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INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER I.

Circumstances which suggested to Dr. White the project of going to Oregon--Emotions of Mrs. White--Announcing to the Board of Missions their willingness to go--Appointment received--Coincidence--Reception at New York and Boston--Embarkation--Friends accompany them a few miles out--Parting--Number and description of the mission party--Children

CHAPTER II.

First dinner on board--Effect of a change of diet--Water; its scarcity--Swearing--Flying fish--Shark--Mother Carey’s chickens--Employment--Reaching the equator--Neptune--Amusing scene--Storm--Plate of ham

CHAPTER III.

Falkland Isles-Seals, etc.--Albatross--Cape Horn--Atmosphere--Man overboard--Miss Johnson’s Efforts for his conversion--Juan Fernandes-- Burial of the cook--Whales--Loss of the ship Essex

CHAPTER IV.

Black Fish--Dance of the Porpoises--See Land--Heights of Owyhee--Venerable Pilot--His after kindness--Ladies left alone--Return of the Gentlemen--Cargo of Bananas, &c.--Visitors--Landing--Settle for the Winter--Dress of the Natives--Numbers and occupations--Females’ attempt at Imitation--Funeral ceremonies of the Princess--Procession-- Cahelas--Visit to Youii--Craters and Battle Field--Tamahaah--Half-Caste School--Mrs. White’s School--Young Prince--Character of the Children--Nurse Kakeria--Her love for Silas--Valuable Presents.

CHAPTER V.

Spring and preparations to leave the Sandwich Islands--Benefit to them of their residence there--Engage passage on board ship--Food and water--Windy and boisterous--Great loss--Contents of the Boxes sent on board by Pilot Reynolds; his wife--Interesting young man; his marriage with a native woman--Mr. Grimes--Succession of Storms--Endeavor to cross the Bar of the Columbia--Desperation of the Captain--Crossing--Lulling of the Winds--Baker’s Bay--Rest--View--Varieties of Trees; their enormous size--King Chenamus and his Consort; his Intoxication; their Dress--Aground three times--Visitor--Invitation to Shore--First Canoe ride--Arrival at Astoria--Residence of Mr. Birney--Beds for the Night.

CHAPTER VI

Size of Astoria--The Diana still aground--Preparations to go to Fort Vancouver--One eyed Pilot George--Remonstrances of Friends--Mrs. White’s Resolution--Leaving Astoria--Singing of the Crew--Beauty of the Shores--Reflections--Seeking for a place to Camp--Startling Incident--Camping--Tale of the "Petrified Sister."

CHAPTER VII.

Indian Village--Kindness of an Indian Woman--New kind of Umbrella--Accident--Meeting with Dr. Talmie--Killing an Eagle--Arrival at the Fort--Garden and Plantation--Arrival of the Diana--Mr. Jason Lee--Raillery of Miss Pitman--Mr. Lee’s Introduction--Leaving the Fort--Captain Hinckley’s officiousness--Laughable arrangement--Boat races--Conclusion respecting Mr. Lee--Putting in for the night--Supper and walk--Pond--Pleasant sail--Willamette Falls--A tradition--Bargain--Portage--Elk Bluff--Pudding River--Arrival at Battens de porte McKoys--Letter-Departure for the Mission--Delightful journey--Arrival at their destination--Miss Downing and Mr. Shepherd--His appearance--Two thousand two hundred miles journey ended--First dinner.

CHAPTER VIII.

Mr. Daniel Lee--Stroll in the garden--Its beauty--Accommodations--Mission children--Names--Sufferings of the chief--Improvements--Miss Pittman and Mr. Lee--The two marriages.

CHAPTER IX.

Occupations--Harvesting--Mr. Lee’s expertness--Temperance meetings--Ewing Young and his distillery--Customs of the Hudson’s Bay Company--Action of Gov. McLaughlin.

CHAPTER X.

Endeavors to reach home from Fort Vancouver by a new route--Bewilderment in the woods--Fears--Unsatisfactory interview--Hunger and weariness of the pony--Despondency--Hunger and fatigue--Hallooing for succor--Seeking a place to rest--Ascent into a tree--Passing several hours in the saddle--Bed on the ground--Fears of wild animals--Wolf story--Morning--Departure--Steep hill--Suspicious --Sudden resolution--Reach the Willamette--Despondency--Paddles--Mrs. Bilake--Hunger and disappointment--Duck--Odd reply--”A watched pot never boils”--Arrival at Mrs. B’s residence--Home.

CHAPTER XI.

Ladies’ employments--Hard Fare--Mrs. Leslie’s arrival, and also Mr. Perkin’s--Close Quarters--New house--Hearth--Wolves--Doctor White treed--Mrs. White’s weapon--Cowardice of the animals--The two species of wolves--Anecdotes--Antelope hunt or "circling"--Swimming--Marriage of Miss Johnson and Mr. Perkins--Winter rains--Missionary meeting--Political convention--Mr. Lee’s return to the United States--Reasons--Missionary efforts at the Dalles--Revival at the mission--Startling report--Death of Mrs. Lee and her babe--Drowning of George--His former escape from death on Seneca Lake--Mrs. Whitman’s little girl drowned--Coincidence.

Chapter XII.

A call from the Dalles--Mrs. White, Mr. Leslie, and Dr. Bailey set out for that station--Return to the Cascades--Salmon Party--Visit among the natives--The aged turned off to die--Portage--Visit to an Indian burial place--Dead houses--War club--Re-embark--Swift Current--Conversation--Disaster--Struggles for breath--Mr. Leslie’s statement--Canoes--Conducted to the shore--The lifeless babe--Arrival at the Fort--Reach the falls of the Willamette--Strangers--Unhappy night--Reach home--Letters.

CHAPTER XIII.

Illness of Mr. Shepherd--Surgical operation--Singular impressions of Mrs. White--His death--Benevolent society--Visit to Xaviers--A Mothers anguish--Burying alive--The drowned boy--Outline of Dr. Baileys history--John Turner--A hermitage--Turners bravery--His seclusion.

CHAPTER XIV.

Daniel Lee’s adventure--Visit from Mr. and Mrs. Beaver--English domestic--Visit from Dr. Whitman and Gov’nor and Mrs. McLoughlin--Mode of travelling--Mr. Hall and Lady--Party of the Hudson’s Bay Company--Intermarriage with the natives--Origin of the custom--Extract from Astoria--Return of Mrs. Lee--News--Effect--Oregon institute--Agriculture--Mr. Lee’s course on his first arrival in the country--Results--Exploring tour to the Umpqua country--Willamette Valley--Umpqua mountains--Difficult assent--A plantation--Polite reception--Return--Meeting with an Indian party--Narrative of the Chief.

CHAPTER XV.

Difficulty with Mr. Lee--Extract from a report of the board of missions--Embarcation--Delightful voyage to the Islands--Danger--Mrs. W’s concerns--The pilot again--Visitors--Exploring squadron--Pic-nic--Embark for the United States--Passengers--Mr. Diell’s death--Social parties--Hailing a vessel--Arrival in port--Bennett’s express.

CHAPTER XVI.

Trip to New York--Call on Mr. Fry--His singular behavior--Introductions--Journey to Washington--Reception--Appointment to the Sub-Agency--Death--Lizette--Starting for Oregon--Company--Reach Havana--Separation--Sad thoughts--An old friend--Arrival at Geneva--Curiosity excited by the Indian boys--Reach Buffalo--Milan--Travel via Columbus to St. Louis--Reception--William Sublet--Kind reception at Independence--Anxieties--Meeting of the emigration--Resolutions.

CHAPTER XVII.

Departure–Emotions--A friend--Manner of camping--Order of the morning--Dog slaughter--Sickness of a child--Detained two days--Difficulty in crossing Caw river--Increasing illness of a child--Its death--The mother becomes ill--Mr. And Mrs. L. Obliged to return--Undulating country--Big Blue–Divide--Rainy night--Buffalo--Platte river and plain--Fuel--South fork of the Platte--Chimney and castle--Singular scenery--Arrival at Fort Laramy--Cost of flour, etc.--Bridger and company--Alarming incident.

CHAPTER XVIII.

Buffalo Hunting--Mother Bennett--Tobacco scrape--Sweetwater Valley--Indian Village--Preparations for defence--Happy disappointment--Snow--Great Divide--Fitz Patrick's announcement--View--Two streams--Little Sandy--Separation--Reach Green river--The Valley--Visit from a grisley bear--Animating chase--Another separation--Difficult travelling--Storm--Soda spring--Arrival at Fort Hall--Set off in company with McDonald--Another division--Herding district--Natives--Snake river--Drowning of a man--Fort Boice--Burnt River Valley--Boiling spring--Doctor obtains a guide to Dr. Whitman's--Arrival there--Departure for Wallawalla--Two days' stay there--Formation of the Cascade Mountains--Petrifactions--A rock--Bluffs--Fort Vancouver mills--Willamette--Excitement at the Doctor's arrival and appointment--A meeting--Its doings--Preparations for receiving the reinforcement--Meetings to establish a provisional form of government--A tribemate--Disturbance among the Indians at Wallawalla and Clearwater--Call for the Agent's interference

CHAPTER XIX.

General excitement--State of the colony--Improper conduct of the upper country Indians--Character of the Wallawallas, Keyuses, and Nez Perces--Their disposition towards the missionaries--Mistaken course of the missionaries--Their treatment of a clergyman--Dangerous situation of Dr. Whitman among them--His kindness--Indian's treatment of Mrs. W.--Burning of the mission mills--Ill treatment of Mr. Spalding and lady--Expedition of the Sub-Agent--Hardships--Reach Waiilatpu--Appointment with the chiefs--Mr. Spalding's station--Reception--The Agent's treatment of the Indians--Public interview--Speeches of McKinley, Rogers, and McKay--Five Crows, Bloody Chief, and others--The Doctor's statement and advice--Appointment of a high chief--Feasting--Last meeting--Close--Results of Dr. White's visit to the Nez Perces--Laws of the Nez Perces--Return to Waiilatpu--Keyuse tribe--Feathercap--Touiti's accusation against the whites--Appointment for another meeting--Reach Wascopum--Success-Doings of the missionaries--Catholic missions--Schools--Country upon the Columbia and its tributaries, and towards California--Limestone, &c.--Settlements at the Willamette--Falatine Plains--Clatsop Plains, &c.--Comparison between a certain portion of Oregon, and the New England States--Terrible disaster--Hard characters--Volcano--Report of Mr. Spalding--Mr. Jason Lee's Report.

CHAPTER XX.

Excitement among the Indians--Different views of the alarmed whites--Another journey--State of the Indians--Mr. Spalding's station--Nez Perces--Keyuses and Wallawallas--Presence of the women at the feast--Peace--Visit the Dalles--Course of the agent--Laws of the whites--Immigrating party--Willamette valley--Gov. McLaughlin--False reports--Schools--Mission claim--Mr. Lee--Instructions to immigrants--Oregon Institute--Letters.

CHAPTER XXI.

Manufacture of liquors--Breaking up a distillery--Conduct of Cockstock, an Indian--Affray--Killing of Cockstock--Deaths from poisoned arrows--Interview with the Indians--Previous frightful affair with Cockstock--Alarming visit of fifteen Indians--Cold Blooded murder--Presents to Cockstock's widow--Protection required--Letter from Mr. Hines--Meeting of the legislative body--Resolution--Unhappy affray--Conduct in courts--Resources of the country--Soil of Oregon--Arrival of Rev. Mr. Desmitt, nuns and priests--Port--Exports--Imports--Tour--Schools--Quiet among the Indians--Note from Mr. Littlejohn--Fidelity of the Indians--Reasons for preventing the sale of liquor--Enactment of the legislative committee of Oregon--An act to provide ways and means.

CHAPTER XXII.

General health, etc.--Winter rains--State of affairs between the whites and Indians--Chief of the Fallatine plains--Aggression by the Indians--Military assistance called for--communication of the chief--Unhandsome and unjust behavior of the Californians--Murder of Elijah Hedding--Ellis sent to the whites--Salutary language and interview--Happy visit with Ellis--Intended revenge of the aggressed party--Invitation to the chiefs--Difficulty at fort Vancouver--suspension of hostilities--The agents weariness of the unhappy state of affairs--Dissatisfaction with the government--An unpleasant affair settled--The colony--Methodist institute--Circulating medium needed--Agent's unpleasant position--Number of Indians--Letter from Mr. McLaughlin and Douglas--Answer from Russell and Stewart--Letter from Mr. Burnett--New wagon route--Report of the sub-agent's interpreter--Mr. Lee relative to the Nez Perces--Letter from Mr. Lovejoy to the secretary of war--A resolution--Note to Hon. W. Medill.

CHAPTER XXIII.

Thrilling story--A slave slain and buried with his master--Strange custom--Inducements to the doctor to take the journey home--Endeavors to discover a new route through the Cascade mountains--Scaling a mountain--Vegetation--Snows--Fine view--Masses of rocks--Mt. Hood--Disheartened--Return to the base of the mountain--Molalah Indians--Disappointment--Wheat--Petrified ash--Advantages for settling--Deer and Elk--Wild cat--New determination--Fine country--Mounds--Mt. Spencer--Ascent laborious--Shrubs--Incident--Stupendous view--Descent.

CHAPTER XXIV.

Indian encampment--Prairies and band of Indians--Stream--Separation--Spur of the mountains--Horses left--Indian village--Singular destitution--Embarking on the river--Startling accident--Swift travelling--Sterile tract--Tide water--Encamp--Indian village--Craw fish--Singular piece of meat--Indian explanation--The ocean--Strip of land--Boy--Brown's claim--Railroad advantages--Indian toil--Good fire--In sight of friends--Breakfast--A start--A present--Wolves--Beautiful country--Arrival at the colony--Petition--Start again for the states--Party separate--Meeting at the Dalles--Indian encampment--Wedding here to-day--Bride and bridegroom--Dresses--Whimsical story--Disappointment in obtaining the bride's beautiful dress--Murderous affair--Interesting account--Deserter--Another threatened--John Day river--Saucy Indians--Wallawallas--A halt--Visitors and presents--Agriculture and its effects--Hot Spring--Alarm--Keyuses and Nez Perces--Alarming report--Guard--Emigration--Letters--St. Joseph's company--Mr. Fisher's eagerness for news--A meal--Odd reason for lagging behind--Chance for carrying a letter--Roguish girls--Fort Hall--Runaway horse.

CHAPTER XXV.

Showers--Soda Springs--Dr. Burke--Pleasant interview--Green river--Great change--New route--Sterile and forbidding country--Summit level--Uncomfortable night--Contrast--Divide--"Home, sweet home"--A trail--Sabbath travelling--Weather--Dreary pass--Animals--Bear--Sweetwater valley--Independence rock--Solitary walk--Halt--Ravine--Snow--Red bluff--Camp on the Platte--Buffalo--Needless fears--Humbug--Three grizzly bears--Signs of Indians--Nondescript--Indian and family--Signs of danger--Herd of horses--Attempt to escape observation--Failure--An old man--Kind reception--Handsome offer--An American--Feasting--Smoking--Reasonable request--Encampment--Two Frenchmen--Good meal--Warm spring--Fort Laramy--Mr. Tappan--Eligibility for a military post.

CHAPTER XXVI.

Chapman's return for the minute book--Hard time--A move--Return--White men--The Platte--Art nature--Platte crane--Polecat--Ash creek--Thompson--A present--Wolves--Kill a buffalo--A robbery--Woodless platte, valley, etc.--Bread--History of a lump of sugar--Singular circumstance--Sabbath morning--Weather--Buffalo--Birds--Antelope, etc, --Length of the buffalo district--Large herd--Express--Warning of danger--A sign of danger--Pawnees--Unpleasant interruption--Pack-horse frightened--Troublesome Indian--Departure--Firing--Another interruption--Number of Indians--Madness of attempting to contend--Brown and Saxton--Coat taken--A blow--Hard usage--A protector--A ride on horse-back--Saxton--Little demons--A council--Delicate feast--Council more moderate--Another confiscation--"Bad people behind"--Not to be gulled--Saxton's visitor--Package of manuscripts--Preparation to start--Kind old squaw--Gratitude--Unpleasant surprise--Advantageous trade proposed--Kind interference--Forced trade--Final conclusion--Dr. Satterly.

CHAPTER XXVII.

Departure--Prairie on fire--Strong wind--Raw corn--Thirst--Dreams--Pool--Indians--Ruse--Living on raw corn--Big Blue--Grove--wild turkey--Lucky shot--Postponement of a feast--Sabbath--Bad night--Indian and family flour--Nice bread--Frozen squashes--Residence of Mr. Fish--Beautiful country--Westport--Mr. Brown--Independence--Divine worship--Visit to the mission.

CHAPTER XXVIII.

Outline of journey of Washington--Gracious reception--Thoughts of home--Meeting with friends in New York city--Reach Ithaca--Arrival home--Letter to the editor of a western paper--Decrease of the Indian population in Oregon--Timbers of Oregon--Fossils--Animals--Birds--Soil--Legislators of Oregon--Anecdote--Wrong of the government in not extending jurisdiction over Oregon--Treatment of public officers--Treatment of Dr. White.