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source: William Henry Gray, A History of Oregon, 1792—1849, Drawn from Personal Observation and Authentic Information. Portland, Oregon: Harris & Holman, 1870.

CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE
INTRODUCTION
 
CHAPTER I.
First discovery of the river.—Natives friendly.—British ship.—Brig Jennet.—Snow Sea Otter.—The Globe.—Alert.—Guatizozin.—Atahualpa.—Lewis and Clarke.—Vancouver.—Hamilton.—Derby.—Pearl.—Albatross.—First house built in 1810.—Astor's settlement.—The Tonquin.—Astor's Company betrayed to the Northwest Company.
 
CHAPTER II.
The country restored.—The order.—Description of Astoria.—Different parties.—Northwest Fur Company.—Astor's plan.—Conflict of the two British fur companies.—The treaties.—The Selkirk settlement.—Its object.—The company asserts chartered rights as soon as united.
 
CHAPTER III.
English Hudson's Bay effort to secure Oregon.—British claim to Oregon.—Dr. McLaughlin's relation to the company.—Treatment of Red River settlers.—A mistake.—Sir Edward Belcher.—Duplicity of the Hudson's Bay Company.—A noble man.—An Englishman's opinion of the Hudson's Bay Company.—Sir James Douglas's testimony.—J. Ross Browne.—Duty of an historian.—Cause and effect.
 

CHAPTER IV.

Care of Great Britain for her fur companies.—Columbia Fur Company.—Astor's second fur company.—Major Pilcher's fur company.—Loss of the ship Isabel.—Captain Bonneville's expedition.—Cause of his failure.—Captain Wyeth's, 1832.—Indians ask for missionaries in 1833.—Methodist Mission.—Fort Hall established.—Fort Boise.  
 
CHAPTER V.
Extent and power of Hudson's Bay Company.—Number of forts.—Location.—Policy.—Murder of Mr. Black.—McKay.—Manner of dealing with Indians.—Commander of fort kills an Indian.—Necessity of such a course.—Hudson's Bay Company not responsible for what their servants do.
 
CHAPTER VI.
Murder of John McLaughlin, Jr.—Investigation by Sir George Simpson and Sir James Douglas.
 
CHAPTER VII.
Treatment of Indians.—Influence of Hudson's Bay Company.—Rev. Mr. Barnley's statement.—First three years.—After that.—Treatment of Jesuits.—Of Protestants.—Of Indians.—Not a spade to commence their new mode of life.—Mr. Barnley's statement.—Disappointed.—His mistake.—Hudson's Bay Company disposed to crush their own missionaries.
 
CHAPTER VIII.
Petition of Red River settlers.—Their requests, from 1 to 14.—Names.—Governor. Christie's reply.—Company's reply.—Extract from minutes.—Resolutions, from 1 to 9.—Enforcing rules.—Land deed.—Its condition.—Remarks.
 
CHAPTER IX.
Puget Sound Agricultural Company.—Its original stock.—A correspondence.—No law to punish fraud.—A supposed trial of the case.—Article four of the treaty.—The witnesses.—Who is to receive the Puget Sound money.—Dr. Tolmie, agent of the company.—The country hunted up.—Difficult to trace a fictitious object.—Statement of their claim.—Result of the investigation.
 
CHAPTER X.
Case of The Hudson's Bay Company v. The United States.—Examination of Mr. McTavish.—Number of witnesses.—Their ignorance.—Amount claimed.—Original stock.—Value of land in Oregon.—Estimate of Hudson's Bay Company's property.—Remarks of author.
 
CHAPTER XI.
Quotation from Mr. Swan.—His mistake.—General Gibbs' mistake.—Kamaiyahkan.—Indian agent killed.—J. J. Stevens misjudged.
 
CHAPTER XII.

Review of Mr. Greenhow's work in connection with the conduct and policy of the Hudson's Bay. Company.—Schools and missionaries.—Reasons for giving extracts from Mr. Greenhow's work.—Present necessity for more knowledge about the company.

 
CHAPTER XIII.
Occupants of the country.—Danger to outsiders.—Description of missionaries.
 
CHAPTER XIV.
Missionary outfit.—On the way.—No roads.—An English nobleman.—A wagon taken along.—Health of Mrs. Spalding.—Meeting mountain men and Indians.—A feast to the Indians.
 
CHAPTER XV.
Arrival at American rendezvous.—An Indian procession.—Indian curiosity to see white women.—Captain N. Wyeth.—McCleod and T. McKay.—Description of mountain men.—Their opinion of the missionaries.
 
CHAPTER XVI.
Missionaries travel in company with Hudson's Bay Company's party.—The Lawyer's kindness.—Arrival at Fort Hall.—Description of the country.—The Salmon Indians.—The Hudson's Bay Company's tariff.
 
CHAPTER XVII.
An explanation.—Instructions of company.—Their tyranny.—Continuation of journey. Fording rivers.—Arrival at Boise.—Dr. Whitman compelled to leave his wagon.
 
CHAPTER XVIII.
Arrival at Fort Wallawalla.—Reception.—The fort in 1836.—Voyage down the Columbia River.—Portage at Celilo.—At Dalles.—A storm.—The Flatheads.—Portage at the Cascades.
 
CHAPTER XIX.
Fort Vancouver in 1836.—An extra table.—Conditions on which cattle were supplied to settlers.—Official papers.—Three organizations.
 
CHAPTER XX.
Settlers in 1836.—Wallamet Cattle Company.—What good have the missionaries done?—Rev. J. Lee and party.—The Hudson's Bay Company recommend the Wallamet .—Rev. S. Parker arrives at Vancouver.
 
CHAPTER XXI.
Arrival of Rev. Mr. Beaver and wife.—His opinion of the company.—A double wedding.—Mrs. Spalding and Mrs. Whitman at Vancouver.—Men explore the country and locate stations.—Their opinion of the country.—Indian labor.—A winter trip down Snake River.
 
CHAPTER XXII.
The French and American settlers.—Hudson's Bay Company's traveling traders.—The Flatheads.—Their manner of traveling. Marriage.—Their honesty.—Indian fight and scalp dance.—Fight with the Sioux.—At Council Bluffs.
 
CHAPTER XXIII.
Re-enforcement to the Methodist Mission.—Re-enforcement to the mission of the American Board.
 
CHAPTER XXIV.
Arrival of Jesuit missionaries.—Toupin's statement about Rev. A. B. Smith.—Death of Mrs. Jason Lee.—First express.—Jesuits at work.—The first printing—press.—The Catholic tree.
 
CHAPTER XXV.
Independent missionaries arrive.—Their troubles.—Conversion of Indians at the Dalles.—Their motives.—Emigrants of 1839.—Blubber—Mouth Smith.—Re—enforcement of the Methodist Mission in 1840.—Father De Smet.—Rev. Harvey Clark and associates.—Ewing Young.—Names of missionaries and settlers.
 
CHAPTER XXVI
1840.—Petition to Congress of United States.—British subjects amenable to the laws of Canada.—Mr. Douglas as justice of the peace.—Mr. Leslie as judge.
 
CHAPTER XXVII.
Death of Ewing Young.—First public attempt to organize a provisional government. Origin of the provisional government.—First Oregon schooner.
 
CHAPTER XXVIII.
Lee and Hines explore the Umpqua River.—Mr. Hines tells a story.—Massacre and plunder of Smith's party by the Indians.—Sympathy of the Hudson's Bay Company.—Extract from the San Francisco Bulletin.
 
CHAPTER XXIX.
Missionaries leaving.—Hudson's Bay Company's Gold Exchange.—Population in 1842.—Whitman and Lovejoy start for the States.—The Red River emigration.—American merchants.—Settlers not dependent on the Hudson's Bay Company.—Milling Company.—The Oregon Institute.—Dr. Elijah White.—Proceedings at a public meeting.—Correspondence with the War Department.
 
CHAPTER XXX.
Dispatch of Dr. White to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs.—He praises the Hudson's Bay Company.—His—account of the Indians.—Indian outrages,—Dr. White's expedition to the Nez Percés.—Indian council.—Speeches.—Electing a chief.—Laws of the Nez Percés.—Visit to the Cayuses.—Doings of the missionaries.—Drowning of Mr. Rogers and family.—George Geere.—Volcanoes.—Petition against Governor McLaughlin.
 
CHAPTER XXXI.
Letter of H. H. Spalding to Dr. White.—Account of his mission among the Nez Percés.—Schools.—Cultivation.—Industrial arts.—Moral character.—Arable land.—Letter of Commissioner of Indian Affairs to the Secretary of War.
 
CHAPTER XXXII.
Dr. E. White's letter to the Secretary of War.—Excitement among the Indians.—Visit to Nez Percés, Cayuses, and Wallawallas.—Destitution and degradation of the Coast Indians.—Dr. White eulogizes Governor McLaughlin and the Hudson's Bay Company.—Schools and missions.—Mr. Jesse Applegate.—Dr. White's second letter.—Letters of Peter H. Hatch and W. H. Wilson.—Seizure of a distillery. Search for liquor.—Letter of James D. Saules.—Fight with Indians.—Death of Cockstock..—Description and character of him.—The Molallas and Klamaths. Agreement with the Dalles Indians.—Presents to Cockstock's widow.—Dr. White's third letter.—Letter of Rev. G. Hines to Dr. White.—Letter of W. Medill.
 
CHAPTER XXXIII.
First council to organize a provisional government.—Library founded.—Origin of the Wolf Association.—The Methodist Mission influence.—Dr. White exhibits his credentials.—First " wolf meeting."—Proceedings of the second "wolf meeting."Officers.—Resolutions.—Bounties to be paid.—Resolution to appoint a committee of twelve for the civil and. military protection of the settlement.—Names of the members of the committee.
 
CHAPTER XXXIV.
First meeting of the committee of twelve.—All invited to participate.—The Rev. J. Lee and Mr. Abernethy ridicule the organization.—Mr. Lee tells a story.—Letter from Governor Abernethy.—The main question at issue.—Drowning of Cornelius Rogers and party.—Conduct of Dr. White.—Methodist Mission.—Catholic boasts of conversions.
 
CHAPTER XXXV.
Meetings to oppose organization.—Address of the French—Canadians.—Criticisms on it by the author.—The Jesuits.—Jesuit oath.—Article from Cincinnati Beacon.
 
CHAPTER XXXVI.
The meeting at Champoeg.—Tactics of the Jesuit party.—Counter—tactics of the Americans.—A division and its result.—Public record.—Opposition to clergymen as legislators.—Mr. Hines, as an historian.—His errors.—Importance of Mr. Hines' history.—Difficulty among the Indians.—Cause of the difficulty.
 

CHAPTER XXXVII.

Whitman's visit to Washington.—A priest's boast.—A taunt, and Whitman's reply.—Arrival in—Washington.—Interview with Secretary Webster.—With President Tyler.—His return.—Successful passage of the Rocky Mountains with two hundred wagons.—His mill burned during his absence.
 
CHAPTER XXXVIII.
Petition of the citizens of Oregon in 1843.—Complaints against the Hudson's Bay Company.—The Milling Company.—Kicking the half—bushel.—Land claims of Dr. McLaughlin.—Names of the signers.—Reasons for not signing.—Notice, deed, and bond of John McLaughlin.—Claim of Alvin F. Waller.
 
CHAPTER XXXIX.
Extracts from Mr. Hines' history.—Attempt to capture an Indian horse—thief.—Dr. McLaughlin refuses to sell supplies to the signers of the petition.—Excitement in the settlement.—Interview; with Dr. McLaughlin at Vancouver.
 
CHAPTER XL.
A combination of facts.—Settlers alive to their danger.—Mr. Hines' disparagement of the Methodist Mission.—Indians want pay for being whipped.—Indian honesty.—Mr, Hines' opinion of the Indians' religion—Mr. Geiger's advice.—Dr. McLaughlin's answer to Yellow Serpent.—Baptiste Doreo.—Four conflicting influences.
 
CHAPTER XLI.
Governor Simpson and Dr. Whitman in Washington.—Interviews with Daniel Webster and President Tyler.—His cold reception in Boston by the American Board.—Conducts a large emigration safely across the Rocky Mountains into Oregon.—The "Memorial Half—Century Volume."—The Oregon mission ignored by the American Board.—Dr. McLaughlin.—His connection with the Hudson's Bay Company.—Catholic Cayuses' manner of praying.—Rev. C. Eells.—Letter from A. L. Lovejoy.—Description of Whitman's and Lovejoy's winter journey from Oregon to Bent's Fort on the Arkansas River.
 
CHAPTER XLII.
Assembly of the Nez Percés,. Cayuses, and Wallawallas.—Mock fight.—Council with the Indians.—Speeches by Yellow Serpent, Tilokaikt, the Prince, and Illutin.—The secret of the whole difficulty.—John, the Kanaka.—A cow for a horse.—Killing of a medicine woman.
 
CHAPTER XLIII.
The Legislative Committee of nine.—Hon. Robert Moore, chairman.—Description of the members.—Minutes of their proceedings.—Dr. R. Newell, his character.—Two specimens of his speeches.—The dark clouds.
 
CHAPTER XLIV.
Fourth of July, 1843.—Oration by Mr. Hines.—Meeting of July 5.—Debate on the land law.—How the Jesuits and the Hudson's Bay Company secured their land claims.—Speech of the Rev. G. Hines against the proposed Executive Committee.—The committee supported by O'Neil, Shortess, and Lee.—W. H. Gray closes the debate.—The report of the committee adopted.—Committee appointed to report to Congress, another to make a Digest of Territorial laws, and a third to prepare and administer an oath of office.
 
CHAPTER XLV.
Organic laws.—Resolutions.—Districts.—Militia law.—Land claims.—Certificate.
 
CHAPTER XLVI.
Description of the State House.—Conduct of the French settlers.—Arrival of Dr. Whitman's party of immigrants.—Prosperity of the settlers.—Change in the policy of the Hudson's Bay Company.—Their exorbitant claims.
 
CHAPTER XLVII.
Actions speak louder than words.—Efforts of the Hudson's Bay Company to discourage immigration.—Account of the two Jesuits, F. N. Blanchet and P. J. De Smet.—Protestant missionaries discouraged.—Important position of the Rev. G. Hines.—Recall of the Rev. Jason Lee.—Efforts of the Hudson's Bay Company to prevent emigration to the Territory.—Statement of General Palmer.—Indian combinations.—The Donner party.—Extent of Oregon at this time.
 
CHAPTER XLVIII.
1844.—The settlements alarmed.—Indian attack.—Death of G. W. Le Breton.—Meeting at Mr. La Chapelle's.—Volunteer company formed.—The Modeste in the Columbia River.—The Legislative Assembly.—Names of the members.—Peter H. Burnett.—Mr. David Hill.—Oregon social standard.—M. M. McCarver.—"Old Brass Gun."'A. L. Lovejoy.—Daniel Waldo.—Thomas D. Keizer.—Black act.—Prohibitory liquor law.
 
CHAPTER XLIX.
Message of the Executive Committee.—Observations on the message.—Generosity of the Hudson's Bay Company.—The Methodist Mission.—The Oregon Printing—press Association.—George Abernethy, Esq.
 
CHAPTER L.
Dr. White's report.—Seizure and destruction of a distillery.—Homicide of Joel Turnham—State of the Territory.—Trials of Dr. White.—The liquor law.—Revenue act.—Case of the negro Saul.—The Indians kill an ox.—Other Indian difficulties.—Indian expedition to California.—Death of the Indian Elijah.—State of the Territory.—Claim of the Hudson's Bay Company on the north bank of the Columbia.—Letter of Peter H. Burnett.—The Nez Percés and Cayuses.—Extract from the report of the United States Senate.
 
CHAPTER LI.
1845.—Public meetings to elect delegates to convention.—Candidates for governor;.—Members elected to the Legislative Committee.—Oath of office.—Mr. Applegate's announcement.—Dr. McLaughlin's amphibiousness.—Description of the /members of the Legislative Committee.—Business of the session.—Ermatinger's election contested.—Mr. Garrison's resolutions.—Anti-slavery resolution.—Organic law revised.—Improvements and condition of the country.
 
CHAPTER LII.
1845.—Second session of the Legislative Committee.—Mr. McCarver removed from the office of Speaker.—Mr. Applegate's resolutions.—Protest of Gray, Foisy, and Straight.—A legislative incident.—Law against dueling.—Dr. White addresses the Legislature.—Resolutions.—Dr. White denies the right of the settlers to organize a provisional government.—McCarver signs documents without authority.—Resolutions by the house on the subject.—Impertinent letter from Dr. White to the house.—White cornered by President Polk.—Incidents in White's temperance movements.—Proposition to repeal all laws for the collection of debts.—The Currency act.—Adjournment of the Legislature in August.—Meets again in December.—Proposal to locate the capital.
 

CHAPTER LIII.

The liquor law.—Amended act of 1845.—Message of the governor on the same.—Repeal of the prohibitory and passage of the license—law.—Letter of James Douglas.—Reply of Mr. Samuel Parker.——Dr. Tolmie's resolution on the judiciary.—The governor's veto of the license law.—Immigration for Oregon and California in 1846.—Arrival of the brig Henry.—The Oregon Printing Association.—The Spectator, the first newspaper in Oregon.—W. G. T. Vault, first editor.—H. A. G. Lee, second editor.—G. L. Curry, third editor.—Judge Wait, fourth editor.
 
CHAPTER LIV.
The Whitman massacre.—Narratives of, by J. B. A. Brouillet and J. Ross Browne.—Extract from the New York Evangelist.—Statements of Father Brouillet criticised.—Testimony of John Kimzey.—Dr. Whitman at Umatilla.—Returns home.
 
CHAPTER LV.
Occupations of the victims immediately before the massacre.—Description of the mission buildings.—The Doctor called into the kitchen to be. murdered.—Joe Lewis, the leader in the massacre.—The scene outside.—The Doctor's house plundered.—Mrs. Whitman shot.—Brutalities to the dead and dying.—Escape of some and murder of others.—Safety of the French Papists and the servants of the Hudson's Bay Company.—Fate of Joe Lewis.
 
CHAPTER LVI.
Comments on Vicar—General Brouillet's arguments against the Whitman massacre being the act of Catholics.—Joe Stanfield: Brouillet's story in his favor.—Murders on the second day.—Deposition of Daniel Young.—More murders.
 
CHAPTER LVII
How the country was saved to the United States.—Article from the New York Evening Post.—Ingratitude of the American Board.—Deposition of Elam Young.—Young girls taken for Indian wives.—Statement of Miss Lorinda Bewley.—Sager, Bewley, and Sales killed.
 
CHAPTER LVIII.
Vicar—General Brouillet's statement.—Statement of Istacus.—The priest finds the poison.—Statement of William Geiger, Jr.—Conduct of Mr. McBean.—Influence of the Jesuit missions.
 
CHAPTER LIX.
Continuation of Miss Bewley's evidence.—The priests refuse her protection.—Forcibly taken from the bishop's house by Five Crows.—Brouillet advises her to remain with her Indian violator.—Indecent question by a priest.—Mr. Brouillet attempts to get a statement from her.—Two questions.—Note from Mrs. Bewley.—Bishop Blanchet's letter to Governor Abernethy.—Comments on the Jesuits' proceedings.—Grand council at the bishop's.—Policy in forcing Miss Bewley to Five Crows' lodge.—Speeches by Camaspelo and Tilokaikt.—Killing of Elijah and the Nez Percé chief commented on.—The true story told.—Dr. White's report.—The grand council again.—Review of Brouillet's narrative.—Who were the real authors of the massacre.
 
CHAPTER LX.
The Hudson's Bay Company's and the priests' part in the massacre.—McBean's messenger.—Plot divulged to Hinman, Ogden, and Douglas.—Douglas's remark to Hinman.—McBean's letter.—His perversion of facts.—Comments.—Sir James Douglas's letter to Governor Abernethy.—His Sandwich Islands letter.—Its falsehood and absurdity.—Mr. Hinman's letter to Governor Abernethy.—The dates.—Assertion of Robert Newell.—Hudson's Bay Company v. United States.
 
CHAPTER LXI.
Preliminary events of the Cayuse war.—Message of Governor Abernethy.—Journal of the house.—Resolutions.—Assembling of the people at the call of the governor.—Enlisting of men.—Names of the volunteers.—Names of the officers.Their flag.—Their departure.—Letter to Sir James Douglas.—His reply.—Commissioners return.—Address to the citizens.—Public' meeting.—Report of commissioners to the Legislature.—Messenger sent to Washington.—Memorial to Congress.—Champoeg County tax.—Strength of the settlement called for.—Bishop Blanchet's letter to Governor Abernethy.
 
CHAPTER LXII.
The Cayuse war.—Letter of Captain Lee.—Indians friendly with the Hudson's Bay Company.—Conduct of Mr. Ogden.—His letters to Mr. Walker and Mr. Spalding:—Note of Rev. G. H. Atkinson.—Sir James Douglas's letter to Governor Abernethy.—A rumor.—The governor's reply.—Another letter from Sir James.—Mr. Ogden.—Extraordinary presents to the Indians of arms and ammunition.—Colonel Gilliam's campaign.—Indian fight.—Property captured.—The Des Chutes Indians make peace.—Captain McKay's company of British subjects join the army.—A nuisance.—" Veritas."—Nicholas Finlay gives the signal for battle.—Running fight.—Captain McKay's company.—Council held by the peace commissioners with the Indians.—Governor Abernethy's address.—Speeches of the Indians Camaspelo, Joseph, Jacob, Old James, Red Wolf, Timothy, Richard, and Kentuck.—Letters of Joel Palmer, R. Newell, James Douglas, and William McBean.—Who is responsible for the Cayuse war?
 
CHAPTER LXIII.
Letter to General Lovejoy.—Call for men and ammunition.—Yankama chief.—His speech.—Small supply of ammunition.—Letter of Joseph Cadwallader.—Claim and a girt—Combined Indian tribes.—Ladies of Oregon.—Public meeting.—A noble address.—Vote of thanks.—Address of the young ladies.—Death of Colonel Gilliam.—His campaign.—Colonel Waters' letter.—Doubtful position of Indians.—Number at Fort Wallawalla.—Results of the war.—Jesuit letters.—Fathers Hoikin and De Smet.—The Choctaws.—Indian confederacy.—Last hope of the Indian.—Jesuit policy.—The Irish in the war of the Rebellion.—Father Hecker.—Boasts of the Jesuits.—Letter of Lieutenant Rogers.—Priests supply the Indians with arms and ammunition.—Ammunition seized.—Oregon Argus.—Discovery of gold.—No help for the—Indian.—Withdrawal of the Hudson's Bay Company to Vancouver.—The smooth-tongued Jesuits yet remain.
 
CHAPTER LXIV.
Missions among the Western Indians.—The Coeur d'Alene Mission.—Protestant and Catholic missions compared.—What the American Protestant missionaries have done for the country and the Indians.—Extent of their influence, progress, and improvements.—Patriotism of Dr. Whitman.
 
CHAPTER LXV.
Description of the face of the country.—Agricultural and mining productions.—Timber.—The Wallamet.—Columbia.—Dalles.—Upper Columbia.—Mountains.—Rivers.—Mineral wealth.—Climate.—The Northern Pacific Railroad.—Conclusion.
 
 

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