Chapter 12
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CHAPTER XII.

CHURCHES, BENEVOLENT ORGANIZATIONS AND HOSPITALS.

Methodist, Catholic, Congregational, Episcopal, Baptist, Presbyterian, Jewish, Unitarian, Lutheran, German Reformed and Christian Churches--Ladies' Relief Society--Children's Home--German Benevolent Association--Boys and Girls Aid Society--City Board of Charities--Portland Woman's Union--Kindergarten Association--Oregon Humane Society-Portland Seaman's Friend Society--St. Vincent's Hospital--Good Samaritan Hospital--Portland Hospital.

THE advent of religious teachers in this portion of the West had an important bearing upon its history and destiny. Those of the Protestant faith became prominent factors in securing American settlement and occupation of the country which resulted in the acquisition of the Territory of Oregon to the United States. The part they bore in the long struggle for possession of this great domain--an empire within itself--has been treated of in preceding pages and needs here no further elaboration. They came at first solely moved by religious motives, but the conditions that surrounded them induced them to play a part of the utmost consequence to their country. Their purely religious mission became in the progress of events a semi-political one--a departure entirely excusable on the ground of patriotism, good morals and common sense.

No organized effort was made to christianize the Indians of the Columbia, until several years after the country had been visited by American explorers. It was not until 1832 that the missionary societies of the East concluded to send religious teachers among the Aborigines of the Pacific Slope. The matter was then taken hold of by the Methodist Board of Missions and the American Board of Commissioners of Foreign Missions, a society supported by the Congregational, Presbyterian and Dutch Reformed denominations. The Methodists were the first to take the field. Rev. Jason Lee was given direction of the work, and associated with him were Rev. Daniel Lee, Cyrus Shepard and P. L. Edwards. This missionary party arrived in the Willamette Valley in 1834, and established a mission station ten miles below the present city of Salem. Somewhat briefly [page 345] has been traced the progress of this pioneer band of religious workers in preceding pages of this volume. They laid the foundation of Methodism in Oregon and the growth of this denomination from that time to the present forms an interesting theme, but the province of this work precludes a proper treatment of the subject.

When the first Methodist Church was organized in Portland in 1848 there were only ten Methodist ministers in Oregon. Rev. J. H. Wilbur was the first pastor, and during his pastorate a church building was erected in 1850. It was a plain but roomy frame building, with its gable fronting on Taylor street near Third, and became known as the Taylor Street Church. In 1869, the present brick church, costing $35,000, on the corner of Third and Taylor, as erected.

The Taylor Street Church is the strongest, both in members and means, among the Methodist churches in Oregon. It has over 500 members and is the largest contributor to benevolent objects and mission work in the Oregon conference. The following ministers have served this church from the beginning of its history to the present time: J. H. Wilbur, 1848-9; J. L. Parrish, 1849-50; J. H. Wilbur, 1850-1; C. S. Kingsley, 1851-52; H. K. Hines, 1853; P. G. Buchanan, 1854; Wm. Roberts, 1855-6; D. Rutledge, 1857; W. S. Lewis, 1858-9 I. Dillon, 1860-1; D. Rutledge, 1862-4; B. C. Lippincott, 1865; C. C. Stratton, 1866-7; J. H. White, 1868; Wm. Roberts, 1869-70; Geo. W. Izer, 1871-3; Robert Bentley, 1874-5; C. V.' Anthony, 1876-7; J. H. Acton, 1878-80; Geo. W. Izer, 1881-83; G. W. Chandler, 1884-5; W. M. Mullinix, 1886; J. W. Alderman, 1886. The present pastor, Rev. Alfred Kummer, came in September, 1887.

St. Paul's M. E. Church was organized in 1869. The first pastor was Rev. A. C. Fairchild. The house of worship used by the congregation of this church is located on the corner of Hall and Sixth streets. The present membership is one hundred and twenty. The pastors who have officiated in this church in order of service have been: A. C. Fairchild, Wm. Roberts, T. F. Royal, W. C. Chatlin, John F. Flynn, M. Judy, H. K. Hines, G. M. Pierce, J. W. Klepper --an and the present pastor, C. E. Cline.

The Centenary M. E. Church of East Portland, was organized in 1867 and has a membership of two hundred and thirty-eight [page 346] persons. The first pastor was Rev. J. N. Dennison. Rev. J. W. Bushong is the present pastor. The church building is located on the corner of Ninth and J streets..

Grace M. E. Church was organized in April, 1884, at which time several member withdrew from the Taylor street church to perfect the organization. Rev. E. W. Caswell was assigned to the new society, under whose labors a neat chapel was built at the corner of Eleventh and Taylor streets. The society grew rapidly and soon numbered among its members many of the most prominent citizens of Portland. The quarters first erected soon became too small for the large congregations which gathered at the chapel, and the erection of the present beautiful church edifice on the corner of Tenth and Taylor streets was begun. This building was completed at. a cost of $55,000 and dedicated on December 15, 1889. It has a seating capacity of 780. In general architecture the style is colonial. The main tower is principally of stone. The entrance is of the same material. in form of an arch and is an impressive and pleasing piece of work. While the superstru6ture is of wood, the general finish and appearance is such as to give the impression of a stone building throughout.

Rev. Ross C. Houghton, D. D., the present pastor, succeeded Mr. Caswell in October, 1887. He has passed many years in the ministry; has traveled extensively, and is a popular author. His ministration has given great satisfaction to the congregation. Although this church has had an existence of only a little more than five years it stands third in number of members in the Oregon conference, and is regarded as a most desirable appointment.

The German M. E. Church was organized in 1880. A church edifice has since been erected at the corner of North Eighth and D streets where services are conducted in the German language. Rev. Frederick Bohn was the first pastor. He was succeeded by Rev. J. C. Sinclair. Rev. Frederick Bohn again became pastor in 1885, serving until 1888, when Rev. George Hartung, the present pastor, succeeded him.

The Norwegian-Danish M. E. Church was organized in November, 1882, by Rev. C. J. Larsen with fifteen members. At that time meetings were held in a chapel on Third street. Great interest [page 347] was awakened by these services and but a short time elapsed until a lot was purchased by the congregation on the corner of Twelfth and D street, where a neat and commodious church has since been erected. Rev. C. J. Larson still officiates as pastor.

The Methodists have been foremost in the establishment of mission branches of this denomination in the vicinity of Portland during recent years.

The East Portland M. E. Church, organized in October, 1887, with a new house of worship on the corner of Tenth and Adams streets, dedicated in February, 1890, is the outgrowth of their work in this direction. The Albina M. E. Church, corner of Russell and Kirby street is also of recent growth. Both of these churches are presided over by Rev. G. M. Pierce, under whom they are enjoying great prosperity. For several years a Chinese mission has been sustained, of which Rev. Andrew J. Hanson is superintendent.

The Zion M. E. Church corner of Main and Eleventh streets, was built in 1.881, and is a house of worship for the Africans of Portland. At present no regular pastor is stationed over this congregation and services are only occasionally held.

In membership the Methodists outnumber any other religious denomination in Portland except the Catholics. At the Annual State Conference of 1889, the number of members belonging to the Taylor Street, St. Paul's and Grace churches of Portland; the Centenary and Adam's Street churches, of East Portland, and the Albina church was reported as 1,340.

The Catholics followed the Methodists in point of time in the establishment of churches in Oregon. As early as the winter of 1839-40 they erected a church at Champoeg, in the Willamette Valley, although for some years previously they had been steadily making converts to their faith among the Indians. In 1838 Rev. F. N. Blanchet and Rev. Modiste Demers were appointed by the Arch-bishop of Quebec as missionaries to the Pacific coast country, the former as vicar-general. For four years they toiled alone in their mission field which extended from the Pacific coast to the Rocky Mountains, between the California boundary and the northern glacial sea. They were then joined by other laborers in religious work and [page 348] from that time the Catholic faith has been upheld by able and conscientious workers.

The first movement toward the erection of a Catholic church in Portland was commenced in the fall of 1851, at which time Rev. James Croke was authorized by Archbishop Blanchet to solicit donations for the purpose. About $600 was secured through subscriptions from residents of Portland, with which half a block of ground was purchased from Capt. J. H. Couch, somewhere in the vicinity of Sixth and D streets, and the building commenced.

During the erection of the church, the few Catholics who were then in Portland, used to assemble at the residences of Catholic families, until the completion of the little sacristy at the end of the church, where for the first time midnight mass was celebrated at Christmas, 1851. By February, 1852, the work was sufficiently advanced to have the building dedicated, the services being per-formed by Archbishop F. N. Blanchet, assisted by Very Rev. J. B. Brouillet, Vicar-general of Nesqualy and Rev. James Croke, pastor. The edifice itself at this time was a mere shell, the inside walls being covered with cotton cloth, and the sanctuary and altar with Chinese matting.

The church remained on the original site until 1854, when it was moved to the site now occupied by the Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception, on the corner of Third and Stark streets. Here the building remained for the next ten years without change. When in 1862, the Most Rev. Archbishop removed from Oregon City to Portland, this humble church became the pro-Cathedral. In October, 1863, Very Rev. J. F. Fierens, V. G., was appointed to take charge of the pro-Cathedral. By this time the congregation had so. increased as to require a larger building. Under Vicar-general Fierens, two wings were added to the main building which were completed in the fall of 1864, the first service in the enlarged church being celebrated on Christmas . day of that year. Seven years later it again became necessary to enlarge the building to meet the needs of the congregation. This was accomplished between August and October, 1871. During the next seven years, the Catholic population of Portland had so increased that it was found necessary [page 349] to erect a larger building. The old edifice was removed and in its place was built the present Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception. It is a Gothic structure fronting on Stark street. It was .dedicated in 1882, and at present is completed with the exception of the main tower. Very Rev. J. F. Fierens, V. G., has been pastor of this church since 1863, but for several years past he has had from one to two assistants. The present assistants are : Rev. Edward O'Dea and Rev. J. Northman.

Since 1862 Portland has been the residence of the Archbishop of the Diocese of Oregon. Archbishop Blanchet continued in charge of .the Diocese until his death in 1885, when the Most Rev. Wm. H. Gross was appointed.

The Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception remained the only Catholic house of worship in this vicinity until 1874, when St. Francis Church in East Portland was built. On January 9, 1882, this church, which stood on the corner of Eleventh and J streets, was blown down by the memorable storm of that date, after which the present edifice was built on the same site. Rev. L. Verhaag is pastor of this church.

The next Catholic house of worship erected was the Church of St. Lawrence, on the corner of Third and Sherman streets, built in 1883. In 1886 St. Joseph Church, on the corner of Fourteenth and C streets, was built; and in 1888, St. Patrick's on S street, between Eighteenth and Nineteenth streets, and the Church of the Immaculate Heart of Mary, in Albina. In the Church of St. Joseph the services are conducted in the German language. The pastors of the churches last named are as follows: Church of St. Lawrence, Rev. B. Orth; St. Patrick's, Rev. P. Gibney; Church of St. Joseph, Rev. Dr. Albert Sommer; Church of the Immaculate Heart of Mary, Rev. G. B. Van Lin.

According to the best authority the present Catholic population of Portland and vicinity is between 7,000 and 8,000.

The first Congregational minister in Oregon was Rev. Harvey Clark, an independent missionary, who organized a church in Oregon City in 1844. In 1847 the American Home Missionary Society sent Rev. George H. Atkinson and wife to labor in Oregon. In the [page 350] early part of 1848 Mr. Atkinson held two services in Portland, one in a log shingle shop, and the other in an old warehouse, the congregation crowding in among bales and boxes of goods. Occasional services were afterwards held by Mr. Atkinson and Revs. Harvey Clark and C. Eells.

In November, 1849, Rev. Horace Lyman and wife arrived. Mr. Lyman had been sent out by the Home Missionary Society in 1847, but remained at San Jose, California, one year engaged in teaching. After his arrival in Portland he at once began the work of building up a church. In 1850, one of the town proprietors, D. H. Lownsdale, gave the ground and the citizens made liberal donations to carry out the project. With this assistance Mr. Lyman began the erection of a church building at the South end of Second street. Much of the manual labor connected with the task was performed by this zealous minister, and so hard did he work that he fell ill from over-exertion. He soon, however, rallied and prosecuted the work with such vigor that the building was completed and dedicated June 15, 1851. Revs. George H. Atkinson, J. S. Griffin and Harvey Clark assisted Mr. Lyman in the dedication ceremonies. The building was 32x48 feet in dimensions; had a belfry and a small spire and cost $6,400. Mr. Lyman was pastor for four years and a half when he removed to Dallas. For a year and a half thereafter Rev. Geo. H. Atkinson officiated as pastor but continued during this period to reside at Oregon City. In November, 1855, Rev. P. B. Chamberlain was installed pastor. During his pastorate, which covered a period of over five years, a large number of the congregation withdrew to form another Presbyterian Church, as had been the case during Mr. Lyman's pastorate, but both movements were unsuccessful. When Mr. Chamberlain's labors closed, in March, 1862, the church was in a very weak condition, and for more than a year thereafter was without a settled pastor.

In July, 1863, Rev. George H. Atkinson became pastor and under his labors many were added to the church. In 1870, the old house of worship became too small for the congregation and the present church building on the corner of Second and Jefferson streets was begun. It was finished in the following year and first used on [page 351] August 6, 1871. During the labors of Dr. Atkinson, which continued until December, 1872, the church made substantial progress and was placed on a firm basis.

Dr. Atkinson was followed by Rev. J. D. Eaton, who remained until May, 1876, when he resigned to enter another field. For a year and a half thereafter Rev. J. H. Acton, of the Methodist church, supplied the pulpit. In April, 1877, Rev. J. A. Cruzan became pastor. He was succeeded by Frederick R. Marvin in 1883, who remained three years, when the present pastor, Rev. T. E. Clapp, assumed charge of the congregation.

During Dr. Atkinson's pastorate Plymouth Church congregation was organized, in 1871, and soon after the present church building on the corner of Fourteenth and E streets was erected. For some years Dr. Atkinson officiated at both churches, but in 1880 Rev. E. P. Baker assumed charge of the Plymouth congregation. The latter remained but a short time and since that time the following pastors have been stationed at different times over this church : Revs. E. R. Loomis, George H. Lee, George H. Atkinson and Ezra Haskell. The present pastor is Rev. C. T. Whittlesey.

The Mount Zion Congregational Church was also established through the efforts of the members of the First Church. It was organized in 1879 and during its early existence was almost wholly dependent on the First Church. It has now become self-supporting and for several years has been presided over by Rev. A. W. Bowman.

The first Episcopal clergyman who came to Oregon was the Rev. St. M. Fackler. He crossed the plains in the year 1847, in search of health. The first services of the church of which we have any record were held by him in Oregon City in 1847. His health continuing poor, however, he made no efforts to establish anywhere any stated services or to organize a parish.

It was not until 1851 that any definite steps were taken by the church in the East to send a missionary to Oregon. In April of that year Rev. William Richmond, of the Diocese of New York, was sent to Oregon and on Sunday, May 18, together with Mr. Fackler he .held services in the Methodist house of worship in Portland. Some idea of the newness of the country and of the hardships [page 352] endured by missionaries at that time may be gathered from the following extract from a letter written by Mr. Richmond shortly after his arrival in Portland: "I occupy a room in a shanty, merely clap-boards, quite open to the air; with a rough, unplaned, ungrooved floor; no carpets, no plastering, no ceiling. For this I pay twelve dollars a month, three dollars (fifteen was the price) having been deducted on account of my mission. I also do my own cooking, and gather my own wood out of the forest behind me; yet my expenses will be as great as in a good boarding house in New York."

At the conclusion of his first service in Portland, May 18, 1851, Mr. Richmond organized Trinity Parish, it being the first parish organized in the Diocese of Oregon and Washington. From that time until the arrival of Rev. John McCarthy, D. D., of the Diocese of New York, who in Jan., 1853, as Chaplain in the army, came to Fort Vancouver, Mr. Fackler at stated times held services in Trinity Parish. There were only about two or three families connected with the church. On his arrival Dr. McCarthy was persuaded to take charge of the work here in connection with his chaplaincy at Vancouver.

In October, 1853, Rev. Thomas Fielding Scott, of the Diocese of Georgia, was elected Missionary Bishop of Oregon and Washington, and arrived in Portland in April, 1854, to enter upon his new field of labor. The first church erected in Trinity Parish was consecrated by Bishop Scott, September 24, 1854. It stood on the northwest corner of Third and Oak streets and was the first church building of this denomination consecrated on the Pacific Coast.

In 1867, Trinity Parish bought a half block on the corner of Sixth and Oak streets, upon which the present church building now stands. The corner stone of this building was laid on April 25, 1872, but the edifice was not completed until the following year.

Upon the creation of the Diocese of Oregon and Washington, Portland became and has since remained the headquarters of the Diocese. Bishop Scott, although his labors extended over a vast field, resided at Portland and did much to strengthen and build up Trinity Parish. He died in New York City in 1867, whither he had gone for the benefit of his wife's health, His genial manners and [page 353] his marked ability, as a preacher, won for him the affection and commanded the respect of all who had ever heard him preach, or who had been personally acquainted with him. He did much for the church during its darkest days in this portion of the North-west, while his labors in behalf of education have since borne abundant fruit. He was succeeded as Bishop by Rt. Rev. B. Wistar Morris, D. D., in June, 1869. For several years thereafter the Diocese continued to embrace Oregon and Washington, but during late years Oregon has been a separate Diocese, over which Bishop Morris still presides.

The following are the names of the clergymen who have officiated in Trinity Parish from time to time, since its organization to the present day: 1851 and 1856, Rev. William Richmond, Rev. St. M. Fackler, Rev. John McCarthy, Rt. Rev. Thomas Fielding Scott, D. D., and Rev. Johnston McCormas; 1856, the Bishop, Rev. James L. Daly and Rev. John Sellwood; 1857 to 1860, Rev. John Sellwood, Rev. Carlton P. Maples and Rev. Peter E. Hyland; 1861 to 1865, Rev. Peter E. Hyland; 1866 to 1871, Rev. William Story; 1871 to present time, Rev. R. D. Nevins, Rev. George Burton, Rev. George F. Plummer, Rev. George W. Foote and Rev. Thomas L. Cole, the last named being the present Rector.

In the year 1863, St. Stephen's Chapel, on the corner of Madison and Fourth streets, was completed and opened for service, thus affording two places where Episcopal services were conducted in Portland. It was projected and built at his own expense by Bishop Scott. Rev. John Sellwood was the first Rector. In 1870 Rev. John Rosenberg became Rector and has ever since most ably discharged the duties of pastor. On June 1, 1882, the present church building on the corner of Jefferson and Fifth streets was consecrated.

The parish connected with St. Matthew's Chapel was formed in 1885, and has a commodious church edifice on the corner of First and Caruthers streets. Rev. B. E. Habersham has been rector ever . since the parish was organized.

Trinity Mission Chapel is of recent origin, and for a time was under the charge of the Bishop of the Diocese. A chapel has been [page 354] built on the northeast corner of Eighteenth and Q streets. For some time Rev. Wm. MacEwan has been rector.

St. David's Episcopal Church parish, East Portland, was formed in 1871, and in December of that year the first services were held by Rev. J. W. Sellwood in the present church building, but the edifice was not completed until nearly a year thereafter. Rev. C. R. Bonnell assumed charge of the congregation in 1872 and remained about a year. For a time Rev. James R. W. Sellwood officiated. He was followed in 1874 by Rev. Arthur W. Wrixon, who continued as rector for seven years, when Rev. J. W. Sellwood took charge of the work. The church numbers one hundred and eighty-five communicants and is in a prosperous condition.

The first Baptist church on the Pacific coast was organized at West Union, Washington county, Oregon, May 25, 1844. Two years later the first Baptist meeting house was built at this point. From 1844 to 1848, Rev. Vincent Snelling, Elders Hezekiah Johnson, Erza Fisher and Porter ministered to the congregation. In 1848 the Willamette Baptist Association was organized, at which time there were six churches in the State.

In 1850 the first steps toward the organization of a Baptist church in Portland, were taken. In this year Hezekiah Johnson secured from Stephen Coffin the donation of a half block, corner of Fourth and Alder streets, upon which the First Baptist Church now stands. Five years later a church organization was perfected with ten members. Rev. W. F. Boyakin was chosen pastor and Josiah Failing deacon. The church was unfortunate in the choice of a pastor and in 1860 only three members remained. With the hope of reviving the church, the Willamette Association appealed to the American Baptist Mission Society to place a missionary in the field. In response to this request, Rev. Samuel Cornelius, D. D., was sent to labor in Portland. He arrived in June, 1860 and on the first Sunday in July preached in the Methodist church. A public hall on First street was afterward secured where regular meetings were held until January, 1862, when the basement of the present church was so far completed as to be used for religious services. [page 355]

In September, 1864, Dr. Cornelius returned to the east, leaving a membership of forty-nine persons. During the next two years the church was without a pastor. December 27, 1866, Rev. E. C. Anderson arrived to take charge of the church.

March 9, 1867, the society was incorporated, and in January, 1870, the church edifice was completed and dedicated. Mr. Anderson completed his labors in December, 1870, after which a pastoral vacancy of nearly eighteen months occurred.

On the second Sunday in June, 1872, Rev. Henry Medbury began his pastorate. The church soon after became self-supporting, and under Mr. Medbury's guidance the first mission work of the church was began. A Sunday School was organized in East Portland; land purchased there for a church and preaching services were for some time maintained by Rev. Addison Jones. The Mission school in Stephen's Addition, and the Chinese Mission were soon after founded.

In August, 1875, the pastorate of Mr. Medbury closed and that of Rev. D. J. Pierce began. Failing health induced Mr. Pierce to tender his resignation in June, 1877, and in August following, Rev. A. S. Coates became pastor. The latter was succeeded by Rev. John A. Gray in December, 1880, who remained for three years. During his pastorate the church was enlarged and refitted.

In May, 1884, Rev. J. Q. A. Henry became pastor, and during the four years of his pastorate the church had a very prosperous period, over 400 accessions to the membership being made. The present pastor, Rev. John Gordon, was installed in October, 1888.

The First Baptist congregation is one of the largest in the city, the members numbering over 500. Large contributions to mission work, local and foreign are made, while every effort put forth to establish Baptist churches within, or near the vicinity of Portland, has been liberally sustained by :he congregation. In 1874, a Baptist Mission School was founded in Stephen's Addition, East Portland. This was the first attempt at home mission work by the congregation Four years later twenty-two members from the First Church were dismissed to form the First Baptist Church of East Portland, and about the same time a chapel in Stephen's Addition was dedicated. [page 356]

The Emanuel Baptist Church is the outgrowth of the Meade street mission, established early in 1884. In May, 1886, a chapel was erected on the corner of Second and Meade streets, where services are now regularly held by the pastor, Rev. B. F. Rattray, who in 1888 succeeded Rev. Frederick Eason.

The First Scandinavian Baptist Church was organized in 1884, through the efforts of Rev. Gustavus Liljoroth. Rev. O. O'Kerson became pastor in 1885, and was succeeded by the present pastor, Rev. Nicholas Nayland, in 1886. Recently a new church building has been erected by this congregation at 109 North Eleventh street, North Portland.

Besides the churches named, the Baptists of Portland maintain missions at North Portland and Albina.

The first minister of the Presbyterian denomination in Oregon was 'Lewis Thompson, a native of Kentucky, and an alumnus of Princeton Theological Seminary, who came to the Pacific slope in 1846. He was soon after joined by a minister from Ohio, Robert Robe, who with E. R. Geary, of Lafayette, formed the Presbytery of Oregon on 19th of November, 1851.

In 1853 there were five Presbyterian ministers in Oregon, the three already mentioned and J. L. Yantis and J. A. Hanna. At a meeting of the Presbytery held at Portland in October of this year, a petition from a number of persons for the organization of a church in Portland was received and considered. The request was granted and Rev. J. L. Yantis, D. D., who had preached here for some months was appointed to organize the proposed church.

Under Dr. Yantis' efforts the First Presbyterian Church of Portland was constituted and organized January 1, 1854, with twelve members and the election of Wm. P. Abrams and James McKeon as elders. Dr. Yantis was assisted in the work by Rev. George F. Whitworth, who had recently arrived in Oregon and who supplied the Portland church for two months.

On May 1, 1854, Dr. Yantis reported the organization and the church was taken under the care of the Presbytery. When the church was organized it was expected that Dr. Yantis would be its permanent pastor, but he divided his time between the Portland [page 357] church and the church at Calipooia, his previous charge, in Linn county, eighty miles from Portland, whither he journeyed on horse-back twice each month, until an affliction of the eyes compelled him to give up the Portland work. After this the church was only occasionally supplied, until June 4, 1860, when Philip S. Caffrey, a recent graduate of Princeton, became stated supply. Mr. Caffrey continued his ministerial work in Portland until January 1, 1867, when failing health caused him to resign. During this period, in the summer of 1862, the lots on the corner of Third and Washington streets were purchased for $1,500, upon which a church building was erected at a cost of about $20,000, being dedicated on May 22, 1864, the dedication sermon being preached by Rev. George H. Atkinson.

On October 23, 1865, the society was duly incorporated as "The First Presbyterian Church and Society of the City of Portland," by Messrs. W. S. Ladd, J. C. Ainsworth, O. P. S. Plummer, J. D. Holman and M. B. Millard. The value of the property then owned by the society was $25,000.

At the close of Mr. Caffrey's labors, the church remained for nearly two years without a pastor. Rev. A. L. Lindsley, D. D. was extended a call in August, 1867, which he finally accepted and was installed April 25, 1869, as the first regular pastor of the church. At this time there were only eighty-seven members, but under Dr. Lindsley's ministry the church rapidly grew in influence and members. He was especially active in mission work among the Indians of the Northwest, aiding in establishing missions among the Alaskans, Nez Perces, Puyallups, Umatillas, Spokanes and others. His pastorate continued for over eighteen years and during this period he organized twenty-one churches and dedicated twenty-two, while the gifts of the church for all purposes amounted to over $240,000. His election to the chair of Practical Theology in the San Francisco Seminary led to his resignation as pastor in November, 1886.

In January, 1886, the old church property was. sold at public auction for $68,000 and the erection of a new church on the quarter block on the corner of Alder and Tenth streets, which had been purchased in 1883, was commenced. The chapel of this church has [page 358] been completed and the main building will soon be finished. It is a magnificent stone structure, the total cost of which, including furnishings, will be about $125,000. Dr. Lindsley's resignation and removal to California left the church without a pastor, and so it continued until January, 1888, when a unanimous call was extended to Rev. Arthur J. Brown, of Oak Park, Illinois. Mr. Brown accepted the pastorate, and on May 9, 1888, was duly installed.

This church now numbers over 400 members and is in a most flourishing condition. For many years it was the only Presbyterian church in Portland and vicinity, but when it became apparent that other churches were necessary, some of its members withdrew for the purpose of forming new organizations. Where recently but one Presbyterian Church existed, eight are now doing effective work, and to this development the old church has been able to contribute to a considerable extent, in both membership and means. The Portland Seaman's Friend Society, and the Bethany Mission, the latter organized in August, 1889, are also largely sustained by the First Presbyterian Church. The officers of the church are as follows: Ruling Elders, Royal K. Warren, William B. Gilbert, Stephen P. Lee, Edward Quackenbush, Alfred Stowell, William M. Ladd; Trustees, Henry W. Corbett, Thomas N. Strong, William S. Ladd, Donald Macleay and Dr. George M. Wells.

Calvary Presbyterian Church was organized in February, 1882, by some fifty members who withdrew from the First Presbyterian Church, since which time it has been maintained independently of the parent church, and the "Board of Home Missions." The first officers elected were: George J. Ainsworth, H. C. Coleman, John Honeyman, Wesley Jackson, William Wadhams, and Dr. Curtis C. Strong, Elders, and Henry J. Corbett, treasurer. On July 1, 1882, Rev. Edward Turnbull Lee became pastor. Soon after Mr. Lee began his labors a lot was purchased on the corner of Clay and Ninth streets and on this site the corner stone of the present church building was laid September 11, 1882, Dr. Lindsley of the First Church delivering the address. The building was completed, in about a year's time, and cost $35,000. It is a neat gothic structure, having an auditorium, pastor's study, chapel and Sabbath school [page 359] room on one floor. The seating capacity of the auditorium is 500, and the chapel, 300. A little to the North of the church building is the church parsonage, which is owned by the church and occupied by the pastor. Mr. Lee resigned in 1887, and was succeeded by the present pastor, Rev. Win. H., Landon. This church is in a thriving and growing condition and is doing an excellent work.

St. John's Presbyterian Church in North Portland is the out-growth of the mission labors of Rev. R. J. McLaughlin, who was sent to this field by the Presbyterian Board of Home Missions in 1881. His labors, however, were largely sustained by the First Presbyterian congregation. A Sabbath School was first organized at the Couch Engine Room on G street about the middle of August, 1883, while preaching services were held every Sabbath evening at Watson's Hall, corner of Sixteenth and T streets. A short time after the mission was opened two lots on the corner of Sixteenth and M streets were donated by Mrs. J. H. Couch, and upon them in 1884 the present church edifice was built. The congregation was organized in November, 1884, some thirteen of the members of the First church withdrawing from that body to complete the organization. Mr. McLaughlin was succeeded as pastor in 1888 by Rev. J. V. Milligan, who still presides over the congregation.

The United Presbyterian Church was organized in April, 1884, and has a suitable church building on the southeast corner of Sixth and Montgomery streets. Rev. Wm. R. Stevenson very acceptably labored in the establishment of the church and for four years continued as pastor. He was followed in 1888 by the present pastor, Rev. Wm. W. Logan.

The Fourth Presbyterian Church was organized in 1887, and is located in South Portland, on South First street, between Grover and Gibbs streets. Rev. Thomas Boyd has been pastor since the formation of the church.

The Chinese Mission maintained by the Presbyterians of the city has been in existence for several years. Rev. Wm. S. Holt is the missionary in this field of work.

In response to a call issued to the Israelites residing in Portland, a meeting was held at the National Hotel Sunday, May 2, 1858, for [page 360] the purpose of organizing a Jewish congregation. Eight gentlemen assembled; M. Mansfield, Jacob Mayer, Samuel Levy, David Simon,

Cohen, S. M. Lyon, and B. Simon. One week later, May 9, 1858, the gentlemen named and H. F. Bloch, Leopold Mayer, Abraham Frank and J. Mecholup completed the organization of Beth Israel congregation, at which time the following officers were elected: Leopold Mayer, President; M. Mansfield, Vice President; Abraham Frank, Treasurer and B. Simon, Secretary.

Burke's Hall was secured as the place of worship and Rev. S. Laski was engaged as Reader. The congregation rapidly increased in members and the erection of a Synagogue was soon discussed. In October, 1859, a lot on the corner of Fifth and Oak streets was purchased. On May 12, 1861, the corner stone of the Synagogue was laid, and in August following the building was completed and consecrated. In May, 1861, Rev. H. Bories was chosen minister, remaining in charge of Beth Israel until July, 1863, when Rev. Dr. Julius Eckman was elected the first Rabbi of the congregation.

The Synagogue was enlarged in 1865 to meet the requirements of the congregation, and for more than two decades thereafter was used for religious purposes. In the meantime the congregation had grown so large that it illy answered for a house of worship. The erection of a more suitable building was periodically discussed, but no decisive action was taken until Col. L. Fleischner took the mat-ter in hand and in response to his efforts the necessary steps were taken which led to the erection of the present Synagogue. He was ably assisted by Rev. Dr. J. Bloch, who had been elected Rabbi in October, 1883.

In May, 1887, the necessary ground was secured at the corner of Tenth and Main streets. Plans for a Synagogue drawn by Williams & Smith were accepted and on January 8, 1888, work was commenced. The building, costing $70,000 was completed and dedicated on January 2, 1889. In exterior dimensions the structure is one hundred and fifteen feet by fifty-eight; the two ornamental towers being one hundred and sixty-five feet from the street to the apex. The basement is of stone and brick and divided into school [page 361] and meeting room. The superstructure is of wood. With the gallery the auditorium will seat seven hundred and fifty persons.

The congregation now numbers one hundred and fifty male members. The present officers are: S. Blumauer, President; J. Kaufman, Vice President; N. Baum, Treasurer; Sol Friedenthal, Secretary. Following are the names of those who have served as Readers and Rabbis of the congregation: Rev. S. M. Larki, Rev. H. Biers, Rev. H. Bones, Rev. Dr. Julius Eckman, Rev. Dr. Isaac Schwab, Rev. M. May, Rev. Alexander Rosenspitz and the present Rabbi, Rev. Dr. J. Bloch.

The Jewish congregation of Ohavi Sholem was organized in 1872 by Dr. Julius Eckman, and has a Synagogue on Sixth street between Oak and Pine streets. Since that time Revs. Mellis, Robert Abraham, I. Kaiser and A. W. Edelman, have officiated as Readers. The present Reader is Rev. Robert Abrahamson. The congregation numbers fifty members.

Prior to the year 1866 there was no Unitarian church in Portland. There were four or five individuals and a few families who cherished a faith in the principles of ,liberal Christianity, a term which has come to cover not only Unitarians and Universalists, but all who, holding to the essential principles of Christianity, have felt dissatisfied with the exclusiveness, dogmatism or formalism, which the traditions of men have added to the simplicity of the gospel. Thomas Starr King had visited the country, but chiefly as a lecturer. We are told that he preached in the State one or two times. His name will always be identified with that of the Unitarian church upon this whole coast. In the year above mentioned, three individuals united in a letter to Rev. Horatio Stebbins, pastor of the church in San Francisco, inviting him to make a visit to Oregon and preach in Portland, with a view to find out whether it were best to found a liberal church in Portland. Mr. Stebbin's visit created a profound feeling in the community. He preached three Sundays, and was, heard by large numbers of every class and name. The result was a permanent organization, and the adoption of a constitution, which was signed by twenty-three persons. On the 30th of June the church was duly incorporated by the first Board of Trustees as corporators. [page 362]

A sum of money was subscribed toward obtaining a minister from the East, and by various agencies a sufficient sum was obtained, even before a pastor was secured, to purchase two lots and erect the present building on the corner of Yamhill and Seventh streets-the land costing $2,000, and the building the same sum. In the fall of '67, Rev. T. L. Eliot, then settled in. St. Louis, was invited, through the American Unitarian Association, to take charge of this, the most distant of the churches in the country. Starting from St. Louis the 11th of November, the pastor and his family arrived in Portland by way of the Isthmus and San Francisco, the day before Christmas. On the last Sunday of the year the church was dedicated, the services being conducted by three of the ministers of the place-Methodist, Baptist and Presbyterian. Since that time services have been conducted without any interruption, to the present time. Rev. Dr. Eliot has been the minister for twenty-two years-the longest protestant pastorate in the city and during that time has officiated at 500 funerals, 440 weddings and 488 baptismal services. The church now numbers two hundred communicants, and has a strong constituency and parish additional. Its pastoral and charitable work has always been large, in proportion to the age and strength of the church; the expenses, usually about $3,500 a year, are paid by voluntary subscription. A charitable fund, amounting to $300 a year, is formed by collections upon the first Sunday of each month. The Sunday School now numbers about one hundred and fifty scholars and twenty-two teachers, and is full of earnestness and life and the congregations are always large, frequently filling the church to its utmost capacity. Its members are in the main influential in the community, and among the foremost in the city's public enter-prises and charities. The business of the society is conducted by a board of nine trustees-three retiring by expiration of their term, and three chosen every year.

In the year 1878-79, the present edifice on the old site, was completed at a cost of $20,000. The former church building is now the chapel and Sunday School room. In addition to the Christian Union, above named, there are connected with the church a "Postoffice Mission" for disseminating religious literature, and the [page 363] W. G. Eliot Fraternity of Young People. The society also supports a Mission Sunday School in South Portland with ten teachers and sixty scholars.

The Unitarian Church of America, originating in the New England Controversy of 1820-30, is a small, loosely organized but powerful body, identified everywhere with intellectual freedom, the progress of science, and spiritual religion. It is a church eminent for philanthropy and great scholarship, and numbers among its members, numbers of the leading authors and reformers of the age.

The German Lutheran Church was organized in 1868 by Rev. H. Meyers. Services were first held in Trinity Methodist Church. The first officers were: F. T. Lauterwausser and John A. Fisher, Elders; C. H. Meussdorffer and Henry Lansen, Deacons. The present house of worship, corner of Fifth and Taylor, was completed in 1870. It has a seating capacity of five hundred. The following have served as pastors: Revs. H. Meyers, C. S. Spricher, Henry Gans, G. P. Weaver and A. Meyers. Rev. Henry Doering is the present pastor.

The Swedish Evangelical Lutheran Immanuel Church began its existence in 1883 with Rev. John W. Skans as pastor, who has continued in that relation ever since. A neat church building has been erected on B street, between Ninth and Tenth streets.

The Norwegian-Danish Evangelical Lutheran Church was organized in 1886. Rev. John Tackle continued as pastor for one year, since which the church has been without a pastor.

The English Lutheran Congregation was organized in 1888. Services are held every Sunday by the pastor, Rev. M. L. Sweizig in Central Hall. The erection of a church edifice is contemplated.

The First German Evangelical Reformed Church was organized in 1874, by Rev. John Gantenbein. A few years later the present church building on the corner of Ninth and Stark streets was erected. The services are conducted in the German language, and the church is in a prosperous condition. Mr. Gantenbein is still pastor and the prosperity of the church is largely due to his labors.

The First Christian Church was organized in February, 1870. For several years services were held in Nonpareil Hall, corner of First and Madison streets. In 1881, a lot was purchased on the [page 364] corner of East Park and Columbia and during the same year the present house of worship was built. The following pastors have served this church: C. Sharp jr, B. Wolverton, Henry Shader and Clark Davis. At present the congregation have no regularly stationed pastor.

The society of the First German Evangelical Church was formed in 1878. The first pastor was Rev. H. W. Axthelm under whom the present house of worship, on the Northeast corner of Eighth and Clay streets, was built in 1880. Rev. Charles Wachlte succeeded Mr. Axthelm in 1883. He remained two years when Rev. Adam Schlenck was chosen pastor. The present pastor Rev. Herman Schuknecht began his pastorate in 1888.

BENEVOLENT SOCIETIES.

During the earlier years of Portland's history, the poor of the city were cared for by the generosity of individual citizens or through the efforts . of relief societies connected with the various churches. As the city grew in population more systematic methods for dealing with want and destitution became necessary. In obedience to this demand the Ladies Relief Society-the first organization to take up the work independently of the religious denominations of the city-came into existence. This society was formed in March, 1867, Mrs. G. H. Atkinson, Mrs. E. Ainsworth, Mrs. J. C. Ainsworth, Mrs. M. S. Burrell, Mrs. J. H. Couch, Mrs. J. B. Congle, Mrs. T. L. Eliot, Mrs. Thos. Frazer, Mrs. A. Holbrook, Mrs C. H. Lewis, Mrs. Donald Macleay, Mrs. S. G. Reed and others being among the original members.

After four years' work among the poor of the city, the necessity of providing a "Home" where the forsaken and neglected children of the city could be kept and cared for became apparent to the members of the society. To attain this object, the ladies secured the co-operation of W. S. Ladd, Henry Failing, David C. Lewis, Rev. T. L. Eliot and J. C. Ainsworth, who in July, 1871, under the laws of Oregon, became a corporate body and the original trustees of the corporation known as "The Home." Soon after the incorporation was secured the society and board of trustees purchased [page 365]

two lots and a small house on the corner of F and Fourteenth streets for $2,000, twelve gentlemen contributing $100 each toward the purchase, which with the money at that time in the hands of the society, left a surplus of $200 after paying for the property. A few months later, a sum of $3,000 was secured for building a "Home," which was immediately begun, and in September, 1872, formally opened under the charge of Miss E. Davison as matron. Here for twelve years the society did a grand work, the "Home" being constantly filled with children who were provided with comfortable quarters and pleasant surroundings.

As the city increased in population, the building became too small for the purpose, and in response to the appeals of the members of the society for enlarged quarters and a site further out of town, Henry Villard, early in 1883, donated to the society a block of land in South Portland, bounded by Gaines, Lane, Corbett and Water streets. Upon this land, admirably situated for the purpose, a three-story building, 108x58 feet in dimensions, has been erected, which was opened in November, 1884. It is a handsome and imposing structure, and furnished with every facility for the comfort and health of its inmates. Since it was opened, the average number of children maintained has been eighty. Girls from three to twelve and boys from three to ten years are received. They are provided with comfortable clothing, plain but plentiful food, surrounded with good moral influences, and from the time they arrive at the legal school age until they leave the institution, attend the public schools. When they attain the age they are to leave the "Home," in most cases they are adopted into families or provided with situations where they can earn their own living.

During recent years, the State Legislature has annually appropriated a certain sum to be expended in maintaining the " Home." Last year (1889), $5,000 was received from this source, but outside of the aid it receives from the legislature and from an endowment fund of $13,680, it is entirely supported by voluntary contributions

In September, 1889, a hospital building costing $3,000, was completed on the block occupied by the Home. It is to be principally used for the treatment of contagious diseases. [page 366]

Mrs. G. P. F. Wood has held the position of Matron of the Home since February, 1879. She has proven a most earnest worker and well qualified for a most trying position. Under her care the children receive judicious training, and are surrounded by influences well calculated to leave a lasting impress for good. Among others who are especially deserving of praise for their work in behalf of The Home," are Drs. Ziba B., Ammi S. and Clarence L. Nichols, who for the past seven years have gratuitously tendered their professional services to the inmates. During this period but one death has occurred among them, a fact due largely to their skill and faithfulness.

The Board of Trustees of "The Home" is composed of W. S. Ladd, Henry Failing, H. W. Corbett, Rev. T. L. Eliot and Wm. Wadhams. W. S. Ladd is President of the Board; Henry Failing, Treasurer and Rev. T. L. Eliot, Secretary. The officers of the Ladies' Relief Society, to whom, in connection with the officers of the Board of Trustees, the care and management of "The Home" is entrusted, are: Mrs. Amory Holbrook, president; Mrs. H. F. Suksdorf, vice president; Mrs. Theodore Wygant, treasurer; Mrs. C. F. Rockwell, secretary; Mrs. H. Thielsen, Mrs. B. Goldsmith, Mrs. H. W. Corbett, Mrs. F. Alleyne Beck, Mrs. W. W. Spaulding, Mrs. T. B. Merry, Mrs. Eugene D. White, Mrs. C. F. Rockwell, Mrs. J. B. Congle, Mrs. D. P. Thompson and Mrs. Geo. T. Myers, advisory committee.

The German Benevolent Association is one of the oldest charitable organizations in the city. It was formed in 1869, mainly through the efforts of Christian H. Muessdorffer, one of Portland's most successful German merchants. Among its first officers were: Henry Saxer, president; Charles Burckhardt, treasurer; Dr. Charles Schumacher, secretary and C. H. Muessdorffer, chairman of the board of trustees. To render aid to destitute Germans who come to Portland is the object of the society, and during the years of its existence it has been the. means of rendering timely aid to many worthy emigrants. The society has a hospital fund of more than $20, 000, and in the near future intends to erect and maintain a hospital, ground for which has already been purchased. The work [page 367] of the society is carried on with the money received from monthly membership dues. The present officers are: John Wagner, president; C. Caesar, vice president; C. Von Wurtzengerode, secretary and agent; Frank Dekum, treasurer; C. H. Muessdorffer, L. Levy and D. W. Hoelbing, trustees.

Among the most practical charitable organizations of Portland should rank the Boys and Girls Aid Society. The good accomplished by a similar society in California induced a number of our citizens to unite in perfecting an organization here. Prominent among those who aided in the preliminary work and who has ever since been a most valuable friend of the society, is Rev. T. L. Eliot, a prominent figure in charitable and philanthropic work during his many years of residence in our city. An organization was perfected in July, 1885, at which time the following officers were chosen: H. W. Corbett, president; F. E. Beach, secretary; L. L. Hawkins, treasurer; W. S. Ladd, H. W. Corbett, P. F. Keen, L. L. Hawkins, Helen F. Spaulding, W. B. Gilbert, F. E. Beach and I. F. Powers, trustees.

The object of the society is to improve the condition of the homeless, neglected and abused children of the State, using such means as are strictly non-sectarian in character. It began work under the provision of an act passed by the State Legislature in February, 1885, called "An Act for suspension of judgment against minors, and for commitment to the care of certain charitable corporations." Under the provisions of this act it receives "juvenile offenders," by legal commitment or otherwise, who are in danger of being imprisoned; provides for such until suitable homes or employment and oversight are found for them, and continues a systematic attention to their treatment and condition.

In 1887 a special officer of the city police was detailed to the services of the society. He investigates cases, visits families, attends to all reports at the station regarding boys, attends the courts whenever boys or girls are on trial, looks after the children in the streets, keeps a record of the cases and carries out in general the work as directed by the officers of the society. [page 368]

The society has been instrumental in securing from the legislature the passage of several bills aiming to improve the moral and physical condition of the young, such as the act restraining the sale of tobacco and cigarettes to minors, and also the bill above referred to empowering courts to transfer to charitable institutions the guardian-ship of minors on proof of sufficient cause.

Among those who have been especiaily active in carrying on the work of the society is Ira F. Powers, the acting superintendent of the executive committee, who from the start has been a zealous worker, and whose earnest and self-sacrificing labors have gained for the organization such a strong hold on the confidence of the public. F. E. Beach has been secretary from the beginning, and also a valuable co-worker in the cause, while Rev. T. L. Eliot, who may be termed the founder of the society, has been a constant source of good advice and in many ways one of its most earnest and determined advocates.

During 1889 the society was the recipient of $40,000 by the will of Miss Ella M. Smith. This fund is to be invested and only the proceeds to be used. The members intend in the near future to erect a receiving hone, and with the endowment the society has already received, it will be possible to make the institution largely self-supporting.

The present officers are H. W. Corbett, president; F. E. Beach, secretary; L. L. Hawkins, treasurer; Ira F. Powers, H. W. Corbett, J. A. Strowbridge, D. Solis Cohen, L. L. Hawkins, W. B. Gilbert, F. E. Beach, I. W. Pratt, Helen F. Spaulding, trustees; Ira. F. Powers, W. B. Gilbert and Helen F. Spaulding, executive committee.

For a number of years those interested in benevolent work in Portland felt the necessity of a better organization-a more systematic method of dispensing alms. Wm. G. Steel and a number of others connected with the society of Christian Endeavor of the First Congregational Church, at last took the matter in hand and with the hearty co-operation of many others who had been prominent workers in the cause of organized charity, secured in February, 1889, the organization of the City Board of Charities. [page 369]

This society, while it does not directly dispense alms in any form, aims to be a center of inter-communication between the various churches and charitable agencies in the city; to foster harmonious co-operation between them; to furnish them with trustworthy information, and to prevent the waste and misuse of charitable funds. It investigates cases of all applicants for relief which are referred to the society for inquiry; obtains from proper charities and charitable individuals suitable and adequate relief for deserving cases; procures work for poor persons in need who are capable of being wholly or partially self-supporting, and represses mendicancy by public exposure and prosecution of imposters. It co-operates with all similar societies and the constituted authorities of the city, county and State in all proper efforts to discover, suppress and punish vagabondism.

The society is composed of the mayor and chief of police of the city; annual members who pay a certain sum to the society annually, and life members, who subscribe one hundred dollars. Its management is vested in seven dire ors, of whom the mayor is ex-officio a member.

At the close of first the of its first year's existence the society had disbursed nearly $3,000, and had investigated the cases of nearly 1,200 applicants for aid, while it would be impossible to give an idea of the value of the work actually accomplished in coping with the evils of vagabondism and in protecting the public from unworthy claimants for charity. By its work the society has demonstrated its usefulness and its strong claim for support.

Mr. W. G. Steel was the first secretary of the society, rendering faithful and judicious service until his business interests compelled him to give up the work. With this exception there has been no change in the original officers. Thos. N. Strong is president; Geo. H. Williams, vice-president; W. R. Walpole, secretary; Charles E. Ladd, treasurer; C. J. Chamberlain, assistant secretary; Thomas N. Strong, Charles E. Ladd, J. C. Flanders, George H. Williams, Ross C. Houghton, John Klosterman and Mayor Van B. DeLashmutt, board of directors. [page 370]

The Portland Womans' Union, a charitable and benevolent society, incorporated October 21, 1887, early in the following year opened a boarding house for self-supporting girls, at 308 F street in the building formerly occupied by the Woman's Relief Society as a Children's Home. It is designed to offer a home to women who come to the city strangers in search of employment or their general interest, unable to pay high hotel rates and ignorant as to where they may obtain respectable lodging places within their means. The lowest possible rate for board and lodging is charged, compatable with making the institution as nearly self-supporting as possible, but any woman of respectable character without means and without employment can have a home until employment is obtained, or she is otherwise provided for. Accommodations are provided for twenty, and ever since the house was opened the full number for which room is provided, has found shelter and a home within its walls.

The officers of the Union are: Mrs. Rosa F. Burrell, president; Mrs. H. J. Corbett, first vice-president; Mrs. D. P. Thompson, second vice-president; Mrs. C. W. Knowles, recording secretary; Miss H. E. Failing, corresponding secretary; Mrs. F. Eggert, treasurer.

The Refuge Home, an institution intended to afford shelter and protection to girls and women who wish to return to the paths of virtue, was established in January, 1889, under the auspices of the Women's Christian Temperance Union. Temporary quarters have been secured, corner of Second and Columbia streets. The legislature of 1889 appropriated $5, 000 to be used in carrying on the work and with this fund and voluntary contributions it is confidently felt that the undertaking will be enabled to accomplish much good. The board of managers is composed of Mrs. Anna R. Riggs, president; Mrs. Amos, vice-president; Mrs. M. J. Townsend, corresponding secretary; Mrs. R. M. Robb, recording secretary; Mrs. E. Dalgleish, treasurer. Mrs. N. S. Keasey is manager.

The Portland Free Kindergarten Association was organized in November, 1884, at which time the following officers were chosen: Mrs. J. F. Watson, president; Col. John McCraken, vice president; Mrs. Richard Hoyt, secretary and J. K. Gill, treasurer. The first [page 371] school was opened in November, 1884 in the old engine house on G street, which has since been maintained and is known as Kindergarten No. 1. The object of the association is to furnish free instruction to children under six years of age whose parents cannot afford to pay for their tuition. In September, 1885, Kindergarten No. 2, located corner of Meade and Second streets, was opened, and in January, 1886, Kindergarten No. 3 was opened in Watson's addition on Seventeeth street. At these three schools an average attendance of one hundred and fifty children is maintained, who receive the now well recognized benefits of the Kindergarten methods of instruction. The work of the association is carried on under the direction of the following officers: Mrs. C. E. Sitton, president; O. P. Paxton, vice president; Miss Clara Northrup, secretary ; J. E. Davis, treasurer; Mrs. Caroline Dunlap, superintendent.

The foregoing described charitable and benevolent institutions by no means includes all of the organizations which exist in our city. We have merely attempted to give brief accounts of some ' of the more prominent institutions, with no intention to ignore the praise-worthy efforts of many noble hearted and generous minded men and women connected with organizations of less magnitude, but not less entitled to honor. When it is understood that the institutions that dispense charity, in one form or another in the city of Portland to-day, exceed seventy in number, and that most of them are similar in character and aim, it will be seen that even an enumeration would be unnecessary.

The aggregate yearly amount paid out for charity in our city by individuals, the county and charitable organizations, it is impossible to approximate with any degree of accuracy, but in the judgment of one long identified with the work in this line, it has been estimated to reach the sum of from $75,000 to $120,000.

The members of the Catholic church of Portland, as those of the same faith in every part of the globe, have always been foremost in deeds of charity and benevolence. Among the earliest organized efforts may be mentioned St. Ann's Catholic institution for the care of poor and sick ladies, with Mrs. J. O'Connor, president; Mrs. E. H. Freeman, vice-president; Mrs. M. Steffin, treasurer, and Mrs. I. [page 372] Lawler, secretary. St. Mary's Association, having for its object the care of orphans and destitute children, is also deserving of honorable mention. It is governed by the Supreme Council of St. Mary's Home Association, composed of John O'Connor, John Donnerberg, Luke Morgan, John Barrett, F. Dresser and James Foley. St. Vincent de Paul Society is another worthy Catholic organization. The care of the poor and procuring employment for those out of work are its main objects. D. F. Campbell is president; M. G. Munly, vice-president; P. J. Colman, secretary and F. Dresser, treasurer.

The British Benevolent Society was founded in 1872, by John Wilson, the British consul. at Portland, who preceded the present incumbent, James Laidlaw. Its objects are to relieve sick or destitute persons who are members or eligible to membership. Such relief is restricted to those who are or have been British subjects. James Laidlaw is president; John B. Wraugham, secretary; Dr. K. A. J. Mackenzie and John Cran constitute the board of relief. Similar in their aims are the Danish Aid Society and the Guiseppi Society (Italian). Of the former, H. I. Larsen is president and C. Hansen, secretary, and of the latter, Paul Sabati is president and A. Froulana, secretary.

The Hebrew Benevolent Association is the oldest charitable organization sustained wholly by the Jewish population of Portland. Its officers are: Louis Fleischner, president; L. H. Lewis, vice-president; Ben. Selling, treasurer; B. I. Cohen, secretary.

Besides the organizations already named there are the various societies connected with the several churches of the city which are important factors in the charity work of the city. These, with the organizations already named, together with the Ladies Relief Corps of the G. A. R. and the many secret orders which care for and con-tribute support to sick and destitute members and their families, constitute the main agencies at work in relieving the poor and caring for the destitute sick of Portland.

The first Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, in the State of Oregon, was incorporated in 1872, by B. Goldsmith, Henry Palling, W. S. Ladd, J. R. Cardwell, Wm. Wadhams, T. L. [page 373] Eliot, J. H. Woodward, James Steel, and W. T. Shanahan, of Portland; Mr. B. Goldsmith being elected as the first president of the society. The organization entered upon the work with many obstacles in its path. Such as questioned authority to interfere in behalf of unprotected children and dumb brutes; also, meagreness of statutory provisions, and a prevailing belief among a certain class of persons that children and animals possessed no rights which they were bound to respect.

However, the foundation of the society had been laid, and through help of the City Council, new ordinances were passed which assisted local work, and coupled with the ever outspoken sentiment of the Daily Oregonian in behalf of humane principles, the efforts of the society were encouraged. Prevention of Cruelty was its first aim, and punishing offenders the alternative. But an educational sentiment seemed also to demand notice; therefore, in February, 1882, the society was re-organized and re-incorporated under the title it now bears, the "Oregon Humane Society." This name gave a broader significence and extended the work among unprotected children, and all harmless living creatures. Hon. D. P. Thompson was elected president of the new organization. In 1883 the public schools became interested in humane education, and as an incentive to the effort, Mr. W. T. Shanahan, the corresponding secretary of society, inaugurated the prize system, by offering a framed engraving of Pharoah's Horses for the best essay on kindness to animals, which was won by Miss Susie Vetter, a pupil of the Portland High School. So marked was the beneficial effect of awarding prizes for meritorious compositions that the following year at the anniversary meeting of the society a number of prizes were offered, graded as first, second and third prizes, and presented to the fortunate competitors of the public schools. The anniversary meetings of this society have now become a permanent institution of our city, and crowded houses attest the great interest taken in humane education. In 1884 the City Council detailed a police officer to act as agent of the society, but his jurisdiction was only within the city limits, and the necessity of ample State laws now forced itself upon the leaders of the work. Therefore, in 1885, the Humane Society carefully prepared a bill [page 374] which was presented to the legislation of that year by Rev. T. L. Eliot, the newly elected president, and W. T. Shanahan, the corresponding secretary, who remained by the bill until its passage, which gave to the society a new impetus and ample protection. The publication of humane literature is one of the important means used by the society to make known its work, and is gratuitiously distributed from the office of the secretary.

The officers of the society are: president, Rev. T. L. Eliot; vice president, I. A. Macrum; corresponding secretary, W. T. Shanahan; recording secretary, Geo. H. Himes; treasurer, James Steel; special agent, Felix Martin, of the Police force.

The Portland Seamen's Friend Society, auxilliary to the American Seamen's Friend Society, of New York, was organized on Nov. 4, 1877, and incorporated on July 31, 1878.

Its chief promotor was Chaplain R. S. Stubbs, who was instrumental in raising the money with which its property was purchased and buildings erected, costing some $20,000. There has since been expended nearly $5,000 in improvements, making the entire cost about $25,000. The present value of the Society's property is at least $50,000. Chaplain Stubbs continued its chaplain until he resigned in October, 1885, to become the general missionary of the New York Society on Puget Sound.

The final organization provided for a Board of fifteen directors, of which the following gentlemen were original members : H. W. Corbett, President; Geo. H. Chance, Vice President; E. Quackenbush, Secretary and Treasurer; W. S. Ladd, E. B. Babbit, S. G. Reed, R. S. Stubbs, N. Ingersoll, Geo. H. Flanders, R. Glisan, James Steel, J. N. Dolph, J. W. Sprague, F. S. Aiken and Henry Hewitt. The membership consists of annual and life.

"The object of the society is to promote the temporal, moral and spiritual welfare of the Seamen, Steamboatmen and Longshoremen, visiting or belonging to this port." The means employed are a Mariners' church, boarding house, library, reading room, visitation of ships including religious services on board, and the distribution of suitable literature. [page 375]

The Seamen's Friend Societies originated some sixty years ago, and now they exist in nearly every prominent port in the world. Their object everywhere is to improve the character of seamen and thus to secure greater safety and efficiency in the Marine service. The progress has been slow, and yet so marked that brutality on shipboard is now the exception, rather than the rule. Among the most influential of all agencies in this direction, is the "American Seamen's Friend Society, of New York," which numbers among its directors and promotors, retired shipmasters, philanthropists and capitalists, who withhold neither time, service nor money in the accomplishment of their purposes. Of this society, our Portland organization is auxilliary, and here, as everywhere, the contention is against the very powers of darkness, for, the world over, the foes of "poor Jack" are relentlessly cruel; cupidity and greed are their chief characteristics, and to these the sailor boys, through innocence or passion, fall an easy prey. The Portland Society has had the sympathy and support of our citizens from the first and it has steadily pursued its object under inadequate laws and difficult of enforcement. For three years past, comparatively few abuses have been perpetrated in Portland, the "crimps" confining their efforts chiefly to Astoria, where they have less opposition and more encouragement than in Portland. The law passed by our last legislature, through the combined efforts of the Portland Board of Trade and this society, had a most salutary influence. The previous average charge of about $87.50 per man, advance wages and blood money, was reduced to as low as $30 to $40, and many sailors shipped without any advance at all. The usefulness of this society has been greatly impaired the past year because deprived of the use of its "Home," having therefore no accommodations for watermen.

Its present Board of Directors consists of E. Quackenbush, President; Geo. H. Chance, Vice President; James Laidlaw, Secretary and Treasurer; W. S. Ladd, H. W. Corbett, W. S. Sibson, R. K. Warren, J. K. Gill, J. Thorburn Ross, A. W. Stowell, Donald Macleay, W. J. Burns, W. B. Gilbert and James Steel.

The necessity for this society is only too manifest. Its success fully justifies its existence. Its mission will not be accomplished [page 376] so long as there are "thugs" in our port who perpetrate the practices of a "Barbary coast." And in the Society's support our sympathy and efforts should be both hearty and vigorous.

HOSPITALS.

Portland is at present only moderately well provided with hospitals for the care and treatment of the sick and injured, but when those now in existence shall have been enlarged and new quarters erected, such as are now in course of construction, every facility, such as the size and rapidly increasing population of the city demand, will be offered.

St. Vincent's Hospital, the first not only in Portland, but in the State, owe its origin to the labors of Rev. J. F. Fierens, vicar-general of the Catholic Diocese of Oregon, and the members of St. Vincent de Paul Society. The citizens of Portland, irrespective of religion or creed, generously supported the movement, and in July, 1875, the present building on Eleventh Street, between M and N streets, was completed. The first patient admitted was an injured chinaman, who received from the Sisters of St. Vincent, who have' ever since had charge of the hospital, every attention in their power, and from that day to the present the doors of this institution have been opened to receive, nurse and administer surgical and medical aid to the poor in the spirit of that true charity which knows neither race nor creed, neither color or nationality. From the time it was opened to the present, 12, 262 patients have been admitted, and at the present time there are 180 patients under treatment. The demands upon the hospital have for some time been greater than the capacity of the building would admit, and about three years ago the Sisters under-took the task of securing funds to erect a larger building. They have been successful, and during the present year (1890), they hope to complete a new hospital building on a five acre tract on the west side of the foot hills. Work has already been commenced and a commodious structure combining all the modern improvements and conveniences in carrying on the work of a hospital, will, at an early day, be placed at their disposal. Twelve Sisters have the management of the hospital, who are assisted by a number of nurses and [page 377] stewards. A majority of the patients received are objects of charity, while those who are able, pay for the treatment received and medical services rendered. Sister Mary Theresa is superintendent.

The staff of physicians comprise Drs. Henry E. and Wm. Jones, J. Bell, A. D. Bevan, K. A. J. Mackenzie, G. W. Wells, Joseph Holt, O. S. Binswinger, and F. B. Eaton and Richard Nunn as oculists.

The Good Samaritan Hospital was opened in October, 1875. It was founded by Rt. Rev. B. Wistar Morris, bishop of Oregon and has since been largely sustained by his personal labors in its behalf. It is located on the corner of Twenty-first and L streets, a high and healthful situation. Ever since it was opened it has been taxed to the utmost of its capacity. Last year (1889) extensions were made to the original building and accommodations are now afforded to seventy-five patients, but even with the increased room, the hospital is usually full of patients and at times applications for admission are denied because of lack of accommodations. It is supported by the income from nine endowed beds; revenue from pay patients and voluntary contributions. Deserving poor are received as free patients, when properly recommended and in accordance with the capacity of the hospital. For the fifteen months ending September 1, 1889, 708 were treated; of this number, 145 were free or charity patients and 563 were paying patients. The medical staff is composed of Drs. Curtis C. Strong, Holt C. Wilson, Wm H. Saylor, Andrew J. Giesy and Andrew C. Panton. Mrs. Emma J. Wakeman is superintendent; Mrs. Ruth E. Campbell, assistant; Rev. W. L. MacEwan, chaplain, and Gen. Joseph H. Eaton, treasurer.

The Portland Hospital is a Methodist institution under the patronage of the Columbia, Puget Sound and Idaho conferences. Its inception was due to Dr. W. H. Watkins, Dr. E. P. Fraser, Dr. Geo. H.. Chance, Dr. James Browne and a number of others connected with the three Methodist conferences named. Articles of incorporation were secured in 1887, and in August of the following year practical hospital work was begun in the Mariners' Home, corner of D and Third street, which was leased for a period of one year. During the first year of its existence more than three hundred [page 378] patients have been treated. Poor patients received aid at an expense of more than $1,500, while nearly $1,800 was received by the hospital for this kind of work by donations from various congregations within the bounds of patronizing conferences. Cash received from patients amounted to $6,268, while the running expenses of the hospital has been about $800 per month. The success of the institution has more than met the expectation of its originators, and plans are now underway to enlarge the facilities for carrying on the work. Five and one quarter acres of land have been purchased in Sunnyside addition to East Portland, upon which to erect suitable buildings for hospitable purposes. James Abraham, from whom the land was purchased, generously donated $10,000 on the purchase price, while John Kenworthy and George W. Stayer each gave $1,000 toward the erection of the building, work upon which is now under way. It will be a three story structure, 70x112 feet in dimension and will cost about $30,000.

The Board of Trustees of the Portland Hospital is composed of twenty-six members, nineteen of whom are residents of Portland, the remaining seven being representatives from the Idaho and Puget Sound conferences. The Portland members are: G. W. Stayer, Dr. Geo. H. Chance, Dr. E. P. Fraser, Dr. James Browne, Dr. R. Kelly, Dr. A. S. Nichols, Dr. C. H. Hall, Dr. R. Glisan, W. C. Noon, J. K. Gill, Rev. I. D. Driver, Rev. A. Kummer, Rev. R. C. Houghton, W. H. Scott, W. S. Ladd, H. W. Corbett, John Kenworthy, J. A. Strowbridge and Rev. W. S. Harrington. George W. Stayer is president of the board; John Kenworthy, vice president; W. S. Ladd, treasurer and D. F. Clarke, secretary. The medical staff is composed of Dr. E. P. Fraser, Dr. W E. Rinehardt, Dr. Richmond Kelly, Dr. F. O. Cauthorne and Dr, W. B Watkins.

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