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[source: Multnomah County Information abstracted from: Oregon, End of the Trail, by Workers of the writers' Program of the Works Projects Administration in the State of Oregon. (Portland, Oregon: Binfords & Mort, 1940). pages 206-227]

 

PORTLAND

Railroad Stations: Union Station, NW. 6th Ave. And Johnson Sts. for Southern Pacific Lines, Union Pacific R. R., Northern Pacific Ry., Great Northern Ry. and Spokane, Portland and Seattle Ry. SW 1st Ave. and Alder St., for Portland to Gresham, and Oregon City Lines (electric interurban).

Bus Stations: Union Stage Terminal, SW. Taylor St. between 5th and 6th Aves., for Greyhound Lines, Interstate Transit Lines, Mt. Hood Stages, North Coast Transportation Co., Oregon Motor Stages, Washington Motor Coach System.

Airports: Swan Island Municipal Airport, 4-5 m. N. of city center, via Broadway Bridge, Interstate Ave., and Greeley Cut-off, for United Airlines; Taxi, 50c, time 10 min. New municipal airport, (ready for use in the summer of 1940) at NE. Columbia Boulevard and 47th St., supersedes Swan Island.

Taxis: Twenty-five cents for the first 3 m, 10c for each 2 m. thereafter; 10c for each extra passenger.

Street Cars and Busses: Basic fare 50c.

Street Numbers: Burnside St. divides the city into N. and S. and the Willamette River into E. and W. districts. Street and Avenue addresses are NE. for the section N. of Burnside and E. of the river except a triangular piece between Williams Ave. and the Willamette River and N. city boundary which is designated as N. SE. numbers are E. of the river and S. of Burnside; NW. and SW. numbers for the regions W. of the river and N. or S. of Burnside St. Streets are numbered N. and S. from Burnside St. and E. and W. from the Willamette River.

Traffic Regulations: Speed limit 25 m.p.h. No U turns permitted in metropolitan area. Downtown streets have parking meters. Only one-way Streets: SW. Park and SW. 9th Ave. S. of Stark to Main St.

Accommodations: One hundred hotels; tourist courts, many with trailer facilities, on main highways leading into the city.

Information Service: Portland Chamber of Commerce, 824 SW. 9th Ave.; Oregon State Motor Association, 1200 SW. Morrison St.; P.C.C.A., 1004 SW. Taylor St.; Motor Club, 139 SW. Broadway; Multnomah Hotel, SW. 4th Ave. and Pine St.; and Benson Hotel, Sw. Broadway and Oak St.

Radio Stations: KALE (1300 kc.); KBPS (1420 kc.); KEX (1160 kc.); KGW (620 kc); KOIN (940 kc.); KXL (1420 kc.); KWJJ (1060 kc.).

Theaters and Motion Picture Houses: Municipal Auditorium, SW. 3rd Ave. and Clay St., concerts and important public addresses; 50 motion picture houses.

Baseball: Portland Ball Park (Pacific Coast League), NW. 24th Ave. and Vaughn St.

Swimming: Mount Scott Tank, SE. 73rd Ave. and 55th St.; Creston Pool, SE. Powell Boulevard and 47th St.; Montavilla Tank, NE. 82nd and Glisan St.; Sellwood Tank, SE. 7th Ave. and Miller St.; U.S. Grant Tank, NE. 33rd and Thompson ST.; Peninsula Tank, Albina Ave. and Portland Boulevard; Columbia Tank, Lombard and Woolsey Sts.; Jantzen Beach (commercial), Hayden Island near Interstate Bridge, entrance to park 10c, bathing fee additional 30c.

Golf: Eastmoreland Municipal Links, 2714 SE Bybee Ave., 18 holes, 30c for nine holes; Rose City Municipal Golf Course, NE. 71st St. near Sandy Boulevard, 18 holes, 30c for nine holes; West Hills Municipal Links, at Canyon Road, 9 holes, 30c for nine holes.

Tennis: U. S. Grant Park, NE. 33rd Ave. and Thompson St.; Washington Park entrance at W. end of SW. Park Place; Mount Tabor Park, SE. 68th St. off Belmont Ave.; Irving Park, 7th Ave. and Fremont St. All free.

Boating: Oregon Yacht Club (private), at Oaks Park; Portland Yacht Club (private), on Columhia River at Faloma.

Annual Events: Winter Sports Carnival, Skiing Contest, Government Camp, Mount Hood, 4 days in Jan; Rose Festival, 2nd week in June; Portland Philharmonic Orchestra, summer concerts, Multnomah Civic Stadium, July and Aug.; dog races, Multnomah Civic Stadium, three months in summer; Fleet Week, July or Aug.; International Livestock Show, Sept.

PORTLAND (30 alt, 301,815 pop.), largest city in Oregon, is on both banks of the Willamette River near its confluence with the Columbia. It is a city of varied and extensive industrial output, with more than a thousand manufacturing establishments, employing 25,000 workers at an annual wage of almost $50,000,000. Most of the factories are run by electricity, and the city is largely free of soot and smoke. The principal manufactured products are flour and cereals, lumber and millwork, canned and preserved fruits and vegetables, woolen goods, meats, butter and cheese, foundry ware, and dozens of lesser products. One of the Nation's important fresh-water ports and a port of entry, Portland is terminus for fifty-seven steamship lines, and is the wholesale and retail distribution point for a wide agricultural and lumbering region.

From Council Crest or from the heights behind Washington Park, the city is a vista of green hillsides, with gardens and terraced courts, and dwellings framed in foliage. Beyond lies the business district, while in the middle distance gleams the Willamette, crossed by bridges, and busy with shipping. East of the river long residential avenues reach away to Mount Scott, Mount Tabor and Rocky Butte, and the snowy peaks of Mount St. Helens, Mount Adams, and Mount Hood rise on the northern and eastern horizons.

The older part of the city, west of the Willamette River, occupies a comparatively narrow strip of bench land along the water's edge, backed by hills that extend toward the Coast Range, cutting the metropolis off from the fertile Tualatin Valley. These hills are segmented by the numerous winding drives and streets of Westover, King's Heights, and Portland Heights, culminating in Council Crest at an altitude of nearly 1,100 feet above the business section. The business area is the oldest section of the city, and unsuited to the demands of modern business. The founders of the town provided no alleys, and trucks must load and unload at sidewalk gratings. The streets are short and narrow, many buildings occupy a block or half-black, and the effect is one of congestion.

Four-fifths of the city--a spacious area of recent development--lies east and north of the Willamette. Of the five divisions of the city, only the northwest is relatively undeveloped. However, industrial and manufacturing establishments are being built in this section between Vaughn Street and the Linnton district. Just as old Portland is confined by the Willamette and the neighboring heights, the north section-- St. Johns--is restricted by the Willamette and the sloughs of the Columbia. Many residences, however, are being built in the eastern and southeastern sections of the city and along the western slopes of the hills back of the city. The principal residential districts lie east of the Willamette River, and eight bridges connect them with the business section.

The source of Portland's water supply is an isolated section on the northwest flank of Mount Hood, where a network of small streams flows into Bull Run Lake and Reservoir, and through huge pipe lines to the city. The water is so chemically pure that it need not be distilled for use in electric batteries and medical prescriptions, and is especially suited to the manufacture and dyeing of textiles. On many of the busiest corners are four-bracketed bronze drinking fountains presented to the city by the late Simon Benson, noted lumberman, because he believed that if plenty of good water were available his loggers would not consume so much alcoholic liquor while visiting the metropolis. Whatever the cause, business in Portland saloons fell off about thirty per cent immediately following installation of the fountains.

Although there are several ethnic groups represented in Portland only the Chinese, living principally in a section on SW. 2nd and SW. 4th Avenues, extending from SW. Washington to W. Burnside Streets, have kept their national customs. Scandinavians, Germans, Russians, Italians, Japanese, Jews and English-speaking people from Great Britain, the Dominions, and Ireland, are fairly well scattered over the various sections of the city. Portland negroes, comprising the bulk of the negro population of the state, live mostly on the east bank of the Willamette River, where they have their churches and their own social and civic life.

Chinook Indians were the first to use the site of Portland as a port. They found it a good place to tie up their canoes on trading trips between the Columbia and Willamette rivers, and cleared about an acre of ground gathering wood for their campfires. Captain William Clark of the Lewis and Clark expedition is known to have reached the site of Portland in i8o6. The possibilities here were noted by Captain John H. Couch in 1840, when he came from New England to investigate the prospects for a salmon fishery. "To this point," he told a fellow traveler, "I can bring any ship that can get into the mouth of the Great Columbia River."

The first person who actually settled within the present corporate limits of Portland was Etienne Lucier, a French-Canadian, whose term of service had expired with the Hudson's Bay Company. In 1829 he built a small cabin on the east side of the river near the site of the present Doernbecher Furniture Company; he soon removed to French Prairie. In 1842 William Johnson, a British subject, settled in what is now known as South Portland, and built a cabin. In addition to small farming he manufactured and sold a liquid decoction known as "blue ruin" for which he was arrested and fined by the provisional court. He died in 1848 and his possessory rights passed with him.

A 640-acre tract on the west bank of the Willamette, part of the present business district, was claimed in 1844 by William Overton, a lanky Tennesseean who rowed ashore in an Indian canoe. The entire claim, except for the "cleared patch" around the landing, was covered with dense forest. Lacking the trifling sum of twenty-five cents required for filing his claim with the provisional government, he offered Amos L. Lovejoy, who had come to Oregon from Boston, a half interest in the claim if he would pay the filing fee. Lovejoy, considering the site ideal for a harbor town, paid the fee. They made a "tomahawk claim" by blazing trees, a method recognized on the frontier.

Placing little faith in Lovejoy's town-building plan, Overton, who had intended to establish a homestead, traded his half-interest to Francis W. Pettygrove, a merchant from Portland, Maine, for $100 in goods and provisions. Lovejoy convinced Pettygrove of the soundness of his plans. By 1845, four streets and sixteen blocks had been cleared and platted, but the founders were unable to agree on a name for the new town. Lovejoy wanted "Boston"; Pettygrove, "Portland." They tossed a coin, Pettygrove won, and the cluster of log cabins among the stumps was named Portland. Pettygrove erected a log store at the southeast corner of Front and Washington Streets in 1845, on the site where Overton had built his claim shack the year before, and built a wagon road westward to the hills.

Two British officers, Captains Warre and Vavasour, visited Portland in the winter of 1845-46 and reported: Portland had only then received a name and its inhabitants were felling the trees from which their first homes were to be constructed and their primitive furniture was to be made. With such tools only as saw, augar, pole-ax, broad-ax, and adze, those men labored with zeal that atoned for want of better implements."

James Terwilliger came with the emigrants of 1845, established a claim south of the Overton tract, and the following year built a blacksmith shop. In this same year Daniel H. Lownsdale established the first tannery in the far Northwest. He tanned on a large scale, and turned out excellent leather, which he exchanged for raw hides, furs, wheat, or cash. Captain John H. Couch returned to Portland in 1845 and selected a tract north of the Lovejoy-Pettygrove claim.

In the winter of 1845-46, Lovejoy sold his share of the claim to Benjamin Stark, and in 1848 Pettygrove sold his interest to Daniel Lawnsdale for $5,000 worth of hides and leather. The new proprietors added two partners, Stephen Coffin and W. W. Chapman, and formed the Townsite Promotion Company. Coffin established a canoe ferry in 1848. When traffic was heavy he used a raft of canoes. An excerpt from a diary of that year says, "Portland now has two white houses and one brick and three wood-colored frame houses and "few cabins."

John Waymire, a man of boundless energy and versatility, established Portland's first sawmill. His equipment consisted of an old whipsaw brought across the plains from Missouri, and two men to operate it. One stood on top of a log, raised on blocks, and pulled the saw upward; the other, in a pit beneath, pulled the saw downward and was showered with sawdust at each stroke. Great labor was required to cut a few pieces of lumber, but Waymire's "sawmill" encouraged building activity. He also erected the first hotel, a double log cabin of Paul Bunyanesque proportions, where he "furnished meals and a hospitable place to spread blankets for the night." His team of Missouri oxen hitched to a lumbering wagon served as the first local transportation system.

By 1850, the town had a population of 800. Churches and a school had been built; stores, boarding houses, and nearly 2oo dwellings lined the streets. A steam sawmill was erected by W. P. Abrams and Cyrus A Reed, and in December, 1850, the first copy of the Weekly Oregonian came from the Washington hand press owned and operated by Thomas Dryer. Portland replaced Oregon City as the largest city of the Northwest. The California gold rush was then at its height, and Portland carried on a heavy trade with that state. Lumber and flour were shipped to California, and local merchants outfitted men joining the frenzied quest for California gold.

First news of the gold discovery brought about an exodus of more than half the able-bodied men in Oregon--merchants deserted their stores, workers left their shops; business was almost at a standstill. However, within a few months, there was a demand for all sorts of goods and food-stuffs at unbelievable prices. Those left at home often made more money than the gold seekers. The continued inflow of money in exchange for Oregon goods created a boom in Portland and the population rapidly increased.

The city was incorporated and the first election held in 1851. Hugh D. O'Bryant, a native of Georgia, was elected mayor. A few days later the city council met and levied a tax of one-quarter of one per cent for municipal purposes. The voters at a special election authorized a tax to purchase a fire engine. At that time the forest came down to the river's edge except that the trees were cut from Front Avenue between Jefferson and Burnside Streets. The stumps remained in the streets and were whitewashed so that pedestrians would not collide with them at night.

In 1851, also, a free school was opened with twenty pupils. That the citizens were not all peaceful and law-abiding is attested by the fact that the first ordinance passed created the office of city marshal and that within two months the town council had requested the committee on public buildings to furnish estimates on the cost of a log jail. A one-story building of hewn timber, 16 by 25 feet, was soon built. On of the first arrests after the city's incorporation was of one O. Travaillot, for riding "at a furious rate through the Streets of the City of Portland to endanger life and property." The Portland-Tualatin Plains road was planked, making a comparatively rich agricultural district accessible to Portland. There were almost daily arrivals of sailing vessels from San Francisco, besides a semi-monthly steamer service, between Portland and California points. By the spring of 1852 there were fourteen river steamers docking at the wharves of the city.

The first brick building in Portland was erected in 1853 by W. S. Ladd, a young man from Vermont, who was twice elected mayor of Portland, The building, in a good state of preservation and now occupied by wholesale meat and produce merchants, still stands at 412 SW. Front Avenue.

Trade was stimulated by the Indian wars of the 1850's, for Portland outfitted most of the military forces. in February the town had one hundred stores and shops, and in October, 1858, the Oregonian declared with orotund gravity that the "Rubicon has been passed" and that Portland was entered on an era of expansion that could not be halted. The population, estimated in 1858 as 1,750, in 1860 had grown to 2,874.

The original town had been extended to the south, covering present-day Multnomah Stadium area, which was known in 1862 as "Goose Hollow." Most of the women in this suburban settlement raised geese while their husbands hunted for gold or farmed. The flocks of geese became mixed and the "women not only pulled goose feathers, but pulled hair." The matter got into court, and Police Judge J. F. McCoy, unable to sort out the geese, made a Solomonic decision. He sent a deputy out to Goose Hollow to round up all the flocks and divide the geese equally among the complainants. He then closed the matter by threatening to incarcerate the "first woman to start another ruckus over geese."

The discovery of gold in eastern Oregon and Idaho in the early 1860's resulted in heavy trading with inland camps and settlements.

These were lively years in Portland. Tin-horn gamblers swarmed in Front Street shacks or operated their roulette and faro layouts in tents set up on vacant lots. The gold rush, however, soon ebbed, and during the Civil War years money was scarce. The city went into debt in 1866, floating a $20,000 bond issue at 12 per cent interest.

The salmon industry began to make headway in 1864. From boat-loads of fish at the wharf big ones were sold to hotel keepers at "two bits each, and smaller ones to family men at ten cents each." About 1865 an Irishman named John Quinn started to cut up fish and sell it in more usable amounts, by the pound. Soon he inaugurated Portland's first food delivery service--delivering fish from a basket. His wife, meantime, stayed behind the meat block, cutting and selling fish. "customer once asked Mrs. Quinn if she didn't get tired of her job. She replied, "Oh yes, it is not the most beautiful job, to be sure, but I am going to stay right here at this block until I make twenty thousand dollars, and then I'll quit and get myself the finest silk dress ever bought in this city." One day in i868 Mrs. Quinn appeared in Vincent Cook's store and bought twenty yards of the finest goods he had. Cook, impressed with the Quinns' success, sold his store, went into the fish business and later into salmon canning, and made millions.

A fire in 1872 destroyed three important city blocks with a loss estimated at half a million dollars. Inadequate fire-fighting equipment was blamed, and agitation began for an improved fire department. A second and greater fire in 1873 began at First and Salmon Streets and devastated twenty-two city blocks. Fire-fighting equipment was brought from Vancouver, Oregon City, Salem and Albany, to aid the local companies. Police rounded up all the Chinese available to relieve white citizens at the hand pumps. It was reported that the Chinese were held to their tasks by tying their queues to the pump handles. Domestic pigeons circled above the flames until, exhausted, they fell.

Wallis Nash describes Portland in Oregon: There and Back in 1877: "Portland seemed to us to be nearly as great a place as San Francisco. The approach to it is of the same kind, in so far as that the railway lands us on the eastern side of the Willamette, and that a big ferry-boat transfers us across the river to the city. The city rises from the water's edge, and covers what used to be pine-clad hills. The depth of water allows the grain-ships to lie alongside the wharves to load, and there is a busy scene with the river steamboats and tugs and ferry-boats passing and repassing. The original wooden shanties are being rapidly replaced with great structures of stone and brick. Warehouses are full of grain, wool, skins, canned salmon, and meat; logs and planks of pine and cedar are stacked in high piles. . .

In 1883 the final railroad line was completed between Portland and the eastern states. The city, playing host to Henry Villard and his party, celebrated the event with a parade and a general illumination of the town with tallow candles. Following completion of the railroad business increased, money was more plentiful, and manufacturing was stimulated. Spluttering gas and oil lamps were replaced by electric arc and incandescent lamps. Late in the 1880's franchises were granted for street-railway lines, the lines to be run by "horse, mule, cable, or electric." The death knell of the ferry boat was sounded in 1887, when the Morrison Street bridge was built across the Willamette.

In 1891, Portland annexed the towns of East Portland and Albina, the merger adding 20,000 to the city's population. In the first decade of the twentieth century the population increased from 90,426 to 207,314; home building was at its height; land prices soared. This tremendous growth was due in part to the Alaska gold rush, and in part to the Lewis and Clark Centennial Exposition, held in Portland in 1905, which brought the city three million visitors and many new residents. The Federal government brought its huge exhibit from St. Louis, where the year before it had been a part of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. Foreign countries as well as the states of the Union were well represented.

With its ebullient, untamed and sometimes giddy youth outgrown, Portland found the time and the desire to improve itself. Almost coincident with the first schools and churches, the Multnomah County Library Association was organized. Since 1915 many writers have appeared in Portland. Among them are A R. Wetien, Anne Shannon Monroe, Claire Warner Churchill, Mary Jane Carr, James Stevens, Stewart H. Holbrook, Sheba Hargreaves, Philip H. Parrish, Richard G. Montgomery, Hazel Hall, Ethel Romig Fuller, Ada Hastings Hedges, Eleanor Allen, Mable Holmes Parsons, Howard McKinley Corning, Richard L. Neuberger, Ernest Haycox, Robert Ormond Case, John Reed, and Laurence Pratt (see LITERATURE).

Outstanding yearly events in Portland are the Rose Festival, Fleet Week, and the Pacific International Livestock Exposition. The festival grew out of the Portland Rose Society's exhibit of 1889, and in 1904 the society sponsored the first floral parade in which four decorated automobiles were the attraction. The first official Rose Festival was held in 1907. The principal features of the celebration are the crowning of the queen, a rose show at the Civic Auditorium, programs at the Multnomah Stadium, a Junior Pageant, the floral parade, and the "merrykana" carnival parade on the closing night. Chinatown gets out its massive man-carried dragons and sets off myriads of firecrackers. Roses bloom in Portland even at Christmas time; in June the city is filled with all varieties of roses. All of the parks and many of the parking strips along the streets are bright with the bloom of Caroline Testout (the official rose), La France, Talisman, Cecil B runner, and scores of others.

Portland has been visited each summer since 1936 by a fleet of U. S. naval craft ranging from heavy cruisers to light destroyers. During their ten days' sojourn the ships are the foci of innumerable visitors. During the daylight hours the docks and ships are thronged, at night the white beams of searchlights cut through the darkness. Men and officers are entertained at banquet and reception, with a grand street dance on the last night of shorestay.

The Pacific International Livestock Exposition and Horse Show brings together fine blooded stock from all parts of the Pacific coast, from British Columbia to Mexico, and from many parts of the East. In addition to those for livestock, premiums are given for all sorts of farm and industrial products. The show is housed under one roof that covers eleven acres. The horse show arena is 200 feet wide by 332 feet long.

For years Portland has been recognized as the music center of the Pacific Northwest. For a third of a century the Portland Symphony Orchestra was nationally known, rising to prominence under the directorship of Willem Van Hoogstraten. An orchestra of more than sixty pieces playing a yearly program of fifteen concerts, its activities were temporarily discontinued in 1938. More popular in its appeal are the "Starlight Symphonies," a program of six open-air concerts given each summer at Multnomah Stadium. An audience of ten thousand or more persons listens to the concerts of this 45-piece orchestra under the direction of distinguished American and European directors. The Portland Junior Symphony Orchestra, giving four concerts yearly, is nationally recognized. Throughout the winter season the WPA Federal Symphony Orchestra gives bi-weekly concerts.

POINTS OF INTEREST

1. The OLD POST OFFICE BUILDING, SW. Morrison St. between 5th and 6th Ayes., a classic stone structure designed by M. A. R. Mullet, is in the center of a landscaped square; it accommodates the downtown post office and other Federal offices. Erected in 1875, the building for many years housed the post office and the United States District Court, and was the center of the city's activities. In court sessions it was a humming hive of witnesses, litigants, jurors, lawyers and spectators. Many famous trials were held in this building. Important among them were the land fraud trials begun in 1904 and continued for many years. These trials have been recorded at length in S. A. D. Puter's Looters of the Public Domain, published in Portland in 1908. Other cases were the opium smuggling trials of the early nineties, the most noted of which was that of the United States v. William Dunbar in November, 1893, which was carried into the U. S. Supreme Court.

2. HOTEL PORTLAND, SW. 6th Ave. between SW. Yamhill and SW. Morrison Sts., was begun in the 1870's by Henry Villard, the railroad builder, but its construction was halted when the Villard fortunes crashed. Later, a company was formed to complete the hotel, which was opened in 1889 with great pomp. Many Presidents, governors, business leaders, and people prominent in world affairs have been entertained in this hostelry. Stanford White, New York architect, designed the building.

3. The FIRST NATIONAL BANK BUILDING, SW. 6th Ave. and SW. Stark St., constructed of Colorado Yule marble and of Neo-Classic design, is a splendid example of the adaptation of classic Greek architecture to modern business purposes. The entrance is in the form of a Doric pedimented loggia. The organization is the oldest financial institution in the Pacific Northwest, and the oldest national bank west of the Rocky Mountains.

4. The U. S. NATIONAL BANK is at the NW. corner of SW. 6th Ave. and SW. Stark St., with entrances on 6th Ave. and on Broadway. The largest banking institution in the Pacific Northwest, it is housed in a classic terra cotta structure adorned with Corinthian columns and pilasters.

5. The UNITED STATES CUSTOMHOUSE, NW. Davis St. extending to NW. Everett St. between NW. Broadway and NW. 8th Ave., faces 8th Ave. and the North Park Blocks. Erected in 1901, and designed by the supervising architect's office of the U. S.

Treasury Department, the building, of Italian Renaissance design, is of buff-colored brick with sandstone trim and a granite base. Here are housed the U. S. Customs, Internal Revenue, Weather Bureau, and Army Engineers' offices.

6. The UNITED STATES POST OFFICE, NW. Glisan St. extending to NW. Hoyt St. between NW. Broadway and NW. 8th Ave., is a six-story, limestone structure of Italian Renaissance design, erected in 1918, housing the Post Office, Regional Forestry offices, and other Federal departments. It was designed by Lewis P. Hobart of San Francisco.

7. UNION DEPOT, N. end of NW. 6th Ave., is used jointly by all steam railroad lines entering Portland, The depot was erected in 1890, and is a large, rambling, stucco-finished structure of modified Italian Renaissance design, surmounted by a tall clock tower.

On display in the depot courtyard is the Oregon Pony, a small, early type locomotive used in 1862 on the Portage railroad at the Cascades of the Columbia. This engine was presented to Portland by Davis Tewes, of San Francisco, as a souvenir indicative of the part played by the Oregon Steamship Navigation CompanyB original owners of the engineB in the development of Oregon commerce.

8. BOSS SALOON, E. end of NW. Glisan Street, although its official address is 57 NW. Flanders Street, a "flatiron" building bearing the sign, Boss Lunch, stands virtually as it was built in the seventies--except for the potency of its merchandise, In the days when it was a popular place for sailors and dock workers, it is said that many a crew was shanghaied from its bar. Built in the early 1870's, as part of the Oregon Central railroad's headquarters, the little building was abandoned as a railroad unit after a few years. For a time it was a gentleman's resort, but with improved railroad facilities and removal of the depot to a point farther from the river, it deteriorated into a waterfront "headquarters for sailors, longshoremen, dockhands and riffraff hangers on, until its unsavory existence terminated with the advent of prohibition."

The wide thoroughfare North of Ankeny Street is "THE SKID-ROAD," known as a meeting place for itinerant workers from all over the country. In former days Burnside Street separated the rough North End "bowery" district from the more genteel parts of town, but now it is the southern boundary of a cheap mercantile district of lounging rooms for itinerants and numerous cheap hotels and flop houses. These are gradually being pinched out to make room for factories and wholesale warehouses. In 1905 Mayor Harry Lane, later United States Senator, clamped down on the women denizens, and scattered them to all parts of the city. Since then the city has had no restricted red light district.

9. ERICKSON'S, stretching the full north side of the block on W. Burnside Street between NW. 2nd and NW. 3rd Ayes., was once the most widely known saloon in the Pacific Northwest. It is occupied by beer parlors, a restaurant called Erickson's, and a number of other small establishments.

All western states have boasted of places with a "mile long bar" that usually measured a modest hundred feet; but it is a fact that the mahogany in Erickson's saloon ran to 674 feet. Here loggers, seafaring men, dirt movers, and hoboes from everywhere met to drink and talk. When the flood of 1894 swept into the place, proprietor Erickson quickly chartered a scow, anchored it at 2nd and Burnside, stocked it, and business continued more or less as usual.

10. The SKIDMORE FOUNTAIN, in the triangle at SW. 1st Ave., SW. Ankeny and SW. Vine Sts., is the gift of Stephen Skidmore to the city in i888. Olin L. Warner was the sculptor; H. M. Wells, the architect. The granite base is carved into a horse trough supplied with water issuing from lions' heads. The central structure consists of a bronze basin supported by classic bronze female figures. This spot was the Rialto of the 1890's, the center of such night life as there was. "Meet you at the fountain" was a popular expression. Men, horses, and dogs once drank here in the shade of the Bank of British North America. A small colony of artists, musicians, and writers maintain studios in the old Skidmore Building at 29 First Avenue, facing the fountain.

11. NEW MARKET BLOCK AND THEATER, 49 SW. 1st Ave., is the building where in the 1870's and 1880's, Thespians and mountebanks, ranging from E. H. Sothern to Anna Eva Fay, entertained Portland. Erected in 1871 the theater did not open until 1875, when James Keene staged what the posters said was a "truly gorgeous presentation of Rip Van Winkle." No less than one hundred gas lights startled the eyes of pit and gallery. Among the noted people who appeared on the New Market stage were Madam Modjeska, Janauschek, Annie Pixley, Fannie Davenport, Billy Emerson, Baird's Colossal Minstrels, Henry Ward Beecher, Robert G. Ingersoll and John L. Sullivan. The building is a two-story brick structure of utilitarian design 200 feet wide and extending from SW. First to SW. Second Avenue.

PORTLAND'S CHINATOWN is on SW. 2nd and SW. 4th Avenues, extending from SW. Washington to W. Burnside St. Chinese gambling establishments operate widely over Portland, but here are the Chinese stores, markets, tong halls, and eating places that cater more to Orientals than to others. The sidewalks are filled with circular mats on which are dried many articles strange to occidental sight and smell. In the show windows, too, are odd looking foods. Bran-like balls in a wooden box are hens' eggs, the shells coated with a mealy substance to preserve their contents. Their age is said to be great--the greater the better, according to Oriental taste. A 50-year-old egg brings the price of vintage wine. Ducks are recognizable, plucked and immersed in oil, but other dried things of various sizes and shapes--shark fins, small devil fish, oysters, shrimp and some species of mussels--are not easily identified.

12. The CHINESE BULLETIN BOARD, between SW. 2nd and SW. 3rd Ayes., on SW. Pine St., is a long wall plastered with a variety of notices and messages in bold, black characters on flaming orange paper. These characteristic ideographs are items of local and international interest and are closely scanned by groups of intent Chinese.

13. CHINESE DRUG STORE, 323 SW. 2nd Ave., contains items strange to Occidentals. One of the popular remedies comes in the shape of a pair of dried turtles held flat together by a binding around their tails, and looking not unlike a fan. The turtles are boiled and the soup eaten as specific for rheumatism. The storekeeper computes on his native calculating rack, or abacus.

14. The GREENE BUILDING, 536 SW. 1st Ave., houses an interurban station of the Portland General Electric Railway Co. Its ornate facade recalls the days when it operated as Emil Weber's drinking and gambling emporium, a hell hole of activity by day and by night. Activities ceased when Weber was murdered in broad daylight by Sandy Olds, a habitue. Following a periodic cleanup of gambling dens, Emil Weber went to a rival, Charlie Sliter, who operated the Crystal Palace Saloon, and notified him that Sandy Olds was running a game and that if Sliter didn't "fire" Olds, he would report Sliter to the police. A few days later, on May 10, 1889, Weber was accosted by Olds on a street corner. An altercation ensued and in the heat of the argument Weber reached for his handkerchief. Misinterpreting the action, Olds drew a revolver, emptying it into Weber's body, killing him instantly. Olds fought conviction to the supreme court, and escaped with two years in the penitentiary.

15. The ESMOND HOTEL, 620 SW. Front Ave., built in 1881, had a plush bellpull in every room, a luxurious convenience for those days. The Esmond flowered in an era when hotel marriages were the thing, and many Portland families of today are the result of unions sanctioned by ceremonies in its green plush parlors. The hotel entertained Rutherford B. Hayes, while he was President of the United States, John L. Sullivan, and many others.

16. ST. CHARLES HOTEL, SW. corner SW. Front and SW. Morrison St., was the finest and busiest hotel in the Northwest before the Esmond opened. In this mansard-roofed building, begun in 1869 and completed in 1871, Henry Villard and other early railroad giants of the Pacific Northwest lived intermittently. Kate Claxton, Emma Abbot, and other actresses of the 1870's and 1880's, stopped here when they visited the city. In its barroom Sam Simpson, early Oregon poet, held communion with the muse. With his pleasing disposition and readiness of conversation he was welcomed by the idlers of the St. Charles, and usually found little difficulty in borrowing "two-bits until to-morrow," which he spent forthwith for liquor, helping himself liberally to the saloon's free lunch. In his last poem pathetically he wrote:

A The musical fountain has ceased to flow .

In earthly sense we comprehend

That death, after all, is life's best friend."

17. The PORTLAND PUBLIC MARKET, on SW. Front Ave. between SW. Salmon and SW. Yamhill Sts., is a large three-story building of modern construction containing many stores and about three hundred farm produce stalls. Merchandise ranging from fresh bean sprouts, ham, pumpernickel and carrots, to pink petunias and wild blackberries in season, are displayed on the brightly lighted stands over which Japanese, Chinese, Italians, and Americans urge customers to buy their wares. A ramp leads to car-parking space on the roof. The building has an auditorium seating 500, in which food shows and demonstrations are given.

18. Near the west end of Hawthorne Bridge at the E. end of SW. Jefferson St. is the BATTLESHIP OREGON (open 9-5 daily, adm. 10c; schoolchildren and veterans free). Launched in 1895, this relic of the Spanish-American War made its epic I 5,000-mile run in 1895 from Bremerton, Washington, through the Straits of Magellan, to Key West, Florida, in forty-seven days. The great run was made under the command of Captain Robley D. "Fighting Bob" Evans, who earned his nickname at Valparaiso in 1891, while relations were strained with Chile; he threatened "to blow the Chilean navy out of the water" unless they stopped torpedo practice while he was there in command of one light cruiser. They stopped. Evans commanded the Iowa in the Battle of Santiago; at one time the fire of the entire Spanish navy was concentrated on his ship, In the same battle the Oregon engaged and sank the Maria Teresa, Spanish flagship, and, after a chase of forty-eight miles, beached the Colon. In 1925 the old ship was given to the state of Oregon, which maintains it as a historic memorial. A mooring basin and park are being constructed (1940) as a permanent anchorage.

19. The PORTLAND CIVIC AUDITORIUM, SW. 3rd Ave. between SW. Clay and SW. Market Sts., erected in 1917, was designed by Freedlander & Seymour of New York City. The exterior, of modified Italian Renaissance design, is of buff brick and stone, with terra cotta and green metal trim. The main auditorium seats 3,527, while with side wings thrown open it has a maximum capacity of 6,700. In the building is the OREGON HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTION (open 9-5 weekdays; 9-12 Sat.), entrance at SW. 3rd Ave. and SW. Market St. The society was founded in 1898. In its collection, are thousands of rare and valuable volumes, including the Journal of John Ledyard, dealing with Captain Cook's first voyage to the northwest coast in 1788, of which only five copies are known to exist. Another item is the Diary of Jason Lee, the first Oregon missionary. In the newspaper collection are files of more than three hundred newspapers, including the Oregon Spectator, the first newspaper published west of the Rocky Mountains. The collection also contains more than ten thousand manuscripts, many dealing with provisional and territorial stages of the state's development, hundreds of maps, and old photographs and paintings.

Among the historical objects is the sea chest that Captain Robert Gray carried with him in the Columbia Rediviva when he discovered the river named for his ship. Here also is the tiny Mission Press, the first printing press west of the Rocky Mountains. It was first used at Lapwai, now in Idaho, in 1839, to print a primer and certain of the gospels in the Nez Perce language. The Indian collection shows graphically every phase of native life; and there are innumerable objects, including a covered wagon, used by the pioneers. Since 1900 the Society has published the Oregon Historical Quarterly.

20. CITY HALL, SW. 5th Ave., between SW. Madison and SW. Jefferson Sts., erected in 1895, of Italian Renaissance architecture, was designed by Whidden & Lewis of Portland. The design of the four-story structure suggests that of a stately town house. The outer walls are of yellow gray sandstone, with a circular portico supported by columns of polished black granite. A bronze plaque commemorating the architects was placed at the entrance in 1932 by the Oregon chapter of the American Institute of Architects.

21. LOWNSDALE SQUARE, SW. 4th Ave., between SW. Salmon and SW. Main Sts., is named for Daniel H. Lownsdale, one of the earliest owners of the Portland townsite and donor of the plot to the city. The park is the orating ground of the city's soap-box evangels. In fair weather its benches are filled with men from all parts of the world, and innumerable tame pigeons strut on the lawn. In this square, said to be an old feeding ground for elk, is the ELK FOUNTAIN, the work of Roland H. Perry, noted animal sculptor, and the SOLDIERS' MONUMENT, by Douglas Tilden, honoring members of the Second Oregon Volunteers who fell in the Spanish-American War.

22. The MULTNOMAH COUNTY COURTHOUSE, SW. Salmon St. between SW. 4th and SW. 5th Ayes., occupying the entire block, was also designed by Whidden & Lewis, and erected in 1913. It is of Neo-Classic architecture, with stone trim, tall Ionic colonnades, and a heavy classic cornice. The base is of California granite, the upper part of white Bedford stone. County offices and courts are housed here. The jail occupies part of the top floor.

23. The PUBLIC SERVICE BUILDING, SW. 6th Ave. between SW. Taylor and SW. Salmon St., a sixteen-story structure with an off-set tower, is the tallest commercial building in the state. Constructed of terra cotta and gray brick it is designed in a modified Italian Renaissance style.

24. The MULTNOMAH PUBLIC LIBRARY (open 9-9 week-days; reading room 3-9 Sun.), SW. 10th Ave. between SW. Yamhill and SW. Taylor Sts., erected in 1913 and constructed of red brick with limestone trim, is of Italian Renaissance design. The three-story and basement structure occupies an entire city block, and is considered the finest library in the Northwest. The interior trim is of domestic and imported marbles, with columns of scagliola. The building is surrounded on three sides by a carved limestone balustrade interspersed with benches. These benches, the cornice of the building, and the spandrels under the large windows, are inscribed with the names of famous artists, writers, philosophers, and scientists. The architects were Doyle, Patterson and Beach. The library has large reference and circulating departments, an excellent technical department, and an extensive collection of Oregoniana. The library has a per capita circulation of eight volumes, and 43 per cent of Portland residents are registered borrowers.

25. The UNITARIAN CHURCH, Wi SW. 12th Ave., is a small church structure of Georgian Colonial design. In a setting of older residences and curb-side trees, it gives an atmosphere of old New England. The exterior is of brick with cast stone trim, surmounted by a cupola and slender spire. The interior is finished in ornamental wood panels. Jamieson Parker was the architect.

The SOUTH PARK BLOCKS are a series of landscaped areas extending southward for thirteen blocks from SW. Salmon St. to SW. Clifton St., between SW. Park and SW. Ninth Ayes. The blocks are landscaped with trees and shrubs transplanted from the eastern United States, and some of them contain fountains and statuary.

26. The LINCOLN STATUE, in the center of the square bounded by SW. Main St., SW. Madison Sts., SW. Park Ave., and SW. Ninth Ave., shows the Great Emancipator with head bowed and shoulders drooping. Many patriotic organizations participated in the unveiling in 1928. The statue is an original, and under the terms of the agreement between the late Dr. Henry Waldo Coe, the donor, and George Fite Waters, the artist, it may never be duplicated.

27. In the SW. Park Ave. block between SW. Madison and Jefferson Sts., is A. Phimister Proctor's ROUGH RIDER STATUE OF THEODORE ROOSEVELT, also a gift of Dr. Coe. The bronze equestrian figure, mounted on a base of California granite, towers

twenty-three feet and weighs three tons. It was dedicated on Armistice Day, 1922, and Vice President Calvin Coolidge made the dedicatory address. The figure of Theodore Roosevelt was designed with the advice and aid of the family; Mrs. Roosevelt made available to the artist the actual uniform and accouterments used by the Colonel at the battle of San Juan Hill.

28. The PORTLAND ART MUSEUM (open 50-5 weekdays; 12 M.-5 P.M. Mon.; 7-10 P.M. Wed.; 2-5 Sun. and holidays free), SW. 9th Ave. between SW. Madison and Jefferson Sts., is owned by the Portland Art Association and was a gift from W. B. Ayer. Of modern design with a trend toward crisp functionalism, the broad building is faced with Oregon brick of a rich golden-red color and Colorado travertine. Especially notable are the three entrance portals with their five metal gates. Built in 1932, it was designed by Pietro Belluschi of the firm of A. E. Doyle and Associates. The Solomon and Josephine Hirsch Memorial wing was added in 1939 through the gift of Ella Hirsch, In the south wing is the Lewis collection of Greek and Roman vases, bronzes, and glass. Other objects in this wing are a Chinese terra cotta figurine, given by L. Allen Lewis; three Chinese paintings, a gift from the Freer Collection; and Greek glass and jade given by the children of Mrs. William S. Ladd. The Doyle memorial collection of Egyptian scarabs and seals is in the small south gallery.

In the large room of the north wing are selections from the textile collections, gifts of Mrs. F. B. Pratt, the Misses Failing, and others. The lace collection is in a small gallery beyond.

The permanent exhibit of French and American paintings is in two galleries on the upper floor, In the small south gallery is a loan collection of Chinese potteries, porcelains, and paintings from the L. Allen Lewis collection, and a display of Japanese prints. Among the permanent displays are pieces of Near-Eastern, Chinese, and Persian pottery. Two other items of unusual interest are an Egyptian vase from Fayoum, northern Egypt, belonging to the Ptolemaic period, and a small bronze cat from a cat cemetery of ancient Egypt. A good collection of casts of Greek and Roman sculpture, given by Henry W. Corbett, the first president of the association, is on the ground floor.

The museum has been the recipient of many fine paintings, among them works of Corot, Delacroix, Monticelli, Courbet, Diaz, Renoir, Pissarro, Inness, William Sartain, Childe Hassam, William M. Hunt, George Fuller, Albert Ryder, and A. B. Davies. Besides the permanent collections, there are circulating exhibitions from the American Federation of Art, the College Art Association, and other groups. There are about sixteen of these exhibits annually.

Other facilities of the museum include a library of 2,000 volumes, a collection of illustrated prints and slides for school use, and the Braum collection of 15,000 photographs and color reproductions of the masterpieces of European galleries. The museum conducts an art school and special lectures are frequently given in the auditorium.

29. SIXTH CHURCH OF CHRIST SCIENTIST, 1331 SW. 9th Ave., is of modern design with heavy, set-back, corner pylons. The building is of reinforced concrete construction faced with light brown brick, and with a slate shingle roof of harmonizing red. The interior woodwork is of oak, the walls and ceiling of plaster, and the floor of terrazzo. The dome over the crossing is covered with acoustical material painted in antique mosaic effect. Morris H. Whitehouse and Associates were the architects.

30. The FINLEY MORTUARY, 432 SW. Montgomery St., is a blending of the traditional with the functional style of design. It is reminiscent of the past, yet strictly modern. The fresh, crisp style was achieved chiefly through the elimination of superfluous detail. The exterior walls are of concrete with brick facings. The entrance is of Indiana limestone. The interior has a plastic finish, with the exception of the main chapel, the walls of which are lined with Philippine mahogany, flat panels set on furring strips in concrete. The mortuary, known as the Morninglight Chapel, was awarded honorable mention in the 1938 National Exhibition of the New York Architectural League, and was listed in 1938 by The Association of Federal Architects as one of the hundred best buildings erected in America since 1918. It was designed by Pietro Belluschi. of the firm of A. E. Doyle and Associates.

31. MULTNOMAH CIVIC STADIUM, SW. Morrison St. between SW. 18th and SW. 20th Ayes., is a concrete structure designed after the Roman Coliseum, with a seating capacity of 30,000. Whitehouse and Doyle were the architects. Inter-collegiate and interscholastic football games are played here. In June it is the center of activities of Portland's annual Rose Festival. In summer months dog races attract large crowds.

32. TRINITY EPISCOPAL CHURCH, SW. corner NW. 19th Ave. and NW. Everett St. is a vine-clad stone edifice, designed in the manner of an English parish church with steep gable roof and crenelated corner tower. A parish house, erected in 1939, is joined to the church by a connecting unit.

33. TEMPLE BETH ISRAEL, NW. 19th Ave. and NW. Flanders St., is octagonal in plan, with quotations from the Talmud above each door. The building is of reinforced concrete construction faced with golden-yellow sandstone, the upper portion is of salmon-colored brick and glazed terra cotta. A huge dome surmounts the structure, its apex ninety feet above the floor. Built in 1926, Temple Beth Israel was designed by Morris H. Whitehouse and Herman Brookman, architects, associates with Bennes and Herzog.

34. ST. MARK'S CATHEDRAL, NW. 21st Ave. and NW. Northrup St., designed by Jameson Parker in the manner of an Italian Romanesque basilica, is surmounted by a seventy-five-foot tower and is faced entirely with red brick. It was a gift to the parish from Miss Catherine H. Percival. St. Mark's, one of the oldest religious organizations in Portland, was founded as a mission in 1874, and was organized as a parish in 1889, by the late Bishop Morris.

35. In SAM JACKSON PARK, on Marquam Hill, is the VETERANS' HOSPITAL (open 2-4 daily), a Federal institution offering free medical care to veterans of American wars. It consists of a group of red-brick structures of modified Georgian Colonial architecture, designed by government architects of the Veterans' Administration. The principal units were put into service in December, 1928. The official capacity is 385 beds.

36. The PORTLAND MEDICAL CENTER, W. edge of Sam Jackson Park on SW. Marquam Hill Road, crowns the height of Marquam Hill. On a campus of 108 acres, the group comprises the University of Oregon Medical School, the Multnomah County Hospital, and the Doernbecher Hospital for Crippled Children. The first unit of the Medical School, a three-story, reinforced concrete structure, was built in 1919. The second unit, MacKenzie Hall, similar in design to the first but with twice its capacity, was erected in 1922. The Outpatient Clinic, erected in 1931, connects the Doernbecher Memorial Hospital and the Multnomah County Hospital, and affords teaching facilities for the clinical branch of the Medical School. The

Multnomah County General Hospital was built in 1923 at a cost of $1,000,000. Providing space for 300 patients, it offers free medical care to the county's indigent. The architects were Sutton and Whitney, with Crandall and Fritsch, associates. The Doernbecher Memorial Hospital for Children, erected in 1925, is a buff brick, fireproof structure with terra cotta trim. Ellis F. Lawrence was the architect. The Doernbecher Hospital, endowed by the pioneer Portland furniture manufacturer whose name it bears, is maintained partly by the state.

A unit of the University of Oregon Medical School is the new University State Tuberculosis Hospital, the third such state institution. Opened in November, 1939, it cares for 80 resident tubercular cases, conducts an out-patient clinic, and is expertly equipped. Its $290,900 cost was shared by the State and the WPA, and by a $50,000 gift from the widow of Oregon's late Governor Julius L. Meier.

37. COUNCIL CREST PARK (1,107 alt.) is directly west of Sam Jackson Park and dose to the southwest city limits. It is reached by SW. Broadway Drive and Talbot Roads, and other roads encircle it. The highest point within the city, the view from this eminence in clear weather is approximately forty miles to the west, sixty miles to the east, and more than a hundred miles to the north and south, and includes six snow-covered peaks. To the west, beyond the bowl-like Tualatin Valley, is the Coast Range. Eastward the gorge of the Columbia River is visible from Crown Point to Cascade Locks; to the south are Oregon City and the Willamette Valley; and to the north is the city of Vancouver arid the orchards of Clark County, Washington. The small tower on the crest is a United States Coast and Geodetic Survey triangulation station.

38. WASHINGTON PARK crowns the hills directly west of the main business section and is one of the most beautiful of Portland's many parks. It comprises one-hundred acres of hillside, partly improved. At the SW. Park Place entrance stands a thirty-four foot shaft of granite brought from the Snake River and erected in honor of Lewis and Clark, the explorers. The first stone was laid for the base by President Theodore Roosevelt in 1903. Along the driveway (R) is the much-photographed STATUE OF SACAJAWEA, the "bird woman" who guided Lewis and Clark through the mountains. Modeled by Alice Cooper, the statue depicts the Indian woman with her baby on her back pointing out the way to the whites. A little farther on is the statue, THE COMING OF THE WHITE MAN, by H. A. McNeil, which shows two Indians astonished by their first sight of a white man.

In the upper part of the park is the Zoo (open 8-6 daily), containing lions, tigers, monkeys, and many animals native to the Pacific Northwest. Deer, elk, buffalo roam the pastures at the far south end of the park.

In the center of the park are the INTERNATIONAL ROSE TEST GARDENS, conducted by the Portland Council of the National Rose Society. Cuttings from all parts of the world are received here and cross-grafted to develop new types.

39. The FORESTRY BUILDING (open 9-5 daily), NW. 28th Ave., between NW. Vaughn and NW. Upshur Sts., made entirely of fir, is a weather-beaten structure 206 feet long, 102 feet wide, and 72 feet high. In the vast interior, accentuating the great size, are fifty-two log pillars six feet in diameter, that support the roof and a gallery of small logs. On the floor are sections of great logs nine or ten feet in diameter, and polished slabs of various kinds of commercial lumber. Doubtless the largest log cabin in the world, 1,000,000 feet, board measure, of logs went into its construction. It was a feature of the Lewis and Clark exposition of 1905. It is occupied only by a caretaker.

40. ST. JOHNS BRIDGE, foot of N. Philadelphia Street, of suspension type, designed and built by the bridge engineering firm of Robinson & Steinmann, New York, is one of America's most beautiful bridges. From it there is an excellent view of the Willamette River. Upstream are the Oceanic dock, the Eastern and Western Lumber Mill, Municipal Terminal No. 1, and other docks. Downstream is Municipal Terminal No. 4, where eleven deep-sea craft can berth simultaneously.

41. UNIVERSITY OF PORTLAND, on triangle formed by Willamette Blvd., Portsmouth Ave. and the river bluff, occupies a beautiful site overlooking the Willamette River, The university was founded in 1901 by Archbishop Christie of the Roman Catholic

diocese of Oregon, and is operated by the Holy Cross Fathers of Notre Dame, in Indiana. The buildings consist of Administration Hall, of Renaissance design; Christie Hall, of Tudor-Gothic design, and Howard and Science Halls, of modern functional design. Founded as Portland University, the name of the school was changed to Columbia University, but reverted to the present name in 1935.

Below the bluffs upon which the university is situated is Mock's Bottom (R), a mud-flat dotted with stagnant ponds and crossed by the tracks of the Union Pacific Railroad, In the river is Swan Island, Portland's municipal airport, soon to be superseded by a larger municipal airport under construction (1940) at 47th St. and Columbia Blvd.

42. PENINSULA PARK, N. Portland Blvd. between N. Albina and Kerby Ayes., and Ainsworth St., occupies a twenty-acre area, equipped with playgrounds, ball grounds, and a swimming pool. In the park is the SUNKEN ROSE GARDEN (open), occupying six acres and containing more than 1,000 varieties of roses. When the plants are in full bloom the gardens are a mass of vivid color. The plantings are in rectangular beds, surrounded by close-cropped boxwood hedges. From four pergola entrances of red brick, one at each side of the garden, wide flights of red brick steps lead downward past terraced plantings to the lowest level, in the center of which is a large fountain.

43. STATUE OF GEORGE WASHINGTON, a bronze heroic figure at NE. 57th Ave., NE. Sandy Boulevard and the Alameda, is the work of Pompeii Coppini. Set near the apex of a tringular plot in front of the Friendship Masonic Home Association, donors of the site, the statue faces Sandy Boulevard and looks eastward down the old Oregon Trail, the route traveled by the pioneers. Formally dedicated in 1927, it was given to the city by Dr. Henry Waldo Coe.

44. The SHRINE HOSPITAL FOR CRIPPLED CHILDREN, NE. Sandy Blvd. between NE. 82nd and NE. 84th Ayes., is a large brick and wood structure of English Renaissance design, erected in 1922. Well-staffed and nationally-known, this children's hospital is conducted by the Masonic order, and is celebrated for its success in the treatment of congenital hip diseases.

45. On Sandy Blvd. near NE. 84th Ave. is the entrance (R), to the grounds of the SANCTUARY OF OUR SORROWFUL MOTHER (free parking space), the open air grotto and sanctuary of the Servite Fathers. It is the only one of the twenty-one sanctuaries of

the Servite Order outside Europe. The lower level is landscaped, with stations for prayer, and, in the side of Rocky Butte, there is a

large altar at which daily services are conducted. The upper level of the sanctuary is separated from the lower by a perpendicular cliff, and is reached by an elevator (charge 25c). The Sanctuary covers eighteen acres on the lower level and forty acres on the higher level. On the upper level are seven shrines containing thirty-four wood-carvings of Italian design and craftsmanship. On the crest, also, are a monastery serving as a home for the Servite Fathers, and a heroic bronze STATUE of OUR SORROWFUL MOTHER, depicting the Virgin in an attitude of adoration, overlooking the Columbia River and visible for miles. A special mass is held before the statue on Mother's Day.

46. An aircraft beacon and observation platform at the end of the winding road leading from NE. Fremont St. marks the summit of ROCKY BUTTE (612 alt.), one of three cinder cones of volcanic origin on the east side of the city. Its slopes are rough and broken. A grove of quaking aspen, not ordinarily native to the lower altitudes of western Oregon, grows on the northern side. From Rocky Butte there is a view of the city stretching to the hills beyond the Willamette and northwestward to the lowlands of the Columbia River, In the angle between the rivers are North Portland's large meat packing plants and stockyards. Beyond the Columbia are the peaks of St. Helens, Rainier, and Adams. Eastward the Columbia is lost between encroaching foothills of the Cascades, while slightly to the southeast rises Mount Hood.

JOSEPH WOOD HILL PARK covers three acres on the crest of the butte. The site was given to Multnomah County by Joseph A. and B. W. Hill, in 1935, and dedicated to the public in memory of their father, Dr. J. W. Hill, an early educator. The park was improved during 193 7-39 as a WPA project, with stone walls, roadways, and a wide parking platform.

47. The northeastern entrance to MOUNT TABOR PARK is at 69th Ave. and SE. Yamhill St., from which point a curving drive of easy grade leads upward to the summit (6oo alt.). This is another of the cinder cones lying along the east edge of the city. From its grassy, tree-shaded crest, there is a view of the East Side and the country between Portland and the Sandy River, fourteen miles distant. Mount Hood gleams white in the east. Facing southeast on the crest is Gutzon Borglum's STATUE OF HARVEY W. SCOTT, Oregon's noted newspaper editor. Below the summit on the southwest slope of the butte are the city reservoirs, where the force of the stream piped from the mountains sixty miles away hurls great jets of water a hundred feet into the air.

48. REED COLLEGE, SE. Woodstock Blvd. between SE. 28th and SE. 36th Ayes., was founded as Reed Institute by the widow of Simeon Reed, pioneer railroad builder, A for the increase and diffusion of practical knowledge . . . and for the promotion of Literature, Science, and Art." The buildings, on a large and beautiful landscaped campus, are of Tudor Gothic design reminiscent in detail of Compton Wyngates. The construction is of reinforced concrete, faced with red brick and trimmed with limestone. The dormitory and administration buildings were erected in 1912, and the library in 1930. A. E. Doyle of Portland was the architect.

Opened in 1911, Reed College maintains a College of Liberal Arts and Sciences presided over by a faculty representing more than twenty American graduate schools, who are given opportunities for supplementary foreign travel and research. There are no fraternities or sororities, and no intercollegiate athletic teams. Reed operates as a democratic co-educational community, fostering the spirit of inquiry and investigation, and sharing the advantages afforded by its endowments, memorials, and lectureships with the community outside its campus. The annual enrollment is approximately 500.

The LIBRARY (open 8-8 weekdays), contains 54,000 volumes, acquires 2,500 volumes every year, receives about 200 periodicals, and is a depository for government documents. The reading rooms are open to the public, as are many lectures in the Chapel or Commons. The Pacific Northwest Institute of International Relations, and many other conferences of educational interest, are held on the Reed campus.

49. LONE FIR CEMETERY, SE. 20th Ave. between SE. Morrison and Stark Sts., was begun in 1854 when Crawford Dobbins and David Fuller, victims of the Gazelle river steamer disaster near Oregon City, were buried here. In the cemetery are markers inscribed in English, Hebrew, German, Japanese, Chinese, French, and Spanish. Here lie Catholics, Protestants, Jews, pagans and free thinkers; white, yellow, black, red, and brown men and women; bums and bankers; senators, governors, and mayors. Among the graves in the cemetery are those of Samuel L. Simpson, early Oregon poet; William Hume, father of the salmon-canning industry; George Law Curry, territorial governor; and W. H. Frush, early-day saloon keeper. On the plot of the Frush grave, marked by a pretentious monument, is the large marble urn in which he annually mixed his Tom and Jerry. On several occasions in late years, the urn has been taken away and used for its original purpose, but is always returned.

Two sections of the cemetery were set aside for the graves of firemen, and many of the markers have elaborate carvings of hooks, ladders, trumpets and shields.

In earlier days, when the Oriental population of the city was larger than it is today, scores of Chinese were buried here, but the bones of those whose families could afford it have been disinterred and sent to China.

50. LAURELHURST PARK, SE. 39th Ave. between SE. Ankeny and SE. Stark Sts., is a thirty-acre recreational area and playground. Large firs rise from the knolls, and the shrubbery is profuse. The park contains many varieties of Oregon plants and flowers, an artificial lake stocked with ducks and swans, a bandstand, picnic facilities, two tennis courts, and a playground.

51. JOAN OF ARC STATUE, NE. 39th Ave. and NE. Glisan St., is a copy of the original statue in the place de Rivoli, Paris, and was given to the city by Dr. Henry Waldo Coe. It was dedicated in 1925 to the American doughboy.

52. The JANTZEN KNITTING MILLS (open 9-5 Mon.-Fri., 9-12 Sat.; apply at office), NE. 19th Ave. and NE. Sandy Blvd., manufacture bathing suits. The knitting department has seventy-five machines, each with about 1500 needles. Following the knitting the fabric is shrunk, cut into shape by electric cutting machines, and sewed on power-driven machines. In its Portland mill the company employs 700 workers. The buildings are modern, well lighted and ventilated, and the grounds beautifully landscaped.

53. The BURNSIDE BRIDGE, joining W. and E. Burnside Sts., a double bascule span of reinforced concrete construction, was dedicated in 1926 and cost approximately $3,000,000o. So precisely are its bascules balanced that they move practically of their own weight when once set in motion. It was designed by Hendrick & Kremer, consulting engineers, of Portland and Kansas City. East Burnside Street is one of the main approaches to the city from the east.

POINTS OF INTEREST IN ENVIRONS

Sandy River Bridge, 13 m.; Crown Point, 18.2 m. (see TOUR 1); U. S. Army Post, Vancouver, Washington, 9 m. (see WASHINGTON GUIDE); Oswego Lake, 7 m.; Marylhurst College, 8.6 m.; Willamette Falls, Oregon City, 14.5 m. (see TOUR 2); Multnomah County Fairgrounds, Gresham, 13.7 m.; Bull Run Lake, 28 m. (see TOUR 4.4).

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BONNEVILLE, 150 m. (50 alt., 8oo pop.), is at Bonneville Dam, begun by the Federal Government in 1933 and finished in 1938. The dam, designed by United States Army engineers, raised the level of water to a point four miles above The Dalles. Many of the river's beauty spots and historic sites were submerged by this impounding of water. The Cascades and much of the shore line disappeared beneath the rising waters of the great reservoir. The dam spans the Columbia River from Oregon to Washington, a distance of 1,100 feet. Bradford Island, an old Indian burial ground separating the river's two channels, is at the center of the mammoth barrier. There is a single-lift lock, 75 feet wide and 500 feet long, near the Oregon shore; a power plant with two completed units, each of 43,000 kilowatts capacity, and with foundation for four additional units; a gate-control spillway dam creating a head of 67 feet at low water; and fishways designed to permit salmon to ascend the Columbia to their spawning grounds on its upper tributaries.

The slack-water lake formed above the dam creates a 30-foot channel between Bonneville and The Dalles, a distance of 44 miles. With the deepening of the Columbia between Vancouver, Washington and the dam, to a depth of 27 feet, the river will be navigable to sea-going craft for 176 miles inland. The final cost of the project, including its ten hydroelectric units with a capacity of more than a half million horsepower, will be more than $70,000,000.

Bonneville was named for Captain Benjamin de Bonneville, whose exploits were set forth in The Adventures of Captain Bonneville by Washington Irving.

At MOFFET CREEK, 151.4 m., the highway crosses a large flat-arch cement bridge. The span, 170 feet long, is 70 feet above the stream.

The JOHN B. YEON STATE PARK, 152 m., was named in honor of an early highway builder.

At the eastern end of the McCord Creek Bridge, 152.6 m., is a petrified stump that is believed to have matured long before the Cascade Range was thrust up.

Left from the eastern end of the bridge on a trail along the creek to ELOWAH FALLS.

At 153.2 m. BEACON ROCK, across the Columbia (R), is seen. Alexander Ross, the fur trader, called it Inshoach Castle. A landmark for river voyagers for more than a hundred years, it is now surmounted by a beacon to guide airplanes. A stirring chapter of Genevieve: A Tale of Oregon relates dramatic events that took place on its summit. A foot trail has been carved in its side from base to crest.

HORSETAIL FALLS, 156.6 m., forming the design that gives it name, shoot downward across the face of the sheer rock wall into an excellent fishing pool. Spray from the pool continually drifts across the highway. East of the falls towers ST. PETERS DOME, a 2,000-foot basalt pinnacle

ONEONTA GORGE, 156.9 m., is a deep, narrow cleft in the basalt bluff through which Rows a foaming creek. Fossilized trees caught by a lava flow, are entombed in its perpendicular walls.

Left from the highway on a trail to ONEONTA FALLS, 800 ft., hidden in the depths of the gorge. The water, falling into the narrow ravine, stirs the air into strong currents giving it a delightful coolness even when temperatures nearby are high.

MULTNOMAH FALLS, 159 m., inspired Samuel Lancaster, builder of the Columbia River Highway, to write: A There are higher waterfalls and falls of greater volume, but there are none more beautiful than Multnomah," a sentiment approved by many observers. The source is near the summit of Larch Mountain 4,000 feet above the highway. After a series of cascades the waters drop 68o feet into a tree-fringed basin.

Left from Multnomah Falls on a foot trail, across a bridge above the short stretch of creek between the upper and lower falls, to LARCH MOUNTAIN, 6.5 m., (4,095 alt.).

WAHKEENA (Ind. most beautiful) FALLS, 159.6 m., named for the daughter of a Yakima Indian chief, are considered by some the most beautiful of the many falls in the gorge. There is no sheer drop, but the waters hurl themselves in a series of fantastic cascades down the steep declivity. Wahkeena Creek has its source in Wahkeena Springs only a mile and a half above the cliff over which the waters plunge.

MIST FALLS, 159.8 m., where the water drops from a 1,200-foot escarpment were thus mentioned by Lewis and Clark: A Down from these heights frequently descend the most beautiful cascades, one of which [now Multnomah Falls] throws itself over a perpendicular rock. . . . while other smaller streams precipitate themselves from a still greater elevation, and evaporating in mist, again collect and form a second cascade before they reach the bottom of the rocks."

COOPEY FALLS, 161.9 m., according to Indian legend is at the site of a battle of giants.

BRIDAL VEIL, 162.7 m. (4.0 alt., 204 pop.), is a lumber-mill town in a small valley below the highway. Formerly Bridal Veil Falls was noted for its beauty but the waters now are confined in a lumber-flume.

Two sharp rocks between which pass the tracks of the Union Pacific and known as the PILLARS OF HERCULES or SPEELYEI'S CHILDREN, the latter name commemorating the feats of the Indian coyote god, rise (R) beyond FOREST HILL.

In the shadowy grotto of SHEPPERD'S DELL, 163.7 m., a sparkling waterfall leaps from a cliff. A white concrete arch bridges a chasm 150 feet wide and 140 feet deep. Near the bridge the highway curves round a domed rock known as BISHOP'S CAP or MUSHROOM ROCK.

LATOURELLE FALLS, 164.9 m., take a sheer drop of 224 feet into a pool at the base of an overhanging cliff. LATOURELLE BRIDGE was so placed as to give the best view of the falling waters.

The GUY W. TALBOT PARK, 165.1 m., is a 125-acre wooded tract overlooking the Columbia.

Winding along the forested mountainside the highway reaches CROWN POINT, 167.3 m., 725 feet above the river on an overhanging rocky promontory. The highway makes a wide curve, in the center of which is the VISTA HOUSE. This impressive stone structure, a modern adaptation of the English Tudor style of architecture, modified to conform to the character and topography of the landscape, was built at a cost of $100,000. The foundation about the base of the Vista House is laid in Italian-style dry masonry, no mortar having been used. Men were imported from Italy to work here and elsewhere along the highway. The windswept height, once known as THOR'S CROWN, commands a view of the river east and west for many miles.

Inside the Vista House is a bronze tablet recording the explorations of Lieut. William Broughton of Vancouver's expedition, who came up the Columbia River in 1792.

The SAMUEL HILL MONUMENT, 168.5 m., is a 50-ton granite boulder dedicated to the man who was chiefly responsible for building the Columbia River Highway.

CORBETT, 169.9 m. (665 alt., 90 pop.), set in rolling hills, is at the eastern end of a cultivated area. The road cuts between the cliffs and the waters at the SANDY RIVER, 174.5 m. This stream, flowing from the glaciers on the south slope of Mount Hood, was discovered by Lieut. William Broughton on October 30, 1792, and named Barings River for an English family. The bluffs near the river mouth now bear the name of the discoverer. Lewis and Clark passed this point on November 3, 1805, and in their Journals records the immense quantities of sand thrown out. They wrote: A We reached the mouth of a river on the left, which seemed to lose its waters in a sandbar opposite, the stream itself being only a few inches in depth. But on attempting to wade across we discovered that the bed was a very bad quicksand, too deep to be passed on foot. . . . Its character resembles very much that of the river Platte. It drives its quicksand over the low grounds with great impetuosity and . . . has formed a large sandbar or island, three miles long and a mile and a half wide, which divides the waters of the Quicksand river into two channels." The river is noted locally for its annual run of smelt (eulachan), which ascend in millions each spring to spawn. When they appear the word goes out that A the smelt are running Sandy." Cars soon crowd the highways, while hundreds of people snare the fish with sieves, nets, buckets, sacks or birdcages. (Special license required, 50c.)

TROUTDALE, 177.7 m. (5o alt., 227 pop.), is a trade center for a fruit and vegetable producing area specializing in celery growing. Between truck gardens and dairy farms, US 30 crosses the bottom lands of the widening Columbia Valley to FAIRVIEW, 180.3 m. (114 alt., 266 pop.), and past orchards, bulb farms, and suburban homes to PARKROSE, 185.2 m.

PORTLAND, 192.7 m. (32 alt., 301,815 pop.) (see PORTLAND).

Points of Interest: Skidmore Fountain, Oregon Historical Society Museum, Art Museum, Portland Public Market, Sanctuary of our Sorrowful Mother, and many others.

Portland is at junction with US 99 (see TOUR 2a), State 8 (see TOUR 8), State 50 (see TOUR 4A, US 99W (see TOUR 10).

Section c. Portland to Astoria, 104.5 m.

US 30 leaves PORTLAND, 0 m., on NW. Vaughn St. and St. Helens Road, a part of the Lower Columbia Highway, and passes through a busy industrial district along Portland's lower harbor. Wharves line the Willamette River bank (R) and factories and warehouses occupy the river flats.

The highway passes under the west approach to the ST. JOHNS BRIDGE, 6.5 m., an attractive suspension bridge high above the river.

LINNTON, 7.9 m., a part of Portland since 1915, was founded in the 1840's by Peter H. Burnett, later, first governor of California. He visioned the tiny town as the future metropolis of the Columbia Valley but Portland drew most of the shipping trade and Linnton languished. At present it is an important industrial district of the city; large lumber shipments leave from its wharves.

At 12.7 m. is a junction with the Burlington Ferry approach, a plank viaduct leading to a ferry (free) crossing Willamette Slough.

Right on this viaduct to the ferry landing, 0.5 m., off which is SAUVIE ISLAND (850 pop.), which retains much of its pastoral charm. Numerous fishermen and duck hunters frequent the lakes and swales of this popular recreational area. Land of island is quite fertile; bulb culture and truck gardening have become increasingly important in recent years.

Frederic Homer Balch wrote in his Indian romance, The Bridge of the Gods: "The chief of the Willamettes gathered on Wappatto Island, from time immemorial the council-ground of the tribes. The white man has changed its name to `Sauvie' Island; but its wonderful beauty is unchangeable. Lying at the mouth of the Willamette River and extending many miles down the Columbia, rich in wide meadows and crystal lakes, its interior dotted with majestic oaks and its shores fringed with cottonwoods, around it the blue and sweeping rivers, the wooded hills, and the far white snow peaks,--it is the most picturesque spot in Oregon."

In spite of the fact that the island has a comparatively small population with neither stores nor shops and with but one small sawmill to represent the industrial interests, it is by no means isolated. Many people go there, so many that the small ferry is crowded to capacity. Because of its numerous lakes, ponds and bayous, the island is a popular haunt for duck hunters, and many club houses dot its length. Fishermen seek the shores of the Gilbert River for the crappies, catfish, black and yellow bass, sunfish and perch, that lurk in these sluggish waters. Men grown weary of the turbulence of mountain streams and the elusive antics of the fighting trout, find peace and relaxation in the lazy swirl of the waters and the bobbing of the cork-float when a channel-cat or crappie takes the bait.

The first white men to visit the island as far as known were the Lewis and Clark expedition on November 4, 1805. A We landed on the left bank of the river, at a village of twenty-five houses; all of these were thatched with straw and built of bark, except one which was about fifty feet long, built of boards, this village contains about two hundred men of the Skilloot nation, who seemed well provided with canoes, of which there were at least fifty-two, and some of them very large, drawn up in front of the village. . . ." The exploring party stopped a short distance below the village for dinner. A Soon after," Clark recorded, "Several canoes of Indians from the village above came down, dressed for the purpose as I supposed of Paying us a friendly visit, they had scarlet & blue blankets Salor Jackets, overalls, Shins and hats independent of their usual dress; the most of them had either Muskets or pistols and tin flasks to hold their powder, Those fellows we found assumeing and disagreeable, however we Smoked with them and treated them with every attention & friendship.

"dureing the time we were at dinner those fellows Stold my pipe Tomahawk which they were Smoking with, I immediately serched every man and the canoes, but could find nothing of my Tomahawk, while Serching for the Tomahawk one of those Scoundals Stole a cappoc (coat) of one of our interperters, which was found Stuffed under the root of a tree, near the place they Sat, we became much displeased with those fellows, which they discovered and moved off on their return home to their village."

In 1832 an epidemic decimated the native population, and Dr. McLoughlin removed the survivors to the mainland and burned many of the straw and board huts of the settlements.

In 1834 Captain Nathanial J. Wyeth built a trading post on the island and named it Fort William. A This Wappato island which I have selected for our establishment," he wrote, A consists of woodland and prairie and on it there is considerable deer and those who could spare time to hunt might live well but mortality has carried off to a man its inhabitants and there is nothing to attest that they ever existed except their decaying houses, their graves and their unburied bones of which there are heaps." Wyeth set his coopers to making barrels to carry salted salmon to Boston. However, his trading activities met with such persistent opposition from the Hudson's Bay Company that in 1836 he was forced to abandon the enterprise.

In 1841 McLoughlin established a dairy here, placing Jean Baptiste Sauvie, a superannuated trapper, in charge. The place has since borne the name of the old dairyman.

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US 99 crosses the Columbia River, the Washington State Line, on the INTERSTATE BRIDGE (free), opened in 1917. The total length of the structure, rising in the center 175 feet above low water, is 3,531 feet. The bridge commands a superb view of the great river which has played so important a part in the settlement and development of Oregon. The bateaux of the French-Canadian voyageurs, laden with bales of furs, shot its rapids and paddled its smooth waters, and the rafts of the home-seekers ventured its hazardous gorge (see TOUR 1a).

Long before the whites arrived the river had been closely interwoven with the life of the Indian race. Pictographs and petroglyphs carved on the basaltic walls of the Cascade Gorge record the older culture.

Discovered and first entered by the Yankee skipper, Robert Gray, in the A Columbia," on May 11, 1792 (see HISTORY), and explored in that year by the English Lieutenant, Broughton, the river was soon visited by ships of many nations. After 1811, when Astor's fur traders established Astoria (see ASTORIA ),the river was the scene of heavy traffic as traders brought furs down it to Vancouver, and British ships loaded them for distribution all over the world.

At the southern end of the bridge, US 99 crosses Hayden Island upon which is JANTZEN BEACH (R), a commercial amusement park (open early May to mid-Sept.; adm. 10c).

PORTLAND, 7.5 m. (30 alt., 301,815 pop.)

Points of Interest: Skidmore Fountain, Chinese Drug Store, U.S.S. Oregon, Oregon Historical Society Museum, Portland Museum of Art, Multnomah Public Library, Sunken Gardens, and others.

In Portland are junctions with US 30 (see TOUR 1), US 99W (see TOUR 10), State 8 (see TOUR 8), and State 50 (see TOUR 4A).

At 8.6 m. US 99E passes under the eastern approach to Ross Island bridge, carrying State 50.

Right across Ross Island bridge into SW. Kelly Ave.; L. on SW. Gibbs to SW. Macadam Ave., an alternate route to Oregon City along the west bank of the Willamette River.

SW. Macadam Road follows the river bank past the west end of the SELLWOOD BRIDGE, 3.3 m., the southernmost of Portland's eight Willamette River bridges. RIVERVIEW CEMETERY (R), 3.4 m., is a beautiful memorial park.

Just south of the Sellwood bridge, and extending for more than a mile is POWERS PARK, a narrow strip between the highway and the river. Through a fringe of firs are views of the river, of squatty house-boats along the far shore, and of the sleek, green turf of WAVERLY GOLF COURSE.

OSWEGO, 5.8 m. (98 alt., 1,285 pop.), is a suburban town by Oswego Lake, a long, narrow body of water, with wooded shores holding country estates and country clubs. Through the hills and along the lake front are miles of bridle trails constructed for the MULTNOMAH HUNT CLUB, which is near the western end of the lake.

Left from the eastern end of the lake 0.2 m. to the ruins of the old Willamette Iron Company BLAST FURNACE. A chimney ac feet high is the only trace of a plant that reduced ore mined in the bills behind Oswego.

WEST LINN, 11.3 m. (1,966 pop.), took its name from Linn City, an ambitious waterfront settlement on the Willamette River, on the site where a large power plant and paper mills now stand. Linn City was established as Robin's Nest by Robert Moore, an immigrant of 1840, who was a leader in establishing the provisional government. In 1844 he began to operate a ferry between Oregon City and Robin's Nest. In time the community was named Lion City, to honor U. S. Senator Linn of Missouri, an ardent advocate for the seizure of Oregon. The town was washed away by the great flood of 1861 and never rebuilt.

From West Lion the highway crosses the Willamette River. Upstream (R) are the Willamette Falls and the paper mills. At the eastern end of the bridge is OREGON CITY, 12.2 m. (see OREGON CITY), at a junction with 99E (see below).

Just south of Ross Island bridge the route veers into McLaughlin Boulevard. Ross Island is (R) covered by a dense growth of cotton-woods and willows. Beyond the river rise the smokestacks of the South Portland factories and above them, the dwellings of Terwilliger Heights under the shadow of Council Crest (see PORTLAND).

The JOHNSON CREEK MEMORIAL BRIDGE, 12.8 m., is just above the site of the sawmill constructed in 1847 by the Reverend William Johnson. This mill supplied lumber for many years for homes in Milwaukie and Portland, The creek is a unit of an extensive flood control project of the WPA.

MILWAUKIE, 12.9 m. (96 alt., 1,767 pop.), is a quiet suburban town spread over low hills. Founded in 1848 by Lot Whitcomb (1806-1857), it soon became the rival of Portland and other river towns for the commercial supremacy of the Oregon country. Here, on the banks of the Willamette, Whitcomb and his associates constructed the Lot Whitcomb, in its day the finest steamboat plying the river. Milwaukie failed to become the important commercial port that its founder had hoped.

The LUELLING HOUSE (L), close to the street and shaded by a huge weeping willow, is at the corner of Jackson St. The simplicity of the two-story structure, with its low wing and small balustraded entrance portico, is hidden by vines and shrubs. In 1847 Henderson Luelling (1809-1878) brought his traveling nursery of 700 fruit trees across the plains from Iowa, and established Oregon's first nursery in Milwaukie. He planted the first Royal Anne cherry tree in the state and in the 1860's originated the Black Republican and Bing cherries. The Royal Anne is canned and shipped from the valley in large quantities as a fruit and is also used to make the decorative maraschino cherries. The Black Republican was so named for political groups of the day, and the Bing for Luelling's Manchurian gardener.

JENNINGS LODGE, 16.9 m., a suburban community, was named for Berryman Jennings, a pioneer of 1847 and receiver for the Oregon City Land Office under President Buchanan. It is the home of W. L. Finley, the naturalist. The STARKER GARDENS here display many rare Oriental plants and ship many species of rock plants. Here grow nearly 75 kinds of heather.

At 18 m. is the street (L) to the city center of GLADSTONE (1,384 pop.). The town lies along the north bank of the Clackamas River, the river-front drive curving gracefully with the bank of the stream. Because of the nearness of Oregon City and Portland, the business district is small, but a preponderance of residences line tree-shaded streets. At the eastern edge of town is the old CHAUTAUQUA PARK, for long the center of popular lyceums in Oregon.

The JOHN McLOUGHLIN BRIDGE, 18.3 m., spanning the Clackamas River, is a memorial to the A father of Oregon" (see HISTORY). That the Clackamas River is an excellent fishing stream was attested by Rudyard Kipling, who wrote in his American Notes. "I have lived! The American Continent may now sink under the sea, for I have taken the best that it yields, and the best was neither dollars, love, nor real estate." With an eight-ounce rod he had spent 37 minutes