children survived. The push to leave Scotland was not great enough until the rents began to be raised. For instance, the small estate of McDonell of Scotus rented for 56 pounds in 1775 and 385 pounds in by 1795. The increase came from the stocking of sheep in 1785.

In 1782 / 83, there was a failure of the potato and oat crops, resulting in a famine. Than in 1784 Glengarry recovered the forfeited estate of Barisdale. Would this fancy dresser with expensive tastes behave as a true clan chief and care for his people? In November 1775, he sent for the tenants of Barisdale. What he said to them is not known, but it is reported that Glengarry planned to remove the tenants in the northern part of Knoydart and stock the land with sheep. Before he could issue an order of eviction, most of the Peninsula tenants signed an agreement to emigrate. Between 1786 and 1793, more than one third of the population of Knoydart left Scotland for British North America.

The first emigration was led by three men:

Lieutenant Angus Mcdonell of Sandaig, Father Alexander McDonell, a younger son of Scotus, and Angus Ban McDonell of Muniall. These were men of relative substance and the back bone of the community. Sandaig had served in the Revolutionary War in the 71st Regiment and was returned to Scotland on half- pay in 1785. His reports on the new world could be believed; he served as a spokesman for the emigrants. Father Alexander McDonell was the spiritual leader and would care for his flock. If Angus Ban of Muniall, the model tenant, was ready to go, then it was time. Sandaig and Father Alexander went to Greenock to charter the ship. The MacDonald was expected to arrive in Knoydart on May 23; not until June 29th, 1786 did it sail with 530 brave souls from Knoydart and North Morar to the new world. Kin sought out kin. Angus Ban's brother Finnan, uncle John, and cousin Duncan were Loyalists, who fought in the Revolutionary War for the British. They were given land grants in 1 784 to settle the newly surveyed Glengarry County. just west of the French territory, bordering on the St. Lawrence River. Father Alexander also had kinsmen who were loyalist settlers, including his half - nephew. Spanish John. Kin brought kin. Two of Angus Bans first loyalist settlers, including his half-nephew. Spanish John. Kin brought kin. Two of Angus Bans first cousins, Malcolm MacDougall and Allan [Sandfield - EMS] Macdonald came with their families.

Angus Ban brought his son-in-law, Farquhar McRae and Farquhar brought his younger brother, John. (John's grandson, Duncan Mc Rae, married Angus Ban's grand-daughter Mary McDonald to form our family line.)

They arrived in Québec, Canada on August 31st, 1786. The Québec commander-in-chief, General Hope, decided that the new Glengarry settlements were too recently established to support the newest arrivals over the winter so he supplied the emigrants with minimal provisions to help them survive until the 1787 harvest; the sum to be repaid in two installments in October 1788 and 1789. The provisions, women and children were placed in bateaux ( flat bottomed boats ), and the men walked along the north shore of the St. Lawrence River. Some French Canadians gave them cucumbers, green corn, and pumpkins. Those that ate too many of these unfamiliar foods suffered from diarrhea which slowed the trek. They reached Glengarry County in October, 1786.

No longer renters, but new landlords, they swiftly went to work to tame this new land and to imbue it with their Celtic values and traditions.

<This material was submitted to Finlay McDonell by a Clan Donald Glengarry - Stormont Director, Archibald MacDonell. He states that he received it from his cousin George MacDonald who resides in San Marino, California. A copy of this material was placed in the Clan Donald Society Newsletter in California. Thanks Archibald.>  From the Newsletter:, Clan Donald Glengarry - Winter 2000.



Family Group Sheet for Malcolm MacMartin

Malcolm MacMartin


1746 in Killin, Perthshire, Scotland1


16 May 1828 in Martintown, Charlottenburgh, Glengarry, Ontario, Canada2


Abt. 16 May 1828 in St. Andrew`s, Williamstown, Glengarry, Ontario, Canada3


Fonda, New York


1786 ; One of the signatories to an address sent to Sir Guy Carleton, now Lord Dorchester, from New Johnstown (Cornwall) congratulating him on his safe return and the marks of honour conferred on his Lordship.4


Lt. McMartin told me of a Glenlocky woman I remember married to a Captain Thomas Fraser, lived some miles up the river.5


It is said that the MacMartin families were with a party which was purued by hostile Indians and that they were showered with arrows as they embarked in row-boats to cross the St. Lawrence.6


1773 ; Came to America on the Pearl


Came to Canada about the year 1800 and settled at Martintown.7

  Military Service:  

21 Jul 1780 ; Ensn. Malcolm McMARTIN to be Lieut.8

  Military Service:  

Aft. 21 Jul 1780 ; Lieutenant, 2nd Batt. KRRNY9

  Military Service:  

1803 ; Major of the Dundas Militia under Allan Macdonell (Leek)10

  Military Service:  

Captain, 1st Regt. of Glengarry Militia




It must have taken great faith in himself and in the country for Malcolm McMartin to start all those enterprises. Mind you there were no Government incentives, no forgivable loans, no tax exemptions, no Government experts to give advice.12

  Person ID:  



An address dated Dec 2, 1786 was sent to Sir Guy Carleton, now Lord Doprchester, from New Johnstown congratulating him on his safe return & the marks of honour conferred on His Lordship. All with possibly 2 exc KRRNY officers13


Bef. 1783 ; 100 acres had nine acres cleared. under Sir William Johnson. Malcolm had six cows, a heifer, three calves, a yoke of oxen, four horses, fifteen sheep and six hogs, all of which, besides household furniture, farm utensils and grain, the Rebels appropriated.14


1786 ; Received land in Stormont County and likely more in Dundas.


1786 in Part Lot 42, Conc 1, NSRR


1789 ; Property allotted in Charlottenburgh includes Conc 1 North River Raisin, 1/2 of Lot 42, Conc 12 Lot 19 (200 acres) & Lot 5 (200 acres) & Conc 14, Lot 10 (200 acres)15


1789 in E1/2 Lot 42, Conc 1, NSRR, Charlottenburgh Twp, Glengarry, Ontario, Canada


1789 ; Lot 42 on what is now called McGillivray Bridge Road.16


1801 ; The village of Martintown was 1st called MacMartin's Mills after the mills erected here by Lt. Malcolm MacMartin in 1801-1803 on the banks of the aux Raisins River. But there was a settlement called the Raisin River Settlement in the district 19 yrs bef.17



Individual Report for Rev. Roderick Macdonell (Roman Catholic)


Individual Summary:

Roderick Macdonell











John Macdonell



Jane Chisholm






Individual Facts:








1750 in Scotland



Aft. 1773 ; After the suppression of the Jesuits in 1773, St. Regis was visited



occasionally by priests from Montreal until 1785 when Father Roderick



Macdonell arrived.


1782 ; Already at his mission at St. Regis



1784 ; In 1784 there were two Roman Catholic priests in the western



wilderness. One was Father John S. Hubert, at Detroit. The other was



Father Roderick Macdonell, missionary to the Indians of St. Regis, who



visited the settlers in Charlottenburgh Twp in 1785.


1784 ; Replaced church at St. Andrews



Abt. 1784 ; Father Rod Macdonald (Leek) put up the 1st Catholic chapel in



U.C. at St. Andrews


1785 ; For many years after the first settlement was formed, there was no



resident priest. The Revd. Roderick McDonell, who was then stationed at St.



Regis, came occasionally to St. Andrews to conduct the services there.


Bet. 1785–1806 ; Pastor at St. Regis - Rev. J.Roderick McDonnell 1785 -






Nov 1785 ; To St. Regis mission, Glengarry, Canada (Mission of St.



Grances Regis)


1786 ; The Rev. Roderick Macdonell of St. Regis, who was a son of John



Macdonell (Leek), also exercised supervision over the Catholic people at St.



Andrew's, saying mass occasionally and officiating at weddings and


Military Service:



31 Aug 1786 ; Vituling List Twp #2, Rod McDonell, 1 man, ; ration per day 1



time 7 days = 7


1794 ; In 1794, Rev. Fr Roderick MacDonell, a Leek MacDonell, was



appointed Parish Priest at St. Regis. He also took charge of the welfare of



the Rom. Catholics who settled on the banks of the Aux Raisins in Cornwall



Twp. He built a small log church


Aft. 1803 ; There is a letter written by Father Roderick to the



church-wardens of St. Raphaels after the death of Father Alexander Scotus



Macdonell in 1803, which shows that he was parish priest there before going



to St. Andrew's or at least that he acted as curate .


25 Aug 1806 in St. Regis, Cornwall, Ontario, Canada



27 Aug 1806 in St. Regis, Cornwall, Ontario, Canada



01 Apr 1809 ; Rev.Roderick McDonell of St. Regis had lately died intestate.



Neil McLean Esquire asks to be granted Letters of Administration


By virtue of his father being a Loyalist.






14 "Father Roderick Macdonell, Missionary at St . Regis and the Glengarry



Catholics." by Ewan J. Macdonald. Paper read at the Thirteenth Annual



Meeting of the American Catholic Historical Association, Dec. 29th, 1982:



The Catholic Historical Review, Octob


In St. Regis, priest at St. Andrews, St. Regis & Kingston



Father Roderick McDonald (Leek) of St. Regis put up a Catholic meeting



house at St. Andrews about 1784 - the 1st chapel built in U.C.


Joachim Rodrique McDonell



Scots College, Valladodid



Applied to emigrate in 1783, giving as one reason that his parents and



whole family had gone to America. Vide Bp. Alexander Macdonald to Bishop



Hay, 1 Dec 1783, SCA, Blairs



 Individual Facts:

Also Known As:

Roderick Macdonell of Leek



Well known as Maighstair Rory "Mr. Roderick"



Priest & Missionary to the Indians






Historic Plaque at St. Andrews Church in St. Andrew's West, Ontario



Entries are in Gaelic, Indian, French, English. He spoke Spanish fluently



From Rev. Roderick Macdonell to Angus of Sandaig and is addressed to



"Mr. Angus Macdonell, Arch-Syndic of the Parish of St. Raphaels." in the



possession of John Macdonell of Greenfield



The second group of emigrants to settle in Glengarry County left Scotland in 1785. The most prominent individual to leave that year was Roderick Macdonell, a Catholic missionary who had worked among the clansmen of Glengarry from 1775 to 1785. Roderick was the son of John Macdonell of Leek, one of the tacksmen leaders of the 1773; three of Roderick's brothers held commissions in Sir John Johnson's regiment during the Revolutionary War. When his family emigrated in 1773, Roderick was studying for the priesthood in Douai, France, and was unable to accompany them. Upon his return to Scotland, Roderick refused to bind himself to to serve the Scottish mission exclusively and instead took the missionary oath "on the express condition of being able to go to America". His reasons for this condition mirrored the concerns of his flock : "as his parents & whole family had already gone to America," Roderick hoped that within a few years "to follow his numerous connections" there. In a petition addressed to the Secretary of State, Lord Sydney, Macdonell explained his reasons: "That Lands have been lately assigned ... [to the Scotch Loyalists] in the higher part of Canada; but being of Roman Catholic persuasion, they are at a Loss for a clergyman, understanding their Language...That the Memorialist being known and related to many of them, they have communicated Solicitations to him to go abroad & serve them in that capacity.

We are building a pretty snug and decent stone Church at River aux Raisin, (South Lancaster, as we have seen.) he says. It is Mr Roderick [McD.] hobby horse. It is expected to be finished this year. Mr Roderick expects, as well as myself, that you will speak to, and encourage, such as you think proper, to assist in so pious and generous an undertaking by contributing to the completion of it, as I feel confident that prayers shall be put up for the success and prosperity of all who will cheerfully help to carry on so good a work.

From the Book: The Macdonell Family in Canada (Letter from Spanish John to his son John)


Individual Report for The Hon. Donald Alexander Macdonald (Sandfield)

Nancy Macdonald Mother: Alexander Macdonald Father:
Donald Alexander Macdonald

A selection of Individual Facts:
Baptism: 07 Feb 1817 Birth: 07 Feb 1817 in St. Raphaels, Glengarry, Ontario, Canada1

Occupation: 1837 ; He became active in the contracting business early in life. Built the Illinois canal, then the Beauharnois afterwards.2

Occupation: 1841 ; Returning to Upper Canada, he secured a contract in the building of the Beauharnois Canal, begun in 1841. When the Irish canal workers rioted because of poor working conditions, Macdonald, though not at fault, was attacked by the mob.3

Persona: Abt. 1842 ; A young man of 26, Mr. Macdonald brought wih him vigor and determination, coupled with considerable means earned in construction contracts.4 Residence: 1844 in Development in Alexandria remained slow until Donald A. purchased the whole of lot 38 (ALEXANDRIA) He was 26

Residence: 1844 in Garry Fen, now 2 Ottawa St., Alexandria, Glengarry, Ontario.

Property: 1844 ; Development in Alexandria remained slow until Donald A. purchased the whole of lot 38 (Alexandria). He was 26.

Elected: 1850 ; Reeve of Kenyon Twp3 Military Service: 1852 ; As officer commanding the 4th Battalion, Stormont, Dundas & Glengarry5, 6, 7

Source: 1854 ; The True Witness for attacks on the three Sandfields over Donald's row with the Priest John MacLachlan.

Occupation: Bet. 1854–1855 ; When the Grand Trunk Railway was being built through Lancaster (Montréal to Farran's Point in Stormont) the 3 Sandfield Brothers were awarded the stretch from Montréal across Glengarry. They were said to have cleared £60,000 in the contract.3

Occupation: Abt. 1855 ; Montreal Aqueduct8, 9 Elected: 1856 ; Warden of Stormont Dundas & Glengarry County3

Elected: 1857 ; Donald succeeded his brother John as Liberal Member for Glengarry when John elected Member for Cornwall.5, 10

Occupation: 1857 ; In 1857 Donald Ross put up a building on Main St., New Lancaster & another on Main St., at about the same time Donald Sandfield Macdonald built a store on the West side of Main Street, New Lancaster.11 Politics: 1857 ; In 1857 he first appeared in Parliament as M.P.P. for Glengarry and retained his seat until the Union. In 1867 and 1872 he was chosen to represent his county in the Commons, once by acclamation.

Elected: Bet. 1858–1867 ; When John Sandfield's health began to decline, Donald was elected Member for Glengarry (M.L.A. for Glengarry)12

Politics: 1859 ; Acted as Vice-President of the Constutional Reform Convention at Toronto13

Military Service: Bet. 03 Jan 1862–03 Jul 1874 ; Highest Rank, B. Major in 154th

Property: 1865 ; Donated to the parish the land which now forms the original cemetery at St. Finnans

Religion: 1865 ; About the year 1865 the Hon. D. A. Macdonald donated to the parish the land which now forms the new cemetery.

Military Service: 1866 ; During the Fenian raid of 1866, Mr. Mackenzie as captain, along with the late Lt. Governor Macdonald, as major, raised a company of Glengarry men, and marched to the front. -Ottawa Free Press14

Avocations/Interests: 1866 ; Egerton Ryerson recounts in one letter that he visited at the home of D. A. Macdonald, "Garry Fen," in Alexandria, in 1866. Mr. Macdonald, it is remembered, was a strong opponent to separate schools, as was Ryerson.15


1 Duncan (Darby) MacDonald, U.E., F.S.A. Scot, A Genealogical Sketch of The Sandfield MacDonald Family (MacDonald Research Centre, c. 1997). 2 Duncan (Darby) MacDonald, U.E., F.S.A. Scot, A Genealogical Sketch of The Sandfield Macdonald Family (MacDonald Research Centre, c. 1997), When the Irish canal workers rioted because of poor working conditions, Macdonald, though not at fault, was attacked by the mob. To escape death he jumped ?into a canoe and shot the Cedar Rapids, a feat full of peril.?. 3 W. Stewart Wallace, The Dictionary of Canadian Biography (2nd edition, MacMillan Co. of Canada Ltd., Toronto, 1945). 4 Ken McKenna, Highland Paths (Glengarry News, Alexandria, Glengarry, Ontario), January 21, 1998. The Sandfield Macdonalds. 5 Ken McKenna, Highland Paths (Glengarry News, Alexandria, Glengarry, Ontario), Jan 21, 1998. The Sandfield Macdonalds. 6 James K. McDonell & Robert B. Campbell, Lords of the North, 109. In 1852 he was appointed Lt.-Col. of the 4th Batt. 7 Kenneth J. McKenna, Highland Paths, Tales of Glengarry ([Vankleek Hill, Ont, : L. Sproule], c1998 (Ottawa, Tri-Graphic Print.)), Vol 2, pg 149. 8 W. Stewart Wallace, The Dictionary of Canadian Biography (2nd edition, MacMillan Co. of Canada Ltd., Toronto, 1945), In Montreal he took on an aqueduct for the city?s waterworks and by 1855 he had 500 employees working on it. 9 W. Stewart Wallace, The Dictionary of Canadian Biography (2nd edition, MacMillan Co. of Canada Ltd., Toronto, 1945), Peter McGill. Thomas Keefer was active in water transportation engineering in the 1840s, railways in the 1850s, and then, in approximately 1853, was appointed chief engineer of the Montreal Waterworks with the task of constructing a public water supply for the city. 10 W. Stewart Wallace, The Dictionary of Canadian Biography (2nd edition, MacMillan Co. of Canada Ltd., Toronto, 1945), The following year, when John Sandfield decided to run for the assembly in Cornwall, Donald ran successfully as a Reformer in Glengarry. 11 Ewan Ross, Lancaster Township & Village (publ. 1980), 138. 12 Jacob Farrand Pringle, 1816-1901, Lunenburgh, or the Old Eastern District, its settlement & early progress (Standard Print. House, Cornwall, [Ont], 1890), 257. 13 The Canadian biographical dictionary and portrait gallery of eminent and self made men (American Biographical Pub. Co.; H. C. Cooper Jr. & Co.,  1881), Also at, pg 15. 14 From obit of John Ban Mackenzie, from the Glengarry News, Nov. 10, 1899. 15 Dorothy Dumbrille, 106. An interesting incident in connection with the establishment of the Separate Schools is recalled in the recent book, My dearest Sophie: The Letters of Egerton Ryerson to his Daughter.



McLean, Archibald (1791-1865) A timeline for Archibald Mclean of St. Andrew's W., Glengarry County (once)

A pupil of John Strachan (q.v.) at Cornwall, he was admitted to the bar in 1815 and represented Stormont in the Legislative Assembly, 1820-36. He was then

appointed to the Legislative Council and a year later to the bench. In 1862-3 he was chief justice of the Queen's Bench, and from 1863 to 1865 president of the Court of Appeal.

From the Book: Toronto of Old, p. 371

"Lieut. Archibald McLean, the second son of the Hon. Neil McLean, was born at St. Andrew's, County of Stormont. 1n 1791. He was present at Ogdensburg in 1813, and at the capture of York carried to a place of safety

the colors of the York Volunteers. At the battle of Lundy's Lane he was taken prisoner and detained until the close of the war. After the war he continued his legal studies, and in 1820 was elected a member of the Legislative

assembly for Stormont, being reelected on 5 other occasions, once for the town of Cornwall. For two Parliaments, the eleventh and thirteenth, he was honoured by being elected speaker.

He subsequently was appointed Chief Justice of Upper Canada, and afterwards President of the Court of Error and Appeal, an office he held at his death in 1865."

& also "It may not, however, be unimportant to add, that among the officers wounded in the repulse...was the present Mr Justice McLean of Toronto, who was then a brother subaltern with Mr. Jarvis

, in Captain Cameron's flank company of militia. Mr. McLean was very severely wounded, yet brought off by the retreating party. (Queenston)"

Quoted from the Book: Richardson's War of 1812

This House must have the above, or we must be dissolved, or we will dissolve ourselves." Thus Tory Vankoughnet and reformer Bruce both kicked up their heels at the central

political establishment. It was otherwise with Vankoughnet?s political colleague, Archibald McLean. Rather than falling from grace, McLean continued to rise, favoured with a judgeship

in Toronto in 1837, and thus providing his stay-at-home constituents in Cornwall with yet another direct line to authorities in the provincial capital.

From the Book: Cornwall, From Royal Town to Industrial City

At the time of his death, the Upper Canada Law Journal said: "Archibald McLean was a man of remarkable and commanding presence, tall, straight, and well formed in person. With a

pleasant, handsome face and a kind and courteous manner, he looked every inch a man and gentleman. He belonged to a race, most of whom have now passed away, the giants of the early

history of Canada. He was one of the most brave, honest, enduring, steadfast men sent by Providence to lay the foundation of a Country's greatness. The funeral, a public one, proceeded to the

Necropolis where, amidst the sorrow of all who knew him, were deposited the mortal remains of the Honourable Archibald McLean, the brave soldier, the upright Judge and the Christian gentleman."

From the Book: History of S. D. & G. Counties

The second son is more widely known to the present generation. Archibald McLean (afterwards Chief-Justice of Ontario and President of the Court of Error and Appeal)

was born at St. Andrews, near Cornwall; in 1791. At the breaking out of the war of 1812, McLean was Second Lieutenant in the 1st or flank company of the York Volunteers,*

commanded by a Scot, Capt. Cameron. When Brock inspected the companies he asked for volunteers to accompany him to Amherstburg, and, to his surprise, all offered to go. it was

impossible, however, to accept them all, and finally Heward, Jarvis, and Robinson (Sir John) were selected to command a portion of the force; Although it does not bear upon the immediate

subject of this work, it may not be amiss to note an incident which shows the patriotic conduct of the "brave York Volunteers." Mr. Jarvis, of the Light Company, had been despatched after

Gen. Brock in charge of a few Indians, with instructions to return, after accomplishing his mission. Jarvis had no notion of returning, however, and was temporarily attached to one of the companies

Lieut. McLean was stationed at Brown?s or Field?s Point, about midway between Queenston and Niagara. When the noise of artillery and the rattle of musketry was heard, McLean at once rushed to the

scene of action. He was in charge of the solitary 18-pounder which was placed on the brink of the river. When the early dawn of morning disclosed the enemy, the gallant Lieutenant was anxious to get into

the midst of the fray; and when the Americans had gained the heights by the "fisherman?s path," he could be restrained no longer. Flinging aside his heavy overcoat, McLean and his little following joined the York

Volunteers. His captain (Duncan Cameron) was wounded by a spent ball in the elbow, and ?thus rendered helpless; McLean himself was severely wounded in the thigh. Then followed Macdonell?s gallant charge up

the steep, and the surrender of the American forces. Macdonell fell close to McLean, and his first cry was to him, "Archie, help me.? The reinforcements from Fort George had finished the business; but the victory was

dearly purchased by the deaths of Brock and Macdonell. The ill-advised armistice concluded by Gen. Sheaffe terminated the campaign, and McLean returned to York, with a view of prosecuting his studies and the legal

profession. Visiting his friends in eastern Ontario, he was commissioned to recruit a company in the battalion which his father, Neil McLean, was about to raise. So conspicuous was the Lieutenant?s gallantry, that Sir George

Prevost offered him a commission in the line?a tempting offer in those days?but declined by McLean, who fought only for his native land. During his visit, Lieut. McLean came in contact with the good Bishop Macdonell;

and the failure of means of transport and the deep snow accidentally brought him once more into the middle of the fray at Prescott and Ogdensburgh. The Bishop was on the ice in a great state of agitation, as the troops had

been repulsed, and the whole north shore was exposed to the mercy of the American marauders. There were in the western division only a company of the Glengarry Fencibles and a remnant of the Glengarry Militia. McLean

and his brother obtained arms from wounded men, and hurried in haste over the ice-clad river. They, however, arrived too late. The eastern division consisted of a company of the 8th.

*-The Volunteers were attached to the 3rd York Militia and their officers were 1st,

Captain Duncan Cameron, Senior Lieut. William Jarvis, Junior, Archibald McLean, Adjutant. George Ridout. This being the right flank, now called the Grenadier Company, the Light Company was officered by Captain Stephen Heward, with three Lieutenant?John Beverley Robinson, S. P. Jarvis. and Robert Stanton.

From the Book: The Scot in British North America

In 1832 the colonel of the First Regiment of Stormont Militia, Albert French, wrote to the adjutant general of militia at the provincial capital to say that he was suffering ill health and wished to resign his command. French?s wish to

be replaced was soon known in the area, and three candidates for the colonelcy emerged: Donald Aeneas Macdonell, lieutenant colonel of the regiment, Philip VanKoughnet, lieutenant colonel of the Second Regiment of Stormont

militia, and Archibald McLean, colonel of the Second Regiment. It may seem odd that a man who was already colonel of a regiment would wish to be transferred to the command of another. McLean?s motives were partly sentimental;

the First was the senior regiment and had once been commanded by his father, Neil McLean.

Faced with three strong claimants, all about the same age, all of whom had held requisite civil and military appointed and elected offices, all of whom had been pupils of the Reverend John Strachan, and all of whom were well known to the

provincial bureaucracy, the government (that is the lieutenant governor in consultation with the adjutant general) did nothing for as long as possible, which turned out to be four years. French died in 1836 not, as it happened, from ill-health, but by

being beaten to death by two canal labourers. In the meantime, the three would-be commanding officers had had plenty of time to state their own cases and to disparage the claims of the others. Macdonell had an advocate inside the provincial

administration, his uncle, John Beikie, clerk of the Executive Council. (Coincidentally, Beikie, like Macdonell, McLean, and Van-Koughnet had once served as MHA for Stormont.) Beikie stated his nephew?s case in a letter to the lieutenant governor?s military secretary. Macdonell was "true and deserving ... a gentleman by birth as well as behaviour." "By birth" he was the son of Miles Macdonell and the grandson of John Macdonell, both of whom had been officers of the King?s Royal Regiment of New York and both of whom had also been colonels of the First Regiment of Stormont Militia.

But other unrecorded representations had also been made to the lieutenant governor. Macdonell soon heard unofficially that he would not get the appointment. It was going to

be given to McLean. Deeply mortified, Macdonell submitted his resignation from the regiment, to take effect if "Mr. McLean or any other person" became colonel. He gave up his

"post of honour" because he believed the government was playing favourites. "I observe," he observed, "that a person can walk from one regiment to another, if they please, if possessed of influence."

From the Book: Becoming Prominent, pg. 72



The Gormley Family as seen through the many decades of the Glengarry News in Alexandria against a background of world events displaying local life

21 Apr 1905 On the 1st of May, the Commercial Hotel will pass into the hands of Mesrs. Gormley bros., the well-known hotelman of Finch,who have rented it for a term of years from Arch. McMillan.                         

4 May 1905 Mr. & Mrs. Thos. Gormley arrived in town last week & Mr. Gormley, on Monday, May 1st, assumed charge of the Commercial Hotel.

19 May 1905 T. J. Gormley is having extensive alterations on the interior of the Commercial.

8 Nov 1907 T. J. Gormley and family will remain on for the winter months, having leased the handsome residence on the corner of Kenyon and Harrison streets

12 Nov 1909 Teams representing the Alexandria & Vankleek Hill rifle clubs engaged in a friendly contest at Vankleek Hill last Sunday, honours going to the home team. Alexandria shots were:..T. J. Gormley

10 Dec 1909 The Alexandria Hockey Club was reorgonized at a meeting in the Town Hall last Friday, and enthusiasm is running high. T. J. Gormley President.

Dec 2, 1910 Members of the Alexandria Gun Club, Dr. T. J. Hope, Messrs. E. E. Tarlton, T. J. Gormley, J. A. Mcrae and Ward Ashton were victorious in a match against Hawkesbury and Vankleek Hill teams at the latter town on Tuesday.


3 Feb 1911 Because of the retirement of a number of candidates for the office of councillor at the late elections, 5 positions remain unfilled. Eight will contest the seats on Monday: T. J. Gormley ...

10 Feb 1911 The election to fill the five vacanies on our municipal board, Monday, resulted in the election of J. O. Simpson, T.J. Gormley, F. Daprato, E. I. Tarlton & E. G. Campeau.

24 Nov 1911 Alexandria's expert shots carried off the honours on Tuesday, when a shooting match was held at Vankleek Hill, The final team standing being: Alexandria, 450; Vankleek Hill, 444 & Hawkesbury, 423. The Alexandria contingent was made up of ...T. J. Gormley

22 Mar 1912 The fine quarters in the Crystal Block, just north of Courville's hardware, have this week been rented by T. J. Gormley, who will open a real estate office.

22 Nov 1912 F. T. Costello was elected president of the newly organized Alexandria Board of Trade at the inaugural meeting Tuesday. Other officers are ...T. J. Gormley

14 Jul 1913 T. J Gormley, F. T. Costella & Dr. McLennan motored from Montreal to Alexandria on Dominion Day, guests of E. I. Tarleton

5 Nov 1915 Members of the Red Cross Society met in Alexander Hall, on Saturday, with Mrs. Duncan McLennan in the chair, when the following officers were elected for the ensuing year: Vice-pres., Mrs. A. G. F. Macdonald; sec. Treas., Mrs. Duncan A. Macdonald; distributing convener, Mrs. D. A. Mcarthur; assistants, Mrs. D. S. Noad, Mrs. J. T. Schell, Mrs. T. J. Gormley; cutting convener, Miss Costello; assistants: Mrs. J. A. Cameron, Mrs. E. Stimson, Mrs J. B. Lauzon.

10 Dec 1915 The following ladies are opening a tea room in aid of the Red Cross in the Red Cross Rooms: Mrs. W. L. Chambers, Mrs. R. H. Cowan, Mrs. T. J. Gormley, Mrs. D. MacKay, Mrs. D. R. McDonald, Mrs. J. A. McMillan.

21 Jan 1916 An enthusiastic meeting of the Glengarry Agricultural Society was held in the Town Hall, on Monday Afternoon, T. J. Gormley being named president for 1916.

12 Oct 1917 Mrs. Duncan A. Macdonald, Mrs. J. O. Simpson, Mrs. T. J. Gormley, Mrs. D. E. McRae and Miss E. Ostrom attended the annual meeting of the Glengarry branch of the Red Cross Society in Lancaster on Sunday.

28 Feb 1919 Members of the Glengarry Agricultural Society met last Saturday at the Town Hall and approved action of the directors to proceed with expropriation, the land known as the Alexandria Driving Park.

4 Jun 1920 A team consisting of Dr. H. L. Cheney, Messrs R. H. Cowan, T. J. Gormley and J. J. McDonald, won 2nd prize in the bowling tournament at Maxville.

7 Oct 1921 T. J. Gormley has been electd Reeve of Alexandria by acclamation to fill the office made vacant by the recent death of the late Alexander Cameron.

10 Nov 1922 Several pleasant evenings for not outs were given during the past few days ... by ... Mrs. T. J. Gormley and Mrs. D. R. Macdonald

27 1 1922 Reeve T. J. Gormley is in Cornwall this week attending January of Counties' Council. Reeve James A. Sangster of Lancaster Twp has been chosen to fill the Warden's chair for 1922

17 Oct 1924 Dummy candidates at the approaching plebiscite on the Ontario Temperance Act have been named. In Glengarry, Angus Neil McMillan of Glen Sandfield, will reprsent the Ontario Plebiscite Committee andT. J. Gormley of Alexandria the Moderation League.

17 Aug 1925 Geo,. Duval, R. H. Cowan, T. J. Gormley and Dr. H. L. Cheney motored to Ottawa on Wednesday to take part in the Dominion Bowling championships

5 Mar 1926 A meeting of delegates of the several subdivisions of the Catholic Women's League of the Dioceses of Alexandria, was held in Corbet Hall, Cornwall on Monday for the purpose of organizing a Diocesan Subdivision. Treasurer elected: Mrs. T. J. Gormley

29 June 1926 Gilbert Gormley, son of Mr. & Mrs. Thomas J. Gormley, suffered a concussion, Wednesday afternoon, when he fell to the sidewalk from a wagon on which he was riding.
10 Sep 1926 Miss Genevi?ve Gormley left on Monday for Ottawa to accept a position in the Civil Service.
2 Sep 1927 Miss Madeleine Gormley, who this week entered the Hudson City Hosp., Hudson NY as nurse-in-training, was guest of honour at an impromptu dance in the Knights of Columbus Hall monday evening.
17 Jun 1927 Miss Phyllis Gormley, daughter of Mr. & Mrs. T. J. Gormley, who had been attending the night class in L'ecole de Beau Arts, Montreal, has been awarded the secoond prize Silver Medal for the first year drawing course.

21 Oct 1927 Mrs. T. J. Gormley & Miss Helen Gormley left Thursday for Hudson, N. Y., to be present Saturday, at the marriage of Miss Madeline Gormley to Mr. Earl Holsapple.

8 Mar 1929 Gabrielle Gormley is in Form 1B standing at the annual oratorical of Alexandria High School, held at Alexander Hall.

16 May 1930 Mrs. T. J. Gormley left on Tuesday for Hudson, NY, where the following day her daughter, Miss Madeleine Gormley, graduated from training school of Hudson City Hospital.

May 1930 Congratulations are extended to Miss Madeleine Gormley, daughter of Mr. & Mrs. T. J. Gormley, who in addition to obtaining her diploma from the Training School of Nurses at Hudson City Hospital, won the prize for proficiency in Operating Room Technique. We understand Miss Gormley has accepted a position on the staff.

9 Jan 1931 2 rinks from the curling club were in Montreal, Saturday, taking part in the Edinburgh Trophy Games. T.J. Gormley's 4 playing at Royal Montr?al, ended in a 10-10 tie against an Outremont rink.

4 Dec 1931 J.A.R. Huot ...T. J Gormley ...started Alexandria Curling Club off on the right foot at Ottawa, Saturday, at the Rideau Club, They defeated two opponents, one the famous Willie Brown of Montr?al, to reach the semi-finals.

9 Dec 1932 Through a fall on Tuesday morning, Mrs. T. J. Gormley sustained a fractured wrist and severe gashes to the head.

16 Sep 1932 The following young ladies are among those entering the training school for nurses H?tel Dieu, Cornwall: Miss Gabrielle Gormley, Alexandria ...

23 Sep 1932 The Liberal executive of Glengarry met here Monday evening to name delegates to the meeting in Ottawa of the Ontario Liberal Association. Lady delegates are ... Mrs. T. J. Gormley, Alexandria

30 Jun 1933 Gilbert Gormley, Lawrence & Bernard McDonald, Arnold Cuthbert & C Weir motored up from Montreal on Sunday

6 Oct 1933 Mr. & Mrs. T. J. Gormley sailed from Montreal, Saturday on the CNS "Prospector" for Birkenhead, to be absent some weeks.

13 Jul 1934 The Misses Kay & Mildred Dever, Anne and Kay McLeister, Madeline and Gabrielle Gormley, Isobel Cowan and M. Kelly are occupying a cottage at south Lancaster.

21 Sep 1934 Donald Gormley left for Montr?al this week to accept a position.

23 Nov 1934 Word was received here, Monday, that T. J. Gormley & Archie Danis have been appointed to succeed Myles Campbell & Paul Daprato in the management of the Local Liquor Store.

Dec 21, 1934 Mr. & Mrs. T. J. Gormley and family this week removed from Kenyon Street West to the residence on Bishop Street formerly occupied by Dr. Charbonneau.

Mar 1936 "An Irish Jubilee", presented in Alexander Hall last weekend, was written by Rev. J. Francis Foley. In the cast were ...Dr. Bernard Villeneuve,...Mrs. Bernard Villeneuve

6 Aug 1937 Angus Gormley of Montreal, spent the weekend here prior to leaving on a trip to Vancouver

29 Apr 1938 The second Variety Show in Alexandria Hall, featured three short plays directed by Stuart McCormick, "A Quiet Game" was played by Mary Jane McLeod, Florence Gormley ...

10 Nov 1939 Mrs. T. J. Gormley was in Montr?al, Saturday, attending the marriage of her son James Angus Gormley of the Royal Canadian Artillery, to Miss Aline Beaulieu of Ville LaSalle.

7 Aug 1942 Three Glengarry men returned from overseas duty this week: Sgt Angus Gormley, RCA of Alexandria, home to take an officers training course.

19 Feb 1943 Graduating as an artillery officer at Halifax was Lieut. Angus Gormley, Alexandria

30 Jul 1943 Sapper Donald Gormley of the Engineers, has arrived overseas, as has LAC Floyd J. Hope of the RCAF.

Oct 1943 Two of the Gormley boys are hospitalized overseas. Sgt Gilbert Gormley, with the Central Mediterranean forces, suffered petrol burns to the face, arms & chest. A brother Lt Angus Gormley, suffered a fractured ankle while riding a motorcycle on manoevres

8 Oct 1943 Miss Genevieve Gormley, now with the Red Cross, is the 4th member of the Gormley family to arrive overseas

25 Feb 1944 For a Burn's Night celebration by sergeants of the vSeaforth Highlanders in Italy, an Alexandrian, Gilbert Gormley prepared the Haggis, a CP dispatch reports.

5 May 1944 The fifth member of the family to go on active service, Miss Gabrielle Gormley, RN of Montreal, has reported for duty as a Nursing Sister in the RCAMC. She is the daughter of Mr. & Mrs. T. J. Gormley, Alexandria.

1 Dec 1944 Florence (Gormley) Macdonald of the Glengarry Telephone staff, fractured her leg, Monday, in an auto-buggy collision.

26 Sep 1945 The Ile de France, last Saturday and the Elizabeth this weekend bring the following Glengarry repats home: -Sgt. Gilbert Gormley, Capt. Angus Gormley...

Sept. 28, 1945 Expected home this week from overseas are Sgt. Gilbert Gormley, Lieut. Angus Gormley, and Cpl. Donald Gormley of Alexandria who have received compassionate leave following the death of their mother.

26 Oct 1945 Miss Gabrielle Gormley, RN, who has received her discharge from the RMAMC, is holidaying at her home here.

23 Nov 1951 Miss Genevieve Gormley, Montreal, will spend the weekend here with relatives before going to Vancouver where she has been transferred.

16 Jul 1953 One of Alexandria's oldest businesses, McDonald's Grocery, has been taken over by Donald Gormley

10 Jun 1954 Donald Gormley was elected president of Alexandria Board of Trade Tuesday night.

28 Apr 1955 Donald Gormley is the incoming president of Alexandria Lions Club. He will succeed C. C. Fraser.

8 Mar 1956 Donald J. Gormley who has been operating a grocery store here, leaves for Toronto where he will rejoin the Marketing Division of the federal department of agriculture.

15 Mar 1956 Prior to his departure Sunday for Toronto where he joins the federal dept of Agriculture, Donald Gormley was bade adieu by legionnaires and other friends at a party at the Legion.

Auld Lang Syne, The Glengarry News - Still publishing

Notes on Captain Thomas Ross of Culrossie



Abt. 1716 in Kincardine, Scotland

Military Service:

23 Jul 1757 ; Has been speculated that Thomas Taylor was in 78th Highland

Military Service:

Regiment (Frasers 78 Highlanders)

1759 ; Captain Thomas Ross of Culrossie. Gazetted a Captain on Jul

23,1757, listed among those that sailed with the 78th, however, listed as

dying on the Plains of Abraham on Sept 13, 1759(PRO,C5/51). This may


quash thoughts that Thomas Taylor Ross was in 78th.

1773 ; Came over on board the Pearl

Military Service:

Bet. 19 Jun 1776?24 Jun 1784 ; I do certify that Thos... served in the above

(KRRNY) from the 19th June 1776 until the 24th June 1784. Walter

Military Service:

Sutherland Sgt.,.KRNNY Regt New York

Bet. 19 Jun 1776?24 Jun 1784 ; Kings Royal Regiment of New York, Private

Military Service:

Soldier at Discharge in Capt. James Macdonells Company

Bef. 22 May 1780 ; KRRNY served in Captain Watts Company, then

Military Service:

transferred to Capt. John Munro's company in the 1st Battalion

22 May 1780 ; Transferred to the second battalion of the regiment


1784 ; Arrived in Canada from the Mohawk Valley, NY, USA


Abt. 1784 in Lot 28, Conc 1, Lancaster Twp, Glengarry, Ontario, Canada

Military Service:

24 Jun 1784 ; Discharge


15 Jan 1788 ; Montreal, Loyalist Claim for Damages filed by Thomas Taylor

Military Service:


15 Jan 1788 ; Montreal, Loyalist Claim for Damages filed by Thomas Taylor



22 Jul 1794 in Lancaster, Glengarry, Ontario, Canada


Abt. 22 Jul 1794 in Old Cemetery, South Lancaster, Glengarry, Ontario,



1850 in moved to North East Hope Township, Stratford, Ontario


Following war, muster shows that he was married and had 2 sons and 3


daughters with him



Headstone of youngest son George suggests they lived at Glencalvie


By Rev. J. Bethune


Thomas Ross, taylor

Military Service:

on Muster Roll of the 1st Battalion of the King's Royal Reg't of New York.

Capt Angus McDonnell's Company



Soldier, farmer


Gravestone: In memory of Thomas Ross of Lancaster, a native of

Kincardine, Rosshire, Scotland, who departed this life the 22 July, 1794,

agedn 78 years, and Isabella, his wife who departed this life the 24 Sept

1817, aged 74 years.

Shared Facts:

Isabella Ross


1758 in Glencalvie Parish, Kincardine, Ross-Shire, Scotland




Donald Ross

John Ross

Alexander Ross

George Ross



Person Notes: Baptism: Ross Thomas Alexander McLean Mary 621 81 Index of Transcription of Reverend John Bethune's Records Transcribed by Sue & Brian Myers ?2002

The following is quoted from the research notes of Dorothy Isabella Urquhart.

"Donald, Alexander, John, and George ROSS, sons of Thomas Taylor ROSS, came from Ross-shire, Scotland to America in 1773. They settled in the United States and came to Canada in 1784. They were United Empire Loyalists."

Thomas Ross joined the King's Royal Regiment of New York to fight on the loyalist side during the American


See Petition in William Urquhart's Scrapbook - Thomas Ross had his name on same petition.


From Book - "The Report of the Bureau of Archives" - Page 383 A New Claim

Montreal, 15th January, 1788 Caimt. Sworn;

Says he was a soldier in Sir John Johnson's 2nd Batal., and in 1783 was a Point Clear.

He is a native of Scotland. He came to America in 1774. He was settled at Johnstown. He came to Canada in 1779. He served 4 years.

Resides at New Johnstown.

He had cleared 12 acres on Sir John Johnson's Lands. He had built a House, a Barn, a Stable and a Barrack. He had 6 Cows, some Furniture and Grain

Wits. Wm. Urquhart says he remembers Claimt's Farm. He had a tolerable clearance, a House, a Sheep and Furniture and Grain.


Thomas Taylor Ross received lot 28, Concession 1, Lancaster Township.



Friday, Sep 29, 1905


Twenty-seven windmills were unloded at Winchester in one day last week

Friday,Jan 5,1912

Miss Sadie Mitchell, Curry Hill, was killed instantly and Patrick S8ullivan her escort was fatally injured at Bainsville station early Tuesday morning when their sleigh was struck by a Grand Trunk Toronto-Montreal express. The couple was returning from a New Year's dance at Lancaster.

Auld Lang Syne, The Glengarry News - Still publishing

Notes on Major Allan Ban McDonell

Major Allan Ban McDonell [1786-1878] of Con 14 Indian Lands, Kenyon Twp, who was married to Mary McLellan. He was married in 1814 and had three children by 1820, so didn't make the move to Wolfe Island

with his siblings.

Death Certificate


Allan B. MacDonell Died 4 Aug 1878 Male Age 92 years farmer Roman Catholic born Canada. Paralysis 10 years

Informant Angus A. McDonell 14th Concession Indian Lands

Registered 20 August, 1878


St Finnan?s Burials

McDonell, Major Allan Ban 1878 died Aug 4, aged 92 of 2-14 Con Indian Lands

Mcdonell , Mrs Major Allan 1871 died Jan 12, aged 77 years nee Mary McLellan 14th Con Indian Land born on the Sourth Branch Char.



I Allan B McDonell of the Indian Reservation in the township of Kenyon County of Glengary one of the United Counties of Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry and province of Ontario Yeoman being weak in health but of Sound mind and

memory and understanding thanks be to God who Gave it and knowing that it is appointed for all men once to die and that it is requisite and nessary to Settle my worldly affairs do publish and pronounce this to be my

 last will and Testament. In the first place I command my Soul to God who Gave it and my body to the Earth and after the payment of my funeral Expenses and Lawful debts I Give Grant and bequith the rest of my

 property wheresoever Situated in the following Manner that is to say I Give and bequeth to my son Angus McDonell the Estate on which I live which is Composed of South parts lots No. 1 2 & 3 in the fourteenth

concession of Indian Lands to the Sole use and benefit of him the said Angus McDonell his heirs and assigns for Ever Subject to the following that is to Say that my beloved wife Mary will be provided for in a deasent

Manner and to live on my Farm during her natural life

It is also my will and pleasure that my Daughter Mary Shall be provided for in the following manner that is to Say if She remain Single that She Shall have a deasent living on my Farm but if She be married that She

Get one Cow and one heffer and Six Sheep and bed and beding

It is also my will and pleasure that my Son Donald my Daughter Margret and my Daughter Annie deaf mutes shall have their living in a deasent manner as the place can afford if they continue with my Son Angus

I also Give and bequith to my Son Angus the house and Lot that belongs to me in the village of Alexandria being Composed of Lot No 19 nineteen north Side of Kenyon Street to him his heirs and assigns for Ever

I also Give and bequith to my Son Angus the remander of my real and personal property wheresoever Situated for the Sole Use and benefit of him for Ever

I also order that the rest of my Famely that is to Say Catherine Allan Alexander John Ronald and Dan Shall Get the Sum of one Dollar Each to be paid by my son Angus

I do hereby make and appoint Angus McLellan of the South branch Alexander McDonell my Son and Alexander Munro Executors of this my last will and Testament in testimony whereof I have Set my hand and

Seal this twenty second day of March one thousand Eight hundred and Sixty Eight Signed Sealed published and delivered by the Testator to be his last will and Testament in presents of us who at his request and in

 presents of Each other have hereunto SubScribed our names as witnesses

/ his

David Munro \ Allan X McDonell

Duncan Munro / mark

County of Glengarry

Province of Ontario

Dominion of Canada

To Witt

I David Munroe of the Township of Kenyon County of Glengarry Gentleman together with one Duncan Munroe the other subscribing witness to said Will Make Oath and Say

That I was personally present and did See the within Will duly Signed Sealed and Executed by Allan McDonell of the South Part of Lots 1-2 & 3 in the 14th Concession Indian Reservation

 ajoining the Township of Kenyon and ofon (?) Said County

That the Said Will was so Executed in the presence of us the said subscribing witnesses and in his presence at the Township of Kenyon

That I am a Subscribing Wittness with the said Duncan Munroe to the Said Will

That I knew the said Testator Allan B. McDonell and he is now dead

Sworn before me \

at Lochiel /

this Eighth day of \ David Munroe

August 1878 /

Peter Kennedy J. P. /

Bruce MacDonald

Dominionville's sons & daughters are scattered far & wide, though descendants of some still live on the ancestral homesteads, like the children of Major Allan Ban McDonell, who in the early 1800's cleared and tilled the land on lot 1, in the 14th Indian Lands. A greatgrandson, Angus Joseph McDonell, is the postmaster at Apple Hill. Another is a prominent road construction contractor. P. 185, As Others See Us, Scots of the Seaway Valle

Flora was six when her mother died and went to live with Mrs. Grant, a cousin, and made a runaway match with Hugh Cameron at the age of 14. She was working in the kitchen one evening when Cameron drove up with a young man, wrapped her in a plaid and took her away and married here - had eight children. Louisa Allan saw
 heer when she was several year married was a delicate looking woman and Cameron was a large good looking Scotchman. They moved to Port Huron (This is the aunt on the mother Nancy's side of John Sandfield Macdonald, note left behind by Sandfield's daughter Josephine. Hugh was the son of John & Mary Cameron of Cornwall)



In an essay longer than the present one a substantial section could be included for the bishop's contemporary the Rev. John Bethune for whom a large literature also exists. Bethune is notable of course as one

of the founders of the Presbyterian Church in Ontario and as such appears in many well known church histories. His memory is also caught up in the story of the more than 200-year old village of Williamstown in

Glengarry. And he was of course the ancestor of Dr. Norman Bethune of China,(19) for whom in turn a large literature exist--though one may suspect without unfairness that Dr. Norman's reputation (at its height

probably about 1975) is fading with the rejection of the Maoist experiment and with the decay of leftist ideologies generally in recent years.



by Royce MacGillivray



Friday November 2, 1900
We note the name of John Angus McDonald of Glen Nevis, among those returning from South Africa
November 5, 1915s
Members of the Red Cross Societ met in Alexander Hall on Saturday with Mrs. Duncan McLennan in the chair, when the following officers were elected
for the ensuing year, vice-pres., Mrs. A. G. F. Macdonald; sec-treas., Mrs. Duncan A. Macdonald; distributing convener, Mrs. D. A. McArthur;
assistants, Mrs. D. S. Noad, Mrs. J. Schell, Mrs. T. J. Gormley; cutting convener, Miss Costello; assistants, Mrs. J. A. Cameron, Mrs. E. Stinson,
Mrs. J. B. Lauzon The Glengarry News, Auld Lang Syne

Honourable John MacGillivray

The Honourable John MacGillivray was a grandson of MacGillivray of Dalcrombie, a sept. of the MacGillivray Clan. When MacGillivray of Dunmaglass,

Chief of the Clan, turned out for Prince Charlie in the '45 Dalcroinbie called out his men and followed the banner. At Culloden Moor he fought to the last.

When his body was found his hand had stiffened around the sword hilt so tightly that they buried the body sword in hand. His son, a boy of sixteen, led the remnant

of Clan Chattan off the field. John MacGilhivray was that boy's son. He joined the Nor'West Fur Trading Company and rose to be a Wintering Partner. His cousin, William,

rose to be chairman.

John came to Canada in 1798 and was sent to Fort Dunvegan on the Peace River. He had a successful and also adventurous career in the North. One of his big hazardous

adventures was to innocently walk into Fort Gibraltar of the Hudson Bay Company, unaware that the two companies were at war. He was clapped into prison but was soon released.

After that he took part in the war and it is said came near being hung for some of his dubious exploits. In 1818 the two rival companies merged and the Nor'West Partners retired

and bought farms in the country, most of them in Glengarry. And set up us country gentlemen.

In 1820 John MacGillivray bought Thomas Munro's farm about half way between Martintown and Williamstown on the River Road. The transaction must have been in American money

for it was said that he paid seven thousand dollars for it. Which must have been a steep price in those days.

He set to work shortly and built a fine house on the property, which is now owned hy Mr. and Mrs. Geo. van Beek.

From the Book: The Story of Martintown


John had been a soldier in the War of 1812, serving as an ensign in the Glengarry Fencibles, so his association with Glengarry began long before he ever came here to live.

After settling on his new estate John married Isabella, daughter of the Honourable Neil McLean of St. Andrews.

They had two sons, Neil John and George Hopper.

In 1856 the Family of MacGillivray of Dunmaglass died out and Neil John inherited that estate in Scotland and became Chief of the MacGillivray Clan.

George Hopper inherited his father's property here and had a long and useful life as a gentleman farmer, Clerk of the Township, Elder of the Church and other positions

of trust. He died in 1912 an old and highly respected man. To go back to the earlier part of the century; one evening John and his wife were sitting by the fireside reading

while a snowstorm raged outside. There was a knock at the door. Mrs. MacGillivray went and opened it and there stood an Indian woman with two little boys.

John's Indian wife had come from the far North West to give the boys over to his care.

To Mrs. MacGillivray's great credit she rose to the occasion, invited them in and made them welcome. After all she knew that all the Fur Traders had Indian wives and children.

The Indian woman stayed until Spring then she went back to her home in the West with the fur brigade. The MacGillivrays raised and educated the boys. One of them died young,

probably of T.B. the scourge of the Indians. The other grew up and became a noted lawyer in Toronto.

Some years ago Neil John's family in Dunmaglass died out and the Clan was once more without a Chief.

George Hopper's wife was a Holmes and they had one daughter, Caroline Holmes MacGillivray, who died unmarried in 1949. She was the author of a book, "The Shadow of Tradition"

which had a wide sale at one time but is now out of print.

John MacGillivray himself died in October 1855.

From the Book: The Story of Martintown, a Pioneer Village

Duncan Grant son of Angus Grant & Ellen Macdonell



1777 in Kingsborough Patent, New York, USA 1



14 Apr 1801 ; O.C.2



14 May 1836 in Conc 2, Lot 36, Kenyon, Apple Hill, Glengarry, Ontario,



Canada 1, 3


Abt. 14 May 1836 in St. Andrew's Cemetery, Williamstown, Ontario4



They built their first and also their second houses on the rising of their land



south of Angus at Grant's Creek.5


Elder of the church at Williamstown3



Mary married Duncan Grant brother of Peter and son of Angus. Duncan



owned a farm east of Martintown which he sold to his brother, Captain



Alexander Grant. Mary married Duncan Grant, brother of Peter and son of





Duncan the Ram & Duncan Snowball were grandchildren



Ancestor of some of the Moose Creek Grants. Grandfather of Duncan Grant thatkept store in Apple Hill





Of Apple Hill, Glengarry, Ontario



Duncan owned a farm east of Martintown which he sold to his brother,



Duncan moved to the Conc 1, Kenyon Township, Glengarry, Ontario,





South Branch, Charlottenburgh, Glengarry, Ontario3



Some descendants live around Apple Hill, & Maxville, Glengarry. John &



Daniel McKay lived at Grant's Corners.


Father and Son split Lot 24 - Conc 1, ssrr, Charlottenburgh6


Person ID:





Post Office: Apple Hill, when it became a village and post office.



Cattaraugus, New York, USA



9 children



Grandfather of the Duncan Grant who kept store in Apple Hill



Duncan Grant had a farm E of Martintown, sold to brother Capt. Alexander,



went to the 1st Concession, Kenyon Township, Apple Hill, Crown Grant Lot



24, 1st Concession, south of Raisin River. Sold out to brother Alexander in






Land Petition Ref: G 3/7 Glengarry 1797, microfilm 1853036 Reel:





Shared Facts:

Mary McMartin






17 Dec 1799 in St. Andrew's Pres., Williamstown, , Glengarry, Ontario,







John Grant



Elizabeth Grant



Janet Grant



Angus Grant



Ann Grant



Helen Grant



Isabelle Grant



Peter Grant



Margaret Grant



Janet Grant



Duncan Grant




2 Sons & Daughters of American Loyalists, 129.

3 Alex W. Fraser, Gravestones of Glengarry (Vol. 1, 2 & 3), Ottawa Public Library, Vol 1, pg 115.

4 Alex W. Fraser, Gravestones of Glengarry (Vol. 1, 2 & 3), Ottawa Public Library, Vol. 1, p. 115. Gravestone 62, (D6b) In memory of Duncan Grant, South Branch, Charlottenburgh, a native of Glenmoriston. U. E. Loyalist and an Elder of the Church of Williamstown who died on the 14th May 1836, aged 71 years.

5 R. C. M. Grant, The Story of Martintown, A Pioneer Village, 115.

6 R. C. M. Grant, The Story of Martintown, A Pioneer Village, 115. 1st concession south of the Raisin River.

7 Sherry Kaseberg.

8 Duncan Darby MacDonald, A Collection of Genealogical Charts Part IV (3rd Edition, Publisher: D.W. MacDonald,), Page 6, #4 and page 17.


The original Duncan inherited a farm here but sold it to his brother, Captain Alexander. Then he settled jus
t north of the present side of the village of Apple Hill. Apple Hill was built on Squire Kennedy's apple orchard,
hence the name. These people were farmers and lumbermen and framers (builders of frame buildings). This was
one of the most heavily forested districts in the world and every man was by necessity at least a part time lumberman.
There was a tremendous forest of white pine trees of enormous size all along the Ottawa River, fifty-odd miles away.
There was a great demand for white pine timber in England so every winter the Glengarry farmers would band together
in small groups and rent timber limits on the Ottawa from the Government. In between times our grandfathers and great-grandfathers
cleared the trees off their own farms and pulled out the stones and dug ditches. A pioneer would build a crude little log cabin and
a little stable and pig sty the first year. In 3-4 years he would rebuild larger and better. In 10-15 years he built a large
comfortable log house with dove-tailed corners and a shingle roof and a whole string of buildings to hold feed and livestock,
all built of logs and wooden hinges. They were built in a square so as to form a courtyard. Then as frame buildings began to
replace the log construction, more and more persons worked as framers. Duncan Snowball was a framer as well as a farmer.
It was a reasonably good trade."

[SD&G] Letters from Rhodes Grant - Part Four

Letters from Rhodes Grant of Martintown, Glengarry, Ontario to

Sherry Kaseberg of Wasco, OR from 1963 to 1968, excerpts, unverified except as Rhodes gives sources.


Friday March 1, 1900
Union Jacks were run up, the bells of St. Finnan's Cathedral and the fire hall were rung, factory whistles shrilled and citizens cheered
and sang yesterday, following announcement by the war office of the relief of Ladysmith.
March 4, 1910
The annual meeting of the Conservative Association of Glengarry was held in Alexandria Saturday afternoon when John A. Macdonell, QC
Alexandria, was elected president, succeeding Major H. A. Cameron of Williamstown.


The Clan Fraser
A great source of information on all things Fraser, you will find various
Clan Fraser sites on the internet. Libraries also abound in clan histories.
Because information on the ancient family lines and the Fraser history is
available easily elsewhere I will not reiterate in this book.
It is yet to be established which line Col. Alex Fraser was descended from,
or if Fraserfield had any family surname significance before the adoption
of this apellate by Alexander Duncan Fraser, later the Hon. Alex Fraser of
Fraserfield. There was a place in Scotland once called Fraserfield (also
called Cairnfield & Balgownie at various times). A family line exists
where the family was referenced as 'of Fraserfield', however, the link to
this Philorth of Fraser line is yet to be found. Fort Augustus, near where
Alex was born is populated mainly by the Frasers of Lovatt, a different
Fraser lineage. I find a similarity in appearance between Simon Fraser, the
explorer (of Lovat) and Col. Fraser. These Frasers were related through
marriage if not through Fraser blood.
Clan Fraser Canada was very helpful to me in sorting through the Fraser
families, and I would like to thank both W. Neil Fraser, Membership
Director, and his wife, Marie Fraser, Clan Genealogist. A recent issue of
the Clan Fraser newsletter featured the Fraser of Fraserfield family and
enriched the material I am currently able to provide. The twenty dollar
annual membership with the included newsletters is a bargain. At their
web site The Hon. Alexander Fraser of Fraserfield and family are
honoured with their own web page.

Clan Fraser is significant to the Fraserfield history, as the Hon. Alexander
Fraser's son Alexander was a founding member of the Clan Fraser. A
composite photo which includes Alexander can be seen at the Clan Fraser
Canada site.
A reference to Fraserfield is contained in the following description of
early meetings, posted on the Clan Fraser site.
The Chairman was Alexander Fraser (MacFhionnlaidh); and the vice-chairs were occupied by Robert Lovat Fraser,
barrister, Toronto, and ex-Mayor John Fraser of Petrolia. A picture of the company was taken, which will form an
interesting reminiscence of the happy gathering. From the picture, the face of one who was present at the dinner is
unfortunately absent, that of Henry Sandham Fraser, and that of Wm. Fraser, although he was not present, as he
would have been were it not that he was just stricken down with illness to which, not long afterwards, he succumbed.
The chairman noted that the dinner was excellently served although the turnout was smaller than anticipated.
For the second annual dinner on February 25th 1895, the gentlemen were accompanied by lady friends, a departure
from the custom generally observed on similar festive occasions, that contributed greatly to the pleasure of the evening.
The committee in charge of the arrangements was composed of Dr. J.B. Fraser (Chairman of Programme Committee),
Professor W.H. Fraser, G.B. Fraser, R.L. Fraser, Alexander Fraser (Fraserfield), Alexander R. Fraser, W.P.
Fraser, Andrew Fraser, Alexander Fraser (MacFhionnlaidh), Chairman; and W.A. Fraser, Secretary. Those present
were Rev. Dr. Mungo Fraser, Hamilton; W. Lewis Fraser, New York; Donald Fraser, Kingston; R.I. Fraser, Barrie;
Andrew Fraser, Barrie; Robert Lovat Fraser, George B. Fraser, and Miss Fraser; Professor W.H. Fraser and Mrs.
Fraser; Dr. J.B. Fraser and Mrs. Fraser; Alexander Fraser (Fraserfield), Mrs. Fraser and Miss Kate Fraser;
Alexander R. Fraser and Mrs. Fraser; Alexander Fraser (MacFhionnlaidh), Mrs. Fraser, Miss Fraser, Mrs. Georgina
Fraser-Newhall, and Mrs. Ramsay; W.A. Fraser and Mrs. Fraser; Dr. Pyne and Mrs. Pyne; Alexander Fraser
(Parkdale), and Miss Fraser; W.P. Fraser, Donald Fraser, Charles Fraser, Mrs. C.G. Fraser and Master Norman
Fraser, James Fraser, Henry Sandham Fraser.
Fraser male physical features
Quoted from Clan Fraser email thread, a posting by Jonathon Fraser (25/1/98)
...The main physical traits of an adult Male Fraser 1. Around 6 feet tall 2. High Forehead
and high temples 3. Hooded eyes usually blue 4. Solid build 5. Prominent nose and solid jaw
6. Thick bushy eyebrows 7. Longish face ...


From The Frasers of Fraserfield, written by Evelyn M-M. Scullion (Goulet)


FROM THE GLENGARRY NEWS, Alexandria, Glengarry, Ontario, FRIDAY, JANUARY 14,1938 FP col7 top from 13-7th char


Stalwart son of St. Raphaels Noted for prowess in Scottish Games
Death removed another and one of the last, of the old stalwart sons of St. Raphaels, on Friday, January 7th, when Christopher [Gillie] McDonald passed
away at the home of his nephew, Hugh R. McDonald, lot 13 - 7th concession of Charlottenburgh, the lot on Which he was born over 92 years ago, -- June 4th, 1845.
Typical of the men of his generation, he was of a robust and rugged physique and enjoyed excellent health until well part the allotted span of life, until the burden of advanced
years forced him into retirement. His health continued comparatively good until a few days before his death when he contracted lobar pneumonia which proved fatal.
Possessed of a jovial and affable manner, he played a leading role in the social life of the community for many years and he was also a noted competitor in the Caledonian
Games that were held regularly in the County in his day. His friends throughout the County were legion as was well attested by the large number who paid their last tribute
of respect to him in death.
In his youth he followed the trek of the young men of his day to the lumber camps of Michigan, then moving on to the mining camps of Colorado, where be spent many years
Returning to Glengarry he followed railroad construction and carpenter work. Later be went to live with his nephew on the old home, where he realized a treasured hope,
common to all sons of Glengarry but the fulfillment of which was denied to many of them that death should find him in his native hearth.
He was the last surviving member of a family of eight, and was unmarried.
The funeral was held on Sunday afternoon to St Raphael's Church and Cemetery Rev. George Bradley, Si, officiated at the Libera and at the graveside Rev. B. I. Macdonald
and Rev Rolland Rouleau were in the Sanctuary.
The pallbearers were; Duncan Angus McRae. Joseph Chisholm, Angus A Macdonell, Allan D. D MacDonald, John A. McDonald, John A Kennedy.
provided by Alex W. Fraser
The Glengarry News in Alexandria, still publishing.



A Suit of Highland Homespun Dorothy Dubrille



No More BEAUTIFUL STORY Of Glengarry's beginning has been told than that of Alexander McGregor and his

family, and the parish priest at the settlement of St. Raphael's who, afterwards, became the first Bishop of Upper

Canada, the Reverend Alexander (Maigstir Alastair) Macdonell, popularly known among his own folk as

"Easbuig Mhor," the Big Bishop.

    The Scot never boasts of his good deeds, rather tries to hide them. Neither does he admit he has accepted a favor

from anyone. For reasons of pride, independence or modesty, the story has been cherished in the two families

concerned for one hundred and fifty years, but we have verified it and have obtained permission to print it, for

the first time, because of its importance to Canadian history.

    Alastair Mhor was a direct descendant of the Chief of Glengarry, Donald Macdonell; his father, Angus MacAileen

Macdonell, was a well-known Scottish bard. He married the daughter Of Cameron of Clunes, whose youngest

daughter, Margaret, was the mother of Colonel Duncan Cameron, C.B., 79th Foot Cameron Highlanders. Another

daughter was the ancestress of Colonel Fraser. The Macdonells were Roman Catholics, but the Camerons were

Protestants. Angus MacAileen Macdonell had been twice marrled, his first wife being a daughter of Grant of Glen

moriston, and her son, to whom the Bishop was much attached, became a Colonel in the army.

     The Macdonells, like other Highlanders after defeat of "Charlie," unaccustomed to luxury, because of the

impoverished condition of the Jacobite Clans, were unable to give their children other than the essentials.

         Those of the Macdonell family were very fond of the Bishop's mother, in spite of the fact that she had not been

of their own faith. At the time of her death, they came to carry her body to its last resting-place, but found her kinsmen

there before them, contending it was their right to carry her to the burying ground, since she had been been

born a Cameron.


     Neither side would yield, so her body,in its coffin was set, for a time, in the blowing heather at the side of the trail,

while, in the accustomed way, men with swords were chosen to settle the argument. It was a test of skill, not of enmity since the clans

were friendly, so the duellists fought with f1ats of their swords to guard against casualties. When the Macdonells won, they lifted

the coffin to their shoulders and the Camerons quietly fell in 1ine behind.

    Proof of the good feeling between the families, and the ready wit of the Bishop, is given in a little which comes to us from folklore.

Upon one occasion, when Maigstir Alastair returned to Scotland, he met on Princess Street in Edinburgh, Sir Allan Cameron of Erracht, a boy with

whom he had played in his youth and a cousin on his Mother's side of the family.

     Sir Alan recognized him and, clapping him on the shoulder, almost shouted in his delight at seeing him, "And is it yourself,

Alastair Mhor? I thought the devil had you long ago!"

 Immediately, Alastair got back at him with, "Och, no, Alan of Erracht; he has no room for me, what with Hell being already filled with

my mother's relations."



Glengarry Highland Games - July 31, 1948

The men of Maxville and district who conceived Saturday's big Games revivial and carried it through to a success beyond even their wildest imaginations, deserve the plaudits of all

Glengarrians. They worked hard over many months and assumed heavy financial obligations in sponsoring the big event. Men like John D. MacRae, who was secretary of the Chamber

 of Commerce and who acted as secretary of the Games Committee; Peter McInnis; Gaie Villeneuve; Clark Hoople; Clarence MacGregor and Dr. Donald Gamble, bore the brunt of the

organization work. The loudspeaker system was supplied by C.F.R.A. was a splendid one and its announcer (later owner-emg) Frank Ryan, was undoubtedly one of the hardest working men

at the games. These men have put Maxville on the map and they are the type who will see that the name remains there in bold print.


The largest assemblage in the history of Glengarry - more than 20,000 attended the Games which were officially opened by Rt. Hon. W. L. McKenzie King, Prime Minister of Canada. Hon.

John Bracken, and Hon. J. G. Gardiner also attended.

From History of Maxville and the Community, Prepared by Maxville Women's Institute


Picture from the Sandfield Macdonald collection, possibly taken by my mother. McKenzie King addressing the crowd in 1948,

the 1st Highland Games in Maxville. Sound system referenced in article above is clearly visible.


Below are pages of an autograph book dated in the 1860's which reach out to us to remember ....

This book belonged to the daughter of Donald Sandfield Macdonald, and was likely began as a farewell when the family moved

 from Alexandria to Ottawa or Montreal where the Hon. Donald was serving as M.P. for his County. In 1866 Donald served as an officer against the 'Fenian Raids"

A writer to this autograph book that I copied at Garry Fen, once home of Lt. Governor of Ontario in 1875, Donald A. (Sandfield) Macdonald, about 20 years ago would never have imagined in 1867 that their writing would be 'immortalized' on a medium such as the internet.








Story of the week 

Donald Sandfield Macdonald

He first entered Parliament in 1857, when he was returned for the county of Glengarry as member sent to the Upper Canada House of Assembly. After the confederation of the Provinces he was, in 1867 and again in 1872, elected to represent Glengarry in the Commons, his business capacity and statesmanlike ability obtained for him the offer of the treasurership of Ontario in 1877, but he declined the honor.

When the Mackenzie Government of the Dominion was formed, in 1872, the member for Glengarry was selected as Postmaster-General, and again succeeded in securing an unanimous election for his county, and subsequently, in 1874, received the same honor. Mr. Macdonald remained in the Ministry, holding the office of Postmaster-General, till May, 1875, when he was offered the Lieutenant Governorship of Ontario, which he accepted. His appointment was a, popular one with all classes--his manliness of character having secured for him the respect of the leaders of both political parties.

When he first entered Toronto as Lieutenant-Governor, he felt some apprehension that he would not be well received by the Conservatives, whom he had opposed in Parliament. He was much gratified, therefore, at receiving a Highland welcome, not only from his political friends but from those who had been his political opponents. During his term of office, Government House was well kept up in all its functions. The Lieutenant-Governor, being a widower, confided the management of the social functions of Government to his daughter, who, with much grace and tact, fulfilled all the obligations incident to their position. The Lieutenant-Governor himself was very much of the Highlander, both in build and in the exercise of that hospitality which is proverbial with the clans. He continued Governor during the whole term, and left Government House with the respect of the community. He did not re-enter public after his term of office ceased, but lived a retired life at Montral, where he died on the 10th June, 1896.

From the Book: Lt.-Governors Of Upper Canada & Ontario

References to Donald A. Macdonald, and family in the book: Lady Dufferin (My Canadian Journal 1872-1878) She stayed with the family at Government house in Toronto

"October 6, 1876: We arrived in Toronto, and were very hospitably received by the Macdonalds at Government House. I liked them very much. (The Honourable Donald Alexander Macdonald, Postmaster General of Canada From 1873-1875, had in May 1875, been appointed Lt. Gov. of Ontario. Mrs. Macdonald had died in 1869 (wrong date) & his daughter was hostess at Government House. p. 230"

"Toronto, Wednesday, 10th Jan 1877: We left Ottawa for Toronto yesterday, on the most lovely Canadian Morning, to stay with the Macdonalds (D.A.) p. 233

A Ball given in the evening was nicely managed, and handsomely done. We received the guests with Mr. and Miss Macdonald and then walked through the room to the dais prepared for us. I sat there most of the evening talking to different people, and his excellency danced everything til early next morn. p. 234"

Toronto, Monday 15th Jan 1877

"We four ladies - Miss Macdonald, her sisters and myself - dined alone, the gentlemen being at the [Toronto] club dinner given to his Ex., where he made another important speech. p. 235"

"Toronto, Tuesday, 16th Jan. 1877: Such a lovely day at last. In the afternoon there a pleasant little skating party at Government House, and in the evening, we went to see 'Arrah na Pague' at the Theatre."

"Toronto, Friday 5th October 1877: We crossed the St. Clair at Detroit, and arrived that evening at Toronto. The Macdonalds and a number of other people met us there, and sat with us while we had our tea." They were on a train en route to Kingston.




 The families'  grave at St. Finnan's in Alexandria. Picture taken by Evelyn Goulet about 1987


Sandfield Macdonald Tomb


In memory of D. A. Macdonald (Sandfield) Late Lieut. Gov. of Ontario.

Born at St. Raphaels, Glengarry 17th Feb 1817 died at Montral 10th June 1896.

Also his wife Catherine Grant Fraser

Born at Fraserfield, Glengarry, 13th Sept. 1821

Died 9th Oct. 1865

Requiescat in Pace



In memory of

Alexander Fraser Macdonald

Born 18th May 1854

Died 27th Aug 1863

Edwin Atwater Macdonald

Born 2nd May, 1859

Died 21st January 1864

Daniel Eugene Macdonald

Born 25th May 1856

Died 10th November 1864

Donald Alexander Macdonald

Born 10th October 1861

Died 20th April 1865

Catherine Ida McCarthy

Born 16th March 1851

Died 1st Sept 1926

Annie Macdonald

Born 18th Feb 1848

Died 30th April 1927



Colonel A. G. F. Macdonald

Born 23 Aug 1863

Died June 24, 1948

His beloved wife Eugenie Hubert Macdonald

Born January 14th, 1865

Died Sept 26, 1934

Lt. G. Fraser Macdonald

1891-1916 (France)

Catherine Macdonald


John Sandfield Macdonald


Sgt. Ian Bruce Macdonald

1903-1944 (England)


Mary Louise MacDougall

Born October 24,1857

Died February 12,1951







































News has reached us here on Wednesday evening of the passing of the Honorable D. A. Macdonald, Postmaster General in the cabinet of Alexander Mackenzie and a former Lieutenant Governor of this province.

He had reached the ripe age of nearly 80 years. One son, A. G. F. Macdonald of Alexandria and four daughters survive.

This week is devoted to the Frasers of Fraserfield and the impressive mansion left behind.
More pictures and history on new Fraserfield pages. Note genealogy on Glengarry Family Web page













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Fraserfield, Glengarry County, showing the restored flower beds, and the replaced porch. Renovations done by George Lang and family. See Fraserfield pages in Picture collection 

The Hon. Alex Fraser of Fraserfield

Taken by Evelyn Goulet, 2006







Story of the week 

THE REBELLIONS OF 1837 AND 1838 from The Story of Martintown, a Pioneer Village, Chapter 23



After the War of 1812 there was a great influx of immigration into Canada. In Scotland the Highland Clearances were in full swing and evicted tenants were coming to Canada by the ship-load. Naturally many of them came to Glengarry. Those who had no money or only a little could not afford to buy land in Charlottenburgh Township so they went to Kenyon and Lochiel Town­ships and Stormont County. This was when the Finch and Avonmore Districts were settled.

Thousands upon thousands of Scottish, Irish and English and some Euro­peans poured into the Queens Bush in Central Ontario.

Among them were rabble-rousers and republicans and reformers and revolu­tionaries. The worst was William Lyon MacKenzie who fanned the flames of treason around Toronto.

At the same time in Quebec Louis Joseph Papineau and Dr. Wolf and Nelson preached revolution to the habitants of the country parishes.

In the United States many men, some of them only misguided and some of them scoundrels, imagined that the people of Canada were being ground down under tyranny and that all the people were ready to sweep the Union Jack away and set up a republic or even come under the Star Spangled Banner.

How mistaken they were. The two Canadas had grievances enough, plenty of them, but the people had no intention of jumping out of the frying pan of a monarchy into the fire of a republic. Only the crackpots in Quebec and Ontario listened to Papineau and MacKenzie.

Papineau and Nelson raised the rebel standard in Quebec in 1837. Their first effort ended in such a fiasco that they should have disbanded at once and gone home to have a good laugh over it.

Someone had the bright idea that the poor downtrodden Indians were ripe for revolt.

A rebel column in sleighs set out from Montreal and surprised Caughna­waga. The Indian Chiefs proposed a pow-wow. The rebels accepted, stacked their muskets behind them and sat down on the ground to talk it over. The Indians promptly seized the loaded guns the rebels had so innocently laid down and held them up. They were tied hand and foot and loaded into their own sleighs and driven back to Montreal and delivered at the jail.

No one was hurt and if the rebel leaders had had sense enough to call it all off hundreds of lives would have been saved and a lot of hard feeling avoided. However they persisted in their madness even after the Roman Catholic Church excommunicated their leaders.


The Government of Canada acted with force and decision. MacKenzie and his vapourings were ignored and the regular hoops and two battalions of Glen­garry Militia sent to Quebec.

The rebels had seized several small villages around Montreal. They fought surprisingly well and there were two fierce battles with a heavy loss of life on both sides. Our history books almost ignore this fighting. It was considered very rude and unmannerly to mention such things. They were swept under the Tug.

The Charlottenburgh battalion from Glengarry mustered at Fraserfield, the home of Colonel Fraser, half way between Martintowu and Williamstown. After camping in the fields there for a few days it marched to Lancaster and joined with the Lancaster battalion to form a regiment under the command of Colonel Alexander Fraser of Fraserfield, Martintown. Sheriff Alexander MacMartin was Lieutenant Colonel and second in command.

Captain Alexander Grant of Martintown commanded the Martintown company. Donald McMartin, Donald the Laddie, was lieutenant.

For many of the men like Captain Grant and Big Malcolm MacMartin it was their second war as they had served in 1812.

The regiment joined the army and marched to the front. The army was tinder the command of Sir John Colbourne, an able and distinguished British officer.

The war was brought to close by the Battle of St. Benoit. The Glengarry Highlanders arrived on the field at five oclock in the afternoon after the regulars had been engaged with the rebels all day.

The Highlanders weTe ordered to advance and did so, driving the rebels from their positions. It was said afterwards that the dead and wounded British regulars lay so thick on the field that it was impossible for the advancing troops to avoid stepping on them. The rebels had been fortified in a stone building and the British officers had been sending their men in futile charges, shoulder to shoulder, all day into the hail of buckshot from the guns of the rebel marksmen. The Highlanders would doubtless have suffered heavily if the rebels had not run out of ammunition.

The battle ended the fighting. The rebellion collapsed.

Unfortunately there were atrocities. Colonel Fraser was not a humane man and his men were not too well disciplined, worse still they were allowed to drink and whiskey was plenty.

The sack of Ste. Eustache was the grimmest event of the war. The town was the centre and hot-bed of the rebellion, but later many Martintown men regretted the excesses of the day. Fortunately the inhabitants heard the scream of the pipes as the Highlanders were coming up and fled to the woods where they watched, crying and shivering as their homes went up in flames.

Not all the soldiers took part in The plundering. One young man entered the seigueurs fine stone house which was going up in flames. He saw a pair of fur-lined gloves lying on a window-sill. Gleefully he picked them up as he had no mittens. He ran out with his precious gloves, then he thought, I have never stolen anything before. He went back at considerable danger to himself and laid the gloves back on the window-sill. Yes, he was a Martintown man.

Not all Martintown men were so well principled. There is an unpleasant story about a man who wanted to try out his new musket so he shot an innocent farmer who was sitting on a fence rail to watch the soldiers pass.

After the Rebellion was quelled the soldiers were called home, but before they left they held a great Victory Parade.

The Story of Martintown, A Pioneer Village, by the late Rhodes C.M. Grant is a full-colour, hardcover edition of the title originally published in 1974 that traces the
noteworthy people and events of the South Glengarry village from its origins as a United Empire Loyalist settlement in the 1780s to the present.


Available at this site:









Picture from Norwester Loyalist Museum of Sword of the Hon. Col. Alex Fraser of Fraserfield

Taken by Evelyn Goulet












Below his picture and the white monument with a funeral urn rather than a cross is the family gravestone at St. Mary's, Williamstown (Taken by Evely Goulet)






Where In Ontario Is Glengarry County




Fire of unknown origin destroyed the large barn and outbuildings on the farm of J. D. Bougie, Fraserfield, late Monday night.

Originally published Friday, July 6, 1934

The Glengarry News in Alexandria, still publishing.



Few figures are more attractive than those of the Macdonell (That name is written differently by different authors..  The contemporaries of the best known of the family themselves are far from

 unanimous in their way of spelling it, varying from Macdonell to McDonell, MacDonell, and even McDonald.  McDonnell or MacDonnell alone is regarded as foreign to the clanan Irish

cognomen.  Nay, those with whom these pages are concerned themselves are not agreed on this point.  The oldest, Spanish John, and the youngest, William, as well as a grandson, Donald,

spell it McDonell, while the two best known to history, John and Miles, invariably have it Macdonnell.  As this is the orthography adopted in our 4-vol. History, which contains the facsimile

of the signature of the two last personages, we deem it best to stick to it.  At the same time, it may be well to add that, according to some of their family papers, the name seems to have been

originally MacDonald.)  family, of Scothouse, during the first fifty years of the British rgime in Canada.  Honourable, high-minded, generous, above all, Christians to the core even under the

 most untoward circumstances, and, on the other hand, of an adventurous and perhaps slightly reckless disposition while ever faithful to lofty ideals, the Macdonells went through gloomy as

well as sunny days; and it may be questioned whether some of them

were not greater, or at least more engaging, in their reverses than in the midst of their successes.

                Known to English history under the nickname of Spanish John;, the head of the family, though long a resident of Canada, where he led the life of a pioneer frontiersman in

conditions remote from opulence, is never mentioned by Canadian historians.  His eldest son would pass to-day for having been the typical fur-trader of the wild West, before he played the part

 of a country squire in the more tranquil East, if he had only been less peace-loving and more devoid of religious scruples;  while the cadet, Miles, less steady and still more adventurous, was the

first governor, nay the founder under Lord Selkirk, of what is now Manitoba, and therefore the protagonist of all civilized governments in the Canadian West.

This alone, apart from his undoubted integrity, high aspirations and unmerited reverses, should entitle him to the respect of those who now reap in joy where he sowed in tears.  Yet,

barring what can be gleaned from a few accounts of the establishment of the Red River Settlement, where he does not even always meet with that full meed of justice which is his due,

little enough is known at large of his services to Canada, and absolutely nothing of his private life.  Of his remarkable father and eldest brother John, still less has come down to our

generation.  This, it seems, should of itself prove a valid excuse for the pages which follow...

by Adrien Gabriel Morice The Macdonell Family in Canada  (unfortunately no preview of book found on internet)



Adelard Gagnier, 4th Kenyon, has taken over the Canada Atlantic Hotel, (Railway) station, and the former owner A. L. McKay, has moved into town and will continue his practice as veterinary surgeon.

Originally published March 30, 1900

Business is humming at the Munro & McIntosh Carriage Works. Alreadt this year upwards of 2,200 carriages have been manufactured, an increase of over 800 over the same period last year.

Originally published April 1, 1910

The Glengarry News in Alexandria, still publishing.




Allan McDonalds will ((Sandfield Macdonald - grandfather of John Sandfield, 1st Premier of Ontario, Donald A. (Lt Gov of Ont 1875), Ranald and Alexander))


A memorial to be registered pursuant to the Laws of the Province of Upper Canada Of a Will bearing date the twenty sixth day of June in the Year of our Lord, One Thousand Eight hundred and seventeen, and made by Allan McDonald

 of the township of Charlottenburgh in the County of Glengarry in the eastern district of this province of Upper Canada - Innkeeper. Whereby the said Allan McDonald did give and bequeath to his wife Mary McDonald all that parcel or

 tract of Land being the west half of Lot number Eight in the Sevent Concession of the township of Charlottenburgh aforsaid during, her life, if she remain  but if she marry the Land must fall into the hands of his heir. And whereby the

said Allan McDonald did give and bequeath to his son Alexander the East half of the aforesaid lot of Land, and the west Half after his mothers death during his (the Said Alexanders) life time, so that the said Alexander shall not be

allowed to sell or dispose of the said tract of land or run it into debt, but that the said Alexander shall leave it free of debt to his Heir, and to be continued so from Predylon to Lucifron forever, only that the said Allan McDonald reserves

 for his Private intention three acres of the East Half in the rear of the lot.

And moreover whereby the said Allan McDonald did further will, that should there be any person or persons in his family or the families of his Successors disabled as to be unfit to help himself or themselves, then such person or

persons must be supported by the provision of his Said Allan McDonalds Estate. And whereby the said Allan McDonald did give and bequeath to each of his daughters as soon as his debts shall be paid the sum of twenty pounds

Halifax Currency to be levied out of his the said Allan McDonalds estate, and to be paid at four yearly terms, that is to say Five pounds at each term. To which said Will Ranald McDonald nephew to the said Allan McDonald, and Ranald

McGillis of of Cornwall are appointed Executors.  Which said will is witnessed by Donald McDonell and Donald McGillivray both of Charlottenburgh aforesaid and John McDonell of the township of Lancaster, yeoman, and is hereby

required to be registered by me Mary Macdonald wife of the said Allan Macdonald.

In witness whereof I have hereunto Set my hand and ___ this fourteenth day of November in the year of our Lord One thousand Eight Hundred and Eighteen.

Signed and Sealed

in presence of

                                                            Mary Mc (cher mark)Donald

Donald McDonell

Richard Hammond


Donald McDonell maketh oath that he is one of the Subscribing t---- to this

memorial and likewise to the will to which it relates and that he law both

duly executed.


                        Donald McDonell





Sworn before me at Glengarry this 14th of Nov 1818


R. Hammond

Deputy Register


No 2 go

Memorial Will

Allan McDonald


Registered at 3 o'clock in the

afternoon of Saturday, the

14th day of November 1818



Capt. A.G.F. Macdonald who for the past three months has been in command of B Company of the Third Royal Canadian Regiment now doing garrison duty at Halifax,

returned to town on Wednesday. Main object of his return is to proceed without delay with re-organization of No. 3 Company 59th Regiment.

Originally published June 1, 1900

The 59th Bugle Band last Thursday paraded down Main Street, appearing for the first time in uniform. The 59th goes to Kingston in 10 days and the following company

officers are busy recruiting: Capt. Gillies, Glen Norman; W. Doucet, Maxville; Capt. Moffat, Martintown; and Capt. Cameron, Summerstown

Originally published June 3, 1910



Ewen MacLennan, coauthor with Charles Wilbert Snow of "Songs of the Neukluk," a collection of poems on Alaskan life, died while on a visit to Seattle. A well known Alaskan, Mr. MacLennan, was a son of the late D. H. MacLennan, 2nd Conc, Charlottenburgh

Originally published March 1, 1913

Last week the Alexandria Carriage Works shipped a carload of carriages to Whitewood, Man. and another to Regina, NWT.

Originally published April 5, 1901

The Glengarry News in Alexandria, still publishing.

Since bowling alleys were installed in Alexander Hall, it has become apparent that Alexandria possesses several expert bowlers ( I participated in many concerts held at Alexander Hall in the early 1960's but cannot recall the bowling lanes, perhaps removed by then. Host -emg).

Originally published March 1, 1901, The Glengarry News in Alexandria, still publishing.

In Canada, at "Dunvegan" there, on Saturday, the 4th of July 1936, a great MacLeod Gathering was held - and at what better named place could a Clan MacLeod Gathering be held?

There a thousand descendants of the Old Clan met "to honour the memory of their pioneer forefathers, and to meet Kith and Kin."


A leaflet issued by the promoters states that it was in 1794 the first MacLeods came to Glengarry County, Ontario. Eighteen weeks had they sailed before they sighted land, and their was a foot

 of ice on their decks when they landed - that was at Prince Edward Island in October of the preceding year 1793. They remained at Prince Edward Island during the winter, after which

 in April 1794, Alexander MacLeod (from Glenelg) and "Big Norman" MacLeod, two of the leaders, with a number of the clan, engaged schooners at St. Mary's Bay on the south side

of the island to take them to Montreal, whence they went up the River St. Lawrence in bateaux and landed at the mouth of the Black River, near Lancaster in Glengarry County, moving

north later, into what are now the townships of Lochiel and Kenyon; where they were subsequently joined by other families of the clan.


From the book The MacLeods of Glengarry 1793-1993 Prepared by the Historical Committee of The Clan MacLeod Society of Glengarr

The Pioneers of the Glengarry Cheese Industry


Auld Lang Syne

The first curling match ever played in Alexandria with a club from an outside town is to be played some evening next week when the Cornwall Curling Club will come here.

The following players have been selected to uphold the honour of our young club: Jas. Martin. Jas. F. Smith, Alex. L. Smith, Geo. H. Martin, Dr. K. McLennan, J.A. Cameron, J.A. McRae

and J.R. Moffatt.

Originally published Feb. 10, 1899, The Glengarry News

On Wednesday evening the formal opening of Wonderland took place where the proprieors, the Messrs. Lalonde furnished a very good program. There were illustrated songs by Real Huot and

a series of very good moving pictures.

Account of 1787 emigration to Glengarry County (year after Ship Macdonald) as told by Capt. Grey, then 93 years old, to George Sandfield Macdonald, amateur historian c 188

Says captain of ship was Arch'd McNiel. Went to New York & then to Albany & stayed that winter and agreed with the ? of Am states & took up lands in Johnstown. Made an application

to Col Deschambault. Leaving in 87 for Canada in boats to Lake George then by Champlain & river Richelieu to Soul? & to Montreal. They got a years provision. Angus Macdonell of the

IX Lanc. was one of them. John McDonell potash; Archibald Grant at Summerstown (married a sister of John McDonald my maternal great-grandfather (potash), Alex Roy McDonald;

Kenneth McDonald, Summerstown (Knoydart; Alex McDonell West of Summerstown;

VII Char(lottenburgh)

Johnny Bonaparte

Squire Allan McDonell (the Bishop's brother)

IX Char

Alex McDonell Glengarry (Black Alick Simoe) He saved Simcoe twice. Once when the Governor was at Summerstown he met this man & there was a cordial greeting

VII Charl

Angus McDonell Glengarry (probably lot 5)

Donald McDonell Glengarry (in 1792) settled 4th Lochiel

Alex McDonell Glengarry 4th Loch

Allan Kennedy, IX Charl

Alex Kennedy father of above in the Glen


John McDonell, Glenmoriston

Alex Kennedy, Glengarry

Alex McDonell, Glenmoriston, VI Lanc

Donald McDonell, Glengarry VII Charl in the lot of Roy McPherson

John Grant, Glenmoriston II Charl.

The Capt is evidently the informer of the Delaware story. It applies to a band who arrived in '87.

Interview with James (Duncan) Macdonald (age 92)

His father came to New York first (evidently he was of the '87 crew) & settled in the South Branch (this may indicate that his father came later (ask Ranald Sandfield Macdonald {his uncle}

 about the family and their home. His father was from Glenmoriston. At the same time with his father came Donald Grant the grandfather of Allan the tanner with his two sons

Lewis & Donald (Allan's father). His fathers brothers John & Farquhar John was the father of Donald Buidhe. John was married to the Bishop's sister. Jim Duncan {interviewee} married

daughter of Donald father of Allan Grant. Jim's father was 3 or 4 years in the States; where he got married.

Link to snippet view of Marianne McLean's book "People of Glengarry, Highlanders in Transition" where she referenced the "Delaware story"


In 1852, a list was prepared by Colonel Alexander Chisholm, when taking the census of the County, giving the number of the various Highland Clans in Glengarry at that time. The families

 of most of these people had come to Canada long before, and previous to 1812; and although the numbers may have been somewhat less at the earlier period, and may have increased

considerably since 1852, the proportion is but little changed. This enumeration does not, however, give all the clans represented in Glengarry, a few having been omitted by reason of the

Government requiring Colonel Chisholm to make his return before he was fully able to complete his interesting enumeration. It was always a matter of regret to that gentleman that he was

thus unable to perfect his self-impsosed task. Judge Pringle gives the list at page 196 of his book

Early settlement of Glengarry, page 156, list on page157

We read the following in an obituary of Col. Alexander Chisholm. of Alexandria, a Roman Catholic: "Of the temperance cause he was an enthusiastic advocate, practically carrying out the

reform doctrines he promulgated, by refraining from all intoxicating liquors under every circumstance. " His home where many early masses were held became the property of Stuart


From the Book: A History of Glengarry

Description of the property by Dorothy Dumbrille

Briar roses are every-where. There is an old-fashioned pump in the yard, outside the kitchen door. The barns are far from the house and do not seem to belong to it. The mellow softness of

Stuarts pictures seems to have been absorbed by his home as well. This was formerly the property of Colonel Alexander Chisholm, who came out from Scotland and became M.L.A. for

Glengarry, 1836-1841. He had been a captain in the Royal African Corps, but in 1817 resigned this position, came to Glengarry and built Fasg na Collie (The House in the Trees). His wife

was Janet Macdonell, daughter of Alexander, youngest son of Macdonell of Leek. He was closely related to the Chieftain and became very prominent in the County.

I remember the day I got the idea of writing about the place. It seemed a little world in itself; the woollen mill belonging to Stuarts brother Frank; the grove; and the old home I called,

in the story, "Weaverscroft." Beautiful, brooding and alone, far back from the road, it stood, hidden in its maples, spruces and elms.

In summer I used to go to the House in the Trees and spend hours talking to Stuarts mother. She died recently, at the age of ninety. Sometimes I came upon her cutting wild roses or, in

autumn, gathering apples, or as her days drew to a close, sitting in her chair by the back door, listening to the bird-songs. She had been a capable needlewoman and has handed down her

artistic capabilities to her gifted son.

In winter J.T. and I used to go across the fields to the house, on snowshoes or skis, as the lane was filled with deep snow. We would sit around the stove in the McCormick kitchen, have a cup

 of tea, then go to Stuarts studio to look at his paintings. We visited the old mill, just over the hilt, where Frank made his blankets from the wool off the backs of sheep which grazed in the

Laurentians, and for which he took a trip every so often up the Scotch Road into the hills.

Below is a picture of the house (demolished for a golf club in Alexandria) and the pump mentioned above being operated by Stuart McCormick, a famous artist of Glengarry scenes

 (your host is in the blue velveteen dress enjoying the well water)

While T. W. Munro of this staff, his brother Peter and their mother, were driving home from the Congregational Church, Maxville, on Sunday last, part of the harness broke and the horse ran

 away overturning the buggy. Mrs. Munro had her wrist dislocated and the bone fractured, while Tom had his ankle severely strained.


Dougald McMillan, who left last month for Winnipeg, has secured a position with the Union Bank of Canada in that City.


Father Alexander Macdonell (Scotus) led a group of some 500 Highlanders from Knoydart, Scotland, to North America in 1786. They left depressed economic conditions in search of greater

opportunities, and suffered hardships both at sea, and in their stony glen here in the new world. It is said that on their ship to Canada, the MacDonald, a blacksmith named McGuiness

shot a seagull which fell, spattering blood on the deck. Later when the ship was in difficulty after striking a sandbar, superstitious passengers remembered the evil omen. They tied McGuiness

 and rushed him to the rail. But their priest Scotus ordered his release and commanded them to get down on their knees and pray to St. Raphael, saint of all travelers. The ship righted itself

and the emigrants concluded the voyage safely.

From A History of Glengarry


Extract from a letter from Williamstown, 20th April 1814 describing the incursion of General Wilkinson and the american soldiers he commanded into what was then the territory of Glengarry.

"On his march during the day, little mischief was done; but whenever he encamped there was great destruction of cattle, grain, fences and every species of property within reach. His last

encampment on this side extended from David Wright's farm (nearly 3 miles above the town of Cornwall) down to old Mr. Pescod's, whom they deprived of every animal he had except (I think)

one young heifer and one pig that were not in the way.

The weather was cold, and as they were not well provided with camp equipage, and still worse, with clothes, they fell upon an easy expedient of keeping themselves warm at night,

that of setting fire to the [cedar] fences as they stood, and lying down by them. So that in the absence of the sun, the sky was so illuminated, as if the whole country was in a blaze... A few

officers and some stragglers came into town, and under pretense of searching for arms, rummaged houses, broke open trunks, and committed considerable depradation on colthing, dry goods

 and groceries, ladies great coats and even children's flannels did not escape."

Letter from Rev. John Bethune to James Reid of St. Amand, Lower Canada

Provided by Hugh MacMillan, to be included in Highland Paths: Volume II by Kenneth J. (Ken) McKenna

pg 105


Isaac Simon, who this week moved into the Glengarry block, has taken the residence on Catherine Street until recenty occupied  by Lt-Col/ R. R. McLennan.


Great improvement has been made on that portion of the military road north of Alexandria known as D. Bui's swamp. A new bridge was built over the creek and the bed of the road was raised

some three feet besides being gravelled, stoned and timbered.

The Glengarry News (Alexandria, Glengarry, Ontario), originally publ. Fri., Jul 9, 1897

From the Periodical: Glengarry Life, 1993, Issue 32 pg 6 Title: Indian Wives of the Glengarry Nor'Westers by David Anderson

Black Cecilia McDonald Daughter of Big John le borgne McDonald of Sir Alexander Mackenzie's XY Company. Raised by Colonel Big Jim, her uncle, in Gleninore (Glen of Hay, now Glen Road)

near Williamstown, The 'black', in typical Highland fashion, refers to hair colour.

"Some twenty years ago [1903], a very old lady with the piercing black eyes and color of the Indian scrubbed and cleaned at one of the textile mills of Cornwall, Ontario, One day she fell and broke

her hip and was taken to the hospital where John A. Chisholm, visiting, saw and spoke to her. She spoke excellent English and said her name was Cecilia McDonald; and enquiring further,

he found she was the daughter of John Macdonald, one-time governor of Rupert's Land. She told how she had an old and infirm brother called 'Little Archie' and that she, 'Black Cecilia',

 had been working until the accident to keep body and soul together for the two of them .."From the Newspaper: -B R Atkins in the Vancouver Daily World 14 Jul 1923


Other articles in this issue: Some Glengarry Cheese Factory Memories; The McNabs of Lochiel; Neighbourly Reminences of the McNabs; Further McNab Notes; Mackenzie King sought

Election in Glengarry; Lt-Gen. Sir Archibald Cameron Macdonell incl reprinted A Tribute from the Royal Militaty College; Thrilling Story of a Roxborough Settler (James Begg);

 September Thoughts (poem by Hume Wilkins)

Auld Lang Syne

The 59th Bugle Band paraded down Main Street appearing for the first time in uniform. The 59th goes to camp at Kingston in 10 days and the following company officers are busy recruiting:

Capt. Gilllies, Glen Norman; W. Dousett, Maxville; Capt. Moffat, Martintown; and Capt. Cameron, Summerstown.

The Glengarry News (Alexandria, Glengarry, Ontario), publ. June 3rd, 1910 

Macdonell, John (1785-1812), attorney-general of Upper Canada, was born at Greenfield, Inverness, Scotland, on April 19, 1785, the fourth son of Alexander Macdonell of Greenfield (q.v.). He came to Upper Canada with his father about 1792. He was called to the bar of Upper Canada in 1808, and in 1812 was appointed attorney-general of the province. In 1812 he was also elected to represent Glengarry in the Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada. On the outbreak of the War of 1812 he became provincial aide-de-camp to General Brock (q.v.), and he negotiated the terms of the capture of Detroit. He fell with Brock at the battle of Queenston Heights on October 12, 1812. He was unmarried.[E.M. Chadwick, Ontarian families (2 vols., Toronto, 1894-98); J. A. Macdonell, Sketches illustrating the early settlement and history of Glengarry (Montral, 1893); W. Caniff, History of the Settlement of Upper Canada (Toronto, 1869).]

A lawyer, William Warren Baldwin (later a leading member of rising reform party) , felt that he had been slighted by comments made by John Macdonell in the court room. Greenfield would not apologize, and Baldwin accordingly challenged him to a duel. The day of the duel Baldwin spent writing letters and then his will. Next morning while walking to duel site, he stopped at the blockhouse to execute the will.

He & John placed back to back, and told upon the 1st word to face about & second to fire. He noticed John left his arm down at his side when called upon to fire, so just kept arm/gun pointed at John.

He was asked why he didn't fire. Macdonell's pistol still down, Mr. Cameron repeated "He wants you to fire" He then fired aside. The seconds proposed shaking hands. He took John's refusal to fire as admission of his error so the matter was concluded. Macdonell refused, we are told, entirely from conscientious reasons to take part in the fight. From the Book: Catholic Pioneers in Upper Canada


Quoted from Richardson's War of 1812

"The fall of so many brave officers had naturally the effect of dispiriting the men, and the remains of the detachment continued their retreat to Durham's farm, about two miles and a half below Queenstown, where Colonel Macdonell's almost lifeless body was deposited, preparatory to its final removal to Government House at Fort George, in which the gallant officer breathed his last, soon after his arrival. The body of the Hero of Canada had been left behind, in one of the houses in Queenstown, hurriedly covered with a pile of old blankets in order to prevent any recognition by the enemy."

"Lieutenant-Colonel John Macdonell was born at Glengarry, Scotland, on the 19th of April, 1785, and came to Canada with his family in 1792. He was educated at Cornwall under Bishop Strachan, admitted a student at law on 6th of April, 1803, and called to the Bar of Upper Canada in Easter term 1808.

He was appointed Attorney General of Upper Canada on the 28th of November, 1811, and in the spring of the next year was elected by the county of Glengarry a member of the Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada. When war was declared, he was selected as Provincial Aide de Camp by Major General Brock, and accompanied that officer to Detroit, where he drew up the articles of capitulation, by which Hull's army, the town and fortress of Detroit and the State of Michigan passed under the control of the British and Canadian arms. He was mortally wounded on the morning of the 13th of October, 1812., while gallantly leading the regulars and militia up the Heights to avenge the death of his chief, and died the next day at the early age of 27. His remains repose beside that of Brock under the monument on

Queenston Heights. They fought side by side in defence of Canada and in death they are not separated. Canada had no more noble or illustrious defender than Lieutenant-Colonel John Macdonell.

There is a brass tablet erected to his memory in Osgoode Hall, Toronto."

"For the silhouette of Lieutenant-Colonel Macdonell and the picture of the Gold Medal for Detroit, I am indebted to Mr. John Alexander Macdonell K.C. of Alexandria, Author of that valuable history, "Sketches of Glengarry in Canada," whose grandfather, Colonel Duncan Macdonell, was a brother of the Lt-Col........Pg108" Taken from same book

"Brock, hearing the firing from Fort George rode over to take command of the British Forces. When he arrived he found the Americans occupying the height of land at Queenston; he immediately counterattacked to drive the invaders from their position. As he charged up the slope he was mortally wounded, as was his successor Lieutenant-Colonel John Macdonell." Pg. 153

In the Toronto "Week" of 23rd October, 1891, a tattered fragment is produced, copied from the Niagara "Bee" of October 24th, 1812, and demonstrating the difficulty of obtaining local contemporaneous accounts of these affairs. It would seem to have given a full description of the engagement and of the time and circumstances of the death of general Brock and Colonel Macdonell. After describing the fight around Vrooman's Battery it states: -

"It was in the engagement last named that we have to regret the loss of Lieutenant colonel Macdonell, A. D. C. to General Brock. He was shot whilst on horseback encouraging the men. The Province of Upper Canada, by the death of colonel McDonell, has been deprived of one of its most enterprising young men; the discerning eye of the Major-General had singled him out, and was forming his mind to have become a prominent figure among us. Fortune had already begun to lavish her favours, and her blushing honours stood thick upon him; he has appeared and passed away from us like a brilliant meteor in the firmament. His remains were interred beside his beloved friend and patron, General Brock."


Rory MacLennan

Another of the little things that made life worth living was the old village cannon. It was am old bronze muzzle loader that had been discarded by the Army as being obsolete.

Colonel "Big Rory McLennan" salvaged it and presented it to Martintown. It was a field gun and fired a twelve pound cannon ball. In a short time the decrepit old carriage went

to pieces so the blacksmiths and wheelwrights of Martintown collaborated and made a new carriage for it. The tires of the wheels were of iron, four inches wide and half an inch

thick. The old gun was kept beside Dr. McLennan's house by the bank of the river.

From the book: Horse and Buggy Days in Martintown 1900-1940


From the Headstone at St. Andrews

In memory of Roderick McLennan, born Nov 17th, 1803 died Dec 3rd, 1893, his wife Hannah McDonald born Aug 22nd 1816 died Dec 22nd, 1890, their son Lieutenant

Colonel Roderick R. McLennan born Jan 1st 1842, died Mar 8th, 1907 member of Parliament for the County of Glengarry 1891-1900.


Another Glengarry superman was R. R. "Big Rory" McLennan. At the age of seventeen he leaped over three horses standing side by side. World champion in the hammer throw,

he was incredibly fast and agile as well as strong. [He was well known in the Maritimes: in 1866 he made practically clean sweep of the track and field events in a large Highland

 gathering held at 'my' (A. A. Mackenzie) hometown of New Glasgow.]

Glengarry Historical Society newsletter, A. MacKenzie, Vol. 29, No. 2 May 1999

Col. R.R. ("Big Rory") McLennan who was M.P. for Glengarry from 1891 to 1900 is again one of the very best remembered Glengarrians among the people of Glengarry and

Cornwall though little remembered elsewhere. He is therefore an example of someone who formed the basis of a particularly strong Glengarry legend without its demonstrating

any enduring power in the world outside. With endless repetition his name comes up in all writings on Glengarry history. Bridging the gap between Glengarry and the outside

world he makes a limited appearance in a Ralph Connor novel, Corporal Cameron of 1912, both under his own name and as a fictional character. Less closely connected to

Glengarry he appears in Joan Finnigan's Giants of Canada's Ottawa Valley (1981) and he has a life in the Dictionary of Canadian Biography . As a virtually random item in the

McLennan cult it may be mentioned that a Glengarry-area free circulation newspaper, the Seaway News of 9 Oct. 1995, had a historical article on McLennan with a very good

 picture of him.

Big Rory McLennan was born in Charlottenburgh Township with connections to some of the most distinguished Glengarry families. In early years he was a gifted athlete as were

his brothers. His most famous athletic feats are variously reported in tradition but we may take the DCB entry as definitive for its reports on his hammer and shot-put throwing. In

1877 in one of the well remembered incidents of nineteenth-century Glengarry history he accidentally killed a young girl while throwing the shot in Cornwall. He made a fortune as

 a contractor on the building of the CPR through Northern Ontario. About the mid 1880s he settled in Alexandria the principal village of Glengarry County as a moneylender and

banker. Moneylending does not seem in the least to have caused him to be resented; and in fact another popular Glengarry M.P. in the same period, Patrick Purcell, was also a

 large scale moneylender. In 1899 Big Rory moved to Cornwall where he lived in one of the finest houses of the town which was later a well known Roman Catholic institution,

The Nazareth Orphanage. Much involved in the militia, he was commonly known to the public as Col. McLennan. He owned or controlled by means other than outright ownership

 a weekly newspaper in Alexandria (the Glengarrian ) and another in Cornwall (the Standard ) both of them Conservative party organs. In his first term as M.P. he managed to

persuade the floundering Conservative government to found a large reformatory at Alexandria for boys from all over Canada. The institution, if built, would have arguably have

been the making of Alexandria. The voters loyally returned McLennan in the 1896 election but the new Laurier government let the reformatory project die (promises to try to

restore it were a part of Glengarry election campaigns up into the 1950's).(22) In the 1900 election he was defeated, in part because of the appeal of Laurier to the sizable French

Canadian electorate of Glengarry. Despite this final mishap his career had been remarkably successful. Still, many other forgotten nineteenth-century Ontarians had done equally

 well and had done equally interesting things. It is hard to see why it should be the basis of a legend where McLennan was concerned. Altogether, McLennan's success in gaining

the attention of posterity must be seen as having an element of the mysterious.


Spanish John Macdonell

Spanish John had five children, three boys and two girls.  The eldest son was given the name of his parent, the second was called Miles, perhaps in remembrance of the friend who had rescued

his father on the bloody battlefield of Italy, and a third, who was not to remain under British dominion, was baptized under the name of William J(ames?).  As to the daughters, one was

known as Polly, and we have not ascertained the name of the other, though we are strongly inclined to imagine that she was that Penelope who is so favourably spoken of in the Macdonell

correspondence.  (Later researchers have converted this surmise into a certainty.)

From the Book: The Macdonell Family in Canada, Pioneering in America.


Meantime, the head of the Canadian Macdonells, our old friend of the European battlefields and the victim of rapacious sea captains, was experiencing a little unpleasantness through an

innocent enough circumstance, which was nevertheless proving welcome food for the gossiping tongues of his neighbourhood.  Without wishing to establish parallels out of all proportions,

history shows us that even great warriors who stood unflinching the most violent assaults of armed opponents were unequal to the task of resisting the wiles of a woman.,  Nothing of a serious

 character ever tarnished the name of Spanish John, no scandal was breathed against him.  Yet he and his children were rather vexed at reports which had their origin in the innate kindness

characteristic of the family.

The whole incident will be best explained by a quotation from a letter of Miles Macdonell, then-April 6, 1804-at Osnabruck, to his brother John, in the West.  "My father still keeps possession of

his favourite seat at the River aux Raisin [sic]," he writes; "he lives very uncomfortably, tho' at a great expense, and consequently [in a way] injurious to his health. . . . 

You would be surprised what money he makes away with there.  Though he has given up all ideas of Matrimony, yet that cursed artful  widow pilfers him of everything, of which she is not

ashamed to boast publicly. . . .  He is one of the best-hearted men that exist."

Hearing of such annoying gossip, the old man wrote to his eldest son:  "As to the report spread to my disadvantage concerning Donald McAlistir's relick, I thought, though you never mentioned

 it to me, that you had heard of it long ago.  It commenced at least five years ago, owing at first to my going frequently to her house to pass an idle hour.  She nursed our Donald Aeneas

(Miles's son.) and was besides my Washer woman, and I thought it no harm to shew some little attention to her more than to the ? of the vulgar of the place.  But I assure you as to matrimony

with her or any other, I shall change my mind before I can think of it."  (Feb 27,1802.)

From the Book: The Macdonell Family in Canada


GRAVESTONE, Gravestones of Glengarry by Alex W. Fraser (Vol. 3 is being reprinted with additioanl genealogical information)

at St. Andrew's Cemetery, Williamstown

15 South Side

(C9) Sacred to the memory of Angus MacDonald of Williamstown, died August 18th 1879 aged 55 years, and his sons John Angus died December 31st 1890 aged 40 years, Allan died December 5th 1877 aged 24

 years, buried at Summerstown.

East Side

Sacred to the memory of Mary Cameron of Williamstown born June 13th 1813, died January 12th, married Donald Macmaster November 19th 1841, Angus MacDonald October 30th 1849, "Athy will be done"

Ann McMaster widow of Duncan Murchison 1844-1935

North Side

Sacred to the memory of Donald MacMaster native of Inverness Scotland, died at Alexandria 21st day of November 1846 aged 35 years, buried in St. Finnans Church yard, Alexandria. Donald Cameron Deford

 MacMaster, Lieutenant 6th Batt. Cameron Highlanders, born at Montral 4th September 1874 killed in action at Loos, 25th September 1915. "Gallantly leading his men" son of Sir Donald MacMaster, Baronet

 and Ella Virgina Deford his wife buried in the Military cemetery at Dud Corner, near Loos in France.

West Side

Sacred to the memory of Janet Sandfield, beloved wife of Donald MacMaster, born in Lancaster November 6th 1860, died in Montral September 4th 1883, and of their son Douglas Gordon died 25th July 1882 aged

 13 months. "Blessed are the pure in Heart for they shall see God".

Donald MacMaster, Baronet K.C., D.C.L., born Sept 3 1846 at John's Big Island, Lake St. Francis, died in London England March 3 1922, buried at Virginia Water Surrey Eng. Member of Canadian Parliament for

Glengarry 1882-1886. Member of British Parliament for Chertsey Division of Surrey 1912-1922.



Macmaster, born at Williamstown in 1846, was nearing the end of a long and spectacularly successful life as the 1920s began. He had been MLA for Glengarry from 1879 to 1882, and MP from 1882 to

1887, while maintaining his career as one of the best known and most highly paid Canadian lawyers of his time. In 1905, at the age of 59, he moved to England to represent his Montreal law firm there.

In effect, he began a new career, as a member of the English bar, and as a member of the British Parliament from 1910 to 1921. 

GLENGARRIANS IN ENGLAND IN THE 1920'S; by Royce MacGillivray




 ORIGIN OF THE FRASERFIELD property, lots 39 and 40, Concession 1, North River Road, goes back to 1797 when Peter Grant got the deed for lot 39 and Peter Smith was on lot 40, the west half in 1817 and

the east half in 1820.  He also obtained title to four lots above the King's Road to add another 400 acres to the 800 acre farm property.


He built the two-storey stone house at the time of his marriage in 1818 and added two wings in 1858-1851 with other embellishments.  The house is now being restored to its early state with help from the Ontario Heritage




 Quoted from Some of the Sandfields by Eugene Macdonald, 1988


   "By 1848, when the more sophisticated, enlarged home was under construction, Alexander Fraser had become a local power with province-wide contacts.  He held the rank of Colonel, had been elected to the Legislative

Assembly and was serving on the Legislative council.  He was a minor member of the Family Compact with the ability to secure lucrative administrative appointments for himself and to grant patronage.  He was a powerful man and

it is not surprising that he decided he needed a residence more in keeping with his status.


The 1840's were a period of relative prosperity in Upper Canada and Fraser had become wealthy.  His needs had changed.  For one thing he required an office in his home to accomodate records and visitors concerned

with his public appointments.


His first residence had been built in 1820-21, a two-storey fieldstone double house.  The 1848-51 expnsion saw two wings added to the central section with cupola, balustrade and porch.  On the interior, popular but

expensive ornamental plasterwork was applied.



Ann McLeod MacKenzie

Metis daughter of Alexander McLeod (NWC) but raised with the Rev. John Bethune's family of nine in Williamstown. McLeod in 1804 loaned Bethune the funds to
construct the house. Mr Bethune, in 1809, was the executor of McLeod's Montral estate. Ann married local landowner and gentleman, "Squire" Alexander
MacKenzie but died in childbirth in 1824 and is buried near her husband and son at the Scotch Church in Williamstown. Their son, Alexander McLeod MacKenzie,
became the deputy-registrar of deeds for Glengarry. N. West Company, born in the Indian Country, was baptized on the ~ Novr aged 6 ycars.
David G Anderson is president of the Glengarry Historical Society and, with his family, is tenant of the Bethune-Thompson House in Williamstown, a property of
the Ontario Heritage Foundation. He has a longstanding interest in the men and history of the North West Company.

Indian Wives of the Glengarry Nor' Westers. David G Anderson


The Rev John Bethune, who was the first minister of the Kirk of Scotland to come to Upper Canada, founded the first Presbyterian Church in Upper Canada in 1787
 at Williamstown. The church of 1787 was built of logs. Its furnishings were primitive, the seats being planks resting on cedar blocks. During the week, it served as a
school, thus beginning a tradition of religious and educational instruction in the community. After the founding of the Williamstown congregation, Mr Bethune established
churches at Lancaster, Martintown, Summerstown and Cornwall and, as the records state, he baptized 2576 persons, several of them formerly black slaves. The second
church was built of stone in 1804, making it the first stone Presbyterian church in Canada. That church collapsed in 1809, although the church bell, which was donated by the
great explorer Sir Alexander MacKenzie, is still in use in the present church. Construction on the current church began in 1812. The original interior layout of the church was based
on that of St Nicholas East Kirk, Aberdeen, a church much admired by Mr Bethune. Skilled French stone masons were brought in from Lower Canada where they had over a century
of experience. Work on the church slowed considerably in 1813 and 1814 due to the war. The church was completed in 1818. Unfortunately, Mr Bethune never lived to see his church
completed, as he died in 1815. It was three years before his replacement, Rev John McKenzie succeeded him.
Williamstown United Church

Extract from "The History of St Andrews Williamstown 1787-1987"

by Mary J. Wilson



David Murdoch Macpherson, Cheese King


Those little cheese factories, which operated on almost every corner of every gravel road in Glengarry during their hey day, produced excellent cheddar. As early as 1848, Colonel Alex Fraser made cheese at his

Fraserfield Estate near Williamstown. Later, in 1867, Mr. DeBellefeuille Mac Donald opened the first actual cheese factory at Greys Creek.  According to the 1861 census, the farmers in Glengarry County

manufactured  24 383 pounds of homemade cheese. By 1871 that amount had increased to 33 433 pounds. David Murdoch Macpherson, D. M., as he was called, had opened  a factory the year before, in 1870,

on his Allan Grove farm, using milk from his own cows. D. M. was one of the first Canadians to see the great possibilities of the cheese industry, if developed on scientific principles. His farm would become a model

for agriculturalists from all over Ontario and Quebec.

D. M. earned himself the reputation of Cheese King of Eastern Ontario, some say even of Canada. By 1887 he had accumulated a string of factories which made up his Allan Grove Combination. About that time

he is said to have owned seventy factories which collectively received the milk of 25,000 cows, and manufactured about 5,000,000 pounds of cheese.

Mr. Macpherson was an Ontario champion ploughman. He served as president of the Dairymen's Association of Eastern Ontario, and of the Glengarry Farmers' Institute. He took out several patents for inventions

in improved and original cheese-manufacturing machinery, and created  several insights  in the process of cheese-making. In 1887 he constructed an improved model which is said to have reduced farm barn

building to a science. In addition D. M. was, for a while, corresponding editor of the Hamilton " Live-Stock Journal.

Eventually D. M. began dispersing his Combination. By 1905 all of his factories had been sold, and soon after he declared bankruptcy. He died in 1915.


Rosemary Ruttley

Shy Ranald

No age is without its romances and there is a story of one that originated at Cornwall in the early 1780's. Lieutenant Ranald Macdonell, youngest son of John Macdonell (Leek), while there with his regiment, met

Miss Margery Macdonell who, with her mother and other refugees, had recently arrived in Canada. Margery was young, just seventeen, and a  beautiful girl and it was natural that a Macdonell should fall in love with her.

Unlike most military men he was shy, and explaining the situation to his elder brother, Allan, then thirty-seven, he suggested that the latter should plead his cause. Allan readily consented, met the girl, fell in love with her

and ultimately spoke for himself. Perhaps if left to himself, Ranald's suit might still have prevailed, but Margery had a forceful mother, a Cameron and a cousin of Lochiel's, who had a keen eye to the future welfare of

her daughter, and as Allan was a Captain and would have many more acres of land, she favoured his suit, which was successful. He drew 1200 acres in the Township of Matilda and in 1785, he and Margery were married.

Their home at first was no doubt a log shack but after a few years, they built a versy substantial stone house which still stands on Lot 37 in the first concession of Matilda about one mile east of the Village of Cardinal.

It is the second house east of the Morrison home, later built by Allan's son John.

From the Book: A History of Stormont, Dundas & Glengarry Counties


Miles Macdonell's lament

The twice widowed Captain Miles McDonell sent his daughters to be educated at a nunnery in Montral where "they were happy" enough, though the father soon found, "they have ruined me in

expenses... having been noticed by Gen. Drummond's Lady, Mrs. McGillivray and others,  (which) led them to considerable expenses in dress to attend Balls, Bouts and evening parties given

by those Ladies". However, the father was reconciled to the expense as "we have the satisfaction of their (the McDonell girls) having received more advantages than any of the family ever got".

From the Book:  John Sandfield Macdonald, Bruce Hodgins


But if Miles was a soldier, he was also a father, and preoccupations of a military nature could not make him entirely forget family cares.  He therefore goes on to say: "I took my daughters from

Montral in January last, and would  have they had left that place sooner, which my being at York prevented.  They have ruined me in expenses; not me but you.  (Hinting at his brother's great

liberality.)  Having been noticed by Gen'l Drummond's Lady, Mrs McGillivray and others, led them to considerable expenses in dress to attend Balls, Bouts and evening Parties given by those

Ladies."  Truly and verily, the world has not changed much since!  He then pleads poverty, but adds immediately: "However, we have the satisfaction of their having received more advantages

than any of the family ever got."  After which, he tells his elder brother of one of them "foolishly rejecting the addresses of a good party", for the sake of another who seems now to favour

her younger sister.  One of the girls was Catherine, the other Amelie.  As to their two brothers, they were both at the college and, of course, another source of expense for the poor gentleman,

who writes of one: "Alexander has lately acquired great applause at an examination in Latin, History, Geography, etc.,  etc., but Donald has run away home three weeks ago on account of bad

usage."   (Same to same, May 21, 1809.")

From the Book: The Macdonell Family of Canada




Alexandria, Glengarry County

Soon after the good Bishop left Glengarry to go to Kingston, his property was bought by another McDonald with the nickname Archie Breach. He built a sawmill a little to the east and south of the dam. It had an upright saw but did its work

well. he built part of the large frame house which later became the home of one of the Sandfields and is now occupied by Colonel A.G.F.s daughter, Mrs. MacLaren, and her family. The home was called Garry Fen and was, in 1844, bought

by Mrs. MacLarens grand-father, D. A. Macdonald, who became Lieutenant-Governor of Ontario. The new owner was young; only twenty-six, but had just completed a contract on the Beauharnois, so was by no means poor. He built a

wood ashery on the bank of the pond and it was not long until a blacksmith shop was established in the settlement.

Years passed; the upright saw was replaced by a circular one; buildings improved and grew; a carding and fulling mill was built near the gristmill; and these industries brought people to the village from all over the country. But in 1848 there was

a disastrous fire and everything went up in smoke. Mr. Macdonald was not easily discouraged. He built a large stone mill on the site of the carding mill and abandoned the old site. This new mill had up-to-date machinery, but it was found that

the little River Garry, which runs east from the Pond down through the village, had not enough power to run the big wheel, twelve feet in diameter; and so, in 1855, a stone building was built to the south of the mill proper and in it were two

huge boilers and an engine. Old-timers still talk of the banquet their fathers attended at that time in honour of Mr. Macdonald. In time the old mill became a roller mill, but again was destroyed by fire in 1896. (Also the year of Donald A.

Macdonald's death). When it was restored in 1902, the mill was enlarged and a modern plant was installed, also a splendid water-power service.

The village centred around Mill Square until the Canada Atlantic Railway was built, for which Hon. D. A. Macdonald applied for a charter in 1871. He himself was the president of the company. The Canada Atlantic was the first road in

s America to achieve a running record of a mile a minute. Later this line was absorbed into the Grand Trunk System and, in 1923, it became part of the Canadian National Railways.

From Up  Down the Glens, a book by Dorothy Dumbrille, pp 57-58.


In 1789 the first post office of Glengarry was opened at Charlottenburgh. It served an area of almost 500 square miles, although most of the people were concentrated along the river front and a few miles inland. Mail couriers on foot or

horseback ran the mail to various destinations. Canoe, river steamer, stagecoach and railway were also used at various times. In 1869 the mail came up the north shore of the St. Lawrence via the Grand Trunk Railway. From the first post

 office of 1789 to the last opened in Williamstown in 1833, Glengarry numbered 58 post offices. In the late 1800s many were, for various reasons, closed and the coming of rural mail in the early 1900s caused the closing of others.

The Montreal Telegraph Company built a telegraph line across Glengarry in 1847 to provide communication between Toronto and Montreal. They located a station at Lancaster and one in Cornwall. This was the first of such telegraph lines

that were built in Glengarry. The telephone first came to Cornwall in 1880 and was soon followed by this service in other centres, and by 1911 the telephone was available to anyone in Glengarry who wished to have it.

    The Grand Trunk Railway opened in 1855 between Montreal and Brockville with a station at Lancaster. In 1856 the line continued to Toronto. In 1882 the Canada Atlantic line was completed in Glengarry County greatly benefiting

the county. In particular, Maxville quickly thrived as a principal intermediate station on the line, with new stores and hotels built for the welcome commerce. In 1904 the Grand Trunk bought the Canada Atlantic. In 1914 Glengarrys final

railway was the Stormont and Glengarry line connecting Cornwall with the CPR main line and five more railway stations were opened in Glengarry making a total of 19 altogether.

Quoted from previous Glengarry County Genweb posting, "A Short History of Glengarry"


Neighbours of the McGregors of St. Raphael's were the John Sandfield Macdonald family; the Honourable John Sandfield Macdonald was born in December 1812, within sight of the Bishop's house and the church. On one occasion, the fire at

 the Macdonell cabin went out during the night and the boy was sent across the fields for coals. The home still stands but is no longer used as a dwelling.    John Sandfield was a restless youth. He attended the school at St. Raphaels, but, as

 he matured, developed the habit of running away n search of adventure. Hs energy and ambition, even then, asserted themselves, making him dissatisfied with his farm duties. When his family, deeply concerned, appealed to "Little Sandy"

McGregor, for help in the problem, Sandy set out to locate the boy, and to bring him home. He found him, and gave him a sound talking to, emphasizing his duty to his parents and the virtues of settling down to study and getting an education,

then put a dollar in the youth's hand, and wished him luck. When John Sandfield was at the peak of his success and popularity, he took pleasure in telling how the lecture, and the dollar given him by little Sandy McGregor, had marked the

turning-point in his behaviour and had made him realize his responsibilities.

Dorothy Dumbrille, Braggart in my Step -  pg. 160


Notes on the early settlement of Glengarry:  information from Capt. Fraser of Fraser Pt. (age 84) Jan 1884


On McNiffs Map it is marked Johnsons' Pt.


1.  The U. E. Loyalists were the first settlers. Grants of 200 acres were given them, In order to have their houses by the St. Lawrence and at the same to be near each other, it was usual to take a hundred acres on the front and the other 100

 in a rear concession. Thus it is probable that the majority of properties on the river side between Kingston and Coteau have been in the possession of U. E. Loyalists.

3.  Of these U. E.'s who settled by the St. Lawrence, the most prominent man was Sir John Johnson. His father, Sir William. moved the whole of Mohawk Valley which was confiscated during the revolutionary war. As a compensation the

 British Government gave him large tracts of land in Canada amongst others 12000 acres in Glengarry mostly in Charlottenburgh up between the river and Williamstown. He made the mills at that place which were managed by his natural son

William after whom the town was called. Capt. Fraser's father obtained Frasers Pt from Sir John. The property was just called Sir John's Pt.* The price at which Sir John sold his land was $4.00 an acre. Capt. Fraser saw Sir John at

Williamstown in 1815, he went about in a carriage & four. One of his daughters married Col. Macdonald of Sorel. Sir John was the head of the Indian Bureau.

(This is from an unposted scrapook of GSM)




The majority of the settlers who came to the region about St. Raphaels were R. Catholics and their faith was of the most fervent kind. As an instance of this, the palms distributed in the festival day known as Palm Sunday were

taken to pieces and formed into crosses; a cross would be placed in the well, another put into the churn to give good luck in butter making, The fields were sprinkled with holy water with a similar object. The belief in witch craft was strong;

 the most remarkable example of this occurred in a family by the name of McGillis who lived in the Black River between Williamstown and Lancaster; for seven years they endured the hardship of dung appearing over their food the moment

 they sat down to table.

GSM Scribblebook





We find a grim view of the roads in northern Glengarry in a letter which appeared in the Cornwall Observer of 11 Apr 1834 - this being the time when Donald Cattanach was establishing himself  at Laggan and 10 years before Donald Sandfield (Macdonald) came to Alexandria. The writer calls himself 

 Inhabitant" and dates his letter at L'Orignal. "I beg leave to call the attention of the public to the abominable state of the roads between Vankleek Hill & Alexandria, and to ask why a country like that, possessing every advantage for improvement, material for repairing roads near,

From "A History of Glengarry" by Royce MacGillivray and Ewan Rosss


Bigger than life 
Big Finnan 'the Buffalo' McDonell, one of this country's legendary heroes, had very little formal education but spoke Gaelic, English, French and several native tongues. After a lifetime of adventure, first with the North West Co. and later in the employ of the Hudson's Bay Co., he travelled throughout the uncharted west. His wrestling match with a bull buffalo on the prairies in 1827 is the stuff of legend that should be known to every Canadian, but sadly is not. Finnan is also considered by many to be the 'Father' of the Idaho Territories, as he was the first white man to build a dwelling there. He is buried with his Plains Indian wife in St. Raphaels churchyard here in Glengarry.
From the Newspaper:  Highland Paths by Ken McKenna, Glengarry News, Jan 7, 1996
HUGH (MacMillan):    Some of the North West Company fur traders that lived around here, well, one was perhaps more colourful than the rest of them. That was Finnan McDonald, Finnan the Buffalo. He retired here to the county, and when he came back
here, and I guess this would be in the 1820s, he brought his Indian wife with him. She was from whats now the state of Idaho. There was great curiosity amongst the local women who had not seen Finnans wife but had heard the stories going around that
 she was Indian. Well, theyd been here for some time when one day Finnan walked into Cornwall - I dont know what for and while he was in there doing whatever business he had to do before he went home, he went into a tavern to have a drink. And there
 were several of his neighbours from home who were in the tavern as well, and they had had instructions from their wives to try and find out if he had really brought back an Indian or not.
So theyre all standing around having a few drinks and trying to think of some diplomatic way of bringing this subject up. Finally, one of them got quite inspired after having a couple of drinks, and he says, "By the way, Finnan, what racial origin is your wife?"
 And Finnan says, "oh, shes a native of the Western Plains." Whereupon the fellow says, "God! Were relieved to hear that! We heard she was a squaw!" And thats the last that fellow remembered for quite a while!
Ill tell you the story of how Finnan the Buffalo McDonald got his nickname. He ended up wrestling a buffalo with his bare hands, which was not a thing he intended to do.
He was out on a buffalo hunt with this hunting party, and there was David Douglas the great botanist who gave his name to the Scottish fir tree. David Thompson wasnt there - but one of the Ermatingers was there. They were the only Swiss family with the
North West Company. And both David Douglas and Ermitinger kept diaries and they both recorded this happening in their diaries. There were a number of other people in the party.
Anyhow, Finnan got thrown off his horse; it had probably gone in a badger hole. He had shot at this bull buffalo, but he hadnt killed it and the buffalo bull was bleeding pretty badly. So Finnan was thrown off his horse, and the bull charged Finnan and laid 
his leg open from the buttock right down to the knee, and broke two or three ribs. But Finnan grabbed onto one horn and his nostril - the way they hold a cow - and he hung on for somewhere between two and three hours. The buffalo is trying to shake 
Finnan loose and hes hanging on and hes bleeding, and the buffalos bleeding. And its in the summer-time; its very dry and theyre throwing up a lot of dust, and the rest are afraid to shoot at the buffalo in case they hit Finnan. And its getting dark, So, 
eventually, the buffalo was slowing down and hes not as lively as he was before, and Finnan let go of his nostril. And they were both just about finished. And finally the buffalo bull sort of rolled Finnan over with his head a bit, and then walked away and
then fell down and died.
Finnan was treated by David Douglas, the botanist, who records that he got out his lancet and had him bled, Now, there wouldnt have been too much blood left! And then he gave him twenty-five drops of laudanum, which he said "produced sleep.
" Douglas was lucky it didnt produce permanent sleep! But Finnan lived to come back here and retire to Glengarry and bring his Indian wife back.
From the Book:  Tell Me Another Story, Joan Finnigan
Those of the Macdonell family were very fond of the Bishop's mother, in spite of the fact that she had not been of their own faith. At the time of her death, they came to carry her body to its last resting-place, but found her kinsmen there before them,
 contending it was their right to carry her to the burying ground, since she had been born a Cameron.   Neither side would yield, so her body, in its coffin was set, for a time, in the blowing heather at the side of the trail, while, in the accustomed way, men
 with swords were chosen to settle the argument. It was a test of skill, not of enmity since the clans were friendly, so the duellists fought with f1ats of their swords to guard against casualties. When the Macdonells won, they lifted the coffin to their
 shoulders and the Camerons quietly fell in 1ine behind.
Dorothy Dumbrille

"An old man told me that it was a strange thing: when times began to get hard they got hard all at once. It seemed like overnight. People were comfortable, the first thing they knew they were poor. It seemed as if they bec

 poor as soon as they thought they were poor." Rhodes Grant quoted in a History of Glengarry, by Royce MacGillivray and Ewan Ross referencing 1850's.

In a newspaper clipping from 1816, a report that there was no summer that year in Glengarry. It was so cold, there was no harvest, no flowers, thus no fruit either could grow. Animals died from lack of grass 
and grain. In the end some farmers from Nova Scotia brought in food for the desperate people.

Father John Macdonald son of John Ruadh Macdonald and Nancy (Anna) McGillis (Gillis)
The second son, John, studied for the priesthood, and soon after his ordination was an assistant at St. Raphael's ; thence he was 
removed to Perth, where he suffered many hardships for ten years. He was vicar-general of Kingston and parish priest of 
St. Raphael's for many years, and died at Lancaster on the 16th of March, 1879, in the ninety-seventh year of his age. 

This latter was a man of very determined character and somewhat stern in his treatment of his flock, who one and all 
obeyed him as little children. It was no uncommon thing in those days to see a man with a sheep-skin on his head or a 
wooden gag in his mouth a penance awarded by Father John. A pulpit was a conventionality that he scorned ; he always ad- 
dressed his people while walking to and fro behind the Communion railing. If any luckless wight incurred his displeasure he 
was pitilessly and publicly rebuked, though sometimes the worm sturned. For instance : 

" John Roy MacDonald, leave this church." Dead silence. 
"John Roy MacDonald, I say leave this church." John Roy 
MacDonald rises and goes slowly and solemnly out, stepping 
carefully over the far-apart logs that did duty for a floor. 

Father John proceeds with his sermon, when creak, creak, 
creak, back over the logs comes John Roy MacDonald and 
calmly resumes his seat. 

"John Roy MacDonald, did I not tell you to leave this 

" Yes, Maister Ian, and I will be for to go out of the church 
for to pleass you, and now I wass come back for to pleass my- 
self ! " It was not the ancient Scotch custom to call priests father ; 
hence Father John was always spoken to and of as Maister Ian.

"In 1793, Captain Alexander MacLeod and his father, Kenneth of Myle, Glenelg, Inverness-shire, Scotland, chartered a vessel at Greenock and proceeded to Culreagh in Glenelg. The settlers embarked with their baggage and the ship set sail on 
June 15, 1793. Many hardships were encountered before they arrived in Glengarry, Ontario. ... After a tedious voyage of 18 weeks they arrived at St. John's Island (now Prince Edward Island) on October 18, 1793 with a foot of ice on their deck.
The season was so far spent that they were unable to proceed up the St. Lawrence so they remained on the island all winter. ... Later in June, 1774, MacLeod and his group had arrived Glengarry and were petitioning the Eastern District Land Board for 
land. In August of that year, the majority were authorized to occupy two hundred acres each in Lancaster Township in the vicinity of Kirk Hill, which was for many years known as Glenelg. This northern part of Lancaster was separated and called Lochiel 
Township in 1818."
(From "The MacLeods of Glengarry, 1793-1993"; Clan MacLeod Society of Glengarry, 1993.)

Findlay Macrae In Scotland, he had lived with a stepmother, & they did not agree. Grandma Allan's mother (Mrs. Allan Edward McDonell (Cecilia)) said the story was told that, one day his stepmother had guests for tea, 
Finlay stuffed the cat in the kettle., & left for Glengarry. Alex W. Fraser, 
From thw Book: Family Gene
alogies Issues 1-4 by Alex W. Fraser

From the Freeholder August 1906
                St. Raphaels            (marriage)
The historic old Roman Catholic Church at St.Raphael's was the scene of an interesting event on Tuesday morning, when Rev. Father Corbet
MacRae, who was recently ordained, officiated at his first marriage.
The groom was Clem. P. Whyte, G.T.R., agent at Lancaster one of the best known and most popular young men in the companys service, and
the bride was Miss Mary Isabel Macdonald, the third daughter of the late Angus R. Macdonald, ex-reeve of Charlottenburgh Township. The
groom was attended by J.A. Chisholm, barrister Cornwall, and the bride by her sister, Miss Catherine Macdonald. The bride was charmingly gowned
in cream Louisina silk, wore a white corday hats and carried a shower bouquet of white carnations and maiden hair fern. The brides-
maid wore grey silk mohair, and carried pink carnations and maiden hair fern. At the conclusion of the ceremony Father McRae gave the
young couple the special benediction which is permitted to priests on the occasion of their first marriage ceremony. Afterwards breakfast
was served at the home of the brides mother. Owing to recent bereavement in the families of both bride and groom the wedding was a very
quiet affair, only the members of the family being present.
                Mr. & Mrs. Whyte then drove to Summerstown and left on the noon express on a wedding trip to western points. They will visit Toronto, -
Detroit, Mich., Butte City, Mont., Duluth, Minn., and St. Paul, Minn., returning to lancaster about the end of September
                A large number of valuable presents, including several very substantial cheques, testified to the popularity of the young couple
whose voyage on the sea of matrimony started with the good wishes and congratulations of a legion of friends, among whom the Freeholder wishes
to be numbered.



Sir Alexander Mackenzie showed his interest in Glengarry by presenting a bell to the Presbyterian Church at Williamstown, which bears this inscription:


"1806. Thomas Mears & Sons of London. Fecit.

The gift of Sir Alexander Mackenzie to the Presbyterian Church of Glengarry, Province of Upper Canada, North America. The Rev. John Bethune, Minister."

This bell is still in use at St. Andrew's United Church, Williamstown.(1884)


From the Book: A History of Stormont, Dundas & Glengarry




A story is told of a kinsman of the McLennan family who walked to Lachine to borrow a pound from a friend who lived there. This was nothing extraordinary, as the winters were long and food was scarce. The land gave its fruits grudgingly because of the lack of the facilities to till it and by spring there was much want and suffering.

This McLennan, hungry and cold and tired, came upon a bag dropped by a teamster, half-buried in the snow. Here was food for himself and for his horse; food enough to sustain him on his journey, and to ensure that he would arrive safely. But he set it up on end and went on, rather than take what was not his own.

Dorothy Dumbrille


Judge Pringle gives an interesting account of his trip to Toronto by coach in January 1833, no doubt when he went there to enroll in the Law Society as a student. It took him 120 hours including a stop of 34 hours at Kingston. Starting from Kingston at seven in the morning on Monday, they traveled continuously day and night in a sleigh until Wednesday evening. When the roads were bad, it no doubt took considerably longer.

Pg 157, Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry A History, John Graham Harkness, K.C.




In recognition of the importance they placed on their traditions and customs, Bishop Alexander Macdonell of Glengarry and leading lights of the North West Company, including William McGillivray, formed the Highland Society of Canada in 1818. An offshoot of the Highland Society in London, which had been founded in 1778, the Society sought to preserve what was left of the language, martial spirit, dress, music and antiquities of the ancient Caledonians. Simon McGillivray, brother of William, who was the London agent for the North West Company, was a past president of the Highland Society of London. Although several of its members were Montreal-based fur-barons, meetings of the Highland Society of Canada were held in Glengarry, the regions principal Highland stronghold. At a general meeting each year to celebrate the anniversary of the Battle of Waterloo members would appear in the garb of Highlanders, and dispense provisions to needy Highlanders living in Upper Canada.

Pg 156, Les Ecossais, The Pioneer Scots of Lower Canada, 1763-1855

Lucille H. Campey, Natural Heritage Books

The 1st priest

The second group of emigrants to settle in Glengarry County left Scotland in 1785. The most prominent individual to leave that year was Roderick Macdonell, a Catholic missionary who had worked among the clansmen of Glengarry from 1775 to 1785. Roderick was the son of John Macdonell of Leek, one of the tacksmen leaders of the 1773 emigration; three of Roderick's brothers held commissions in Sir John Johnson's regiment during the Revolutionary War.9 When his family emigrated in 1773 Roderick. was studying for the priesthood in Douai, France, and was unable to accompany them. Upon his return to Scotland, Roderick refused to bind himself to serve the Scottish mission exclusively and instead took the mis­sionary oath "on the express condition of being able to go to America.' His reasons for this condition mirrored the concerns of his flock: "as his parents & whole family had already gone to America," Roderick hoped that within a few years "to follow his numerous connections" there." In spite of his vocation Roderick Macdonell shared the clansmen's interest in keeping family and community intact.

Roderick Macdonell's decision to emigrate was not, however, based simply on. a desire to be reunited with his family. It also reflected the religious needs of the Highland emigrants settled in Canada. In a petition addressed to the Secretary of State, Lord Sydney, Macdonell explained his reasons: "That Lands have been lately assigned ... [to the Scotch Loyalists] in the higher part of Canada; but being of the Roman Catholic persuasion, they are at a Loss for a clergyman, understanding their Language ... That the Memorialist being known and related to many of them, they have communicated Solicitations to him to go abroad & serve them in that capacity.' Bishop Alexander MacDonald was extremely reluctant to give Roderick, whom he considered an excellent missionary, permission to leave Scotland. The scarcity of priests that had troubled the Highlands diocese in the 1760s had lessened somewhat by 1785, but rapid population growth left the clergy barely able to serve their widely scattered congregations; just as Roderick announced his intention of emigrating in 1784, another young priest died suddenly. The Roman Catholic hierarchy was not happy to lose missionaries to Canada, but many priests, like Roderick Macdonell, concluded: "what will the priests do when the people goes [sic] and are we not made for the people more than the place?"

As soon as peace was concluded in America, Roderick Macdonell's family encouraged him to join them in the New World. pressure mounted when his brother arrived in Scotland early in 1785 and Roderick sfound that family feeling had not weakened over time. "You may be Sure I was quit [sic] happy to meet a Brother, whom I had not seen for five and twenty years." Both Roderick's brother and his cousin, Captain John Macdonell of Aberchalder, travelled to Britain to present their claims for compensation as Loyalists to the government. It may have been with these claims in mind that Roderick presented a petition of his own to Lord Sydney in June of 1785.

From People of Glengarry, Highlanders in Transition by Marianne MacLean








Towards the end of his career, Bishop Macdonell declared that for the first ten years, without assistance, he had to travel over the country from Lake Superior to the province line in Lower Canada, in discharge of my pastoral functions, carrying the sacred vestment, sometimes on horseback, sometimes on my own back, and sometimes in Indian birch canoes, living with savages and without any other shelter or comfort but what their fires and their fares and the branches of the trees afforded and crossing the Great Lakes and even descending the St. Lawrence in their dangerous craft.?

A History of Glengarry


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