History of Butler County Pennsylvania, 1895

The Bench and Bar, Chapter 10

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Transcribed by: Pat Collins For an explanation and caution about this transcription, please read this page.

Surnames in this chapter are:
ADDINGTON, ADDISON, AGNEW, AGNEW, ALBERT, ALLEN, AMOS, ANDERSON, ASH, AYRES, BALDWIN, BALPH, BARNHART, BEIGHLEY, BLACK, BLAIR, BLAIR, BOSTON, BOVARD, BOWSER, BOWSER, BOYD, BOYER, BRACKENRIDGE, BREDIN, BRICKER, BRINKER, BROWN, BUFFINGTON, BUHL, CAMPBELL, CAMPBELL, CAMPBELL, CAROTHERS, CARTER, CHRISTY, CLAY, COLLINS, COOLY, COOPER, CRATTY, CROFT, CUMMINS, CUNNINGHAM, DAVIS, DOBBS, DODDS, DONNELLY, DOWNING, DUFF, DUFFY, DUGAN, DUGAN, DULL, DUNCAN, EGAN, ELDER, ELLIOTT, EVANS, FARNSWORTH, FERGUSON, FINDLEY, FLEMING, FLEMING, FLETCHER, FLOOD, FORQUER, FOSTER, GALBRAITH, GARVEY, GILLILAND, GILMORE, GRAHAM, GRANT, GREER, HALLECK, HAMILTON, HARBISON, HARPER, HARTMAN, HARTRANFT, HASLER, HASLETT, HASLETT, HAY, HAYS, HAYS, HAYS, HAZEN, HENRY, HICE, HICE, HICKEY, HINDMAN, HOCKENBERRY, HUDSON, IRWIN, JAMISON, JOHNSON, JONES, KEARNS, KELLY, KENNEDY, KERR, KIESTER, KIESTER, KINKAID, KIRKPATRICK, KLEY, KYPP, LAMPARTNER, LANE, LANE, LAUFFER, LAVEAR, LEASON, LEE, LEFEVRE, LEMMON, LINCOLN, LINDSEY, LOWRIE, LYON, MARSHALL, MARSHALL, MARTIN, MARTIN, MASON, McBRIDE, McCALL, McCALLAN, McCANDLESS, McCARTHY, McCLELLAND, McDONALD, McGUFFIN, McJUNKIN, McKISSICK, McMAHON, McMICHAEL, McNEES, McPHERRIN, McSWEENEY, MECHLING, MEHARD, MEHARD, MILLS, MITCHELL, MITCHELL, MONKS, MONTOOTH, MOORE, MORRIS, MOSER, MOUNTAIN, MYERS, NEALE, NEALE, NEGLEY, NELLIS, NELLIS, OLIVER, OVERHEIM, PARKER, POTTS, PURVIANCE, RAMSEY, RAPP, RAY, REED, REIBER, REILLY, ROBERTS, ROBERTS, ROLLINS, SCOTT, SEDWICK, SEMPLE, SHALATREE, SHALER, SHALER, SHANNON, SHAOL, SHORTS, SHUGART, SHUNK, SILVERHEELS, SMITH, SMITH, SPEAR, STANTON, STARR, STEPHENSON, STEVENSON, STEWART, STOREY, STURGEON, SULLIVAN, SWAIN, TEEPLES, THOMPSON, TILGHMAN, VANWINKLE, WALKER, WHITE, WHITMIRE, WIBLE, WIGTON, WILKINS, WILKINS, WILKINS, WILLIAMSON, WILLIBY, WILSON, WILSON, WRIGHT, YEATES


CHAPTER X

THE BENCH AND BAR

[p. 134]
INTRODUCTION - EARLY JUDGES AND LAWYERS -- EARLY COURT PROCEEDINGS -- A NOTABLE CONTEMPT CASE -- FIRST MURDER TRIAL -- TRIAL AND CONVICTION OF THE MURDERER SAMUEL MOHAWK -- HIS CONFESSION -- OFFICES OF PRESIDENT AND ASSOCIATE JUDGES MADE ELECTIVE -- LATER CRIMINAL AND CIVIL PROCEEDINGS -- THE JUDICIAL CONTESTS OF 1874 AND 1884 -- BUTLER COUNTY BECOMES A SEPARATE JUDICIAL DISTRICT -- THE HARBISON-MONKS CASE -- JAIL DELIVERY -- BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF THE JUDGES AND OLDER MEMBERS OF THE BAR -- ATTORNEYS ADMITTED SINCE 1804 - MEMBERS OF THE PRESENT BAR -- THE BUTLER BAR ASSOCIATION.

Since the beginning of the administration of justice in Butler county, many men have sat upon the bench as judges and many more have appeared as attorneys in the prosecution or defense in the long list of cases that go to make up the civil and criminal dockets of her courts. The early judges and early lawyers would compare favorably in point of learning with the bench and bar of to-day, and many of them were men of considerable ability. They held their profession in high esteem and regarded with reverence the established rules and formalities observed in giving effect to the laws then in force. Their libraries were [p. 135] exceedingly limited, and they were unable, by the reading of many books, to draw the nice distinctions which enter into the mysteries and intricacies of modern practice. In the absence of these, they usually fell back on their common sense, which is the basis of all law. When the day for trial came, they generally managed to find a principle, if not a precedent, to fit the case, or failing either, to make "the worse appear the better cause" by the power of impassioned eloquence over the minds of the jury, more susceptible then, perhaps, than now, to the almost irresistible influence of magnetic oratory.

Learning counted for much among the common people of those days, and oratory for more. As a consequence, nearly all the early lawyers were good speakers, and they made a special study of the arts of forensic eloquence, best calculated to win victories in the court room and applause on the stump; for it must be remembered, that law and politics were even more closely allied to each other then than now. The lawyer not only took an active part in politics, but was expected to do so, his success as a stump-speaker, even when he was not an office-seeker, having not a little to do with his success as a lawyer.

Until the advent of the stage coach, the lawyers in attendance upon the courts of Butler and neighboring counties, journeyed from court to court on horseback. This brought them in closer personal contact than is possible under the conditions of to-day, and resulted in many warm and lasting personal friendships. When assembled at the county-seats, they formed a bright and jovial company, given to story-telling, practical joking and the interchange of witticisms at each others' expense. Their tilts as opposing counsel, and the seeming anger and rancor of the court room, were usually to be taken in a Pickwickian sense, and were generally consigned to forgetfulness once the portals of the court-house were left behind.

As might be expected from their surroundings, there were many men of marked individuality among them, men strong in the assertion of themselves, and filled with the idea of being leaders among their fellows. Not a few of these men pushed themselves into the prominence their merits and their ability deserved, and became powerful factors in the political life, not only of the county, but of the State and nation.

The high standard of ability, the respect for orderly procedure, the admitted honor, integrity and rectitude of these early judges and lawyers, have been continued down to the present time, and are characteristic of the bench and bar of to-day. It may, also, be noted here that, in the enforcement and observance of law, Butler county ranks second to no other county in the State. Whether the laws are popular or unpopular, they are acquiesced in and obeyed by the people, and none have contributed more to secure their enforcement and encourage a cheerful observance of them than the members of the bench and bar.

The first court of common pleas and quarter sessions held in Butler county, under the act of April 2, 1802, was presided over by Hon. Jesse MOORE, a fine specimen of judicial dignity, and, as a judge of the commonwealth, a great stickler for the observance of court rules. He was a gentleman of the Colonial pattern, mild, faithful and firm, who administered justice for justice sake. His sense of the dignity to be observed among the members of the bar, outside of as [p.  136] well as in the court room, was often upset by the fun-loving attorneys. Sometimes, also, an obstreperous litigant, in violation of the dignified course of the proceedings sought to be maintained, created a scene, which placed him in contempt of court, and made it necessary for the judge to deal with his case on the spot. One incident of this kind, during the first term of court, is given at length in Henry M. BRACKENRIDGE's "Recollections of the West." Mr. BRACKENRIDGE, who was a son of Judge BRACKENRIDGE, of Pittsburg, came to Butler in 1803, as clerk to Gen William AYRES, the first prothonotary of the county. As there is no record of the affair in the proceedings of the court, the story is probably largely the work of its author, built around some minor incident of the early court days, and enlarged upon to make it readable and give it a humorous character. It is as follows:

The first court held in butler drew the whole population to the town, some on account of business, some to make business, but the greater part from idle curiosity. They were at that time chiefly Irish, who had all the characteristics of the nation. A log cabin, just raised and covered, but without windows, sash or doors or daubing, was prepared for the hall of justice. A carpenter's bench, with three chairs upon it, was the judge's seat. The bar of Pittsburg attended, and the presiding judge, a stiff, formal and pedantic old bachelor, took his seat, supported by two associate judges, who were common farmers, one of whom was blind of an eye. The hall was barely sufficient to contain the bench, bar, jurors and constables. But few of the spectators could be accommodated on the lower floor, the only one yet laid; many, therefore, clambered up the walls, and placing their hands and feet in the open interstices, between the logs, hung there suspended like so many enormous Madagascar bats. Some had taken possession of the joists, and big John McJUNKIN - who until now had ruled at all public gatherings - had placed a foot on one joist and a foot on another, directly over the heads of their honors, standing with outstretched legs like the Collossus of Rhodes.

The judge's sense of proprietry was shocked at this exhibition. The sheriff, John McCANDLESS, was called upon, and ordered to clear the walls and joists. He went to work with his assistants and soon pulled down by the legs those who were in no very great haste to obey. McJUNKIN was the last, and began to growl as he prepared to descend. "What do you say, sir," said the judge. "I say I pay my taxes, and have as good a reete here as iny mon." "Sheriff, Sheriff," said the judge, "bring him before the court!" McJUNKIN's ire was now up, and as he reached the floor he began to strike his breast, exclaiming: "My name is John McJUNKIN, d'e see? Here's the brist that niver flunched, if so be it was in a goode caase. I'll stan iny mon a hitch in Butler county, if so be he'll clear me o' the la!" "Bring him before the court," said the judge. He was accordingly pinioned, and if not gagged, at least forced to be silent while his case was under consideration. Some of the lawyers volunteered as amici curiae. Some ventured a word of apology for McJUNKIN. The judge pronounced sentence of imprisonment for two hours in the jail of the county, and ordered the sheriff to take him into custody. The sheriff, with much simplicity, observed: "May it plaze the coorte, there is no jail at all, at all, till put him in." Here the judge took a learned distinction, upon which he expatiated, at some length for the benefit of the bar. He said:

"There are two kinds of custody: First, safe custody; second, close custody. The first is when the body must be forthcoming to answer a demand or an accusation, and in this case the body may be delivered, for the time being, out of the hands of the law on bail or mainprize. But, when the imprisonment forms a part of the satisfaction or punishment, there can be no bail or mainprize. This is the reason of the common law in relation to escape under capias ad satisfaciendum, and also why a second ca. sa. cannot issue after the defendant has been once arrested and then discharged by the [p.  137] plaintiff. In like manner, a man cannot be twice imprisoned for the same offense, even if he be released before the term of imprisonment has expired. This is clearly a case of close custody—areta custodia—and the prisoner must be confined, body and limb, without bail or mainprize, in some place of close incarceration." Here he was interrupted by the sheriff, who seemed to have hit upon a lucky thought: "May it plaze the coorte, I'm just thinken that maybe I can take him till BOWEN's pig pen - the pigs is kilt for the coorte and its empty." "You have heard the opinion of the court," said the judge. "Proceed, sir; do your duty, sheriff."

The sheriff proceeded to execute the order of the court to place the prisoner in close custody, but appears to have met with a mishap in the discharge of his duty. The narrative continues:

Peace and order had scarcely been restored, when the sheriff came rushing to the house with a crowd at his heels, crying out:

"Mr. Jidge! Mr. Jidge! May it plaze the coorte?! "What is the matter, sheriff?" asked Judge MOORE. "Mr. Jidge! Mr. Jidge! John McJUNKIN's got off d'ye minte!" "What, escaped, sheriff? Summon the posse comitatus," said the Judge. "The pusse! The pusse! What's that, may it plaze your honor? Now, I'll jist tell ye how it happened. He was goin' along quee-etly enough till we got till the hazel patch, an' all at once he pitched off intil the bushes and I after him; but a limb of a tree ketched me fut and I pitched three rod off, but I fell forit, and that's good luck, ye minte." The judge could not maintain his gravity; the bar raised a laugh, and the matter ended, after which the business proceeded "quee-etly enough."

The early attorneys who came here from Pittsburg to attend upon the sessions of the court were much given to telling stories about Butler county and her people, calculated to amuse Pittsburg auditors, but to have the opposite effect upon residents of Butler. The SEMPLEs took delight in asserting that a whippoorwill, before leaving Allegheny county to fly across Butler county, would provide rations for the trip, and that, owing to the extreme shortness of the clover, bees were compelled to get down upon their knees in order to gather even a scant supply of honey. The poverty of the hog was also dilated upon, and much fun made of its alleged leanness. Later on, when Butler hotel tables added to their bills of fare the toothsome buckwheat cake, these same merrymaking lawyers conferred upon Butler the title of "The Buckwheat County," a name continued to the present time.

The first record of the court of quarter sessions is dated February 13, 1804. On that day the commission of Hon. Jesse MOORE, as president of the court of common pleas, of the counties of Butler, Beaver, Mercer, Crawford and Erie, was read, as well as those issued to Samuel FINDLEY and John PARKER, as associate judges of Butler county. The following attorneys were then admitted to practice before the court, on motion of Steel SEMPLE: William N. IRWIN, Alexander W. FOSTER, William WILKINS, Isaac MASON, Henry HASLETT, Thomas COLLINS, Henry BALDWIN, Cunningham S. SEMPLE, John GILMORE and James MOUNTAIN. Steel SEMPLE was then admitted on motion of Thomas COLLINS. On February 14, Joseph SHANNON was enrolled as a member of this bar, and William NELLIS and William McDONALD were appointed constables.

In May, 1804, the same judges presided in common pleas and quarter sessions, and the following pioneers were impaneled as a grand jury:—Jacob MECHLING, Lewis WILSON, David HARPER, John GALBRAITH, Nathaniel STEVENSON, Will- [p.  138] iam SPEAR, Alexander STOREY, James ELDER, Eliakim ANDERSON, Robert HAYS, William DODDS, Archibald CUNNINGHAM, John JAMISON, John HINDMAN, Thomas DODDS, Henry EVANS, Henry MONTOOTH and John THOMPSON. The constables present were:—John LAVEAR, of Slippery Rock; William CAMPBELL, of Connoquenessing, and Francis KEARNS, of Middlesex township. From the number of indictments for assault found at this term, it is inferred that the pioneers of Butler county, like those of New England,

Fought as they reveled,
Fast fiery and true.

The first civil case, that of STURGEON's lessee and Robert WILLIBY vs. THOMPSON, was tried May 18, 1804, before a jury composed of the following citizens: Robert KENNEDY, David McJUNKIN, Jr., James FINDLEY, Andrew MOORE, David McKISSICK, William BALPH, Hanania ROLLINS, David MOORE, Henry LAUFFER, Walter LINDSEY, Daniel CARTER and Jacob BEIGHLEY, "twelve good and lawful men." The suit was for the possession of 400 acres of land, the outcome being the confession of "lease, entry and ouster," plaintiff suffering non-suit, and jury, paid by William AYRES.

A "deed poll" from John McCANDLESS to the president and directors of the Bank of North America for twenty tracts of land in this county was acknowledged in open court May 19. John MOSER, Robert GRAHAM, George BOWERS and William BROWN, "of the town of Butler," and Guy HILLIARD, Robert BOGGS and Matthew WHITE, of Connoquenessing township, were recommended to the court as proper persons to keep tavern, and licenses were ordered to be issued to them.

In August, 1804, Robert REED, of Slippery Rock; David SUTTON, of Middlesex; and Benjamin GARVIN, of Connoquenessing township were licensed to keep tavern. At this session of the court the county was divided into thirteen townships. The cattle mark of Benjamin ZERBER—"A crop of the right or off ears to-wit: one-fourth of the ear cut off," was offered for entry. The mark had been in use for five years.

There were thirty-two cases listed for trial in February, 1805, and thirty-six in May. Hon. Jesse MOORE, with John PARKER and James BOVARD, associates, presided in the latter month. In October, John McCANDLESS took the oath as sheriff. Associate Judge FINDLEY was present and Judges PARKER and BOVARD, in February, 1806, and they with Hon. Jesse MOORE formed the court. Among the jurors were Philip HARTMAN, Robert LEASON, A. McMAHON and Thomas DUGAN.

Hon. Jasper YEATES, judge of the Supreme Court, was present in September, 1806, as judge of the circuit court of this county, and, Hon. Thomas SMITH in September, 1807. Hon. H. H. BRACKENRIDGE presided as circuit judge in September, 1808. On March 6, 1809, John GILMORE resigned as prosecutor and Charles WILKINS was appointed to fill the vacancy.

In September, 1809, Jacob SHAOL, who appears to have had some difficulty with George RAPP and the other members of the Harmony Society, pleaded guilty to assault and was sentenced "to pay a fine of forty dollars to this Commonwealth, to pay all the costs of this prosecution, to enter yourself into a recognisance in the sum of $200, together with at least one surety in a like sum, on this condi- [p.  139] tion, that you keep the peace and be of good behavior to all the people and particularly to George RAPP and others of the Harmony Society."

Chief Justice William TILGHMAN, presided as circuit judge in September, 1809, and in 1810 John GILMORE was appointed prosecutor. A record of causes disposed of and a lengthy summary of balances due the county treasurer by the township collectors, close "Minute-book Number 1."

In May 11, 1811, Sarah SHORTS was adjudged to be in contempt of court for not opeying a subpoena, in the case of HAYS vs. ASH. Her sex saved her from punishment. In November, 1811, John ELLIOTT, William DOWNING, Hugh FLEMING and Ben. FLETCHER had attachments issued against them for not responding to subpoenas. In 1813, this dereliction on the part of witnesses became so common, as to make the adoption of stringent measures necessary to secure their attendance.

In February, 1815, the court ordered an allowance of twenty cents a day for insolvent debtors. In May, in the case of "The Commonwealth vs. William MARTIN, the defendant was found guilty of an assault on the sheriff in the execution of his office, but not gulty of an assault on the said sheriff n the execution of the duties of his office, with intent to murder him, the said sheriff." The punishment imposed was a fine of ten dollars, three months' imprisonment, afterwards a bond of $500 to keep the peace—especially toward Samuel WILLIAMSON, Esq., and to pay all the costs of the prosecution.

Samuel ROBERTS took his seat as president judge, with Judges PARKER and BOVARD, associates, November 9, 1818. In July, 1819, the court appointed clerks for the thirteen townships. The commission of William WILKINS as president judge of the Fifth judicial district, was read in court April 2, 1821.

The fees charged by early attorneys and the manner in which they kept accounts between themselves and their clients are shown by the following memoranda of charges for legal services rendered his client, William BROWN, by Gen. William AYRES. The account runs from 1809 to 1814. The first item of twenty dollars evidently a conditional fee, is marked cancelled, showing that the suit was not successful, The account is as follows:



  1809.  June.  To fee in case of CUNNINGHAM, for his creditors, 

    vs. NEGLEY, in case of success                                 $20.00

  July.  To counsel, writing letter &c in the business of 

    William JOHNSTON and John MOSER                                  2.00

  Aug. 23.  To treasury warrant                                      3.00

  Nov.  To cash received from CAROTHERS, in case of BROWN 

    vs. BROWN with interest from December, 1808                      4.25

    Fees in the case of HUDSON                                       2.00

                                                                   -------

                                                                   $11.25

  Feb. 24, 1810.  The above account settled and there still 

    remains due to William BROWN $0.71, for which he received 

    a credit on his note.

  Nov. 1813. To attending in court to the case with the grand 

    jury about their bill                                          $ 2.00

  Apr. 15, 1814.  To writing release for yourself and wife to 

    Alexander LOGAN.                                                 2.00

[p.  140] Owing to deaths occurring among the pioneers, probate business was added to the work of the court. In October, 1824, Charles SHALER presided as judge, with John PARKER and James BOVARD, associates, who were also present in October, 1823, with Judge WILKINS. On April 5, 1824, George SMITH was sentenced by Judge WILKINS to twenty-four hours imprisonment in the county jail for having refused to answer questions, as a witness, in the case of Church SMITH vs. Samuel KINKAID, and for leaving the court abruptly.

On June 24, 1824, a young man named Franklin B. HALLECK, left Jacob MECHLING's tavern in Butler owing about a days' board. MECHLING swore out a capias, which was placed in the hands of the sheriff, who with his deputies started in pursuit of HALLECK, whose route, it appears, lay through what is now Brady township. As the sheriff was passing David McJUNKIN's house, he met the latter who was just starting on a hunt. He ordered him to pursue the fugitive. McJUNKIN did so and commanded HALLECK to halt. The command being unheeded, McJUNKIN raised his rifle and fired, the ball striking HALLECK near the spine, and inflicting a wound from the effects of which he died eleven days later. McJUNKIN was arrested and charged with murder. On the trial he was found guilty of voluntary manslaughter, and sentenced to two years' confinement at hard labor in the penitentiary at Philadelphia.

In April, 1828, Judge SHALER ordered a complete index of the continuance docket to be made, and a copy of execution docket from February, 1813, to April, 1824, to be written. An abuse was corrected in January, 1829, when Judge SHALER ordered that no execution should issue upon a judment on a bond given to the treasurer for the surplus moneys, which might become due by purchasers of lands for taxes, until scire facias should first issue. In July of this year, William STEWART, clerk of the orphans' court, was ordered to make a copy of the orphans' court docket, from 1803 to July 11, 1829, in a legible hand.

The trial of Robert B. COOLY took place September 11, 1833, before Judge BREDIN and the following named jurors: John BOYD, William STEWART, John REED, Benjamin SWAIN, John BROWN, George BOSTON, John McCALLAN, Frederick HENRY, John T. McNEES, William McJUNKIN, Francis DOBBS and Joshua J. SEDWICK. He was found guilty of murder in the second degree, sentenced to seven years in the penitentiary of the western district of Allegheny county, and to pay one dollar fine and all the costs of the prosecution. The sheriff was allowed two assistants in conveying COOLY to prison.

From 1836 to 1840, the records of the court show no cases of special importance. Judge BREDIN presided with the time-honored Associate Judges PARKER and BOVARD. At the September term, 1840, John DUFFY qualified as associate judge, thus placing three Irishmen, all natives of the same county in Ireland, on the bench at the same time. In November, 1841, John RAY was chosen by the court to fill a vacancy in the board of commissioners, caused by a failure to elect in the preceding October.

On December 13, 1843, the celebrated trial of the "Commonwealth vs. Samuel MOHAWK," charged with the murder, on Saturday, June 30, 1843, in Slippery Rock township, of Mrs. James WIGTON and her five children, was begun before Judges BREDIN and DUFFY, and the following named jurors: John BRANDON, Isaac [p.  141] BOYER, Henry BARNHART, Robert E. HAYS, John OLIVER, Robert HAY, Robert LEMMON, Samuel MARSHALL, George A. KIRKPATRICK, John GILLILAND, William CUNNINGHAM and John DULL.

The trial, which lasted several days, during which no less than forty-eight witnesses were examined, resulted in a verdict of guilty, a sentence of death, and the hanging of the murderer in Butler, March 22, 1844.

The crime for which MOHAWK thus paid the extreme penalty of the law, was one of the most horrible in the history of the State, and created such intense excitement among the people of the entire county that it was only through the most earnest efforts of those upholding the supremacy of the law that a lynching was prevented, and his legal conviction and execution rendered possible.

Samuel MOHAWK, who was an Indian, was born December 25, 1807, on the Cattaraugus reservation, in New York. He attended a Quaker school in his youth, and subsequently engaged in hunting and farming. About 1832 he married Lydia KYPP, from whom he secured a divorce, and he afterwards married Sarah SILVERHEELS. On the day before the murder, he made his appearance in Butler, put up at BRINKER's tavern, and spent his time in drinking. The same evening he left, taking the stage for the Stone House tavern, where he got out, and is supposed to have spent the night in that neighborhood. The next morning he proceeded to James WIGTON's house. What occurred there is best told in the words of his confession of the crime committed by him. It is as follows:

Opened the door, entered and saw the woman, asked her for an ax; she said she had none; then asked her for a knife, which she gave me, when I cut at her and I think I hit her on the arm. She attempted to escape, went out of doors, I followed, she returned into the house and tried to close the door on me, but I pushed it in with both hands and entered. She went out again, I followed and caught her about five rods from the door. She succeeded in taking the knife from me and threw me, but she held the knife while I held her wrists. In the struggle the knife cut the back of my head, when I pushed the woman off and struck her with my fist. She said: "You mustn't kill—I'll give you money," but I took up a stick of some size and struck her on the head, when she fell. I then took a stone, struck her and thought she was dead. I went into the house with the same stone, saw a child of five or six years old, which I struck and killed; saw another small child in the cradle, which I killed at once, then heard a child crying up-stairs, went up with a stick and struck the three children on the heads, and next went to the spring to get a drink; went back to the house and heard a child crying up-stairs, got a large stick and went upstairs, struck one of the children, on the large bed, that was moaning, and it made no more noise. On coming down saw the woman moving, and struck her with a stone, on the head, three times.

While this terrible crime was being committed, James WIGTON was at his father's house less than a mile distant. Before his return, the murder had been discovered by Lemuel DAVIS, who with is wife and son, had arrived at the WIGTON home to help him with some hoeing. The alarm was given, and the entire neighborhood was aroused. Suspicion at once pointed to Samuel MOHAWK, who had passed Joseph KENNEDY's house that morning and had thrown a stone at young KENNEDY. Pursuit was organized, and the murderer overtaken at the house of Philip KIESTER, which he had entered a short time before, terrorizing the women, who fled and left him in possession. Before entering the house, he had provided himself with a handful of rocks. These he used against his pursuers, [p.  142] one of them striking and knocking down Mr. BLAIR. An attempt to set the dog on him failed. The men then renewed the attack, holding boards above their heads to ward off the missiles. By this means his capture was effected. After binding him, he was taken to the WIGTON home, where he confessed the crime. A determination on the part of those present to lynch him, was only overcome by the strong appeals of a few of the cooler-headed present. After being turned over to Sheriff CAMPBELL, he was taken to Butler, lodged in jail, and in the course of a few months indicted ofr murder, tried, found guilty, sentenced and executed in the manner already set forth.

Between his arrest and trial the desire to deal with him in a summary manner, led to the organization of parties to take him from jail, but in each instance wise counsel prevailed, and the law was finally allowed to take its course and deal with him as his crime deserved.

In January, 1844, Elijah NELLIS was tried for the murder of his wife Margaret, whom he had strangled. He was convicted of murder in the second degree and sentenced to twelve years in the penitentiary.

In June, 1845, Christian BUHL qualified as associate judge, and with Judges BREDIN and DUFFY composed the court.

In 1850, a constitutional amendment was adopted making the offices of president judge and associate judges elective, and fixing the term of the former at ten years and the latter five years. An act of the legislature approved April 15, 1851, made this amendment effective by providing for the election of presiding and associate judges.

The trial of John DUFF for the murder of his twin brother, William, took place November 5, 1851. John H. NEGLEY, then deputy attorney general for Butler county, represented the State, while SMITH & MITCHELL appeared for the defense. The evidence developed the fact that the accused had repeatedly made threats against his brother's life. A verdict of guilty of murder in the first degree resulted, followed by a motion for a new trial, which was granted in January, 1852. The murderer then withdrew his plea of "not guilty," pleaded guilty to murder in the second degree, and was sentenced to the penitentiary for a term of eleven and one-half years. He served the full time.

In May, 1853, Casper LAMPARTNER and his wife Emeranza were tried for the murder of Constable FERGUSON, who was killed in what is now Jefferson township, while attempting to arrest the husband. He was convicted, but afterwards made his escape from jail. His wife was acquitted. The State was represented in this case by John H. NEGLEY.

In June, 1853, the court consisted of Hon. Daniel AGNEW, president judge, with John McCANDLESS and Samuel MARSHALL associate judges. The charge of Judge AGNEW, delivered at this term, to the jury in the case of the "commonwealth vs. Francis CROFT," is well remembered. The defendant was indicted for plowing up a burial-ground, but owing to a defect in the act of 1849, providing punishment for such desecration, the judge directed the jury to bring in a verdict of acquittal.

On election night, October 9, 1856, a crowd gathered at the hotel of George COOPER, near Glade Mills. During the evening Matthew RAMSEY became bois- [p.  143] terous, and in endeavoring to preserve order in his house Mr. COOPER became involved in a quarrel with him, during which he struck him on the left temple. RAMSEY died from the effects of the blow, and COOPER was indicted for murder and tried before Judge AGNEW, and acquitted. Mr. COOPER died at his home in Middlesex township, August 2, 1894, at the age of eighty years.

In December, 1856, Judge AGNEW's associates were Jacob MECHLING, Jr., and Thomas STEPHENSON. In June, 1860, a record was made of the first conviction for selling liquor without a license. In September resolutions of respect to the memory of John GRAHAM, a member of the Butler county bar, were ordered spread upon the records. In December, 1861, James MITCHELL and James KERR were the associates of Judge AGNEW. September 22, 1862, owing to the fact that nearly all the members of the Butler bar were in the army, Judge AGNEW made an order simplifying court proceedings.

Hon. Lawrence L. McGUFFIN, the successor of Judge AGNEW, presided in December, 1863, his associates being Judges KERR and MITCHELL. December 1, 1866, Joseph CUMMINS and Thomas GARVEY qualified as associate judges. In September, 1867, the court disposed of the first important divorce case tried in the county. The trial was had before a jury, and the verdict in favor of the wife, who was the petitioner, rendered.

The trial of John B. ADDINGTON, charged with the murder of Sidney B. CUNNINGHAM and Mr. TEEPLES, at a dance in Portersville, on the night of December 25, 1866, was begun March 6, 1867. before Judges McGUFFIN, CUMMINS and GARVEY. The State was represented by E. McJUNKIN and L. Z. MITCHELL. C. McCARTHY, Charles McCANDLESS, John N. PURVIANCE, John M. THOMPSON and T. E. J. LYON, appeared for the defendant. The trial continued until March 21, and resulted in a verdict of guilty of murder in the first degree. In 1868, upon a re-hearing, ADDINGTON pleaded guilty to murder in the second degree, and was sentenced to a term of twenty-five years in the penitentiary. He received a pardon after serving six years, owing, partly to the fact, that others concerned in the tragedy had never been brought to trial.

April 19, 1869, the trial of Zachary Taylor HOCKENBERRY, for the murder of Nancy Ann McCANDLESS, October 3, 1868, took place before Judge McGUFFIN and associates. John M. GREER, district attorney, and E. McJUNKIN represented the Commonwealth. The accused's attorneys were John M. THOMPSON and Charles McCANDLESS. The jurors were John H. CRATTY, Thomas MARTIN, Joseph HAMILTON, Joseph LANE, Conrad MYERS, John SHALATREE, David KELLY, William ALLEN, John G. CHRISTY, and from the talesmen, John K. McQUISTION, Isaac FARNSWORTH and Robert DUNCAN. April 28, a verdict of guilty was returned. September 10, sentence of death was pronounced by Judge McGUFFIN, and carried into effect December 7, 1869, when HOCKENBERRY was hanged. His body was buried in the cemetery at Prospect.

The trial of Philopoena SHUGART, for poisoning her husband, Jacob SHUGART, October 19, 1868, lasted from June 22 to July 5, 1869, when a verdict of guilty of murder in the first degree was returned. Owing to the sanity of the woman being questioned, the death penalty was not inflicted. The trial of Joseph Mar- [p.  144] tin for aiding in the poisoning of Jacob SHUGART was begun January 17, 1870, and resulted in a verdict of acquittal.

The Constitution of 1873 provided that, "whenever a county shall contain 40,000 inhabitants, it shall constitute a separate judicial district, and shall elect one judge, learned in the law, and the General Assembly shall provide for additional judges, as the business of such districts may require. Counties containing a population less than is sufficient to constitute separate districts shall be formed into convenient single districts, or, if necessary, may be attached to contiguous districts, as the General Assembly may provide. The office of associate judge, not learned in the law, is abolished in counties forming separate districts," etc.

In accordance with this amendment, Butler county, having more than 40,000 inhabitants, was erected into the Seventeenth judicial district, in 1874, with Lawrence county attached. Associate judges were elected until 1885, when the question arising, the Supreme Court decided that Butler county, being a separate judicial district, and entitled to the presiding judgeship the office of associate judge was abolished in this county.

In 1874, Hon. E. McJUNKIN was elected a judge of the Seventeenth judicial district. He resigned his seat in Congress to accept the office, and took his place on the bench in January, 1875, at which time Judge BREDIN also entered upon the duties of his office.

The trial of William WRIGHT, a colored man, for shooting Wilmot AMOS, at Petrolia, July 1, 1874, took place in January, 1875, when he was sentenced to a term of ten and one-half years in the penitentiary. He died there six months after entering.

In March, 1877, Luke FLOOD was tried before Judge BREDIN for the murder of D. Alexander BLACK, at Modoc, December 20, 1876. Messrs. McQUISTION, DONNELLY and MORRIS represented the Commonwealth. Messrs. THOMPSON, SCOTT and L. Z. MITCHELL appeared for the defendant. A verdict of manslaughter was returned and FLOOD was sentenced to a term of four years in the penitentiary.

In 1880, John LEFEVRE, of Winfield township, was tried for the murder of his wife. He was found guilty and sentenced to eight years in the penitentiary. W. H. WHITE, who stabbed Charles EGAN, at Millerstown, March 1, 1881, was found guilty of murder in the second degree in June, 1881.

The killing of one FLEMING by a Swede named JOHNSON took place at Butler in 1883. The defendant was convicted of murder in the second degree and sent to the penitentiary.

The judicial contest, growing out of the election of law judges, November 4, 1884, was heard before a court, convened at Butler, December 22, 1884, composed of Hon. Henry HICE, of the Thirty-sixth judicial district; Hon. James B. NEALE, of the Thirty-third judicial district, and Hon. Samuel S. MEHARD, of the Thirty-fifth judicial district. The question submitted was, whether Butler county alone constituted the Seventeenth judicial district and her right to elect at least one law judge for that district under the act of August 7, 1883. In that act, Butler county was set apart as the Seventeenth district, Lawrence county was attached for judicial purposes, and the election of two judges, one of whom must reside at New Castle, was ordered. Under this act, the election of November, 1884, was [p.  145] held. James BREDIN, John M. GREER, Ebenezer McJUNKIN, John McMICHAEL and Aaron L. HAZEN were the candidates. The vote of the two counties was as follows: John McMICHAEL, 7,252; Aaron L. HAZEN, 7,199; John M. GREER, 7,054; James BREDIN, 5, 345, and Ebenezer McJUNKIN, 3,784. The returns of each county, showed that James BREDIN received 4,457, and John M. GREER 4,288 votes in Butler county alone, and on this showing the former claimed to have been elected judge of the Seventeenth district, in opposition to the certificate of the canvassing board, who declared John McMICHAEL and Aaron L. HAZEN the judges-elect. Judges HICE and MEHARD held that Butler county, under the act of 1883, did not have the right to elect one judge for her courts, but that with Lawrence she should elect two judges, who jurisdiction was equal in both counties. Judge NEALE dissented, and so the petitions of James BREDIN and John M. GREER were dismissed. No appeals being taken, commissions were issued to Judges McMICHAEL and HAZEN. In 1892, Hon. John M. GREER was elected additional law judge, vice McMICHAEL, deceased, and in 1893, when Butler county alone was designated as the Seventeenth judicial district, he became the judge of the district thus created.

In February, 1888, United States Marshal McSWEENEY and deputies, acting on previous information, made a raid in the northern part of the county and succeeded in capturing a number of persons engaged in counterfeiting, with the appliances used in their illegal business. Several of those arrested were found guilty, and sentenced to various terms of imprisonment. Others against whom there was no evidence to connect them with the crime were discharged.

The celebrated HARBISON-MONKS case, of 1887 and 1888, was closed in May, 1888, the woman being the victor. Trouble between Robert HARBISON and his wife followed the birth of their child and led the trio into court. In August, 1887, Judge HAZEN ordered that the child be placed in the father's care, which order was observed. Later, the resolute woman obtained possession of her infant and fled with him to Kansas. This abduction was followed by the arrest of her two brothers and Wendell HICKEY, for contempt of court in aiding the abduction; but they were released on bail, so that they could produce the child in court. On May 12, they not only produced the infant, but also the mother. The father was represented by Judge Charles McCANDLESS and Col. J. M. THOMPSON; while Judge E. McJUNKIN, J. M. GALBREATH and S. F. BOWSER, represented the mother, infant and young men. Here the judge discharged the writ of habeas corpus and remanded the defendants to the sheriff's custody, except the infant, which was ordered to be placed in the keeping of its father. The mother declared that she would never surrender the child; but the judge ordered Sheriff REDIC, to enforce the order. Under the law the sheriff was bound to comply, but he stoutly refused, and the court then authorized him to deputize some one to carry out its orders. Quickly adopting the suggestion of the judge, he summoned the child's father. This power conferred, HARBISON attempted to drag the infant from its mother's arms. Strong men left the court in tears, pitying the law that could countenance such barbarity, and even the lawyers for the prosecution became abashed and asked the court to direct Mrs. HARBISON's brothers to take the babe from their sister. Luckily, the judge did not respond to their request, and [p.  146] for a little while there was a calm. Another writ was issued ordering the surrender of the child; but the brave mother defied the court and was ordered to jail. With her were sent her brothers and young HICKEY. On May 14, when the plaintiff arrived in Butler, to continue the case against his wife, he met here a crowd of angry neighbors, whose looks boded him no good. His determination to obtain the child was shaken, but his friends urged him on. Toward noon a rumor was current that the sheriff would be compelled to take the child from the mother; but she, hearing of it, produced a chain and padlock, with which she secured herself within the cell. The people were not idle all this time. They determined that the brave woman should hold her offspring against all odds. With this knowledge, HARBISON and his friends calmed down; he dismissed the lawyers who had the case so far, and becoming a client of John M. GREER, he asked that his petition and all rulings under it be set aside, and the mother, infant and their friends discharged from jail. It was a welcome denouement for Judge HAZEN, and he did not neglect to express his gratification at the sudden and pleasant turn of affairs.

The trial of Thomas E. LEE, for the murder of John McCALL, at Evans City, on the night of October 31, 1889, commenced in December, following. The State was represented by Judge McCANDLESS and District-Attorney McPHERRIN, while THOMPSON & Son and W. A. FORQUER defended. The evidence showed that McCALL was killed while participating at a ball, given by a secret order, known as the Junior Order of United American Mechanics. Lee was found guilty of murder in the second degree, and sentenced to a term of six and one-half years of solitary confinement in the penitentiary.

The jail delivery of March 4, 1892, was a most unwelcome one for the sheriff. Late on that evening, James F. MILLS (the murderer of DUGAN), with James BRITTIN and Joseph GIBSON (colored), Jesse SMITH, T. J. BLACK and Charles MILLER, escaped from the jail. BRITTIN was re-arrested at Callery, and BLACK at Renfrew, the day after, while SMITH was caught on March 6. The capture of MILLS was effected later, and he appeared for trial on March 21. The man-hunt was vigorously prosecuted until the criminals were run down and captured.

James F. MILLS, who murdered Peter DUGAN, December 22, 1891, on the WELSH farm, in Connoquenessing township, was tried in March, 1892. District Attorney REIBER and S. F. BOWSER represented the Commonwealth, while FORQUER, McQUISTION, McCANDLESS and THOMPSON defended the accused. The last named lawyer protested that the court was not legally convened, raising the point that unless a case was in progress at the close of the second week of a quarter sessions' term, the term could not be extended beyond two weeks. In proof, he presented rulings made in 1850, when another murderer named MILLS was brought to justice. Attorney REIBER and Judge HAZEN opposed this logic and ordered the jury to be impanelled [sic]. Like former cases of this character, jurors were challenged wholesale, but by the evening of the second day twelve men were accepted, namely: James WILSON, Grant JONES, O. M. ALBERT, C. H. WIBLE, Daniel OVERHEIM, Isaac WIBLE, Robert KLEY, Levi ALBERT, H. C. BRICKER, William STARR, Charles REILLY and L. D. KIESTER. The counsel for the defense saved the pris- [p.  147] ner's life, but could not save him from the penitentiary, where he was sent for twelve years.

The murder of Mrs. HASLER and her daughter, Mrs. Flora MARTIN, by Harper WHITMIRE, took place near St. Joe Station, December 5, 1893. The suicide of WHITMIRE, on the day following, relieved the county of the onus and cost of the prosecution, the only legal action being taken by the coroner.

THE BENCH.

Before Butler county was organized her territory was attached to Allegheny county for judicial purposes, thus coming under the jurisdiction of the courts of the latter county, the presiding judge of which was Hon. Alexander ADDISON, a native of Scotland. In 1794 he aided the authorities in quelling the "Whisky Insurrection," and made many enemies. In 1802, Judge ADDISON refused to permit an associate judge to charge the jury after he had delivered his address. For this he was summoned before the higher courts, which dismissed the complaint against him. His enemies, not content with this, carried the matter to the legislature. He was impeached by the House of Representatives, tried by the senate, found guilty as charged, and sentenced to removal from office, and perpetually disqualified from again filling any judicial position in Pennsylvania. He died in Pittsburg, November 27, 1807.

Hon. Jesse MOORE, the successor of Judge ADDISON, was commissioned as president judge of the Sixth judicial district of Pennsylvania, April 5, 1803, previous to which time he had practiced law for some years at Sunbury. From 1804 to 1818 he presided over the court of common pleas of this county. Judge MOORE was a solemn, dignified and austere man, both in his official and private life. He dressed after the fashion of Colonial days and was a punctillious observer of the old-time manners. He regarded his office as one of the very highest importance and dignity, and was constantly reminding the members of the bar to deport themselves in a dignified manner outside the court-room as well as in the judicial presence. His dignified character and his adherence in dress to the old-time dress-coat, knee breeches, buckles and stockings, as well as to the powdered wig and queue, caused him to be long remembered by the early settlers of the county. He was a native of Montgomery county, and died December 21, 1854.

Hon. Samuel ROBERTS was born in Philadelphia, September 8, 1763. He was admitted to the bar in that city in 1793, and soon afterward moved to Sunbury. He was appointed president judge of the district including Butler county in1818 and held the office until his death in 1820.

Hon. William WILKINS, the successor of Judge ROBERTS, presided for the first time in Butler county, April 2, 1821, and continued in office until July, 1824.

Hon. Charles SHALER presented his commission as judge July 5, 1824. His term of office was marked by an able discharge of its responsible duties. His rulings, especially in land cases, disclosing an intimate knowledge of the intricacies of the law.

Hon. John BREDIN was born in the town of Stranorlar, Donegal county, Ireland, in 1794. In 1802 he came to Butler county with his parents. When at the age of sixteen he went to Pittsburg and took a position as clerk in a general [p.  148] store. When eighteen years of age he purchased a tract of wild land in what is now Summit township, Butler county. In 1817 he was clerk in the prothonotary's office in Butler. He next began reading law under Gen. William AYRES. His association as a student with this well-known lawyer and land owner, gave him a practical insight into the land business and made him acquainted with the early land laws. This knowledge afterwards proved of great value to him in his practice and he came to be regarded as an authority in land title disputes. In 1824 he entered into the newspaper business with his brother Maurice, combining law and journalism until 1830. In 1829 he married Nancy McCLELLAND, of Franklin, Venango county. In 1831 he was appointed president judge of this judicial district, a position he filled with marked ability until his death May 21, 1851.

Hon. Daniel AGNEW, president judge of this district from 1851 to 1863, and afterwards associate justice and chief justice of the Supreme Court of the State, is a man of eminent ability as a lawyer and jurist. While on the bench in this county he won the respect of the members of the bar and the people by the manner in which he met the exacting duties of his office. He has a fine legal mind and his decisions were rarely reversed on appeals. His election to the bench of the Supreme Court was a deserved recognition of his high ability and his upright conduct in public and private life.

Hon. Lawrence L. McGUFFIN was president judge from 1863 to 1874. During his term a number of important criminal and civil suits were tried before him. He made an excellent record, and was deservedly popular.

Hon. Charles McCANDLESS was born in Centre township, Butler county, November 27, 1834. At the age of twenty he taught school, during the winter of 1854-55, in the same log school house in Centre township which he had attended as a boy. In 1856 he entered Witherspoon Institute. After leaving that school he read law in the office of his uncle, Charles C. SULLIVAN, was admitted to practice June 14, 1858, and became the partner of his preceptor, and soon gained recognition as an able and successful lawyer. In 1860, Mr. SULLIVAN died, and Mr. McCANDLESS succeeded to his large practice. In 1862, he was elected to the State Senate for a term of three years. In 1872, he was a delegate to the Republican National Convention at Philadelphia, which nominated GRANT and WILSON. In 1874 he was appointed by Governor HARTRANFT judge of the Seventeenth judicial district to fill a vacancy, and was one of the Republican candidates for the same office at the ensuing election, but was defeated. He was appointed chief justice of New Mexico in February, 1878. In the following October, he resigned and returned to Butler, giving attention to his large practice until his death, March 14, 1893.

Hon. Ebenezer McJUNKIN, the ninth president judge of this district, was born in Centre township, Butler county, March 28, 1819, his father, David McJUNKIN, being one of the pioneer settlers of that township. In 1836 he became a student in Jefferson College at Cannonsburg, graduating in 1841. He then came to Butler and began the study of law in the office of Charles C. SULLIVAN. He was admitted to the bar September 12, 1843, and became the partner of his preceptor. In 1849 he was appointed deputy attorney-general, and began practice on his own account. It was not long until he became recognized as a suc- [p. 149] cessful and able member of the bar, and enjoyed a lucrative practice. In politics, he was first a Whig and afterwards a Republican, being one of the organizers of the Republican party in Butler county. In 1860 he was a delegate to the National Republican Convention at Chicago, and a member of the electoral college in 1864. In the fall of 1870 he was elected to Congress, and re-elected in 1872. In 1874 he ran as an independent Republican candidate for the office of judge of the Seventeenth judicial district, and was elected, resigning his seat in Congress to accept that office, and taking his seat on the bench in January 1875. He drew lots with his colleague for the president judgeship, which he won, filling the position until January, 1885. Since his retirement from the bench he has devoted himself to the practice of his profession. Perhaps no other man now living has been more fully identified, not only with the legal and political, but with the material progress of the county. Since his arrival at manhood's years he has been one of the foremost citizens in the community, a leader at the bar, a leader in his party and a leader in every progressive and public-spirited enterprise calculated to advance the best interests of the people among whom he lived so long, and by whom he has been so often and so deservedly honored.

Hon. James BREDIN, son of John BREDIN, was born in Butler, Pennsylvania, May 9, 1831. He received a liberal education in the local schools, at Washington College, and in the naval school at Annapolis. A reference to the military chapter will show the part taken by him in the Mexican war. Early in 1850, he returned to Butler and began reading law in his father's office, but after his father's death, in 1851, continued his studies in the office of Hon. E. McJUNKIN. He was admitted to the bar, June 14, 1853; but he did not at once begin practice, preferring to join James CAMPBELL, S. M. LANE and others in establishing a bank here, and a branch at New Castle. In 1855, however, he returned to the profession; in 1871 moved to Allegheny, and, in 1874, was elected one of the judges of the Seventeenth district and served ten years. His subsequent removal to Allegheny does not alienate him from Butler, where he is recognized as an able lawyer and is held in high esteem.

Hon. Aaron L. HAZEN is a native of Shenango township, Lawrence county, where he was born February 19, 1837. He was educated in the district schools and in Beaver Academy, from which he graduated in 1858. He then entered Jefferson College at Cannonsburg, Pennsylvania, graduating in 1861, the last year being devoted to law studies. He enlisted April 19, 1861, in the Twelfth Pennsylvania Volunteers. Being disqualified for service in the ranks by deafness, he became a paymaster's clerk, serving until the close of the war. He was admitted to the bar at New Castle in September, 1865, was elected district attorney in 1870, and re-elected in 1873. In 1884, he was elected one of the two judges of the Seventeenth judicial district, then embracing Butler and Lawrence counties. After his election he took up his residence in Butler as president judge. In September, 1893, a separation of the district took place, Butler county alone becoming the Seventeenth judicial district. Lawrence county was erected into a new district. Under this re-apportionment, Hon. John M. GREER became president judge of the Seventeenth, and Judge HAZEN president judge of the new Lawrence [p.  150] county district. This change made it necessary for Judge HAZEN to resume his residence in New Castle. His term of office expired in January, 1895. His discharge of his duties during the eight years he presided in Butler, was marked by a strict observance of legal forms and a desire to render exact justice.

Hon. John M. GREER is a native of Jefferson township, Butler county, where he was born August 3, 1844. In July, 1862, a month before he was eighteen years of age, he enlisted in the defense of the Union, and, although wounded at Petersburg, remained in the service until February, 1866, when he was mustered out. After his return from the army, he taught school, and afterward read law in the office of the late Judge Charles McCANDLESS. In September, 1867, he was admitted to the bar, and, in 1868, was elected district attorney for a term of three years. In 1876 he was elected State Senator, and re-elected in 1880. In 1882 he was nominated for the office of secretary of internal affairs. In that year, however, the entire Republican ticket suffered defeat. In 1884, he was one of the two nominees of the Republican party for judge of the Seventeenth Judicial district, but failed of election. From 1887 to 1891, he served as inspector and examiner of soldiers' orphan schools. In1892, on the death of Judge McMICHAEL, he was elected as his successor—additional law judge of the Seventeen [sic] judicial district. In 1893, under the operation of a special act of the legislature, Butler county alone became the Seventeenth judicial district, Lawrence county being erected into a new district, with Judge HAZEN as president judge. Judge GREER then succeeded to the president judgeship of the Seventeenth judicial district. The career of Judge GREER has been one of continuous growth. His successive promotions have come to him in recognition of his ability and the satisfactory discharge of every duty entrusted to him. He has made an excellent record since his elevation to the bench, and is one of the most popular judges that has ever occupied the position.

THE BAR.

John GILMORE, prominent as a lawyer and politician, during the early years of the county's history, was the son of James GILMORE, a native of Ireland, who came to what is now Somerset county, Pennsylvania, prior to or during the Revolution, in which county John GILMORE was born in 1780. A few years later his parents removed to Washington county, where he passed his youth and young manhood. After the usual preparatory studies, he was admitted to the bar, being at the time twenty-one years of age. He shortly afterward began the practice of law in Pittsburg. In 1803, he was married, in the town of Washington, to Miss Elena Spence ANDERSON, and the same year came to Butler as deputy attorney general. He served several terms in the legislature from Butler county, was speaker of the House in 1821, and was prominent in the legal and political history of the county during the first twenty-five years of its existence. He died in 1845, after a long, useful and honorable career.

David C. CUNNINGHAM, a brother of the CUNNINGHAMS who founded the borough of Butler, was admitted to practice in Butler in 1804, and was well-known to the bench and bar of the earlier years of the county's history.

Col. John PURVIANCE, a soldier of the War of 1812, was born in Washington, [p.  151] Pennsylvania, December 28, 1781. He studied law there under Parker CAMPBELL. In 1804 he came to Butler as a practicing attorney. He was the legal advisor of the Harmony Society from 1805 to 1815, with the exception of the time passed on the frontier as colonel of the Second Pennsylvania Militia Regiment. He was a brother-in-law of John GILMORE, having married an elder sister of Mrs. GILMORE. The family returned to Washington, Pennsylvania, in 1814, where Colonel PURVIANCE died, December 28, 1820. The PURVIANCES of Butler county are descended from him.

Gen. William AYRES came to western Pennsylvania in 1794, with the troops sent to quell "The Whisky Insurrection," in the capacity of a tailor. Being ambitious of a more prominent career than his trade offered, he entered the office of Judge BRACKENRIDGE, in Pittsburg, and began the study of law. He appears to have been an apt student, not only of law, but of politics, and quick to take advantage of every opportunity for preferment. When Butler county was organized, he was appointed to the office of prothonotary, which then included among its duties those of clerk of the courts, and of register and recorder. He soon became a large land owner, and a powerful factor in the political life of the county. He was admitted to the bar in 1809, and immediately established himself as a successful practitioner. Although a bachelor, he built for himself a comfortable and well furnished home, and lived what was then considered an affluent and luxurious life. He was a lover of books, and surrounded himself with a large private library, devoting his leisure to their study and perusal. At his death, in 1843, he left an estate, of real and personal property, valued at $150,000.

John GALBRAITH is mentioned in the chapter on "The Press," for the reason that by establishing The Butler Palladium and Republican Star, he became the pioneer newspaper man of the county. After studying law in Butler under Gen. William AYRES, he was admitted to the bar in Butler, November 10, 1818. He removed to Franklin in 1819, and became one of the prominent lawyers of Venango county. He afterwards removed to Erie, where he became president judge.

Hon. Samuel A. PURVIANCE, a native of Butler county, and, during his lifetime, a man of national note, was born in Butler, January 10, 1809. By the death, in 1820, of his father, Col . John PURVIANCE, the responsibility of maintaining the family devolved upon him and an older brother. His boyhood and youth were devoted to earnest work and in laying the foundation for an honorable and eminent career. He carried a surveyor's chain, clerked in the offices of the prothonotary, sheriff and commissioners, and did such other work as enabled him to aid in supporting his widowed mother and his brothers and sisters. In the meantime he had been educating himself, and had acquired studious and thoughtful habits. He prepared himself for a professional career by reading law in the office of Gen. William AYRES, and was admitted to practice October 2, 1827. He began his legal career in Warren county, and was soon appointed deputy attorney general. Within a few years he returned to Butler county. He was a member of the convention that framed the Constitution of 1838, his colleague from Butler county being Gen. William AYRES. He served in the General Assemblies of 1838 and 1839, as a member of the House of Representatives from Butler county. In 1844 he was a delegate to the Whig National [p.  152] Convention which nominated Henry CLAY for President, and in 1856 a member of the first Republican National Convention, and was recognized as one of the founders of the Republican party. He was elected to Congress in 1854, and re-elected in 1856. While in Congress he took a prominent part in the Kansas-Nebraska debates, opposing his voice and his vote to the attempt of the slave power to extend its dominion over the western territories. In 1859, after the expiration of his term in Congress, he removed to Pittsburg. In 1860 he was chosen as a delegate to the Republican National Convention in Chicago, which nominated Abraham LINCOLN. In 1861 he was elected attorney-general of Pennsylvania. He was tendered an important diplomatic appointment by President LINCOLN, but, not desiring to go abroad, declined it. He enjoyed in a high degree not only the confidence and esteem of Mr. LINCOLN, but also of Edwin M. STANTON, the famous Secretary of War. As a delegate to the Republican National Convention of 1864, he aided in the nomination of President Lincoln for a second term, and in 1868 was a delegate to the convention that nominated GRANT as the presidential candidate of the Republican party. This convention also chose Mr. PURVIANCE as a member of the national executive committee. In 1872 he was prominently mentioned as a candidate for the nomination of vice-president on the Republican ticket. He was a member of the convention that framed the State Constitution of 1873. With the discharge of his duties as a member of that notable assemblage, his public career closed. From his first appearance in public life to the signing of that Constitution, he had given his native State over forty years of able, faithful and distinguished service, and had secured the respect and esteem of her citizens. He died at his home in Pittsburg, February 14, 1882. His widow died in December, 1891.

Hon. Joseph BUFFINGTON began his career in Butler as the editor of a weekly paper called The Repository. He read law in the office of Gen. William AYRES, and was admitted to the bar July 4, 1826. About a year afterward he moved to Kittanning. In 1832 he was elected a delegate to the National Convention of the Anti-Masonic party at Baltimore. In 1840 he was a presidential elector on the Whig ticket. He was elected to Congress in 1842, and served two terms. In 1849 he was appointed judge of the Eighteenth judicial district, and in 1852 was tendered, but declined, the chief judgeship of Utah. In 1855 he was appointed judge of the Tenth judicial district, to fill a vacancy; was elected in 1856, and re-elected in 1866. In 1871 he resigned, owing to failing health. On February 3, 1872, while apparently in his usual health, he died very suddenly, closing a long, useful and honorable life, peacefully and painlessly. Descending from Quaker parentage, his life was marked by a quiet but firm adherence to those principles which he believed to be right. His education and his studious habits enabled him to master the intricacies of the law, and to take high rank as a jurist, while a faithful and fearless discharge of his official duties won for him the respect of the people.

Col. Francis McBRIDE, who was sheriff of the county in 1830, kept hotel where the Lowry House stands for several years, studied law, and some years later entered into partnership with L. Z. MITCHELL. He lived for awhile in the old Walter LOWRIE residence.

[p.  153] Hon. James THOMPSON, eminent in the legal annals of Pennsylvania, was a native of Middlesex township, Butler county, where he was born in 1805, youngest son of William THOMPSON. He entered upon the active duties of life as the first printer's devil in the office of The Butler Palladium, the pioneer newspaper of the county, established August 17, 1818. In 1826, being then nineteen years of age, he began reading law under John GILMORE, at that time a leading member of the Butler bar. He completed his studies, however, at Kittanning, under Thomas BLAIR, and was admitted to the Butler bar April 9, 1828, and later located at Franklin, where he resided for thirteen years. In 1832 he was elected as a representative in the General Assembly, and re-elected in 1833 and 1834. During his last term he was chosen Speaker of the House. In May, 1839, he was appointed judge of a special district, created to dispose of accumulated business. In 1842 he moved to Erie, and in 1844 was elected to Congress, serving from 1845 to 1847. In 1848 he was again elected, serving from 1849 to 1851. In 1857 he was elected, on the Democratic ticket, associate justice of the Supreme Court, and served the last five years of his fifteen-year term as chief justice. With the beginning of his term as an associate justice he took up his residence in Philadelphia, where he passed the remainder of his life. A few years after his retirement from the bench, and while engaged in the argument of a case in court, he fell to the floor and expired. During his long career in public life, Judge THOMPSON maintained a high reputation as a lawyer and jurist, and to great ability added an unblemished name, an unassailable integrity, and the record of an unselfish, high-minded and patriotic citizen. He left a widow, three sons and two daughters. One of the sons, Samuel Gustine THOMPSON, has recently retired from the Supreme bench.

Hon. Samuel A. GILMORE, born in Butler borough, January 21, 1806, son of John GILMORE, read law in his father's office and was admitted to the bar January 8, 1828. He was elected to the legislature in 1836 and 1837, and filled the position of secretary of the Constitutional Convention of 1838. In 1845 he was appointed judge of the territory now forming the Fourteenth and Twenty-seventh judicial districts, by Governor SHUNK. When that office became an elective one, he carried the old district easily, and was its president judge when he died, in 1873.

David O. WALKER, nephew of Jonathan WALKER, a pioneer lawyer of Pittsburg, was admitted to the Butler county bar, January 7, 1828. While he resided here his life was uneventful.

George W. SMITH, of whom mention is made in the chapter on The Press, was born in the neighboring county of Mercer in 1806. He came to Butler to work in the woolen factory; but soon began the study of law under General AYRES, continuing until admitted to the bar, April 7, 1829. An uncompromising Whig, he fought his way to the legislature, and, in 1848, went within measurable distance of Congress, that popular Democrat, Alfred GILMORE, carrying the district by a very small majority. In 1855 he went to Kansas, and was soon in the midst of the stormy struggle then taking place. He was elected Governor by the Anti-Lecompton division of the Free-State men, but the election, like Rip Van Winkle's drinks, didn't count. He was elected to the legislature and served as [p.  154] speaker of that body. He afterwards became police judge of the city of Lawrence, holding the office until his death, September 28, 1878.

Walter H. LOWRIE, who was admitted to the bar July 6, 1830, was the son of Matthew B. LOWRIE, and grandson of John LOWRIE, a pioneer settler of Allegheny township. From 1857 to 1863 he was chief justice of the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania.

Hon. Charles Craven SULLIVAN, for many years one of the ablest members of the Butler bar, was a son of Charles SULLIVAN, a native of Northumberland county, Virginia. He was born on the old homestead farm, in Franklin township, Butler county, March 10, 1807. After graduating from Jefferson College, in 1828, he became a law student in the office of Gen. William AYRES, and was admitted to the bar October 10, 1831. He soon took rank as an able lawyer and successful advocate. In 1841 he was elected to the State Senate, and re-elected in 1844. In the earlier years of his manhood he was an ardent Whig of anti-slavery principles. He afterwards became an uncompromising Abolitionist, and subsequently a Republican. His legal practice grew to be very large, and his reputation as a lawyer was such as to give him a place among the leaders of the profession in the State. He died February 27, 1860, leaving a widow and five children.

Gen. John N. PURVIANCE, son of Col. John PURVIANCE, was born in Butler, September 27, 1810, and died in 1885. Educated in the old schools of Butler, he was competent at the age of sixteen to take a position in FOX's store, on the Clarion river, and a year later to fill that of commissioners' clerk. In the meantime he read law under John BREDIN, and was admitted to the bar in June, 1832. In 1843 he was commissioned major-general of the military division comprising Butler, Mercer and Beaver counties, and was auditor-general of the State from 1845 to 1851, as well as escheator-general and a member of the board of property. In 1833 he married Eliza Jane POTTS, of Pittsburg, who survived him until November 3, 1886. In civil and military affairs, as well as in political life, he was a particular favorite in his native county, and one of the most popular among her citizens.

Hon. Alfred GILMORE, a native of Butler borough, and a son of John GILMORE, was one of the early lawyers. Studying in the office of Samuel A. GILMORE, he was admitted to practice March 15, 1836. Elected to Congress, he served in the National House four years, and then became a citizen of Massachusetts, and afterward of Scranton, Pennsylvania, where he died in 1890 or 1891.

William HASLETT, spoken of in the chapter on The Press, read law under John BREDIN and was admitted to practice December 11, 1837.

Jonathan AYRES read law with his uncle, William AYRES, and was admitted to the bar June 11, 1838. Immediately after he moved to Franklin, where he became known as publisher of the Democrat. Early in the "forties" he moved to New Castle, where he continued practice. His positive character did not make him many friends, while his lack of energy did not make him many enemies.

Edward M. BREDIN, a nephew of Judge John BREDIN, though born at Carlisle, Pennsylvania, in 1819, came to Butler when a youth, read law under his [p.  155] Uncle and was admitted to the bar here October 2, 1839. In this chapter and in that devoted to Butler borough, the name of Edward M. BREADIN often occurs, for he was undoubtedly one of the ablest advisers of the bar of Butler county. His death took place August 9, 1887.

William TIMBLIN, a native of Centre township, Butler county, read law under Samuel A. PURVIANCE and was admitted to the bar September 14, 1841. His death occurred in the year 1856.

Thomas M. MARSHALL, though never a resident member of this bar, has practiced here more or less for many years. Born in Ireland, he came with his parents to Penn township, Butler county, in 1824, there grew to manhood and formed that character which afterwards brought him to a foremost place in the legal profession. He located in Pittsburg, where he has won a fine reputation as a safe counselor and a brilliant advocate. In 1854 he left the Whig party because of its apparent sympathies with Know Nothingism and came to Butler to address the people on the unsound principles of that dark-lantern organization. Mr. MARSHALL is recognized as one of the prominent lawyers of western Pennsylvania.

John GRAHAM was born in Connoquenessing township, Butler county, in 1821, and died in 1860. When seventeenyears old he became an apprentice in STEWART's cabinet shop at Butler, two years later was appointed deputy sheriff, and in 1842 began reading law in the office of Samuel A. GILMORE. On September 12, 1844, he was admitted to the bar, and in 1845 appointed deputy attorney-general, making for himself a good legal reputation. In 845 he married Catherine, a sister of Edward M. BREDIN.

Lewis Z. MITCHELL, born in Dauphin county, Pennsylvania, September 12, 1824, located in Butler county ten years later. About the year 1843 he began the study of law under Samuel A. PURVIANCE, and was admitted to the bar, February 11, 1845. For almost half a century he has been a member of the legal circle of butler, and a citizen, who, at all times has satisfactorily performed his duties toward municipality, county, state and nation.

John H. NEGLEY, son of the pioneer, John NEGLEY, was born in Butler borough, February 7, 1823. He received a literary education in the Butler Academy, and, from 1841 to 1843, studied at Washington College, Washington, Pennsylvania. In 1843, he entered the law office of Hon. John BREDIN, and on March 25, 1845, was admitted to the bar. Three years later, he was appointed deputy-attorney-general for this county, and, under the new Constitution, was elected district attorney in 1850 He entered the field of journalism in 1855, as editor of the Herald. In 1861 he was appointed enrolling officer for this county; in 1863 elected a member of the legislature, and re-elected in 1864 and 1865. From 1866 to 1868 he was engaged in law practice, but in April, 1869, resumed journalism as editor and publisher of the Citizen. In 1870-71, he was assistant-assessor of internal revenue for this county, but the position did not divorce him from editorial charge of the Citizen, which was solely controlled by him until 1888, when his son, William S. NEGLEY, became owner. Mr. NEGLEY is one of the oldest members of the bar, and still devotes his attention to the profession.

[p.  156] Col. John McPherrin SULLIVAN was born in Butler, August 9, 1822. He received his early education in the Old Stone Academy of butler. He entered Jefferson College in November, 1838, graduating therefrom September 28, 1843. After leaving college he became a law student in the office of Hon. Samuel A. GILMORE, of Butler, was admitted to practice in December, 1845, and a few months later entered into a law partnership with Hon. Samuel A. PURVIANCE, continuing until January 1, 1855. During the winters of 1845 and 1846 he was the legislative correspondent at Harrisburg of the New York Tribune, Philadelphia Enquirer and Pittsburg Commercial. From 1847 to 1850 he served as assistant clerk in the senate, and was chief clerk in 1852-53. In January, 1855, he became deputy secretary of state, and in January, 1858, was appointed deputy superintendent of common schools, a position he resigned in July, 1860. In 1861, he was appointed chief corresponding clerk in the office of the quarter-master-general of the army at Washington, D. C., the duties of which position he discharged with fidelity until April 1, 1867, covering a period the most momentous in the nation's history. In March, 1867, he was appointed collector of internal revenue of the Twenty-third district, and filled this office for nearly fifteen years. Since the close of his official career he has resided in the old family homestead in Butler. Though no longer in public life, he takes a deep interest in everything tending to promote the best interest of the people of his home, and especially of the surviving soldiers.

James POTTS, a native of this county, studied law in butler and was admitted to the bar, June 11, 1850. In 1871 he was commissioned president judge of Cambria county. His death occurred at Oil City, Pennsylvania, in 1891.

Arcus McDERMITT, a native of Butler county, studied under C. C. SULLIVAN, and was admitted to practice September 30, 1850. He moved to Mercer, Pennsylvania, a few years later, and, in 1874, was elected judge of that district, under the new Constitution. He served on the bench until his death.

Col. Archibald BLAKELEY was born near the confluence of Glade run and the Connoquenessing, July 16, 1827, taught school in early manhood and read law with George W. SMITH. He was admitted to the bar at Butler, November 10, 1852, and the following year was elected district attorney. In 1855 he was a delegate from Butler county to the first Republican State Convention held at Pittsburg. As lieutenant-colonel and colonel of the Seventy-eighth Pennsylvania Volunteers for three years, he made a good war record. He practiced law at Franklin from 1864 to 1868, and then removed to Pittsburg, where he has since been engaged in the active duties of his profession.

James T. LANE, who was brought to Butler county by his parents, in 1832, when two years of age, entered the office of PURVIANCE & SULLIVAN in 1845, and November 15, 1853, was admitted to the bar. In 1854, he became a resident of Davenport, Iowa. In 1858 he was chosen city attorney; in 1862, elected a member of the legislature, and was a presidential elector in 1868 and 1872. He was appointed United States attorney for Iowa in 1873, a position he held until 1882.

William G. THOMPSON, a brother of Col. John M. THOMPSON, is a native of Brady township. He taught school in that neighborhood, and read law under [p.  157] William TIMBLIN. He was admitted to the bar November 15, 1853, and moved to Iowa shortly after, settling in Linn county. He served as major of an Iowa regiment during the war and later represented his district in Congress.

Thomas ROBINSON was born in Armagh county, Ireland, July 4, 1825, accompanied his parents to America in 1832, and to Penn township, Butler county, in 1835. Entering the office of George W. SMITH, at Butler, he proved an apt law student and was admitted to the bar, September 25, 1855. At first a Whig, he afterwards became a Republican, was a delegate to the first State convention of the Republican party in 1855, and, ever since, has been an uncompromising adherent and champion of its principles. In 1860 he was elected to the Legislature, and for nearly forty years he has been one of the local leaders of his party. He is a born fighter, delights in a legal or political battle, and though defeat may wait upon him, he is seldom discouraged or driven from the arena.

Walter L. GRAHAM was born in Butler borough, October 25, 1831, and received his education in the Butler Academy, Witherspoon Institute and Jefferson College. Graduating in 1854 from the last named school, he read law under Samuel A. PURVIANCE and C. C. SULLIVAN, and was admitted to the bar September 25, 1855. In 1860, he was a delegate to the Republican National Convention; in 1862, enlisted in the Emergency militia, and since the war he has practiced at the Butler bar.

Col. William BLAKELEY, a native of this county, read law under his brother, Archibald BLAKELEY, and was admitted to the bar, March 24, 1856. Like his brother, he was engaged in teaching school in the Brownsdale neighborhood prior to becoming a lawyer. In 1856, he moved to Kittanning, was elected district attorney in 1859, a position he resigned in 1862 to become lieutenant-colonel of the Fourteenth Pennsylvania Calvary[sic]. In 1865, he was brevetted brigadier-general in recognition of his services, and the same year formed a law partnership with his brother, at Franklin. In 1868 he removed to Pittsburg and became a leading member of the bar of that city.

James W. KIRKER, a well-known attorney of the Allegheny county bar, died at this home, Bellevue, August 10, 1893, of heart disease, after a brief illness. He was born in Middle Lancaster, September 20, 1832; attended the district school and later earned enough money by teaching to pay his way at Allegheny College. He studied law and surveying at the same time, and at the age of twenty-four, September 22, 1856, was admitted to practice in the Butler county courts. He was elected district attorney and, during the war, was appointed provost-marshal for the district composed of Allegheny and Butler counties.

Col. John M. THOMPSON was born in Brady township, Butler county, January 4, 1830. After completing an academic course at Witherspoon Institute, he read law in the office of Hon. Samuel A. PURVIANCE, was admitted to the bar February 24, 1854, and became a partner in the office of PURVIANCE & SULLIVAN. He soon developed marked forensic ability and took a leading position at the bar. In 1858 he was elected to the legislature on the Republican ticket and re-elected in 1859. During the latter session he served as speaker pro tem of the House. In 1862 he entered the army and was elected major of the One Hundred and Thiry0fourth Pennsylvania Volunteers. He served until February 14, 1863.[p.  158] After his return to Butler he resumed the practice of law. In 1868 he was a delegate to the Republican National Convention at Chicago, which nominated General GRANT for the presidency. He was one of the presidential electors of Pennsylvania in 1872. In 1875 he was elected to Congress to fill a vacancy caused by the resignation of Hon. E. McJUNKIN. He was again elected in 1876 for a full term of two years. He is at present one of the oldest and ablest members of the Butler bar, and is in the enjoyment of a large and lucrative practice.

Hon. John H. MITCHELL, United States Senator from Oregon, is a native of Washington county, Pennsylvania, where he was born June 22, 1835. When he was two years old his parents moved to Butler county. After attending the common school, he entered Witherspoon Institute, graduating therefrom after pursuing the usual course of study. He then read law in the office of PURVIANCE & THOMPSON and was admitted to the bar March 22, 1858. In 1860 he went to Oregon and began the practice of law in the city of Portland. He soon took rank among the leaders of the bar of the Pacific coast. He was elected city attorney in 1861; state senator in 1862; lieutenant-governor in 1864 and professor of medical jurisprudence of Willamette College in 1866. In 1872 he was elected to the United States Senate, of which body he is at present a member, and serving his third term. A stanch Republican, he is not only a popular leader of his party in Oregon, but an able and influential member of the senate.

The records of the prothonotary's office show that the following named attorneys were admitted to practice in the courts of Butler county, from 1804 to 1893 inclusive:

James ALLISON, February 11, 1805; William AYRES, June 5, 1809; James ALEXANDER, March 16, 1836; Jonathan AYRES, June 11, 1838; Daniel AGNEW, April 4, 1831; Isaac ASH, March 28, 1859; S. S. AVERY, June 11, 1873.

Henry M. BRACKENRIDGE, February 15, 1815; John BREDIN, August 12, 1817; Joseph BUFFINGTON, July 4, 1826; Edward M. BREDIN, October 2, 1839; Jacob K. BOYD, December 7, 1839; Oren BALDWIN, March 25, 1845; John BORELAND, October 28, 1845; James M. BREDIN, May 20, 1851; Archibald BLAKELEY, November 10, 1852; James BREDIN, June 14, 1853; William BLAKELEY, March 24, 1856; Amzi BREWSTER, March 28, 1859; George A. BLACK, September 25, 1865; Samuel M. BOYD, January 12, 1869; William H. BLACK, June 14, 1869; W. D. BRANDON, March 17, 1871; A. W. BARRY, March 13, 1872; George H. BEMUS, October 21, 1872; S. F. BOWSER, September 7, 1874; M. C. BENEDICT, January 6, 1875; A. T. BLACK, October 19, 1875; Joseph B. BREDIN, October 19, 1875; Newton BLACK, October 5, 1876; E. I. BRUGH, April 28, 1874; James F. BRITTAIN, February 12, 1877; J. H. BOWMAN, April 18, 1878; Albert L. BOWSER, September 1, 1883; Thompson M. BAKER, September 5, 1888; J. A. BEATTY, September 1, 1884.

David C. CUNNINGHAM, May, 1804; T. S. CUNNINGHAM, October 6, 1824; James P. CAMPBELL, December 10, 1844; George R. COCHRAN, September 27, 1866, T. C. CAMPBELL, September, 1872; C. G. CHRISTIE, June 13, 1872; W. G. CRAWFORD, January 12, 1874; Joseph H. CUNNINGHAM, June 21, 1874; William R. CONN, October 20, 1875; Ezra CROSSMAN, January 3, 1878; A. M. CUNNINGHAM, June 4, 1878; William M. CORNELIUS, October 13, 1879; W. H. COLBERT, October 25, 1879; A. M. CORNELIUS, March 2, 1880; Stephen CUMMINGS, May 31, [p.  159] 1880; Hunter E. COULTER, January 21, 1888; Alfred M. CHRISTLEY, May 7, 1888; Paul CUMMINGS, June 13, 1888; John W. COULTER, September 8, 1891, and Raymond S. CORNELIUS, December 12, 1892.

James DUNLAP, February 11, 1805; Charles DARRAH, September 12, 1832; James DONNELLY, December 10, 1845; Thomas DONNELLY, June 19, 1847; Joseph T. DONLEY, April 29, 1874, and James M. DENNY, March 2, 1880.

Benjamin R. EVANS, April 4, 1825; Evan Reese EVANS, July 6, 1830; John T. EDMUNDSON, July 19, 1871; Frank M. EASTMAN, April 144, 1873, and E. R. ECKLEY, September, 1878.

Samuel FOLTZ, September 1, 1852; Eugene FERRERO, September 25, 1855; Francis FIELDING, September 28, 1863; George W. FLEEGER, April 18, 1855; William A. FORQUER, June 19, 1874; W. C. FINDLEY, June 3, 1878; Francis J. FORQUER, October 8, 1879, and Lewis L. FLEEGER.

John GILMORE, February 13, 1804; John GALBRAITH, November 10, 1818; Samuel A. GILMORE, January 8, 1828; Alfred GILMORE, March 15, 1836; John GRAHAM, September 12, 1844; Charles B. GILLESPIE, September 15, 1846; John P. GILCHRIST, November 15, 1853; Walter L. GRAHAM, September 25, 1855; Hugh C. GRAHAM, March 25, 1861; John M. GREER, September 23, 1867; Richard GAILEY, January 11, 1869; J. KI. GRAHAM, June 14, 1870; Henderson H. GOUCHER, June 9, 1873; Robert G. GRAHAM, May 5, 1880; James M. GALBREATH, March 6, 1882; John B. GREER, April 10, 1886; John B. GREER, April 17, 1893, and John C. GRAHAM, March 11, 1892.

John H. HOPKINS, October 10, 1822; William HASLETT, December 11, 1837; Aaron L. HAZEN, January 10, 1871; George D. HAMOR, June 6, 1876; Stephen H. HUSELTON, April 10, 1886; J. W. HUTCHISON, December 2, 1889, and Charles H. HARDMAN, June 13, 1888.

Samuel P. IRVINE, June 14, 1858, and Robert B. IVORY, September 20, 1882.

Jedediah JACK, June 8, 1840; A. C. JOHNSTON, March 9, 1874, and David H. JACK, June 1, 1880.

James W. KIRKER, September 22, 1856; D. J. KYLE, December 21, 1878; John K. KELLY, March 2, 1880; Frank X. KOHLER, September 21, 1882, and A. W. KELLY, May 21, 1892.

Walter H. LOWRIE, July 6, 1830; Matthew S. LOWRIE, September 22, 1832; H. N. LEE, December 9, 1834; William S. LANE, September 12, 1843; James T. LANE, November 15, 1853; Thomas E. J. LYON, March 24, 1862; L. G. LINN, January 5, 1875; Porter W. LOWRY, March 15, 1875; L. J. LEVIS, June 6, 1876; William H. LUSK, October 17, 1877; T. H. LYON, July 15, 1882, and M. F. LEASON, May 5, 1885.

Christian MECHLING, April 7, 1829; Harper MITCHELL, February 10, 1845; Lewis Z. MITCHELL, February 11, 1845; Franklin MECHLING, May 12, 1847; J. H. MITCHELL, March 22, 1858; Kennedy MARSHALL, June, 1860; J. B. MECHLING, April 18, 1866; Alexander MITCHELL, June 14, 1869; Joseph MITCHELL, June 21, 1870; R. L. MAXWELL, January 14, 1874; M. N. MILES, June 17, 1874; Wallace MARTIN, September 14, 1874; Lewis H. MITCHELL, January 4, 1875; Ehrman B. MITCHELL, October 20, 1875; J. O. MARSHALL, May 5, 1876; Eugene G. MILLER, October 3, 1876; Leslie Q. MAXWELL, March 11, 1878; John D. MARSHALL, July 10, [p.  160] 1882; James N. MOORE, September 4, 1882; William H. MARTIN, September 20, 1882; James B. MATES, July 20, 1883; S. M. MEALS, June 8, 1892; Henry N. MARSHALL, September 5, 1888; William Z. MURRIN, March, 1892, and J. Norman MARTIN, May 6, 1892.

Dunlap McLAUGHLIN, January 11, 1838; Alexander T. McNAIR, December 10, 1838; Francis McBRIDE, April 7, 1842; Lawrence L. McGUFFIN, December 15, 1842; Ebenezer McJUNKIN, September 12, 1843; John McELVAIN, September 15, 1846; Arcus McDERMITT, September 30, 1850; William B. McNAIR, March 24, 1856; Robert M. McLURE, June 9, 1856; Charles McCANDLESS, June 14, 1858; J. D. McJUNKIN, June 8, 1863; Aaron M. McCANDLESS, April 23, 1867; Livingston McQUISTION, June 10, 1870; Michael B. McBRIDE, March 13, 1871; Austin J. McCAFFERTY, January 15, 1872; J. S. McKAY, September 3, 1873; G. B. McCALMONT, October 20, 1873; J. B. McJUNKIN, March 15, 1875; Edward McSWEENEY, November 4, 1875; Joseph A. McDONALD, January 3, 1878; Charles A. McPHERRIN, March 5, 1883; Ira McJUNKIN april, 10, 1886; Charles C. McCANDLESS, September 1, 1890; A. B. C. McFARLAND, May 25, 1891.

John H. NEGLEY, March 25, 1845.

John PURVIANCE, August, 1804; Henry PURVIANCE, August 9, 1814; Samuel A. PURVIANCE, October 2, 1827; John N. PURVIANCE, June 13, 1832; Parker C. PURVIANCE, January 10, 1835; James POTTS, June 11, 1850; John PURVIANCE, Jr., September 27, 1858; S. H. PEIRSOL, June 14, 1869; Lewis K. PURVIANCE, September 6, 1875; B. L. POLLOCK, June 11, 1877; Francis S. PURVIANCE, March 19, 1878; George C. PILLOW, January 2, 1879; J. F. PEFFER, June 4, 1883; J. M. PAINTER, September 1, 1890, and Isaiah H. PAINTER, September, 1891.

Thomas ROBINSON, September 25, 1855; A. J. REBSTOCK, March 26, 1860; W. H. H. RIDDLE, March 28, 1864; Ferdinand REIBER, June 4, 1869; Elliott ROBB, October 27, 1870; George L. RANKIN, June 19, 1876; John M. ROTH, November 4, 1875; Everett L. RALSTON, March 6, 1883; James W. REED, September 8, 1884; Aaron E. REIBER, September 10, 1885; John M. RUSSELL, April 10, 1886; Alonzo E. RUSSELL, September 5, 1888; Edwin S. RIDDLE, June 14, 1888; William A. RALSTON, June, 1892, and George E. ROBINSON, June, 1893.

Charles SHALER, August 30, 1819; George W. SMITH, April 7, 1829; Charles C. SULLIVAN, October 10, 1831; William H. SCOTT, June 11, 1838; Wilson F. STEWART, August 10, 1842; Joseph SLIKER, June 12, 1844; John McPherrin SULLIVAN, December 9, 1845; John Q. A. SULLIVAN, June 10, 1861; R. P. SCOTT, January 11, 1869; Moses SULLIVAN, June 14, 1869; Charles A. SULLIVAN, March 15, 1870, Harvey N. SNYDER, June 10, 1870; O. E. SHANNON, October 20, 1873; James H. SMITH, September 10, 1875; E. R. SHANOR, May 31, 1880; Samuel B. SNYDER, April 24, 1882; J. S. SNYDER, March, 1886; Henry STAUFFER, March, 1887; J. V. SLOAN, June, 1888; Albert T. SCOTT, March, 1888, and John SCHEIRING, December, 1891.

James THOMPSON, April 9, 1828; William TIMBLIN, September 14, 1841; P. D. P. TAYLOR, September 9, 1845; William G. THOMPSON, November 15, 1853; John M. Thompson, February 24, 1854; Henry D. TIMBLIN, April 23, 1867; Joseph F. TIMMENY, April 24, 1874; John H. THOMPSON, April 20, 1877; O. [p.  161] D. THOMPSON, May 31, 1880; W. C. THOMPSON, June 29, 1882, and Horace J. THOMAS, June 6, 1892.

Joseph C. VANDERLIN, September 7, 1874.

William WILKINS, February 13, 1804; David O. WALKER, January 7, 1828; Clarence WALKER, March 13, 1871; George R. WHITE, March 13, 1871; A. G. WILLIAMS, November 4, 1875; Leonida WALKER, May 22, 1878; William H. WALSH, September 6, 1879; William J. WELSH, April 11, 1883; Levi M. WISE, September 5, 1888; John P. WILSON, December 2, 1889; Huston Q. WALKER, May 25, 1891; John H. WILSON, December, 1891, and Zill J. WILSON, December, 1891.

Watson J. YOUNG, November 19, 1866, and Elmer E. YOUNG, June 10, 1890.

Jacob ZIEGLER, April 18, 1836, and George W. ZIEGLER, 1839.

The present members of the bar are T.M. BAKER, A.T. BALCK, Newton BLACK, Albert L. BOWSER, S.F. BOWSER, W.D. BRANDON, Joseph B. BREDIN, Ezra I. BRUGH, T.C. CAMPBELL, A.M. CHRISTLEY, A.M. CORNELIUS, H.E. COULTER, Stephen CUMMINGS, W.C.FINDLEY, George W. FLEEGER, Francis J. FORQUER, William A. FORQUER, James M. GALBREATH, H.H. GOUCHER, Walter L. GRAHAM, John M. GREER, John B. GREER, S.H. HUSELTON, James W. HUTCHISON, Frank X. KOHLER, Porter W. LOWRY, William H. LUSK, James B. MATES, M. B. McBRIDE, A.B.C. McFARLAND, Ebenezer McJUNKIN, Ira McJUNKIN, J.B. McJUNKIN, J.D. McJUNKIN, Livingston McQUISTION, Lewis Z. MITCHELL, Alexander MITCHELL, James N. MOORE, W.Z. MURRIN, John H. NEGLEY, J. M. PAINTER, S. H. PEIRSON, George C. PILLOW, E.L. RALSTON, A. E. REIBER, Ferdinand REIBER, W. H. H. RIDDLE, E. S. RIDDLE, Thomas ROBINSON, A. T. SCOTT, R. P. SCOTT, John M. SULLIVAN, John M. THOMPSON, W.C. THOMPSON, J. D. VANDERLIN, Clarence WALKER, H.Q. WALKER, George R. WHITE, A. G. WILLIAMS, Levi M. WISE and Elmer E. YOUNG.

The Butler Bar Association was incorporated June 23, 1892. It embraces in its membership the following named attorneys: T.M. BAKER, A.T. BLACK, Newton BLACK, W.D. BRANDON, Joseph B. BREDIN, A.L. BOWSER, S.F. BOWSER, E. I. BRUGH, T.C. CAMPBELL, A. M. CHRISTLEY, A.M. CORNELIUS, H. E. COULTER, Stephen CUMMINGS, W.C. FINDLEY, George W. fleeger, W.A.FORQUER, James M. GALBREATH, H.H. GOUCHER, W.L. GRAHAM, John m. GREER, S.H. HUSELTON, J.W. HUTCHISON, Frank X. KOHLER, P.W.LOWRY, W.H. LUSK, H.N. MARSHALL, J.D. MARSHALL, James B. MATES, M.B. McBREIDE, A.B.C. McFARLAND, E. McJUNKIN, Ira Mcjunkin J.D. McJUNKIN, J.B. McJUNKIN, Livingston McQUISTION, Alexander MITCHELL, Lewis Z. MITCHELL, James N. MOORE, J.M. PAINTER, George C. PILLOW, E.L. RALSTON, A.E. REIBER, Ferdinand REIBER, E.S. RIDDLE, W.H.H. RIDDLE, A.T. SCOTT, R.P. SCOTT, H.J. THOMAS, John M. THOMPSON, W.C. THOMPSON, J.C. VANDERLIN, H.Q.WALKER, Clarence WALKER, G.R. WHITE, J.P. WILSON, A.G. WILLIAMS, Levi M. wise and E.E. YOUNG.

[End of Chapter 10 - The Bench and Bar: History of Butler County Pennsylvania, R. C. Brown Co., Publishers, 1895]

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Updated 31 Aug 2001