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INTRODUCTION -- THE FIRING OF SUMTER - THE NEWS IN BUTLER -- A GREAT UNION MEETING -- THE FRESH CALL FOR TROOPS - BUTLER COUNTY’S PROMPT RESPONSES -- COMPANIES FURNISHED DURING THE WAR - THE REGIMENTS IN WHICH THEY SERVED -- SOLDIERS WHO SERVED IN MISCELLANEOUS COMMANDS -- SURGEONS-HOW THOSE AT HOME SUSTAINED THE MEN IN THE FIELD -- THE DRAFTS OF 1863 AND 1864 -- ENLISTMENTS ENCOURAGED BY BOUNTIES - RELIEF TAX -- THE BAALAM ASSOCIATION -- PITTSBURG SANITARY FAIR -- BUTLER COUNTY’S CONTRIBUTIONS - LEE’S SURRENDER - JUBILEE MEETING -- LINCOLN’S ASSASSINATION -- MEMORIAL MEETING - SOLDIERS’ MONUMENTS -- CONCLUSIONS
When the thirteen colonies, having wrested their independence from England, after a struggle lasting seven years, took their place among the nations of the earth as a free republic, under the name of the United States of America, there entered into the very beginning of the national life, in the form of African slavery, an element of discord, destined, after engineering bitter controversy in the press, on the stump, in the halls of Congress, and even in the pulpit itself, to bring on the greatest civil war in the world's history.
The South saw in the rapid growth of an anti-slavery sentiment in the North, in the stubborn resistance to the spread of slavery in the territories, and in the election of Abraham Lincoln to the presidency in 1860, a menace to its favorite institution. The result was the passage of ordinanaces of secession by the slaveholding states, and of the announcement of their intention to withdraw from the Union, peaceably if possible, forcibly, if necessary.
The first overt act evincing a determination to carry this purpose into effect by force of arms, was the firing on the "Star of the West," January 9, 1861, in [p. 230] Charleston harbor, by the batteries of Morris Island and Fort Moultrie, an account of which appeared in the Butler newspapers of January 16, 1861. In the same issue appeared the "Appeal to the People, " setting forth the dangers threatening the Union and the inability of the committee of thirteen to agree upon an adjustment of the differences between the North and the South.
The months of anxiety which followed, culminated in the attack, bombardment and surrender of Fort Sumter, and in bringing the people of the North face to face with the fact that the South had determined to fight her way out of the Union. Even then, however, it was difficult to believe that a general uprising of the Southern people would take place, or that the firing upon Fort Sumter was the beginning of one of the greatest wars of modern times. This feeling found voice in the public press, and in a general expression of a belief that a settlement of the differences of the two sections would be brought about without further bloodshed. In closing an editorial in he issue of April 17, 1861, commenting on the surrender of Fort Sumter, the Butler Herald said:
The intelligence that hostilities had commenced filled everybody with the deepest regret. It is to be hoped that the whole matter will be settled without loss of life and that peace will be restored.
This hope was soon dispelled, and the people of Butler county realized, when the first call for volunteers was made by President LINCOLN, that the struggle for the preservation of the Union had been transferred from the arena of debate to the field of battle.
A great Union meeting was held at the court-house on April 18, which was presided over by James Gilmore CAMPBELL, United States Marshal, with John H. NEGLEY, George MILLER, Herman J. BERG and Samuel G. PURVIS, vice-presidents; Patrick KELLY, S. P. IRVIN, William HASLETT, Edwin LYON, John C. COLL, and James BALPH, secretaries. Party spirit was forgotten, stirring speeches were made, and resolutions adopted pledging Butler o send her last man to the front, if necessary, to preserve the Union. A central committee of superintendence was appointed, consisting of James BREDIN, John M. SULLIVAN, Henry C. HEINEMAN, William CAMPBELL, Herman J. BERG, and R. C. MCABOY; and also a finance committee made up of L. Z. MITCHELL, C. E. ANDERSON, John M. THOMPSON, and Walter L. GRAHAM.
Under President LINCOLN's call for 75,000 men, Butler county's quota was one company. The response was so prompt that within a few hours after the reception of the news, the ranks of the company were full, and it was ready to proceed to the front. This company known as the "Butler County Blues" was officered as follows: John N. PURVIANCE, Captain; Alexander GILLESPIE, first lieutenant; John G. VANDYKE, second lieutenant; John B. MCQUISTION, first sergeant; Edwin LYON, second sergeant; Oliver C. REDIC, third sergeant; Samuel MUCKEL, fourth sergeant; Thomas CAMPBELL, Jr., first corporal; Andrew CARNS, second corporal; John P. ORR, third corporal; and Joseph B. MECHLING, fourth corporal.
After reaching Harrisburg the company was mustered in as Company H, Thirteenth Pennsylvania Volunteers. At the same time, Captain PURVIANCE was made lieutenant-colonel of the regiment, and Jacob ZIEGLER elected captain of the [p. 231] company. Captain ZIEGLER resigned on May 11, and First Lieutenant Alexander GILLESPIE was elected captain to fill the vacancy thus created. After serving under General PATTERSON in the vicinity of Harper's Ferry, Martinsburg and Shepherdstown, the regiment was mustered out of service August 6, 1861, by First Lieutenant John B. JOHNSTON, of the Third United States Cavalry.
It soon became evident that the Rebellion had gathered too much force to be put down with 75,000 men, and President Lincoln issued a second call, this time for 200,000 men for three years' service. Under the first call, Capt. Samuel LOUDON had recruited a company known as the "Dickson Guards," at West Sunbury, and Capt. William STEWART one at Evans City, and had them awaiting orders. They were properly officered and entered the service June 10, 1861, becoming Companies C and D, of the Eleventh Pennsylvania Reserve. They were assigned to duty in the Army of the Potomac, serving in the First and Fifth Army Corps.
In August 1861, Capt. Thomas MCLAUGHLIN recruited a company, in which a large number of those who had served in Company H, Thirteenth regiment, re-enlisted. It was mustered in September 1, 1861, as Company H, One Hundred and Second Pennsylvania Volunteers, and assigned to duty in the old Sixth Army Corps.
In the same month, Capt. James E. CORNELIUS recruited a company in the northwestern and wester part of the county. It entered the service as Company C, One Hundredth Pennsylvania Volunteers. This regiment, by reason of its being largely made up of descendants of the "Round Heads" of the English Revolution and of Scotch-Irish Seceders and Covenanters, was known as the "Round Head" Regiment.
In September, 1861, the fifth company to respond from Butler County was recruited from around Butler borough, Harrisville, and other parts of the county, by Capt. William S. JACK. It was mustered into the service in October, 1861, as Company H, Seventy-Eighth Pennsylvania Volunteers, which was organized into a brigade with the Seventy-Seventh and Seventy-Ninth regiments under command of Gen. James S. NEGLEY. This command served in the western army as a part of the Fourteenth Army corps.
The last companies organized in Butler county, in 1861, were recruited in October by Capt. Samuel MARTIN and Capt. William FIELDING. The former was recruited in the southern and central, and the latter in the northern part of the company. They were mustered in as Companies E and I of the One Hundred and Third Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers.
In 1862 the reverses met by the Union forces made it necessary for President LINCOLN to issue another call for troops. Notwithstanding the large number that had already gone to the front from among her people, Butler county promptly and patriotically responded to this call. In July and August of that year four companies were raised in the county by Captains C. E. ANDERSON, A. G. RIDDLE, William O. BRECKENRIDGE, and Edwin LYON. These companies became Companies C, F, G, and K, One Hundred and Thirty-Fourth Pennsylvania Volunteers, and were assigned to duty in the Fifth Army corps. About the same time Capt. G. W. HAYS, in the southern part of the county; Capt. Henry PIL-[p. 232] LOW, in the vicinity of Prospect, and Capt. Allen WILSON, in the northern part of the county, each recruited a company. These became Companies D, F. and G, One Hundred and Thirty-seventh Pennsylvania Volunteers. They were assigned to duty in the old First Army corps.
In 1862, also, Company E, One Hundred and Sixty-ninth regiment drafted militia, was raised in Butler county. It was commanded by Capt. John G. BIPPUS.
The ninth company to be raised in this county in 1862 was recruited by Capt. William H. TIBBLES. It was raised in the southeastern part of the county and assigned to duty as Company L, Fourteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry. It became a part of General AVERILL's command.
The raising, within a little more than a year and a half, of sixteen companies of men for service at the front, had taken from Butler County nearly all the younger men capable of bearing arms. She had proved her patriotism by a cheerful response to every call made, and stood ready to make still greater sacrifices, if needed, to save the Union. When LEE invaded Maryland in August and September, 1862, and threatened to make this State the basis of his operations, the necessity for still greater efforts, not only to check his advance, but drive him from the State, arose. A call for emergency men was issued and under it Capt. James Gilmore CAMPBELL raised a company in Butler county, the tenth to be raised during the war. This was Company G, Fourteenth Regiment Pennsylvania Emergency men.
Another company, commanded by Capt. W. R. HUTCHISON, also responded at the same time, thus putting eleven companies to Butler County's credit in 1862. This was Company C, Eighteenth Pennsylvania Militia.
When LEE came north again in 1863, another emergency arose, which was met in Butler county by sending three companies of militia to the front. These were Company F, Fifty-sixth regiment Pennsylvania Militia, commanded by Capt. W. R. HUTCHINSON; Company G and Company I, Fifty-Eighth Pennsylvania Militia, the first commanded by Capt. E. L. GILLESPIE, and the latter by Capt. W. M. CLARK. These companies volunteered for ninety days.
In 1864, Batteries A and B, Sixth Pennsylvania Artillery, commanded by Capt. W. R. HUTCHISON and Capt. G. L. BRAUN, enlisted for one year.
The last company to go from Butler county was raised in the early part of 1865 by Capt. Robert I. BOGGS. It was enlisted for one year and was mustered into the service as Company E, Seventy-Eighth Pennsylvania Volunteers.
In addition to these twenty-five companies recruited and sent into the service from Butler county, a large number of men from the county served in other commands. They were to be found in the ranks of the Fourth, Seventh, Ninth and Sixteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry regiments; the Twenty-third, Sixty-First, Sixty-second, Eighty-Third, One Hundred and First, One Hundred and Fourth, One Hundred and Fifth, One Hundred and Fifty-fifth, One Hundred and Ninetieth, One Hundred and Ninety-First, and Two Hundred and Twelfth Pennsylvania Volunteers, and in the Fifth Pennsylvania Heavy Artillery.
From first to last nearly 500 men from Butler county paid the price of their devotion to the Union with their lives. They died on the field of battle, in the [p. 233] hospital and in the prisons of the South. Many more returned home maimed and crippled by wounds or broken in health by disease. The list of the dead and the surviving is a long and honorable one and bears eloquent witness to the patriotism of the people of Butler county in the Nation's time of need.
This regiment was organized in response to President LINCOLN's call for 75,000 men, issued immediately after the fall of Fort Sumter, and was mustered into the service at Harrisburg, April 25, 1861. It was commanded by Col. Thomas ROWLEY. On the day the regiment was mustered in, Capt. John N. PURVIANCE was promoted to Lieutenant-colonel. The other officers of the regiment were William S. MILLINGER, major; Joseph M. KINKEAD, adjutant; and James ROBINSON, surgeon.
On April 26, the regiment went into camp at York, Pennsylvania, where it remained until June 4, when it moved to Chambersburg. On Sunday, June 16, after passing through Williamsport, Maryland, it crossed the Potomac by fording, being the first regiment of the Northern army to appear in that part of Virginia. Shortly afterwards the portion of the army which had crossed into Virginia was ordered back to the Maryland side, the Thirteenth and the Eighth regiments being detailed to garrison Williamsport. While in camp there, those members of the Thirteenth, who were printers, procured the use of the Williamsport Ledger office and commenced the publication of the Pennsylvania Thirteenth, which, according to BATES' History, "was devoted to the patriotic sentiment of the camp, and to the more elevated tone of wit and humor prevalent in the ranks. The first number was issued July 4, `86`, and was continued, at intervals, until after the battle of Antietam, in September, 1862, a portable printing press and materials having been purchased and moved with the regiment. The establishment was finally lost amid the confusion of that hotly-contested field."
After serving in Maryland and Virginia without engaging in anything more serious than light skirmishing, the regiment was mustered out of the service August 6, 1861. Most of its members soon afterward enlisted in other regiments, but principally in the One Hundred and Second, recruited by its colonel, Thomas ROWLEY.
Company H of the Thirteenth regiment was recruited in Butler, by John N. PURVIANCE, its first captain, and was known as the "Butler Blues." Upon the promotion of Captain PURVIANCE to lieutenant-colonel, Jacob ZIEGLER was elected captain. He resigned May 11, 1861, and the first lieutenant, Alexander GILLESPIE, was elected to fill the vacancy. George W. SMITH, who joined the company at York, Pennsylvania was elected first lieutenant, to succeed Alexander GILLESPIE. SMITH was afterward promoted to adjutant of the Nineteenth regiment in the regular army, and again promoted to captain of Company H, Eighteenth regiment, regular army. H. A. AYRES, the first man to write his name on the company roster, enlisted as a private and was promoted to corporal. He afterwards served as captain of Company H, Seventy-Eighth Pennsylvania Volunteers. The roster is as follows:
Captains: John N. PURVIANCE, Jacob ZIEGLER, and Alexander GILLESPIE.
[p. 234] Lieutenants: Alexander GILLESPIE, George W. SMITH, Edwin LYON and J. G. VANDYKE.
Sergeants: John B. MCQUISTION, Edwin LYON, Oliver C. REDIC, and Samuel A. MUCKEL
Corporals: Thompson CAMPBELL, Jr., Andrew CARNS, Jr., John P. ORR, Joseph B.MECHLING, and H. A. AYERS.
Musicians: Thomas A. CUNNINGHAM and William S. DICKSON
Privates: H. A. AYRES, Jefferson ALLEN, John ALLEN, A. M. BANKS; C. S. BARCLAY, Jacob BAUDER, Robert BEDILLION, A. D. BREWSTER, Peterson BROWN, A. J. BURCH, John CALDWELL, Thomas J. CARNAHAN, Eli G. CRATTY, William CROOKS, William R. CROZIER, George DAUB, John DAVIS, William DUNN, John FITZSIMMONS, H. J. FLEMING, Wallace FRICK, John L. GLENN, Joseph B. GREER, Samuel GRAHAM, John GREGORY, Demosthenes HAGERTY; J. D. HARBISON, William S. JACK, W. J. JAMISON, David R. KENNEDY, William KENNEDY, Daniel H. LYON, D. How LYON, R. W. LYON, James MACKREL, Joames MARSHALL, D. MARSHALL, C. H. MCCLUNG, Jamwa MCCLEARY, Ethan S. MCCMICHAEL, W. W. MCQUISTION, J. P. MILFORD, Thomas J. MILFORD, Isaac N. MILLER, A. W. MOORE, George MOORE, W. J. MOORE, Simeon NIXOn, Christian M. OTTO, David PARKS, R. C. PEARCE, James POTTS, Alfred G. REED, Lawrence RUCH, Adam SCHINDLER, M. J. SCHLEPPY, F. R. SHAKELY, J. H. SHANNON, J. A. SINGER, George H. SMITH, William H. H. STEP, J. C. STEWART, James B. STOREY, Thomas M. C. SYKES, Jonathon TAYLOR, Oliver TEBAY, R. J. THOMPSON, Samuel WALKER, George F. WALLACE, Peter WEISENSTEIN, O. J. WISE, William WHITMIRE, George WOLF, and Andrew S. ZIEGLER.
Armstrong RENNISON served as second Lieutenant and Andrew W. BARNHART as a private in Company C of this regiment.
[*Killed or mortally wounded ‡wounded †died]
This regiment contained two companies from Butler county, both of which were organized under the first call, but were not accepted because the quota of the county was already full. They preserved their organization and in May made a second offer of their services, which was accepted, and they were mustered in as Companies C and D, Eleventh Pennsylvania Reserve. Company C, recruited at West Sunbury, was named the "Dickson Guards," in honer of Rev. W. T. DICKSON, principal of the West Sunbury Academy, who served as chaplain of the regiment from August 28, 1861, to November 28, 1862. Company D was organized as the "Connoquenessing Rangers," by Capt. William Stewart.
On June 10, 1861, these companies left for Camp Wright, near Pittsburg, the mustering camp of the regiment. Regimental, field and staff officers were elected July 1. On July 21 the regiment proceeded to Washington, D. C., and on July 29 was mustered into the service for three years. Its record of active service began in October, when it crossed the Potomac river and took its place at the front. During its three years of service it was present at or participated in the following battles: Mechanicsville, Gaines' Hill, Charles City, Cross Roads, Second Bull Run, South Mountain, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Gettysburg, Falling [p. 235] Waters, Culpepper, Bristoe Station, Rappahannock Station, Mine Run, Wilderness, Spottsylvania, North Anna and Bethesda Church. The regiment was mustered out of the service at Pittsburg June 13, 1864.
During its term of service the Eleventh Pennsylvania Reserve lost in battle 196 officers and privates killed and 485 wounded. There were 113 deaths from disease, twenty-two occurring in southern prisons. In the severity of its losses it ranks second among Pennsylvania regiments.
Of the 108 men whose names appear on the muster roll of Company C, twenty-one were killed, forty-seven were wounded, three died in prison, three died from diseases contracted in prison, and three from diseases contracted in the service. Eighteen were discharged on account of wounds and thirteen on account of disability. The following is a list of the commissioned and non-commissioned officers and the privates of this company during the term of service:
Captains: Samuel LOUDON and W. H. TIMBLIN
Lieutenants: Newton REDIC*, George W. FLEEGER, John C. KUHN*, John H. SUTTON‡
Sergeants: W. J. HALDERMAN‡, G. W. MILFORD, James H. CHRISTIE*, George A. BLACK‡, John T. KELLY‡, George W. EBA‡, Michael HECKERT, and William PRIOR.Corporals: Hiram BLACK*, John W. CAMPBELL‡, Samuel COOK‡, J. H. MUDER‡, Robert S. HARPER‡, John S. CAMPBELL‡, Robert H. RAY‡, and William P. BLACK.
Musicians: Jacob M. VARNUM and Jackson HECKERT.
Privates: David S. ALLEN, H. C. ADAMS, R. M. ANDERSON, David BIRCH, John R. BLACK‡, Samuel M. BELL‡, Henry BRANDAU‡, Samuel R. BEATTY‡, W. A. BRYAN‡, Samuel BRUNER‡, Uriah J. BLACK†, John BEAM‡†, Joseph C. BREWSTER†, John W. BORLAND†, Ira CAMPBELL, Milton CAMPBELL*, Robert G. CAMPBELL†, John CAMERON, H. F. CHRISTY, Jonathon DOBSON*, James Donaldson, H. J. EDGAR‡, John ESHENBAUGH, Eli S. FLEEGER, Jacob FLEEGER, Joseph K. GRAHAM‡, Lewis CROSSMAN*, John HALSTEAD‡, Samuel HART†, John D. W. HENLEN, Eli HILLIARD*, W. H. HILLIARD, Washington HILLIARD, R. S. HINDMAN, Edward HOFFMAN‡, George HYSKELL*, W. KAMERER‡, W. KAUTSCH‡, B. F. KENNEDY, A. C. KEPLER‡, Robert KRAUSE, Thomas P. LARDEN‡, Francis LINDSAY*, Jeremiah LIVERMORE‡, William MARTIN*, P. G. MARTIN, William A. MCBRIDE*, Alexander MCCALL‡, J. V. MCCASLIN, Samuel E. MCCLEARY‡ , Wm. B. MCGILL, Robert MCELHANEY‡, Reuben MCELVAIN‡, James MCKIMMEY‡, Samuel MCMURRY‡, R. MCMURRY, J. P. MILFORD, Isaiah MILLER†, Samuel MILLER, F. H. MONNIE‡, W. E. MOORE‡, Daniel MALARKY, H. B. PATTERSON, James M. PEARCE‡; R. C. PEARCE†, A. J. PETTIGREW*, James R. PORTER*, W. RINKER‡, Cyrus ROSENBERY*, John ROSENBERY*, George ROTHMIRE‡, George M. RHODES, D. H. RUSSELL‡, Oliver H. P. RUSSELL*, William SLOAN‡, Amos SEATON‡, S. P. SHRYOCK‡, Hamilton H. SAY‡, Charles SCHMIDT*, James H. STEVENSON*, James M. SHEPPARD‡, John L. TAYLOR, James THOMPSON*, W. S. THOMPSON, and Allen WHITE*.
[p. 236] There were 123 men enrolled in Company D from its organization in May, 1861, to its discharge June 14, 1864. Of these twenty-three were killed in battle, thirty-seven were wounded, and eleven died of diseases contracted in the service. The roster of the company is as follows:
Captains: William Stewart*, Jacob BAIERS‡, and James P. BOGGS‡,
Lieutenants: J. S. KENNEDY‡, Jesse DONALDSON‡, and J. O'Hara WOODS*.
Sergeants: Wilson K. POTTS, William C. COLEMAN, Robert ASH, John GANSZ, Samuel J. CHRISTLEY*, Jacob B. KINSELL*, George W. MCGAUGHEY*, David C. STEEN, George WEBER, James MCCLELLAND and James W. GREAVES.
Corporals: John DUNBAR*, Silas AMBERSON*, R. S. GILLILAND, David P. STEWART*, David S. PARKS*, Joseph R. MOORE, James B. SHAFER, Danile GRAHAM and Jesse FAY.
Musicians: Charles MINNEMYER and Alfred G. NIXON.
Privates: L. H. ADDLEMAN†, John McC. BROWN, William BOGGS, Barnabas C. BARRON, Robert J. BROWN, George BRUNERMER, John BEERS, Jacob BURR, Samuel BRENNEMAN, Joseph BERCHTOLD, John BEGGS, Samuel BEERS, Peter BEDILLION†, John N. BEATTY†, Charles BELTZ, L. CARTWRIGHT, David CAMPBELL, John COWAN, John CORANS, Daniel CRESS, Adam W. CRITCHLOW†, Thomas J. CORNELIUS*, John CANDERS*, William F. DODDS, Jacob DEER, James G. DEVINNEY, Jasper P. DODDS*, John P. ELLIOTT , T. H. FLEMING, Michael FRAIL*, William M. FRY†, Daniel W. GRAHAM, Wilson GILLILAND, Mark GILLPATRICK, Israel GIBSON, D. W. GRAHAM, James A. GREER, George W. HUSELTON, Samuel F. HASLETT, Peter Hare, Joseph B. HASLETT, Oscar C. HOYT, William HASLETT, James B. JOHNSTON†, Vernon JOHNSTON†, Alexander KENNEDY, W. H. H. KENNEDY, Eckhart KALB, William LIST, Samuel A. LYON*, James LEONARD, Robert A. MCNAIR, Alexander MORELAND, B. L. MUCHRUSH, D. MCDONALD, Sr., D. MCDONALD, Jr., B. W. MCALEER, Robert E. MCBRIDE, James H. MCCOMB, Edward MILLER, Samuel R. MCCURDY, Joseph MCKNIGHT, Charles L. MORELAND, M. F. MCCULLOUGH*, William MOORE*, Joseph A. MCKINNEY*, William R. MCNEAL*, John E. NIXON, William C. OVERDOFF, Samuel C. PARKER, David W. PISOR†, Robert J. PHERSON*, Henderson RODGERS, William RICHARDSON, James ROBERTSON, Thomas G. RICE, S. J. ROSENBERRY†, Lawrence ROACH†, Samuel F. SMITH, William M. SHEARER, Benjamin STEVENSON, Alfred M. SNOW, Andrew SCHANK, John SHANK, Matthias SILVERS, John S. STANLEY, William SINOTT*, j. h. SUMMERVILLE*, Albert TEATS, R. W. THOMPSON, R. G. THOMPSON, Hugh WILLIAMSON‡, William WOODS and George YOUNG.
[*Killed or mortally wounded ‡wounded †died]
The Seventy-eighth was recruited in August and September, 1861, and organized at Camp ORR, near Kittanning, under Col. William SIRWELL, of Armstrong county, the other field officers being Archibald BLAKELY, of Butler county, lieutenant-colonel, and Augustus BONAFFON, of Allegheny county, major. Rev. R. C. CHRISTY was appointed chaplain in October, 1861. On October 18 the regiment was ordered to Pittsburg, where it was brigaded with the Seventy-seventh and Sev- [p. 237] enty ninth regiments and MUCHLER's battery under command of Brigadier-General James S. NEGLEY. This command immediately proceeded by boats to Louisville, and thence by rail to NOLIN's Station, on the Louisville and Nashville railroad, where it was attached to Gen. A. McDowell MCCOOK's division of the Army of the Cumberland. From that time until August 1862, it served in Kentucky and Tennessee, guarding lines of communication with the front. It engaged in a number of skirmishes with cavalry and guerrillas. In August, 1862, the Seventy-eighth was assigned to duty in Gen. John F. MILLER's brigade of NEGLEY's division, and detailed to do garrison duty in the city of Nashville, Tennessee, where it remained until December 12, 1862. In the meantime, however, it was engaged in a number of sharp skirmishes in the vicinity of the city. The most important being at Lavergne, Tennessee, October 7, 1862, when ANDERSON's rebel camp was attacked and routed by Generals PALMER and MILLER. In this engagement the Thirty-second Alabama regiment was taken prisoners. On December 31, 1862, and January 1, 1863, the regiment participated in the battle of Stone River, losing 190 men, killed and wounded, including Capt. William S. JACK, of Company H, who was mortally wounded, and died in Nashville, February 5, 1863. In this battle, the flag of the Twenty-sixth Tennessee became the trophy of the Seventy-eighth. Upon the death of Captain JACK, Hugh A. AYRES, who had been previously promoted from second to first lieutenant of the company, became captain. In April 1863, Colonel SIRWELL was promoted to brigade commander, and Lieutenant-Colonel BLAKELEY took command of the regiment. On September 19 and 20, 1863, the Seventy-Eighth, belonging at the time to General THOMAS' command, distinguished itself by valiant service on the ill-fated field of Chickamauga. On November 23, 24, and 25, 1868, it participated in the battles of Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge. During the following winter it was assigned to garrison duty on Lookout Mountain. In the spring and summer of 1864, during the Atlanta campaign, it participated in the engagements at Tunnel Hill, Buzzard's Roost, Resaca, Dallas, and Kenesaw Mountain. On October 17, 1864, its term of service having expired, it was retired from duty; but on its way home through Tennessee it was mounted, and sent in pursuit of WHEELER's rebel cavalry. Returning to Pittsburg, after an absence of more than three years, it was mustered out November 4, 1864. Many, however, re-enlisted and new companies were recruited, among which was Company E, raised in the southwestern part of Butler county. The Seventy-eithgh was finally mustered out on September 11, 1865, several months after the Rebellion had met its fate at Appomattox.
Rev. Richard C. CHRISTY, the brave and devoted chaplain of this gallant command, was from Butler county, where he was serving as pastor of St. John's Catholic Church, of Clearfield township, when commissioned to take spiritual charge of the Seventy-eighth, in October, 1861. He was untiring and fearless in the performance of his duties. Wherever the battle raged the hottest, there would he be found ministering to the wounded and the dying, speaking words of comfort and consolation, and encouraging all by word and example. Because of his courage and devotion, Father CHRISTY became known throughout the Army of the Cumberland as the "Fighting Chaplain." His portrait occupies a place of honor in the hall of Encampment Number 45, U. V. L., of Butler.
Company H of this regiment was composed of Butler county men, and was recruited by Capt. William S. JACK, who was mortally wounded at the battle of Stone River, January 1, 1868. The roster of the company is as follows:
Captains: William S. JACK* and Hugh A. AYRES
Lieutenants: Joseph B. MECHLING, Samuel J. MCBRIDE, Hugh A. AYRES, and Frederick F. WIEHL.
Sergeants: Samuel J. MCBRIDE, James A. GILMER, Alfred G. REED, Frederick F. WIEHL, R. C. BORLAND, Albert B. HAY, Henry A. MILLER, Charles F. SMITH. Lycurgus R. CUMMINS, and David H. MACKEY.
Corporals: Hugh D. MARTIN, James MCCLEARY, William J. BOYD, William H. BLACK, Josiah HILLIARD, John F. DENNY, D. W. HUMPHREY, William J. JOHNSTON, George SCHAFFNER, William A. LOWRY, Harvey J. MILLER, Benjamin W. TRUXALL, and William J. MOORE*.
Musicians: John F. SHIRLEY and Benjamin F. DEAN.
Privates: Gideon R. ALLEN, Jacob J. ANGLES, William G. ANDERSON, R. C. BORLAND, John C. BLACK, William BIRCH, Joseph BROWN, A. C. BRADEN, John A. BLACK, John BIRCH†, William CHRISTLEY, W. C. CHRISTLEY, James B. CLARK, Thomas CASSIDY, T. A. CUNNINGHAM, John A. COUSINS, Edward S. CROCKER†, John W. DUNLAP, John DERRIMORE†, Joseph P. ESHENBAUGH, Henry FORCHT‡, Edward FRANK, John FITZSIMMONS, John HOOVER, John HOFFMAN, C. HINCHBERGER, John KERR, J. C. KIDD, J. W. LINDSEY, James C. LONG, Horace LAKE, John LENKIRK, Robert LEMMON, John LONG, David E. LOCKE†, Hugh MORGAN, A. N. MURPHY, David MOORE, R. C. MOORE, James MYERS*, Jacob MECHLING†, James McCLEARY‡, David MCQUISTION, Jr., John K. MCQUISTION, George W. MCCANDLESS, Joseph P. MCCOY, David L. MCNEES, G. D. MCBRIDE, David MCQUISTION, Sr.†, William J. NEYMAN, William NEELEY, Elias NELSON, James O. NULPH, A. B. PROSSER, John PARKER, J. F. PATTERSON, S. J. PATTON, Daniel PATTERSON†, George ROSE, John J. RIEBER, A. B. RICHEY, George W. ROTH†, Peter K. RUMBAUGH†, James W. RUNYAN*, Samuel REED†, Robert P. SCOTT, John W. SHULL, W. A. SMITH, James L. STOKELEY, T. M. C. SYKES, W. C. SYKES, Adam SCHINDLER, T. J. STOUGHTON, Karl SCHMIDT, Patrick SHEEHAN, George W. SMITH, John R. SHIRLEY, H. H. SAGASSER, George H. SMITH†, D. J. THOMPSON‡, R. R. THOMPSON, J. S. THORNBURG, John R. THORNBURG, Thomas TRIMBLE†, George W. TRAVIS†, W. P. VOGAN, Milton WELSH, Samuel WALLACE, Sr.†, Samuel WALLACE, Jr., David WALLACE and Hugh B. WALKER.
As a large number of the members of this regiment re-enlisted, its organization was continued, several new companies being recruited and added to it. Among them was Company E, commanded by Capt. Robert I. BOGGS and composed of Butler County men. Its muster roll is as follows:
Captain: Robert I. BOGGS.
Lieutenants: Alexander GILLESPIE and Lewis GANSZ.
Sergeants: Charles HOFFMAN, John KAY, Samuel BEERS, Frederick BURRY, and Christy ROBB
Corporals: James BARTON, Theophilus GRAHAM, Nicholas KRAMER, Samuel A. DAVIS, Henry DAVIS, Frederick PILGRIM, John H. MUDER, William DUNCAN, Thomas R. WILLIAMS and Alexander T. DUNBAR.
Musicians: D. P. BOGGS and Philip KRADEL
Privates: Joseph ARMSTRONG, William M. ARMSTRONG, Jacob S. ALEXANDER, Joseph H. ALEXANDER, Jacob AUGUSTINE, Charles BOHN, Robert BEDILION, Irwin BECKMAN, Frederick BAUMAN, William F. BEHM, Lewis BLACK, Williamson BARTLEY, N. F. BARTLEY, Washington BARTLEY, J. C. CROOKSHANKS, B. F. COVERT, John C. CRITCHLOW, William DRESHER, John DOMBART, Jacob W. DERSHINER, Daniel DUNBAR, Henry DRESHER, Philip DUNCAN, James FOREMAN, George W. FRY, John W. GILLILAND, Patterson GRUBBS, James R. GARVIN, Lewis GOEHRING, Samuel S. GIBSON, William GRAHAM, William J. GOLD, George HAYS, Amos HECKERT, James HAYS, James F. HORN, Erdman HELLER, Adrian C. HAMOR, Martin L. KIRKER, James KUHN, J. KALTENBAUGH, Peter KENNEDY, Reason J. KERR, Lewis LERNER, John LAWALL, John G. LENSHER, Jacob LUTZ, George MARBURGER, Michael MOCHEL, Chris MICHAEL, Edward MICHAEL, Levi J. MILLER, Francis MAXLER, Aug. N. MARTIN, John H. MORGAN, William H. MARTIN, George MCINTYRE, John MCGINLEY, Thomas NEELY, Alfred G. NIXON, John POWELL, Wilson POWELL, David E. PEARCE, Joseph PHILLIPS, James POTTS, Charles RAABE, Alfred J. ROTH, Charles REDICK, Christian RAABE, Charles ROGERS, William S. RAMSEY, Andrew RUBY, Valentine REUGER, John B. RICE, C. SCHROTH, Edward SEFTON, Gottlieb SHUSTER, John W. ST. CLAIR, George W. SHAFFER, Martin SHELLY, Josiah R. SPANG, George SHELL, Francis TOMAY, James E. THOMPSON, Samuel R. THORNBURG, Samuel TRIMBLE, Milton VANDEVOORT, Valentine WHITNER and John ZWANZIGER.
The following members of Company F of this regiment also enlisted from Butler County:
Corporals: Samuel BOVIANT, Daniel HUEY and Adam EKAS‡.
Privates: Michael ASH, John BREDIN, James S. CYPHER, W. H. CYPHER, James W. DENNY, Dennis DUGAN†, Andrew J. DUFF, George W. GIBSON, Reuben A. HASLETT, James HENRY*, John HOGAN*, Hiram MESSICH*, Strother MCDONALD, John N. MCLAUGHLIN‡, James M. RONEY, James REGAN, John RIVERS, William SMITH, Benjamin SARVER, Lewis SARSE*, Conrad SILL*, Coston WALTERS†.
[*Killed or mortally wounded ‡wounded †died]
The One Hundredth Pennsylvania Volunteers was recruited in July and August, 1861, in the southwestern counties of the State. From the fact that it was made up principally of descendants of Scotch-Irish Covenanters and of the Round Heads of the English Revolution, it became known as the "Round Head Regiment." It was sworn into the United States service at Camp Wilkins, Pittsburg, August 31, 1861, and soon after formally organized with the following officers: Daniel LEASURE, colonel; James ARMSTRONG, lieutenant-colonel; David (page 240) A. LECKEY, major; Rev. Albert Audley BROWNE, chaplain; H. H. LESLIE, quartermaster; Horace LUDINGTON, Surgeon; Abraham MAAS, assistant surgeon; and George LEASURE, adjutant. On September 2, 1861, the regiment was ordered to Washington, D. C., where Company L was transferred to the One Hundred and Fifth regiment. The Round Heads were then brigaded with the Eighth Michigan and the Fiftieth Pennsylvania, and Colonel LEASURE made brigade commander. The brigade as thus formed was soon after strengthened by the addition of the Seventy-ninth New York Highlanders, and was ordered into active service as a part of the land and naval forces sent against Port Royal, South Carolina. Its first engagements were the battles of Port Royal, November 7, 1861, and of Port Royal Ferry, January 1, 1862. In June the regiment formed a part of the forces that made the unsuccessful attempt to capture Charleston. The Round Heads were ordered to Virginia in July, 1862, and subsequently was attached to the Ninth corps. While with the Army of the Potomac the regiment participated in the following battles: Second Bull Run, Chantilly, South Mountain, Antietam, and Fredericksburg. In March 1863, the Round Heads were transferred to the Department of the Ohio, and in the following June were ordered to Vicksburg, in the siege and capture of which they participated. While in the western army the regiment also participated in the battles of Jackson, Mississippi; Blue Spring, Campbell Station, and the siege of Knoxville., in Tennessee. January 1, 1864, all of the regiment except twenty-seven men re-enlisted for a second term of three years, and were granted a veteran furlough. Upon return to active service, the Round Heads were again assigned to the Army of the Potomac and participated in the following battles: Wilderness, Spottsylvania Courthouse, North Anna, Cold Harbor, Petersburg, Mine Explosion, Weldon Railroad, Poplar Grove Church, Hatcher's Run, Fort Steadman, and the final assault on Petersburg. The history of the regiment is a record of valiant service and brilliant achievement, officers and men alike distinguishing themselves by great personal bravery. After serving with honor for nearly four years, the regiment was mustered out of service July 24, 1865.
Company C of this regiment was recruited in Butler County by Capt. James E. CORNELIUS. Its roster is as follows:
Captains: James E. CORNELIUS‡, afterwards promoted to colonel, David Critchlow and George W. FISHER.
Lieutenants: Philo S. MORTON, Robert W. WELLER, Matthew STEWART, Isaac W. CORNELIUS†, and William SMILEY.
Sargeants: Joseph A. CRAIG, Henry W. WATSON, Henry RIBB, Hiram GILL, Oliver TEBAY, Hiram N. KELLY, John P. WILSON, Phineas BIRD, Elisha J. BRACKEN*, Samuel L. MOORE*, James MCCASKY*, Hugh MORRISON‡, William F. MONROE, and Addison CLEELAND.
Corporals: William J. REDICK, Robert J. BROWN, John C. MARSHALL, Charles SCHWING, Andrew LEARY, John GLENN, William W. MCQUISTION, Samuel F. MILLER, Samuel A. WHITE, Loyal C. GREAVES, John C. MOORE, Frederick PETTIT*, John J. HOGUE†, Jacob AKE, Findley BRANDON and John S. WATSON*.
Privates: A. W. AIKEN, William P. AUBERRY, James W. AIKEN, James ASHBAUGH, E. E. AIKEN, David S. AIKEN, Thomas ARMSTRONG*, John ALEXANDER*, William A. ANDERSON*, Edward BOYER, John E. BURTNER, Ellis BAKER, F. BAUDER, Thomas BANES, William K. BROWN, James R. BROWN*, William L. BRADEN, John H. BRANDON, John W. COOMBS, Isaiah COLEMAN, Richard CURRAN, John CHRISTMAN, James F. CAMPBELL, Marquis C. CHRISTY, James C. CAMPBELL, Joseph E. CAMPBELL*, Samuel H. CLEELAND*, Henry S. CAMPBELL*, J. H. DEVICTOR, Daniel DAISEY, Delorma DEITRICK, James DALTON*, Robert C. DUNWOODY*, Reuben DOUTT*, George W. DUNCAN*, Henry DILLAMAN, Francis J. DURHAM, John N. ELDER, John R. EVANS, Robert M. ECKLES, George EVANS, Russell EVANS, James M. EAKIN, Jacob FULLER< James FORQUER, Henry C. FREED, Stiles FRENCH, John Fry, Benjamin FRANKLIN, Robert J. GORMAN, James GIBSON, William W. GIBSON, Jacob GRAY, Henry S. GUY‡, Alexander GIBB, John P. HATCH, David HATCH, O. HUDSON, Orange HOLMES, Richard D. HOLMES, Thomas HASTINGS†, Elias R. HELIKER†, James HANAGHAN, James HOGE, James IRVINE, Ewell JAMISON, Thomas
JONES, William JAMES, Silas W. KIRKER, Lorenzo K. KNAPP, Thomas KENNEDY, Francis H. KIRKER‡, Martin KELLY, John W. LINTZ, Hugh LEACH, Willard LOGUE, J. LEARY*, Robert LOGAN†, John T. MURRAY, James T. MURRAY, Benjamin MALABY, Jacob MEANS, Joseph MOORE, John N. MOORE, Warren MASKER, Samuel A. MOORE, George W. MEANOR, Samuel MURRAY‡, Thomas N. MILES, Thomas M. MILLER*, John C. MILLER*, John F. MILES†, Hugh MCCOMBS, John MCELWAIN, T. G. MCCLYMONDS, Henry MCCONNELL, Hiram W. MCCLURE, H. H. MCCUNE*, Robert MCKISSICK*, William MCGOWAN†, John MCKAIN†, John MCGINNIS, John M. OGDEN†, William R. PENCE, Eli B. PHILLIPS‡, John PISOR, Gimsy S. PATTERSON, Smith PATTERSON*, Joseph RUTTER, James RUTTER, Benjamin RHODES, George ROTHMIRE, William RUSSELL, Adam J. RECKARD, Alexander RUTTER, John K. ROWE†, William RUTTER, George RILEY, John C. ROSE, Lafayette SHAFFER, Joseph STEWART, Frederick SUBER, Levi SHIELDS, James SULLIVAN, John SHULZ, S. STRAUB, Daniel SWEITZER, David SPEAR†, Alexander SPEAR*, William SHARP, Hiram STERLING, Calvin STEWART†, John SHAFFER†, John SCHMITT†, Simp STICKLE†, David M. SCOTT†, Archibald G. SLATER*, Solomon W. SMITH†, John SMITH, Henry SILK, C. C. THORNBURG, Robert TRUSDALE, Andrew ULLERY*, John A. VOGAN, Ernest WEYMAN, William WHITE, James W. WHITE, William WINGERT, John W. WILHELM, George WINTERS, James WILSON, Richard R. WHITE, Adam WEBER, Samuel S. WRIGHT, Alfred N. WICK, John WIMER†, Miller WRIGHT‡, Eli H. WILSON*, Hugh WILSON‡, John C. WILLIAMS, A. S. WHITE, W. C. WINNER, Alfred WIXSON and John WEBER.
Wilson E. REED, of Butler, Sergt. George MAXWELL, John W. and Henry RALSTON and Milton CAMPBELL, of Slippery Rock Township, and Thomas CROSS served in Company E, of this regiment, of which David P. BOOK, of Cherry township, was captain, Milton CAMPBELL was killed at the Battle of the Wilderness and George MAXWELL severely wounded at Spottsylvania Court House. James [p. 242] MARTIN served in Company F, and T. J. COOPER was a corporal in Company K. Solomon W. FISHER, who was killed at James Island, South Carolina, George MORROW and William J. MORRISON, a private in Company G, also saw service in this regiment.
[*Killed or mortally wounded ‡wounded †died]
Immediately after the Thirteenth regiment was mustered out, in August, 1861, its old colonel, Thomas A. ROWLEY, began recruiting its members for the three years' service. He wanted the old number "Thirteen" given to the new regiment, but was unable to secure it. In the meantime, all the numbers below 102 were taken, and that became the number of the regiment. Company H of this regiment was recruited in Butler county, by Capt. Thomas MCLAUGHLIN. The first real service of the regiment began with the advance on Richmond in March, 1862. May 2, 1862, in the advance on Fort Magruder, the regiment lost three killed and thirty-eight wounded. It was afterwards engaged at Seven Pines, Fair Oaks, Malvern Hill, Chantilly, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Marye's Heights, Salem Church, Rappahannock Station, Mine Run, Westminster, Funkstown, etc. In the early part of 1864, the regiment veteranized, the members received thirty days' furlough. In May, 1864, the regiment was again in the field. It took part in the battles of the Wilderness, losing heavily. Then followed Petersburg, Opequon, Winchester, Five Forks, Sailors' Creek, and Appomattox, the names of which all belong on the battle flag of the regiment.
The total losses of the regiment during its term of service were ten officers and 171 men killed and a much larger number wounded. Eighty-two died of disease, and 140 were reported captured or missing.
One night in January, 1862, while the regiment was in camp at Tennallytown, District of Columbia, two members of Company D, named GARVIN and YOUNG, became engaged in a quarrel which terminated in GARVIN discharging his musket in YOUNG's face, killing him instantly. The musket ball, after killing YOUNG, sped on its course and buried itself in the heart of Lysander ROBB, a private in Company H, who was doing guard duty a hundred yards distant, thus claiming two lives. GARVIN was tried by court martial and acquitted, his plea as to YOUNG being that he killed him in self-defense, and that the killing of ROBB was accidental.
The roster of Company H, which went into service 113 strong, is as follows:
Captains: Thomas MCLAUGHLIN‡, and Robert W. LYON.
Lieutenants: William CROOKS, Charles S. BARCLAY‡, Armstrong RENISON, Addison J. BRINKER and Isaac C. STEWART.
Sergeants: John KALTENBAUGH, James B. STOREY‡, Eli CONN, Lewis C. WHITE‡, John C. STOREY‡, James B. CARSON‡, Andrew J. EVANS, Sameul E. SULLIVAN‡, Adam SHIRA‡, M. F. DARVAINVILLE, Benjamin L. CHRISTY*, and William KENNEDY.
Corporals: F. M. EASTMAN‡, Alfred G. MEALS, S. V. HUTCHINSON*, J oseph HEYL, Joseph EKIS, Alexander CAMERON, J. A. WILSON, William STOREY‡, Eli [p. 243] BLACK, Samuel CRITCHLOW‡, John EXTER, Jacob EMERY, John F. FITHIAN, Michael FAIR‡, W. FILNY, P. J. GALLAGHER‡, I. N. HAYS, E. L. HOON, Samuel HASLETT, W. J. LACKEY, J. B. MARTIN, J. REDOUT, W. H. COWAN‡, J. D. JAMES‡, a. A. WASSON, James ADAMS*, Harry K. CRITCHLOW*, Henry KORN, Thomas B. STOREY*, and Charles SWEIDERING.
Privates: J. C. ALEXANDER‡, A. H. BARCLAY, Samuel BURNS, John BULFORD, George W. BORLAND, Samuel BLANEY‡, John G. BROWN‡, Adam BARNHART*, D. B. BEDILLION†, Joseph CRISWELL‡, A. CRAMER‡, W. F. CAMPBELL‡, J. O. CRITCHLOW, H. D. CRITCHLOW‡, J. F. CHRISTY, John W. CROSS*, John H. CARSON†, Alexander CRITCHLOW*, Samuel A. CREELY*, John CAMPBELL , G. H. DAUB‡, David B. DOUTHETT‡, Josiah R. DODDS‡, W. L. DAUBENSPECK‡, James DODDS‡, Jacob DAUB‡, Warren DEER, J. D. DAVIS, Carson DUNBAR, Samuel DUNBAR‡, Henry DUNLAP†, William J. DEER*, W. J. DODDS†, S. L. DAUBENSPECK*, John Davis‡, John R. ESHENBAUGH*, John FITHIAN, Jacob FISHER, William FIELDING‡, W. J. FOWZER‡, G. S. GIBSON‡, William GARDNER‡, George R. GREEN, Jacob GLAZE*, John HETZEL, P. HARBAUGH, John C. HAMEL, J. M. HILLIARD‡, Alfred C. HOLMES*, M. P. HAYS‡, I. A. HAWK, James IRWIN, James JOHNSTON*, Isaac KAYLOR*, A. KATZ†, L. Q. KNEISS†, Joseph LAVERY‡, R. LOVE, J. M. LOWE, R. O. LEWIS, G. W. LESTER‡, B. A. LAVERY‡, John MILLER, J. D. MARTIN‡, Walter L. MOSER, Samuel P. MEALS‡, Alexander MAHOOD‡, David MARTIN‡, George MILLER‡, John S. MURTLAND, Alfred MILLER‡, O. H. MATTHEWS‡, J. G. MAHOOD‡, William MARTIN, Samuel MEYERS*, N. H. MATTHEWS*, R. L. MAYES*, J. H. MYERS, Daniel MCMILLEN, Thomas MCMILLEN, T. W. MCKINNEY‡, A. MCCOLLUM, J. M. MCCOLLOUGH‡, J. W. MCNAUGHTON‡, A. MCCUNE, Josiah MCKISSICK‡, John MCGILL*, William J. NOEL‡, William H. NORRIS†, John P. ORR‡, William H. PARKER‡, Robert POTTS, Daniel PETTIT*, A. J. PETTIGREW*, W. H. PARK*, Robert RILEY, H. P. RIGBY, Matthew RIGGLES, John G. RENNO, Joseph G. REDIC*, F. ROBB‡, Lysander ROBB (Accidentally killed), Isaac N. ROSS*, S. R. RENFREW*, John K. REA*, John H. RANDOLPH*, Thomas SCOTT, David SHIRA, W. R. SHRYOCK‡, W. A. SMITH‡, John SUMNEY, John SHEA, Daniel SMITHSON, W. STOOPS‡, Harmon SEATON‡, Robert O. SHIRA‡, Amos STEEL‡, Cornelius SHORTS‡, R . SPENCE, David SMITH*, James H. STOREY*, S. W. SHAKELEY*, Frederick SHAKELEY*, J. W. STEWART†, Jacob SMITH, W. P. THOMPSON, James L. TAYLOR‡, R. E. THORNBURG†, James THOMPSON†, Samuel J. TRIMBLE*, William THORN†, A. C. WALLEY, James S. WALLEY, Adam WILES, Nixon WADE‡, John M. WHITE‡, W. H. H. WASSON‡, Jacob WELLER*, Frederick WILES* and W. J. YOUNG‡.
From August 20, 1861, until June 28, 1865, the date of the mustering out of the company, 200 men served in its ranks. Of these thirty-eight were killed or mortally wounded in battle, seventy-two were wounded, and twelve died of disease.
[*Killed or mortally wounded ‡wounded †died]
This command, which embraced two Butler county companies, was organized at Harrisburg, with T. F. LEHMAN, colonel, and Wilson C. MAXWELL, lieutenant-colonel. In April, 1862, it participated in the siege of Yorktown; lost [p. 244] eighty-four, in killed and wounded, at Fair Oaks, and in the entire Peninsular campaign lost fifty per cent. of its original members. After FOSTER's expedition to North Carolina, the campaign went into camp on the Neuse river, and next accompanied WESSELL's brigade to Plymouth, where the Confederates attacked by land and sea and ultimately forced the Federal troops to surrender. The horrors of Andersonville and Florence followed, and of the 132 men of this command who died in these prisons, many were Butler county soldiers. Three officers and fifty privates of this regiment were killed on the field of battle. The regiment also suffered very heavily in wounded, while one officer and 352 men died of disease or in prison.
Company B, which was recruited in Butler, Armstrong, Clarion, and Venango counties, included in its roster the names of the following Butler county men:
Captain: Daniel L. COE.
Sergeants: Robert M. CRAWFORD and Daniel L. RANKIN.
Corporals: Isaac SHAKELY, Samuel J. GIBSON, James H. CRAWFORD†, and James M. CARSON†.
Privates: Alfred CAMPBELL†, John A. CRAWFORD†, James CUMBERLAND, David DAUBENSPECK, Alexander DUNLAP†, Lorenzo W. FRANTZ*, Gideon W. GIBSON, Peter HILLIARD, Jackson HILLIARD†, John M. HAYS, Alexander C. JACKSON, Newton JOSEPH*, Richard KELLY, Robert MCCLEARY, Conrad PITZINGER, James RANKIN, Benjamin RANKIN, Hamilton ROBB†, David Ross†, Uriah SLOAN, George W. SHAKELY, Henry C. SHAKELY*, Alfred G. SHIRA†, Daniel K. SHAKELY, and Presley SLOAN†.
Company E of this regiment was recruited in Butler County. Its roster is as follows:
Captains: Samuel MARTIN† and Eli G. CRATTY.
Lieutenants: Christian M. OTTO, Robert R. BRYSON, and Peter WEISENSTINE.
Sergeants: W. B. SEDWICK, Charles H. MCCLUNG†, J. N. MCCARRIER, Henry A. WAGNER, W. H. MARTIN, Samuel LOGAN*, J. L. MCCANDLESS†, and F. A. MOODY†.
Corporals: Robert J. THOMPSON, Henry C. CROUP, Louis WOLFORD, Jefferson BURTNER, N. N. STEVENSON, J. H. SCOTT, James M. BYERS†, Samuel ROTH†, and Joseph B. STEWART†.
Musicians: Aaron B. HUGHES and John MEYERS.
Privates: James R. ALLISON, N. K. ALLISON, John ALBERT†, Adam BAUNER, John M. BLACK, Henry J. BURNS, George BARR, James M. BRACKEN, Robert P. BLAEK, Thomas S. BYERS†, Edward BARKMAN, William BEIGHLEY, John BURNS†, M. W. BENKER, Cyrus CROUP, John CUPP, John B. CAMPBELL†, Dickson CHRISTY†, Gabriel DUFFY, Samuel DAVIS, M. M. DAVIS†, William S. DICKSON†, W, W, DAVIS†, W. W. DANIEL, Thomas ESHENBAUGH, Ezekiel EKIS, E. EMMINGER, Wallace FRICK†, P. J. GALLAGHER, B. C. GROSSMAN, John GORDON, Joseph GOLDINGER†, Walter GOLD†, Adam GROSSMAN, J. HOCKENBERRY, Thomas HESS, Richard J. HOUTON, Weston HALL†, George W. HENSHEW†, John HUSELTON†, Andrew JOHNSON, [p. 245] John K. JAMISON†, John KENNEDY, H. C. KENNEDY*, Charles LEPLEY†, William S. MECHLING, Joseph MANGEL, Andrew MORRISON, William MILLER, P. O. MORROW, Isaac A. MARTIN†, James Martin†, Thomas MAYER†, George W. MUSHRUSH†, Milton Myers†, Solomon MOSER†, Samuel F. MCBRIDE, Hugh MCELROY, S. B. MCCANDLESS†, Patrick NORRIS, Harrison PUGH, Charles PROSSER, Bredin PORTER, J. H. PERKINS†, James B. RUTTER, James E. RALSTON†, David S.. RAMSEY, W. E. STEVENSON, J. D. STEVENSON, John B. SHIRLEY, Jacob SIPE, John SHANNON†, James SANDERSON†, Jonathan TAYLOR, George TROUTMAN, Samuel THOMPSON, John D. TAGGART, David TAYLOR, John VARLEY†, John M. WEBB, Henry A. WISE, Oliver J. WISE, Valentine WHITENER, Henry WEBER†, Thomas WALLACE†, Seth WALLACE†, Richard C. WICK†, John WILSON†, and Andrew ZIEGLER.
Company I, also recruited in Butler County, is as follows:
Captains: Wilson C. MAXWELL and William FIELDING.
Lieutenants: W. C. MCCRUM, W. H. KIESTER, and G. K. M. CRAWFORD.
Sergeants: Jackson MCCOY, Michael DUFFY, William MCBRIDE, John S. HODIL, John C. APPLEGATE, James MCKAIN, William GORMAN, and J. S. KIESTER†.
Corporals: John KELLY, A. J. MCCOY, David MCCOY, Alpheus WALKER, John MCANALLEN, D. S. RAMSEY, James RANGE†, Herman DONALDSON†, James HARPER†, A. G. C. JOHNSTON†, J. B. PORTER†,
Musicians: J. N. ELLIOTT, Daniel ALBRIGHT, Oliver P. HARRIS.
Privates: Patton BELL, Joseph BLAKELEY, Samuel BERRINGER†, Arthur CRAWFORD, James COLLINGWOOD*, Charles COCHRAN†, William H. CROUP†, James COWAN, Nathan E. DAVIS, William P. DUNLAP, Major J. DAVIDSON, Thomas J. DAY†, Simon DUFFY†, Samuel H. DUNLAP†, David EAKIN, S. E. FLEMMING, John FIELDING, Samuel GIBSON, William H. GILMORE, Joseph S. GRIFFIN, George W. GRIFFIN*, John GRIFFIN†, John GHOST†, D. M. GALLAGHER†, Alexander HILLIARD, O. P. HARDY, Philip B. HOVIS, Thomas C. HACKETT, William HAMILTON, Christopher HENDERSON†, James HAMILTON†, Henry HOBAUGH†, John S. JOSEPH†, William JOSEPH†, Uriah KIESTER, Samuel KELLY, E. KIESTER†, James S. LYTLE, A. G. MAYBERRY, William MAJOR†, Fowler MILLER*, Thomas L. MORRIS†, James M. MAXWELL†, John W. MILLER, R. M. MCELPHATRICK, Thomas MCCOY, John MCGUIRK, D. MCELPHATRICK, Joseph P. MCANALLAN, Samuel MCNEES, Helm J. MCGILL†, James MCSORLY, C. MCCOY*, E. H. MCDONALD*, Patrick MCANALLEN†, Matthew MCNEES†, J. K. MCCLEARY*, J. P. MCLAUGHLIN†, James MCGEE†, Patrick NOLAN*, Francis NATT†, Thomas O'CONNOR*, James W. ORR, William POWERS*, Samuel P. RANGE*, William REED, William STAFF, Martin STAFF, James SHINOR, David STINETORF, Milo SANKEY*, Samuel SYLVIES†, Robert M. SEATON†, John A. THOMPSON, John N. THOMPSON, John D. TAGGART, Paul L. TAYLOR, Richard WEST, Samuel A. WALKER, Richard WALTERS, Hugh A. WEAKLEY †, and Alpheus WALKER.
Joseph B. STEWART, a Butler County man, served as corporal in Company A, of this regiment.
[*Killed or mortally wounded ‡wounded †died]
This regiment was organized at Camp Curtin, under a call issued in July, 1862, by Governor CURTIN, for men for nine months' service, and was mustered in in August following. The officers were: Matthew S. QUAY, of Beaver county, colonel; Edward O'BRIEN, of Lawrence county, lieutenant colonel; and John M. THOMPSON, of Butler county, major. Colonel QUAY resigned early in December, and on the 8th of that month Lieutenant-Colonel O'BRIEN was promoted colonel. Major John M. THOMPSON succeeded O'BRIEN as lieutenant-colonel, October 1, 1862, and Capt. William H. SHAW was promoted major. Alfred G. REED was promoted from first lieutenant of Company C to adjutant, and February 17, 1863, Cyrus E. ANDERSON was promoted from captain of Company C to major. Alfred G. REED, was wounded at the battle of Fredericksburg, December 13, 1862, and died fourteen days later. Alfred G. REED Post G. A. R., of Butler, was named in his honor. On January 1, 1863, George PURVIANCE, sergeant-major, was promoted adjutant to fill the vacancy thus created. Fredericksburg was the first battle in which the regiment participated, its loss being fourteen killed, 106 wounded, and nineteen missing; many of the latter being wounded. It also participated in the battle of Chancellorsville, losing forty-eight in killed, wounded, and missing. Among the killed was Capt. John BRANT, of Company B. The regiment was mustered out at Harrisburg, May 26, 1863. Its loss during its term of service was thirty-eight officers and privates killed, and sixty-seven who died from disease. Companies C, F, G, and K of this regiment were recruited in Butler county. Following is the roster of Company C:
Captains: Cyrus E. ANDERSON and John F. WHITE ‡.
Lieutenants: Alfred G. REED*, and Peter P. BROWN ‡.
Sergeants: George B. BASTIAN, Benjamin F. SWAIN, George L. ABDILL‡, William C. BROWN, William F. CAMPBELL‡, John T. DALZELL, W. C. ROBB, and Isaac H. UMPSTEAD‡.
Corporals: Enos MCDONALD, Albert ROESSING‡, James CYPHER‡, John J. SNODGRASS‡, Samuel SYKES, B. BRELL, Simon YOUNG, James R. MCCLEARY, Adam JOHNSTON, and Henderson SHANNON†.
Musicians: Nathan BROWN and Samuel G. HUGHES.
Privates: Lewis ALLWINE, Sylvester ALLWINE, L. M. ARMOR, James M. BORTMASS*, John C. BORTMASS, Lewis BLAKELEY, William BROWN, Joseph BEAN, Jr., Alfred BYERS†, Robert R. CREEK, Nelson CRITCHLOW, Andrew Graham CAMPBELL, Allen CAMPBELL, Charles M. CAMPBELL, Newton CHRISTY, John CRAIG, Eli CAMPBELL, James CLARK, S. R. DIEFFENBACHER, William W. DUNBAR, Alexander DUNBAR, John DERRIMORE, Jacob DAUB, I. N. DUNCAN, John DUNCAN, Beriah DUNCAN, Henderson H. DICK, David S. DUFFY, W. T. EDWARDS, Andrew N. ELKIN†, W.F. ELKIN, Solomon F. FORGEUS, William GARVIN, Joseph GRINNUE, Milton GARVIN†, Sutton HARPER, John HANEY‡, Robert M. HILL, C. C. HENGERER, Addis E. HAYS, Edward IRVIN, John JAMISON†, William H. JOHNSON†, Rudolph KENNEDY, William LEONBERGER†, H. H. MILLER, Hugh MILLER, Leland MILLER, Joseph MANNY, John N. MOYER, Albert H. METZ, John T. MCCANDLESS‡, Thomas [p. 247] H. MCILWAIN‡, James MCCRUM†, Thomas L. PATTERSON, William REESE, Sr., Charles D. RHODES, Ed. V. RANDOLPH, Adam REEB†, George H. SMITH, Platt R. SUTTON, John SHUGART, William C. SMITH, G.D. SWAIN, Jacob STOUT, Henry STOUT‡, Conrad SCHINDLER, Henry SMITH, Felix B. TRUXALL, John TURNER, I. E.W. THOMPSON, James W. WATSON, James D. WISE‡, Peter WILLWALL‡, Lewis WISENER, John J. WEST, John YOUNG* and Amos YOUNG.
Company F was recruited in Butler county and mustered into the service August 13, 1862. Its roster is as follows:
Captains: W. O. BRECKENRIDGE‡ and Winfield M. CLARKE.
Lieutenants: John J. KELLY, Samuel HILLIARD, and James TIMBLIN.
Sergeants: James M. BOOK*, Francis M. WIMER, Zarah C. QUILLEN*, Levi STEWART, and James MCKNIGHT.
Corporals: Henry A. BLACK‡, John WADE, Thomas ARMSTRONG, James CLARKE, Peter P. HILLIARD‡, Joseph B. GREER, A. E. CARNAHAN, Stephen HILLIARD and George C. STINETORF*.
Musicians: James M. BRANT and W. P. SHULL.
Privates: John H. ADAMS, Jefferson ALLEN, John W. ALEXANDER†, John G. BOOK ‡, Joshua D. BELL, William H. BROWN, Joseph BULLMAN, Charles M. BROWN, Matthew BROWN, Henderson J. BROWN, James BOYD, Ephraim BLACK, Andrew R. BROWN†, W. E. BOYD†, John B. BARNES†, Joseph A. BELL*, Moore CARUTHERS, Josiah CHRISTY, Thomas M. CHRISTIE, Andrew C. CHRISTIE, Harvey CHRISTIE, O. C. CAMPBELL‡, George CURRY, Garvin M. CHRISTIE†, Garrett CAMPBELL*, John C. CORNELIUS†, Joseph J. CUMMINS, James W. DOUGLASS, Joshua DUNLAP, John DUFFY, D. P. FITHIAN, John F. FITHIAN, Michael FRANTZ, John FRAZIER†, J. G. GROSSMAN, George H. GIBSON, Oliver HILLIARD ‡, Amos HALL, Adam HILLIARD‡, Eli M. HILLIARD, David HOOVER, Israel HILLIARD, Isaiah HOCKENBERRY*, Jonathan HOCKENBERRY†, J. T. JAMISON, Jonathan H. KELLY, Thomas C. KELLY, Jonathan LONG, John A. LEWIS, Levi MILHISON, W. MORROW, James M. MAXWELL, George E. MILLER, Lewis B. MCCOY‡, William MCCONNELL, James A. MCNEES, John MCQUISTION, J. W. MCCLYMONDS‡, James B. MCQUISTION, Isaiah PATTERSON†, H. C. RIDDLE, William S. REICHERT‡, Ebenezer RUSSELL, John M. STUDEBAKER‡, Joseph SHULL, Henry SHULL‡, Charles C. STEWART, Zalotus J. STEWART‡, Joseph M. SEATON, John W. STRAIN†, Thomas STEWART†, William J. THOMPSON, George W. D. VOGAN, John C. WASSON, Robert WALLACE‡, Milton WOLFORD, James M. WICK, Lewis WICK, and Daniel WASSON†.
Company G, another company recruited in Butler county, is as follows:
Captains: Alfred G. RIDDLE and James M. CLARK.
Lieutenants: Sterns E. TYLER and James P. HALL.
Sergeants: James H. SHANNON, John B. ADLINGTON‡, W. B. DAUBENSPECK, James G. CAMPBELL‡, David C. ROTH, and Aaron F. MCGOWAN†.
Corporals: Isaac HEMPHILL, James FORRESTER, Dunwiddie MARSHALL‡, William BURRY, James H. GIBSON, C. DAUBENSPECK, and Davis PORTER.
Musicians: Benjamin F. WIMER and John C. WIMER.
Company K was also recruited in Butler County. Its roster is as follows:
Captains: Edwin LYON ‡ and William O. CAMPBELL.
Lieutenants: J. A. MILLINGER‡, Daniel MCMILLAN and William B. LYON.
Sergeants: John THORNBURG‡, George M. BREDIN†, Abraham F. ELDER, William GILLESPIE, William CAMPBELL and George PURVIANCE.
Corporals: Thomas H. HAYS‡, F. W. WALKER, Alexander RUSSELL, Joseph B. MCMILLAN, George M. BURNS, Augustus MARDORF, George BAUER, William KIRKPATRICK, Arthur HAYS and Z. W. WILSON†.
Musicians: Lewis WINNEAL and Rudolph BARNHART.
Privates: Robert BEDILLION, Jacob BARNHART, John BICKEL‡, Alexander BAXTER, Abraham BLACK, Alva BIGLEY, Lewis H. BARNHART, William B. BRINKER, Michael CANNON, Joseph CROFTS, John CROFTS, Nicholas CRAMER, Thomas COMPTON, Hugh DEER, Warren DEER, Simon P. DEVAT, John DONALDSON, William ESHENBAUGH, John EXTEL, Jacob ETZEL, John ENGLEHART, Samuel FLEMING, Joseph FRIEND, John GUYER, Thompson HARBISON, William J. HUTCHISON‡, Jacob HILFINGER, Frederick HARLEY, John D. HARBISON, John JOHNSTON, Samuel JACKSON, John KERR, D. Harper LYON, William LOGAN, Denny LOGAN, Henry S. LAGASSER, James S. MARSHALL, Aaron H. MOORE, Lewis W. MILLER, George MILLER, John MYERS, Frederick MATHAY, J. Conrod [sic] MILLER, Thomas C. MCALLISTER, W. M. MCMILLAN, William B. MCBRIDE†, David NEWELL, Jonathan NELSON, William PARKER, David POWELL, Calvin POTTS‡, James POTTS, Jacob RIFLEY, Frederick RIFLEY, John W. SHRYOCK, William J. SPENCE, Wittus SHUGART, H. E. C. SPENCER, George SLEPPY, Samuel STEWART, David A. SEMPLE, Curtis S. SMITH†, John THOMPSON, W. J. TIMBLIN, Jesse S. THORNBURG, Henry WAGONER, Adam WALLSMITH, C. T. WOLF, William WILLER, James W. YOUNG, Jacob YOUKERS, and Jacob ZIMMERMAN.
John BOOZEL, William CURRY, Robert RICHEAL and William J. STONER‡, of Company B. H. W. KOONCE, of Company H, and J. N. FORRESTER were Butler County men and served in this regiment.
[*Killed or mortally wounded ‡wounded †died]
This regiment, in which there were three companies from Butler county, was organized at Camp Curtin, August 22, 1862, with the following field officers: Henry M. BOSSERT, of Clinton county, colonel; Joseph B. KIDDER, of Allegheny county, lieutenant-colonel; and Charles W. WINGERT, of Clinton county, major. It entered active service September 12 as a member of Smith's division of Hancock's brigade, and soon after was engaged at Crampton's Gap in the South Mountains. At Antietam it was present, but not engaged. After the battle it assisted in burying the dead. Later it was sent in pursuit of J. E. B. STUART, the rebel cavalry general, who made a raid into Pennsylvania. It took part in Burnside's second campaign, and at its close went into camp at Belle Plain. April 23, 1863, it crossed the Rappahannock, at Franklin's crossing under a heavy artillery fire. It was present at Chancellorsville, where it was assigned to the extreme right of the line. Before it was ordered into position, however, the battle was practically over. On May 25, 1863, its term of enlistment having expired, it was ordered to Harrisburg, where it was mustered out on June 1. During its term of service one officer and fifty-eight men died of disease. Companies D, F, and G of this regiment were from Butler county. The roster of Company D is as follows:
Captain: George W. HAYS.
Lieutenants: William HARVEY, John B. MCNAIR and Matthew N. GREER.
Sergeants: William H. RASELY, John P. BARKER, John M. GREER, William PARK, Robert ELLIOTT, William S. THOMPSON and Andrew W. HAYS†.
Corporals: Hugh GILLILAND, Joseph D. LOGAN, William BICKET, Samuel A. PURVIS, Joseph I. WILSON, Harrison MCCANDLESS, James HARVEY, Robert J. MILLER, John B. HUMMEL†, and G. W. CLENDENNIN.†
Privates: John ALLEN, James ALLEN, Newman BARR, Hiram A. BRICKER, Jacob C. BRANDON, Benjamin S. BIRCH, Nelson A. BORLAND, Lewis BEPLER, James T. BORLAND†, John BIDDLE†, Joseph CASHDOLLAR, Criner CLENDENNIN, Samuel H. COOPER, R. S. COOPER, Joseph B. CONEBY, James CASHDOLLAR, J. B. CUNNINGHAM, Jacob E. COOPER†, James A. DODDS, William A. DRAIN, William P. DODDS, Daniel DUNBAR, Henry DAVIS, Ananias DUNBAR, Benjamin DAVIDSON, Chronce DUFFORD†, William DAVISON†, R. H. ELLIOTT , George FISHER, William FREEMAN, Samuel P. FORSYTH, Robert L. GALBREATH, John GRINDER, Theophilus GRAHAM, Henry GRIMM, Stephen B. HEMPHILL, Joseph HEMPHILL, Pollard HEMPHILL, Peter HARTWICK, William HASLETT, William JOHNSON, Robert KIDD, Alvin B. KATZ, Michael KELLY, John KIRKPATRICK†, James LIST, John S. LOVE, James T. LAMBIE, Samuel L. MYERS, William B. MATTHEWS, John B. MARSHALL, John MITCHELL, Patrick MCCHONEY, James MCMURDY, R. J. MCCANDLESS, George NICHOLAS, David P. PURVIS, Henry PITSINGER, William PARKER†, Thomas PETERS†, Lemuel RIGDON [p. 250] Peter REDFOX, Albert H. REA, John RIDDLE†, Charles SEITZ, John STAPLES, Cornelius SHORTS, Jonathan SHANNON, John S. SNOW†, James T. WHEELER, Charles WHITEHOUSE, Jacob WADE, Thomas M. WALKER and George YEAGER.
Company F of this regiment was recruited in Butler county by Capt. Henry PILLOW. It contained the following officers and members:
Captain: Henry PILLOW
Lieutenants: Origen G. BINGHAM†, Cyrus O. KINGSBURY and John LEMMON.
Sergeants: Thomas KERR, William SHULER, Greer MCCANDLESS, George T. ATKINSON and Robert MOORE.
Corporals: John A. BOLANDER, David DODDS, Curtis I. CHRISTLEY, Fred SCHEFENOCKER, Henry ZIEGLER, Daniel KEEFER, William STEWART, Robert M. YOUNG and D.W. HARBAUGH.
Musicians: Peter F. SOWASH and John WARMCASTLE.
Privates: Robert M. ANDERSON, Isaiah AIKEN, James T. ARMSTRONG†, James F. BROWN, George BOVARD, J.C. BOVARD, James BILLINGSLEY, John BOYLE, Joseph BILLINGSLEY, George BEIGHLEY, William T. BEALL, Richard BRADEN, Aaron BEIGHLEY, William COLESTON, William H. CURRAN, Samuel COULTER, Sylvester E. COVERT, John W. COVERT, John CARNAHAN, William CARNAHAN, Washington CAMPBELL, John W. DICKEY, James E. DODDS, William H. DUNN, John DILLIMAN, Joseph DOUBLE, James M. DUNCAN, Ephraim ERB, Isaiah ENGLISH, William M. ELLIOTT, Harison GARVEY, Samuel GRAHAM, Robert L. GALLAGHER†, J.Q. HECKERT, Harvey HOGG, Peter HILGZER, John IRVIN, Matthias JOHNSON†, Alexander KERR, Lewis KEEFER, Jacob LUTZ, Henry LEPLEY, William MORROW, Hiram MORRISON, Newton MORTLAND, Henry MECHLING, Uriah MCGINNIS, William MCINTIRE, Samuel MCINTIRE, James P. MCQUISTION, Robert MCKISSICK, David MCKEE, John G. MCCLYMONDS, Samuel C. MCDEVITT, Thomas MCCORMICK†, Peter NEELEY, James L. PISOR, John D. ROTH, John RAY, David E. RICHEL†, Romoneus SHAFER, William F. SHOENE, Charles G. TAGGART, John THOMAS, Elam THOMAS, Thomas R.M. TAYLOR, D.W. VANDYKE†, William WEISE, Newton WHITE, Andrew WEISE, Clark WATSON, Thomas WIER, Archibald WIMER, John A. WIMER, George W. WELLER, J. Milton WHITE and Francis WRIGHT†.
Company G, commanded by Capt. Allen Wilson, was also a Butler county company. George H. Graham of this company was promoted to quartermaster August 28,1862. The roster of the company is as follows:
Captain: Allen WILSON.
Lieutenants: Robert STOREY and David CONN.
Sergeants: John WALKER, Addison J. BRINKER, Benjamin W. BREDIN, Thomas K. SCOTT, Newton KENNEDY, and Samuel PRIOR.
Corporals: McAllister KUHN, Samuel GLENN, Thomas R. HOON, Thomas J. MILFORD, Gilmore C. MAXWELL, Hugh C. GRAHAM, Thomas H. BANKS, and Alonzo TIMBLIN.
Privates: Thomas C. ALLISON†, Samuel H. BROWN, Matthew BROWN, John L. BEATTY, John BARR, Jacob W. BARR†, Harvey CAMPBELL, Joseph CAMPBELL, James F. CAMPBELL, Asaph N. CRANMER, James L. CONN, John F. CAMPBELL†, (Page 251) William J. DEER, John B. DONALDSON, Jacob DAUBENSPECK, Joseph DAVIS, Charles ELLENBERGER, Robert H. FLEEGER, Hugh W. FLEMING, Henry M. FLEEGER, John GOODYEAR, George GREENWOOD, Henry GREENWOOD, George K. GRAHAM, David H. GRAHAM†, George H. GRAHAM, Benjamin HAINES, Henry JAMES, John KINSER, Joseph KISKADDON, Charles M. KING, Freeman KIRK, Robert A. KINSER, John LOWRY, John MANGEL, Japhia MCMICHAEL, Ethan S. MCMICHAEL, Perry MCELVAIN, Robert MCCALL, Neal MCDEVITT, John H. NIBLOCK, James A. PATTERSON, John PRICE, Henry PARKER, John PORTMAN, James RUMBAUGH, William ROSINGSTELL, Shadrach R. SIMCOX, Fulton M. SCHRODER, Thomas A. SHYROCK, John W. STOREY, John A. TURK, Josiah THOMPSON, Michael THOMPSON, Peter THORN, Stephen TROUTMAN, Amos TIMBLIN, William P. TURNER, William WILSON, James WILSON, Thomas B. WALLEY, George WASHINGTON†, Jeremiah N. WICK, John T. WICK, William WEIGLE and Elisha F. WICK.
W. H. MCCANDLESS served in Company B of this regiment.
[*Killed or mortally wounded ‡wounded †died]
The Fourteenth Cavalry was recruited in August and September, 1862, and organized as a three years' regiment, November 24, with James M. SCHOONMAKER, colonel; William BLAKELY, lieutenant-colonel; Thomas GIBSON, Shadrach FOLEY, and John M. DAILY, majors. At the close of December the command camped on the Charleston Pike, as the advance post of General Kelly's division, in the Shenandoah Valley. From that period to June 11, 1865, when it was ordered to proceed to Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, the regiment rendered most valuable services in Virginia. After reporting at Fort Leavenworth, it was consolidated into a six-company battalion, and five companies were mustered out August 24, and Company A on November 2, 1865. Its losses during its term of service were two officers and ninety-seven men killed, and over 200 wounded; 296 died of disease.
The regiment consisted of twelve full companies, Company L being recruited in Butler county. It was the largest company that went from the county. Its roster is as follows:
Captains: William H. TIBBLES, R. M. KISKADDON, and Samuel D. HAZLETT.
Lieutenants: David C. BEALE and Robert WILSON.
Sergeants: Robert W. HUNTER, James M. RHONEY, Robert L. GALBREATH, William H. BOYD, John W. BARCLAY, Alexander ENGLISH, William BLAIN, Matthew N. GREER, Jacob BUSH, William G. RHONEY, Charles BOVARD, and David RHONEY.
Corporals: Barton S. ROBINSON, John W. SHRYOCK, William F. EDWARDS, Peter P. BROWN, Thomas H. BANKS, Lewis HAZLETT, Johnston MATTHEWS, Levi CAMPBELL, William V. SEAMAN, Amos PFABE, William B. MATTHEWS, J. Milton HILL, Henry FRANZ, James W. GEARY, William C. YOUNKINS, Valentine BUCHER, and Charles VANTINE.
Bugler: Isaac H. HALL.
Blacksmith: Robert PORTER.
Farriers: John M. BROWN, Isaac DICKEY, and Jacob B. KERR.
Saddlers: Jonathan GRINDER and John BULLMAN.
Privates: William Aker‡, Minor F. ADAMS, William BONNER, John A. BROWN, Isaac BOUCH, Thomas S. BEATTY, Harvey C. BOYD, Eli BLACK, Corby BARRACKMAN, Jeremiah BURFORD‡, Abram C. BOYD, Robert BONNER, John F. BARNETT, Hezekiah BARNETT, Andrew BULLMAN, Henry BULLMAN, Joseph BICKWELL, Titus BAAR‡, John BEAMER, John M. BROWN, Samuel W. BURFORD, Abner BRENNEMAN‡, James C. BARNETT, James C. CRAIG, Daniel CRISE, Edward CAMP, Samuel M. CLARK, T. F. CRAIG, Charles R. CASTLE, James W. CAMPBELL, Joel COLLIER, Conrad CEINER, John CLOUGH, Andrew COLL, John A. DEHAVEN, John M. DEETS, John DEETS, Henry DEAN, Jonathan DUNLAP, John H. DUFFY‡, Michael DUFFY, John DAVIS, John DEER, George W. DAVIS, Abraham EMORY, Edwin EDWARDS, Jasper C. FOX, Jesse FISHER, Benjamin FOGG, Joseph FAIR‡, Jacob FOX‡, John G. FREELING, John FRITZELBACH, John F. FRANZ, John W. GILLEN, Henry C. GRUNER, John GARRET, John GARVER, Silas GIBSON, William GIBSON, Michael HAWTON, James M. HARRISON, David HEISNER, John HARTUNG, William C. HAINES, Joseph H. HILL, John HELPER, James HENRY, James B. HILL, George W. HOOVER, Henry IRWIN, David JACKSON, James L. JACKSON, James S. JACK, Thomas JOHNSTON, Daniel D. KEPPLE, Josiah KISKADDON‡, M. A.. KINSON †, John KENNEDY, Michael KELLY, H. KILGORE, Andrew S. LOWMAN, Joseph W. LINTON, William LAGS, James LOCKWOOD, John LEWIS †, David LANDIS, John W. MILLER, Elijah MYERS, Samuel MOCK, John MINTEER, A. J. MULARKEY, James W. MALONE, Joseph MILLIGAN †, John L. MILLER, John A. MATTHEWS, James W. MONROE, Edward MILLIGAN, Samuel MURPHY, Adolphus MEEKER, George S. MATTHEWS, John J. MCGARVEY, George W. MCLAIN, W. S. MCGARRY, Robert D. MCGARRY †, Henry MCMANNEY, Michael MCFADDEN, Patrick MCBRIDE, Isaac H. NEFF, Oliver PARKER, Thomas H. PARK, Albert H. REA, Adam REGHT, George W. REEP, David RUMBAUGH, Isaac RUDOLPH, George RHODES, John M. REDD, Francis A. ROGAN, Charles L. REYNOLDS, James H. REYBORN, William L. SEATON, Nelson SMITH, D. M. SWISHER, Henry SKYLES, Elmer SNYDER, H. SCHWEIDERING, Adam SNYDER, Henry SHERAR, William STURGEON, George SLOAN, John H. SMITH, William STEPP, Hiram SHAFFER, Samuel SOUTHWORTH, H. Steele SMITH, William C. SCHOLTS, John D. SOURWINE, William SMITH, Samuel C. SNOW †, Israel SHAFFER, George STUMPF, Thomas W. SEAMAN, Jacob H. STACK, John SAVILLE, Philip TROUTMAN, William TODD, W. H. VANDYKE, Nathan L. VANDYKE, David L. WILSON, David A. WEAVER †, Amos WOODMAN, Martin WALTERS and John YALE.
Peter WHITMIRE, of Company B; Adam KAMERER, of Company C; John F. YOCKEY of Company, K; and Joseph CAMPBELL, John D. KAMERER and Andrew H. ESHENBAUGH, were Butler county men.
[*Killed or mortally wounded ‡wounded †died]
The organization of this regiment was completed November 28, 1862, with the following field officers: Lewis W. SMITH, of Allegheny county, colonel; Emanuel M. WICKENSHAW, of Allegheny county; lieutenant-colonel, and William [p. 253] SMYTH, of Butler county, major. It was called out for nine months' service, and was mustered out July 27, 1863. The roster of Company E, which was organized in Butler county, is as follows:
Captain: John G. BIPPUS.
Lieutenants: Frederick BURRY and James M. WHITE.
Sergeants: Henry DRESHER, Hezekiah COVERT, William MARTIN, Michael MCGINLEY, and Frederick SHAKELY.
Corporals: Samuel J. PATTON, David L. KIRKPATRICK, Philip GRUVER, James P. SLOAN, Michael GRAHAM, Michael J. KELLY, Edward W. LITTLE, John SMITH and Henry MAY.
Musicians: William GILLILAND and Ezra LIKENS.
Privates: Henry ALSTADT, Irvin BECKMAN, Peter BARNHART, Henry BELTZ, Hiram BECKER, John BYERS, Barry BARRON, George BISHOP, Peter BREEL, Herman W. BAUMAN, John BARNHART, Jacob BREMER, Clarence BAILEY, William BIGGER, M. J. COVERT, George COLEMAN, Peter CARNER, George CASSINER, John COCHRAN, George CARNER, Michael DEITER, James DOUGHERTY, John EICHENAUER, Alexander ENGLISH, Nicholas EICHERT, Frederick ELWARNER, Adam FRISHCORN, Gottleib FLEMING, John GRAHAM, William GIESLER, John W. GEORGE, Henry H. HALSTEAD, Jacob HUBING, Isaac C. HILL, William A. HULSINGER, Joseph HARTMAN, James HEMPHILL, Jehu[sic] HARRIS, John HEVERLING, John W. HAIT, Richard JAMES, William KISLER, James KIRKLAND, William KENNEDY, Henry LENSNER, Henry LEISEY, Henry LAMBERT, John R. LLOYD, Henry MICKLEY, William MASS, Christian MATTIER, Edward MILLER, Frederick MOYER, James A. MILLINGER, John MAGERSTADT, Peter MILLER, James MACKEREL, James E. MILLER, John MCKEEVER †, Thomas MCMARLIN, Michael MCGARVEY, John MCDEVITT, Thomas MCMILLIAN, Thomas NEELY, Connell O'DONNELL, James PEOPLES, Job RUBE, Christ RASSMAN, Samuel C. REDICK †, John REETH, Augustus ROENICK, William RAPE, Thomas SLOAN, James SPENCE, Barry SPENCER, Abraham SLATOR, Henry SWITZER, William TINTSMAN, Abraham WOLF, Matthew F. WHITE, George WILSON, Frederick WEIGLE, John WEIGLE, Frederick L. WARNER, John B. YOUNG, and Fred ZEIG.
James B. MCCAMANT served as a private in Company A of this regiment.
[*Killed or mortally wounded ‡wounded †died]
This regiment was organized in August and September 1864, its rendezvous being Camp Reynolds, near Pittsburg. The organization was completed September 15 by the selection of the following field officers: Charles BARNES, colonel; Joseph B. COPELAND, lieutenant-colonel; Robert H. LONG, Joseph R. KEMP and Frank H. WHITE, majors. On September 17 the regiment left Pittsburg for Washington, D. C., where it was assigned to the Second brigade of De Russey's division. September 29 it was detailed to guard the Orange and Alexandria railroad, over which supplies were transported for Sheridan's army. In November it was ordered back to Washington. Up to this time it had served as infantry, but was there instructed in heavy artillery drill, and was afterwards detailed for duty as an artillery regiment. It served at Forts Marcy, Reno, [p. 254] Craig, Ward, Albany, Lyon, and others, and was mustered out at Fort Ethan Allen June 13, 1865. It lost two men killed, while forty-four died from disease. Batteries A and B of this command were made up almost entirely of Butler county men. The roster of Battery A is as follows:
Captain: William R. HUTCHISON.
Lieutenants: Thomas H. MCELVAIN, William H. MCCANDLESS, James HARVEY and Milton WOLFORD.
Sergeants: James D. WISE, John GRINDER, George W. HAYS, Alexander B. BROWER, John BROWN, Josiah M. THOMPSON, Leslie T. FULTON and Alexander MITCHELL.
Corporals: Allen CAMPBELL, William P. HEMPHILL, Henry C. THOMPSON, Cyrus J. ANDERSON, Isaiah J. MCCANDLESS, William LOGAN, Nicholas RIFLEY, Robert MCCALL, Albert S. STRADER, Alfred AGGAS, John A. CRISWELL and Eli MOORE.
Buglers: George H. LOVE, Oliver J. WALKER, and Archibald G. STEWART.
Artificers: John C. RIDDLE and James BLACKSTOCK.
Privates: Sylvanus AGGAS, James AGGAS, Francis ANDERSON, Daniel ALBERT, Thomas M. ANTHONY, John BALMER, Joseph E. BURKHART, John BYERS, William BAUDER, James D. BROOKS, Isaac BENNETT, John BLAIR, George BOLE, Robert R. CRISWELL, Gilbert T. COCHRAN, Loyal Y. COCHRAN, Robert COOPER, Thomas CHANTLER, Alexander CUNNINGHAM, William CLEELAND, William J. CLEELAND, George CURRY, Michael M. CAROTHERS, John H. DAVIS, Joseph A. DOUTHETT, John DONALDSON, David ENGLISH, George W. FAIR, Samuel T. FULTON, Jesse FULTON, Joseph FLICK, James F. FLICK, William D. FRAZIER, James G. FRAZIER, Andrew J. FLEMING, John A. FORSYTHE, John GUYER, James S. GLENN, Robert H. GIBSON, R. P. GREY, David HAY, George P. HARVEY, W. H. HARVEY, James HAMMIL, John Hunter, James F. HARBISON, Joseph HEMPHILL, Robert HARVEY, W. G. HOVIS, L. HARNISH, J. C. HYLE, Henry HORN, G. B. HAIN, Adam JOHNSTON, Herman KNOCH, J. P. KIRKPATRICK, William KELLEY, Michael KUHN, William LOVE, Robert LARDIN, David MILFORD, William J. MILLER, Harvey J. MITCHELL, Hugh C. MILLER, John MARTSOFF, Samuel MONTGOMERY, Samuel MURRAY, W. S. MARSHALL, S. H. MARSHALL, Henry MILLER, E. S. MCMICHAEL, Francis MCMILLAN, W. H. H. MCILVAIN, William MCELWAIN, W. T. MCCANDLESS, M. J. MCCULLOUGH, T. G. MCCLYMONDS, S. G. MCALLISTER, W. J. MCALLISTER, R. H. MCQUISTION, H. MCGEARY, H. A. MCCANDLESS, S.K. MCCANDLESS, N. W. MCCANDLESS, R. T. MCCALL, S. R. MCCALL, R. N. MCCANDLESS †, David NEWELL, Edward PHILLIPS, David PRINDLE, S. B. RIDER, R. M. RUSSELL, Sr., Josiah RUSSELL, Houston RUSSELL, James E. RUSSELL, William M. RAMSEY, R. M. RUSSELL, Jr., Charles S. STONER, Thomas STEWART, Hugh SPROUL, Obed SESTON, A. J. SNOW, Daniel SWARTZ, John N. SWARTZ, Daniel SNOW, T. C. SNODGRASS, Allen SPRINGER, William SWARTZ †, Martin THOMPSON, W. P. THOMPSON, W. M. THOMPSON, Samuel M. TURK, John M. TEBAY, Joseph F. TIMMONY, George R. WESTERMAN, Thomas WOOD, James C. WELSH, Daniel WALTER, John WALTER, Thomas WILEY, and Robert H. YOUNG.
Battery B was also recruited in Butler county. Its roster is as follows:
Captain: Gustavus L. BRAUN.
Lieutenants: W. H. H. WASSON, John M. KELSY, Robert O. SHIRA, and William C. RUDYARD.
Sergeants: W. H. HUTCHISON, Thomas BONNER, James M. MAXWELL, Robert S. TEMPLE, William MCMILLAN, David M. MCDONALD, William A. SHULER, Greer MCCANDLESS, and Joseph B. MARTIN.
Corporals: William B. LENHART, George W. REED, Milton SLEPPY, Benjamin HARLIN, William J. ROBB, George K. GRAHAM, John C. WASSON, Archibald DAUGHERTY, Eli M. HILLIARD, John S. DODDS, Robert J. McCandless, John B. DODDS, Samuel D. CHRISTY, and Thomas R. ARMSTRONG.
Buglers: Henry SPRATTLEY, W. P. SHULL and J. F. MANNY.
Artificers: James J. STEVENSON and Moses M. BENNETT.
Privates: Dominick ALLWINE, Robert ARMSTRONG, Samuel ADAMS, Amos ALTMAN, William ALHOUSE, Joseph BISHOP, William P. BRATTON, Matthew BLACK, Henry BEHM, Joseph B. BRYSON, Robert J. BADGER†, Forrest BROWN , Wash. CROPPER, John COVERT, John COOPER, Oliver CLARK, William CAMPBELL, C. A. CHRISTLEY, John S. CRITCHLOW, J. B. CALDWELL, William COX, James R. CAMPBELL, Isaac CABLE, George CRESS, William B. CURRY, James N. CAMPBELL, Isaac DONALDSON, Ebenezer DODDS, Samuel Duff, R. N. EMORY, Hance J. FARR, Richard FISHER, William B. FLEEGER, Hiram GRUBBS, L. GEORGE, James GROSSMAN, Hugh GROSSMAN, Joseph GRUBBS, D. W. GRAHAM, William J. GILLESPIE, Henry GOLD, J. W. GIBSON, T. M. HESS, J. M. HOSACK, T. S. HUTCHISON, Joseph HOFFMAN, Isaiah HALL, Caleb B. HENRY, Jeremiah HILLIARD, Abraham HILLIARD, George W. HUSELTON, W. H. HASLETT, Jacob HELFINGER, Theodore HALER, George HANKEY, Christopher HOOVER, George R. HOOVER, Marion T. HIPPLE†, .J. F. JONES, V. E. KINSER, T. D. KENNEDY, D. C. KIRKPATRICK, Francis LAVERY, William LANG, A. M. LIAS, William MATTHEWS, G. W. MOSER, W. G. MULLER, J. B. MILLER, W. H. MORRISON*, (* Accidentally killed at York, Pennsylvania, June 25, 1865.) Samuel MORROW, R. C. MCCARAHAN, Daniel MCGEARY, Reuben MCQUISTION, Robert MCCURDY, T. B. MCCLYMONDS, John MCCURDY, William MCCALL, R. M. MCCALL, Francis NEPTUNE, Josiah NEYMAN, Peter H. NOLF, John L. NEYMAN, W. J. PLANTS, Theodore POTTS, Zachariah PHILLIPS, John A. PUGH, Ephraim C. PARKS, Joseph RICHARD, Jeremiah RALSTON, Samuel ROHRER, H. S. RIDER, William RALSTON, W. A. RANDOLPH, W. G. ROBB, Henry REDINGER, Samuel STEELE, John SPELLMAN, George STAFF, Thomas SPENCE, Robert W. STEWART, Samuel SMUTZ, George W. STEWART, George SHOUP, Robert O. SHIRA, Samuel B. SMITH, John SHOUP, Philip W. SAMPSON, Levi SILVIS†, Robert THOMPSON, John N. THOMPSON, William W. TURK, Conrad TAYLOR, Daniel UPDEGRAFT, Robert WALLACE, George WILSON, John A. WOODWARD, Thomas WILSON, Philip H. WENTZ, James G. WALKER, Edward D. WIGTON, Christopher WIMER, John WHITMIRE, William WHITMIRE, Samuel WRIGHT, David WAGNER, James WRIGHT, John YOUNG and G. W. ZIMMERMAN†.
Among those from Butler county who served in other batteries in this regiment were the following: Reuben CAMPBELL, Battery C; James ATKINSON, Felix [p. 256] H. NEGLEY, Gottfried REINHOLD, Samuel SCHAFFNER and William WATSON, Battery D; John W. BROWN, Battery H; William LUTZ, and Alexander C. WELLER, Battery I, and John DAY, Battery K. Amos MCCAMANT, John A. and Robert HUTCHINS also served in this regiment.
[*Killed or mortally wounded ‡wounded †died]
The threatened invasion of Pennsylvania by the armies of Gen. Robert E. LEE, after the second battle of Bull Run, created an emergency making necessary the calling into service, for such a period as might be necessary, a force of the State militia sufficient to assist the troops already in the field in repelling the invader. The response of Butler county was prompt. A company mustered into the Fourteenth Militia regiment as Company G was one of the first to report itself ready for duty. This company was organized in Butler, many of the leading citizens of the borough being enrolled as members. By reason of the large number of lawyers who joined, it was known as "The Blackstone Guards." Two Butler men were also numbered among the field and staff officers of the regiment. These were Major Charles MCCANDLESS and Assistant Surgeon Newton J. MCCANDLESS.
The Fourteenth regiment was organized September 12-16, its colonel being R. B. MCCOMB. It was immediately sent to the front to perform such service as might be demanded of it. The battle of Antietam, fought on September 16 and 17, resulting in the defeat of LEE, and his retreat into Virginia, relieved Pennsylvania from the danger that threatened, making further service on the part of the Emergency Men unnecessary, and they were accordingly mustered out, September 26-28. The roster of Company G is as follows:
Captain: James Gilmore CAMPBELL.
Lieutenants: Ebenezer MCJUNKIN and Charles DUFFY.
Sergeants: Isaac J. CUMMINGS, John B. MCQUISTION, Joseph J. ELLIOTT, Samuel SCHAFFNER, Clark WILSON, and Walter L. GRAHAM.
Corporals: Abram MCCANDLESS, John W. MITCHELL, David H. MACKEY, Arnold ROSENTHAL, Joseph L. PURVIS, Gottleib LANGBEIN, James A. SHANER and William S. ZIEGLER.
Musicians: Abraham FLEEGER and Henry DICKEY.
Privates: John AGNEW, Isaac ASH, James A. BALPH, John BERG, Jr., Calvin BEATTY, James M. BREDIN, James BREDIN, Edward W. BREDIN, William BARTLEY, Harvey COLBERT, John C. COLL, John H. CRATTY, Obadiah CRATTY, Theodore CROWL, Gabriel ETZEL, Joseph FLICK, Jacob FALLER, Robert GRAHAM, Alfred G. GLENN, James HASLETT, Richard HUGHES, Jr., Daniel A. HECK, Thomas A. HUTCHINSON, Samuel P. IRVIN, Davis W. JOHNSON, James W. KIRKER, George KNITTLE, Joseph LIEBLER, Jacob LAUX, George P. MILLER, Henry C. MOSER, Alexander MITCHELL, Harvey J. MITCHELL, William F. MILLER, James C. MCCURDY, Simon S. MECHLING, Thomas MECHLING, John C. MOORE, Samuel MORRISON, James C. MILLER, Henry MILLER, Gabriel MOSER, J. David MCJUNKIN, C. A. MCJUNKIN, D. HARPER MCQUISTION, James T. MCJUNKIN, Elisha C. MCCURDY, J. Linn MCABOY, W. W. MCQUISTION, Robert MCCLUNG, John H. NEGLEY, Alfred G. NEGLEY, John P. Orr, Horace PEARCE, Joseph PORTMAN, John N. PURVIANCE, John POTTS, Jr., Samuel [p. 257] PATTON, Abner PATTON, Nelson P. REED, John C. REDICK, Christian SCHWILLE, John A. SEDWICK, John McQuistion SMITH, J. Newton STEWART, George W. STEWART, David SCOTT, Adam SCHREIBER, James STEPHENSON, Robert D. STEVENSON, Samuel L. SEDWICK, Samuel W. STEWART, Conrad SMITH, John Q. A. SULLIVAN, Harman SCHWEIDERING, James SPENCE, A. H. TROUTMAN, Cassimer WISE, John WAREHAM, George WALTER, Eli YETER, and Michael ZIMMERMAN, Jr.
[*Killed or mortally wounded ‡wounded †died]
This regiment was also organized to meet the emergency arising from Lee's threatened invasion of Pennsylvania. It was with the army at South Mountain and Antietam, though not actively participating in those battles. It was mustered out September 27, 1862, the defeat of Lee at Antietam and his retreat into Virginia rendering further service unnecessary. Company C of this regiment was raised in Butler County. Its roster is as follows:
Captain: William R. HUTCHISON.
Lieutenants: John BROWN and Henry FLICK,
Sergeants: Leander WISE, John KAY, Joshua M. LIST, William BICKET and Wilson DAVID.
Corporals: James M. HAY, Matthew WILLIAMS, Thomas H. McGAHEY, Robert B. HOON, Hugh C. MILLER, John C. NORRIS, Thompson HARBISON and Robert B. DICKEY
Privates: John S. BARTLEY, James BEDILLION, William A. BEALS, Robert BROWN, John BAKER, William A. CALDWELL, Hugh CUNNINGHAM, John DUNBAR, Joseph DAVIS, John DENNY, George W. FULTON, Samuel T. FULTON, Leslie T. FULTON, James FULTON, Jacob B. FLICK, Hance M. FRAZIER, Archie GLASCOW, Joseph HUNTER, Joseph HENRY, Joseph HECKARD, William J. HAYS, James HIGGINBOTHAM, William HIGGINBOTHAM, Robert HARVEY, Freeman JAMES, George C. KENNEDY, George H. LOWE, Robert LOWE, John LOGAN, William J. LESLIE, H. N. LOGAN, James LAWHEAD, John W. MAUKS, Thomas K. MAHOOD, William G. MILLER, James T. MAIN, Allen R. McMAHON, John MC. McKIBBIN, George McGUCKIN, Samuel B. McNEAL, James A. McMARLIN, Daniel McELWAIN, Kizer NEAL, Thomas PARKS, Samuel A. PIERCE, Edward T. PHILLIPS, Robert P. SLOAN, Adam STEWART, Obediah SEFTON, Edward SEFTON, David SCOTT, Nicholas SLEIF, John R. SLOAN, William M. THOMPSON, Elijah THOMPSON, Allen TUTTLE, James TRIMBLE, Henry THOMPSON, Thomas VanVAY, Jeremiah L. WILSON, John W. WILSON, George R. WESTERMAN, Thomas WELSH, Thomas W. WELSH, James W. WELSH, George Welsh and Samuel WADDLE.
[*Killed or mortally wounded ‡wounded †died]
This regiment formed part of the Emergency and State militia called out June 9, 1863. It was mustered in June 27 and July 5, 1863, for the defence [sic] of the State against the second advance of Lee's army, and served until August 13, 1863, when the command was mustered out. Company F, recruited in Butler county, was organized in June, being among the first to respond to the call. Following is its roster:
Captain: William R. HUTCHINSON.
Lieutenants: Baxter LOGAN and John BROWN.
Sergeants: Henry G. MECHLING, Linus CRANER, William T. EDWARDS, John S. BARTLEY, and James M. HAY.
Corporals: Albert L. SCHRADER, Hance M. FRAZIER, Samuel L. COULTER, William J. LESLIE, Robert ANDERSON, Samuel B. GAMBLE, James C. WELSH and Alfred MAURHOFF.
Privates: L. ALLWINE, Albert BARCLAY, James BEDILLION, John BURTNER, E. J. BURTNER, John B. CALDWELL, William J. CHANDLER, John A. COCHRAN, Loyal Y. COCHRAN, Daniel A. CREALY, John DENNY, Jacob DEER, John B. DAVIS, William GARDNER, Jonathan GRINDER, John HUNTER, James O. HARBISON, Robert HARBISON, Joseph HENRY, Joseph HICKMAN, John HUNTER, Joseph HICKMAN, Levi HEIDRICK, Alexander JOHNSON, George KENNEDY, John LOGAN, William LOVE, Thomas H. LYON, Louis R. MECHLING, Christian MECHLING, Thomas MAHOOD, Andrew J. MALARKEY, McQuade MUSHRUSH, James H. McCANDLESS, Howe McGEARY, Kizer NEAL, John PARK, William J. PUFF, Joseph PHILLIPS, Adam W. SNYDER, Thomas W. SEAMAN, Theodore TOMAI, William TUTTLE, James WRIGHT, Samuel WILSON, Nathan WHITE, James WILLIAMSON, Ferdinand A. WINTER and Henry YOUNG.
[*Killed or mortally wounded ‡wounded †died]
This command was organized in July 1863, and mustered in the same month under Col. George H. BEMUS. On July 24, the regiment, with others, was ordered to hold the fords on the Ohio between Steubenville and Wheeling, the Fifty-Eighth occupying LaGrange, opposite Wellsville. The watchfulness of this command, led MORGAN's cavalry to seek escape by way of Salineville, where the Michigan cavalry attacked them, killing, wounding, or capturing about 300 of the famous guerrillas. Later, when MORGAN's command was captured, this regiment took charge of the prisoners until they were placed in the Ohio penitentiary. After danger disappeared the command returned to Pittsburg, where it was mustered out August 14-15, 1863. Company G, of this regiment, was raised in Butler county. Its roster is as follows:
Captain: Alexander GILLESPIE.
Lieutenants: James G. GUTHRIE and John S. BROWN.
Sergeants: Beriah M. DUNCAN, George NEELY, Ebenezer KIDD, Isaish N. DUNCAN and John NELSON.
Corporals: John DUNCAN, John ENGLISH, Sr., James BOGGS, William PIERCE, Joseph ENGLISH and J. L. JONES.
Musicians: Charles A. SMITH and John B. GARVIN.
Privates: William ANDERSON, D. P. BOGGS, Joseph BLACKSTOCK, Martin BROWN, Patrick BURNS, John BETEKEVER, Henry BAKER, Thomas J. CARNAHAN, John CARR, Enos G. DUNCAN, Samuel DAVIS, George DEMER, Joseph K. DUNCAN, George DREW, John ENGLISH, Jr., Frederick BEIGHLEY, William EGAN, James FREEMAN, Frank FREEMAN, Barnet G. GUTHRIE, Hugh GLASGOW, John GRIM, Jonathan GRUBBS, Lester GIBSON, William HUGHES, Joseph E. HALL, Frank JOHNSTON, Samuel KIDD, James P. MILLER, William MOWRY, John MOORE, Aaron H. MOORE, John MACDOWELL, Samuel MORRISON, Alexander McLUCKER, William NEELY, Timothy O'BRIEN, Charles OSBURNE, Thomas PIERCE, George STRAWBRIDGE, [p. 259] Enos SHANNON, Samuel SADDLER, Polk SAMPLE, Thomas WILSON, John WALTERS, Frank WILLS, Peter WARNER, and H. A. WILKINSON.
Company I of this regiment was also raised in Butler county. Following is its roster:
Captain: Winfield M. CLARK
Lieutenants: William E. MOORE and S. L. DAUBENSPECK.
Sergeants: George W. HALDERMAN, Thomas F. CHRISTLEY, Henry D. TIMBLIN and George W. REED.
Corporals: Francis M. HILLIARD, Augustus N. MARTIN, Charles HARLEY, George H. DODDS, Jonathan H. KELLEY, and Henry E. MILLER.
Musicians: Howard McELVAIN and George W. DUNLAP.
Privates: William J. ADAMS, George W. BEATTIE, John C. BREADEN, Robert F. CAMPBELL, Plummer CHRISTY, Ephraim S. DOBSON, William G. DAUBENSPECK, William F. DUNN, Joseph S. FITHIAN, Adam FOGLE, John GROSSMAN, Hugh GROSSMAN, Hiram GALLAGHER, David HOON, William H. JOHNSTON, Thomas KELLY, Oliver KELLY, Adam KORD, William MILLER, Samuel W. MORRISON, John P. McJUNKIN, John H. McQUISTION, Abner McCALLEN, William McCALL, John M. McCOLLOUGH, Andrew McMURRY, William McGILL, William McCAULEY, Robert POTTS, John ROWE, James M. RAMSEY, Albert RUFF, Daniel SHANOR, James C. SCOTT, William SHRYOCK, William SMITH, Thomas WILSON, and Adam WILES.
[*Killed or mortally wounded ‡wounded †died]
In addition to the foregoing companies and parts of companies of infantry, cavalry and artillery credited to Butler county, a large number of her citizens and young men, claiming the county as their home, enlisted in other counties of Pennsylvania, and in regiments raised in other States. So far as ascertained, the names of these are as follows:Michael LONG, Third Pennsylvania Volunteers. John H. MCQUISTION, Company D, Eleventh Pennsylvania Volunteers. Samuel B. FRY, William J. MILLER, and Michael TRACY, Company B; Ephraim BROWN, Company E, and John BULFORD, Company K, Eight Reserve. Baxter BURKHART, Company K, Ninth Reserve. Joseph GRAHAM, Company L, Twenty-eight Pennsylvania Volunteers. John McELHANEY, Company D, Forty Second Pennsylvania Volunteers. James J. SUTTON, Amos CAMPBELL, and Sergt. Thomas F. CHRISTLEY, Company B; Solomon S. MAY and Michael MYERS, Company F; John THOMPSON and Richard KELLY, Company G, and Samuel F. MILFORD, Company H, Fiftieth Pennsylvania Volunteers. William J. CLEELAND Fifty-second Militia. Samuel E. SLOAN*, Company C, and Samuel S. JOLLY, Fifty-third Pennsylvania Volunteers. James C. HUGHES, Fifty-fifth Pennsylvania Volunteers. John A. BLACK, lieutenant-colonel, Fifty-sixth Pennsylvania Volunteers. Joseph W. KIESTER, Company F, and Thomas J. McBRIDE, Fifty-seventh Pennsylvania Volunteers. Thomas BAKER, John R. DENNY, Corp. William FULTON, wounded at Spottsylvania, Corp. Samuel A. LESLIE, Baxter LOGAN, John LOGAN and William PLATT, Company B; Sergt. Samuel TINTSMAN, Company E [p. 260] and Robert HIDE*, Sixty-first Pennsylvania Volunteers. Peter Kaler‡, Company D; Sergt. William RANSALL‡, and William STOREY, Company E; Samuel E. BROWN, Charles M. CAMPBELL, James E. CAMPBELL, Oliver M. CHRISTY, Jeremiah W. HARPER and George E. MILLER, Company G; J. L. ANDERSON‡, Company H; James BLAKE, Robert DUFF† and John C. McCOLLOUGH, Company K, and Sebastian SMITH*, Sixty-second Pennsylvania Volunteers. Harvey D. THOMPSON, Company A, Sixty-third Pennsylvania Volunteers. Levi PORTER, Company K, Sixty-fourth Pennsylvania Volunteers. George K. BAKER and Thomas R. HOON, Company I, Sixty-seventh Pennsylvania Volunteers. John W. CROOKS, Company A, Seventy-seventh Pennsylvania Volunteers. John W. CROOKS, CompanyA, Seventy-seventh Pennsylvania Volunteers. Hugh McKee KIDD and James KIDD, members of Company C, Seventy-ninth Pennsylvania Volunteers were both killed at the battle of Perrysville. Corp. Jacob T. GROVE, and Arthur K. CLEELAND, Company F, Eighty-Third Pennsylvania Volunteers. Thomas ADAMS, Company K, Eighty-Fourth Pennsylvania Volunteers. Philip H. CLUSE, Company H, Eighty-seventh Pennsylvania Volunteers. Alexander BELL, William J. HUTCHISON, William MARTIN and Robert MARTIN, Company A, and N. HINSBERGER, Eighty-eighth Pennsylvania Volunteers. James G. GRAHAM, Company D, Ninety-ninth Pennsylvania Volunteers. Corp. John BLAIN and Andrew LEMMON, One Hundred and Fourth Pennsylvania Volunteers. Lieut. Col. W. W. CORBETT, James A. REDICK, John C. McCULLOUGH, George SHAW, Charles GALLAGHER, and Oliver C. REDIC, promoted lieutenant-colonel, May 11, 1865, One Hundred and Fifth Pennsylvania Volunteers. Peter OESTERLING, Company B; John FREDLEY, Company C; John EMERICK, Company F; and Alfred H. MONNIE, One Hundred and Seventh Pennsylvania Volunteers. Robert HARBISON, Company E, Newton BLACK and William A. BLACK, Company I; Aaron BEIGHLEY, Company F, and Levi LOGAN, One Hundred and Twelfth Pennsylvania Volunteers. Josiah B. Black, Company H, One Hundred and Sixteenth Pennsylvania Volunteers. Joseph WELSH, Company G, One Hundred and Twenty-third Pennsylvania Volunteers. Robert W. McKEE, Company C; Nicholas AMMON, Company E and William REIBER, Company K, One Hundred and Thirty-ninth Pennsylvania Volunteers. F.B. STIVER, Company K, One Hundred and Fortieth Pennsylvania Volunteers. William MINSER and Joseph ROCKENSTEIN, Company D, One Hundred and Forty-ninth Pennsylvania Volunteers. Wilson N. CLARK, corporal, Company C, and Levi STURDEVANT, One Hundred and Fiftieth Pennsylvania Volunteers. Sergt. Philip A. DRAIN, Company C; Capt. Samuel WALKER, Company F, and James E. CAMPBELL, Company G, One Hundred and Fifty-fifth Pennsylvania Volunteers. Dr. Adam WEISER, Company F; and John DINDINGER, Company G, One Hundred and Sixty-eighth Pennsylvania Volunteers. Carlisle McFADDEN, Company E, One Hundred and Seventy-seventh Pennsylvania Volunteers. Ephraim BROWN and John BULFORD, One Hundred and Ninety-first Pennsylvania Volunteers. William F. TRAX, Company E, and Charles COWAN, Company K, One Hundred and Ninety-third Pennsylvania Volunteers. Capt. John G. BIPPUS, George BARTLETT, Peter FENNELL, and John IRVINE, Company H, One Hundred and Ninety-ninth Pennsylvania Volunteers; and D. R. RODGERS, Erie regiment.
The Fourth Pennsylvania Cavalry, organized in October 1861, and which [p. 261] served until July 1, 1865, had in its ranks a number of Butler county men. During its term of service, this regiment lost ninety-eight men killed, while 260 died from disease. The following is a list of those who served from Butler county:
Quartermaster sergeant: Enos G. DUNCAN.
Corporals: Beriah M. DUNCAN, I. N. DUNCAN and John DUNCAN.*
Privates: George BYERS, Henry BROWN, William BARR, John W . CARR, Joel DONALDSON, William W. DUNBAR, Alpheus DUNBAR, Alfred DUNBAR, Josiah DONALDSON, Eli S. FLEEGER, Hiles FLEEGER‡, Jacob FLEEGER, Francis FREEMAN, George GRAHAM, H. A. HAMILTON‡, James M. MARSHALL, Preston McJUNKIN, Hugh MILLER‡, Henry MILLER, Henry M. MILLER*, Samuel MILLER, Samuel M. SEATON, Jacob STOUT †, John WALTERS and Benjamin F. WALTERS*.
Lewis BYERS, who served in Company I, Levi PORTER, who served in Company K, and Corp. William A. SEATON, and James G. HAMILTON, who served in Company L, were also from Butler county.
Among those from Butler county who served in other cavalry regiments were James A. McMARLIN, Company A, First Regiment. John WHITMIRE, Company B; Samuel SEATON, Company C, and Francis and William WHITMIRE, Company M, Sixth Regiment. Casper SHERMAN, Company I, and George T. and Thomas W. FRAZIER, Company K, Seventh Regiment. John SHERMAN, Company E, Ninth Regiment. Lieut. Aaron SULLIVAN, Company E, Ninth regiment, killed at Tompkinsville, Kentucky, July 9 1862. Amos SEATON, Company D, and Harmon SEATON, Fifteenth regiment, and John MONTGOMERY, Company F, Eighteenth regiment. John A. WATSON served in Company A, Fourth United States Cavalry; John and Thomas A. BLAIN, Company D; Reid G. BRACKEN, Company K, and Sergt. Simeon NIXON, Company G, Sixth United States Cavalry.
The names of those from Butler county serving in miscellaneous artillery commands are as follows: William GIESLER, Jesse BARTO, and John M. GREER, Battery B.; Robert HARBISON, Battery E; Newton MORTLAND, Battery F; Henry YOUNG, Battery I; and James A. McMARLIN, Battery L, Second Artillery. J. Walter BARTLEY, Robert McCLUNG, and Gabriel NEFF, Battery K, and William BLAIN, Battery M, Fifth Artillery. Benjamin S. RANKIN, served in the Fourth United States Artillery, and Henry H. HALSTEAD in Battery F, Independent Light Artillery.
The following named persons, either residents of Butler county, or claiming it as their home, served in regiments raised in States other than Pennsylvania: Patrick N. HARVEY, First Maryland Cavalry; R. A. DENNISON and James A. STEWART, Battery A, First Ohio Light Artillery; S. S. FORRESTER, Battery D, First Ohio Heavy Artillery; George TRIMBUR, Company D, First West Virginia Volunteers; F. B. STIVER, Second West Virginia Volunteers; W. B. DODDS, Company A, Tenth Illinois Cavalry; Elder CRAWFORD, Company C, Fifth, and Company G, Thirteenth Ohio Cavalry; Isaiah BLACK, Musician, Sixteenth Illinois Volunteers; William M. BLACK, Company K, Seventeenth Indiana Volunteers; James H. BLACK, Company H, Twenty-seventh Illinois Volunteers; Joseph C. CAMPBELL, killed at Chickamauga, Company C, and Robert J. KISSICK, Company G, [p. 262] Thirty-First Ohio Volunteers: James C. BLACK, Thirty-fifth Illinois Volunteers; Lieut. John B. BUTLER, Company G. Forty-first Illinois Volunteers; S. A. PURVIANCE, Company B., Forty-second Illinois Volunteers; Robert M. BLACK, captain of Company B., and William McLAUGHLIN, Seventy-eighth Illinois Volunteers. S. S. FORRESTER, One Hundred and Seventeenth Ohio Volunteers. George REIBER served in a Missouri infantry regiment. Henry G. CRISPIN, a printer formerly employed in the Herald office, enlisted in a New York regiment and was killed at the Battle of Bull Run. Among those whose commands we have not obtained are the following named soldiers: Lieut. W. D. EWING, Thomas COOPER, Joseph D. FOWLER, Charles HOFFMAN, who also served in the Mexican war, Charles F. SMITH and Nicholas PORTMAN.
Col. James Cooper MCKEE, M. D., of Butler, was appointed and commissioned assistant surgeon of the United States army in 1858. At the second battle of Bull Run, he served as assistant medical director of Pope's army, and at Antietam as assistant medical purveyor of the Army of the Potomac. In 1863 he was promoted to captain in the regular army and placed in charge of Lincoln United States Hospital at Washington, D. C., in which position he continued until the close of the war. After the war he was transferred to New Mexico, serving there as chief medical officer of the army, and afterwards as medical director of the Department of Arizona. He also served in the same capacity at Vancouver Barracks, Department of Columbia. In 1891 he was retired from active service, with the rank of lieutenant-colonel, by reason of injuries received in the discharge of his duty.
Dr. Samuel GRAHAM, of Butler, after serving three months in Company H, Thirteenth Pennsylvania Volunteers, completed a course of medicine in Jefferson College, Philadelphia, and entered the service as assistant surgeon of the One Hundred and Seventy-fourth Pennsylvania Volunteers. He was subsequently appointed surgeon of the Eighty-First Pennsylvania Volunteers.
When Butler County responded to President Lincoln's call for 75,000 men, after the fall of Fort Sumter, in April, 1861, her citizens shared in the belief prevailing throughout the country; that the war would be an affair of but a few months, and that soldiering would be anything but serious business. Few, if any, dreamed that with the fall of Sumter there had been ushered in the greatest Civil War in the world's history, destined to last four years, to dot the entire South with battlefields, to call into service over two millions of men in the North and in the South, to cost hundreds of thousands of lives and the expenditure of thousands of millions of dollars, and to have the final triumph of the Union armies shrouded in the sorrow that followed the assassination of Abraham Lincoln, under whose administration the Union had been preserved and perpetuated.
In those early days of the war, therefore, patriotism ran high in Butler County and enlistments were rapid. Later on, though, there was no diminution in the patriotic spirit, the burdens of war began to be heavily felt. The county was drained of its young men, and extraordinary taxes were levied in order that the war might be prosecuted to a successful issue. The men in the field had to be encouraged and made to feel that the people at home were back of them, and that the calls for more troops would be promptly responded to. In short, those [p. 263] at home, had a work of vital importance to do, demanding many sacrifices and much patriotism in order that the county might acquit itself with credit to the State and with honor to the Union cause.
As the ranks of the young men thinned out it became necessary to encourage enlistments by the aid of bounties and other inducements. In 1862, a relief tax, amounting to $3,154, was collected, and in 1863, $9,752.18 paid in bounties.
Under the draft of July, 1863, the county furnished 323 men. Many of those drafted furnished substitutes. The plan adopted in Butler appears to have been for a number of those subject to draft to subscribe to a fund to pay substitutes, and after the requisite number of substitutes had been secured, to divide up the surplus amount, if any, among the subscribers.
January 20, 1864, Capt. Henry PILLOW, United States Recruiting Officer, announced the extension of the time for paying bounties, and asked for volunteers. About this time the quotas required from the counties comprising the Twenty-third district, were published, showing the quota of Butler County to be 316, to be secured from the 2,320 men of the first and 1,317 men of the second class. The borough of Butler, having furnished her quota of fourteen, was clear of the draft. In order to accomplish this object the local committee collected $3,070, of which $1,770 was paid for the fourteen substitutes. The sum of thirty-five dollars was charged to expenses, leaving $1,265 to be returned to the subscribers. Under the call of February 1, 1864, for 500,000 men, Butler borough filled its quota February 6, 1864, and had a surplus of money to return to the subscribers.
Under the call for 200,000 men, March 15, 1864, the general bounty was paid until April 1, 1864. On April 14, 1864, an act providing for the payment of bounties in Butler county was approved by the Governor. Power was given to the school directors to levy a tax sufficient to pay a bounty of $300 to each volunteer enlisted and credited to the school district making the levy. They were also empowered to levy a per capita tax, not exceeding twenty-five dollars from each taxable citizen subject to the draft, and to repay to subscribers moneys [sic] advanced to aid in raising volunteers.
The response to the call of March 15, 1864, was so prompt that when the draft was made June 3, 1864, only nine districts were behind with their quotas; in those ninety-one men were called out by provost-marshal. A supplemental draft was ordered for June 27, when sixty-five men were called out. Ten of the ninety-one drafted June 3, failed to appear; forty-four paid a commutation of $300 each; thirty-three were exempted, and two were reported dead. Another draft was made September 19, 1864, under the call of July 18, 1864. November 30, 1864, the number of men subject to draft in Butler County was placed at 2,780, but a large number of soldiers who had served two years or more in the service and had received their discharge were included in this estimate.
One reason for the recourse to drafts was that during 1864 especially the terms of a large number of those who had enlisted in 1861, for thee years, expired, and it became necessary to secure new men to take their places. It should also be borne in mind that a majority of these men re-enlisted in the field, and that volunteers were constantly coming forward in every township in the county. [p. 264] The drafts, therefore, were only resorted to in order to complete the quotas of the several townships within the time required by the different calls under which they were ordered.
While the soldiers at the front were battling for the preservation of the Union, there arose a necessity for those at home to care for the dependent widows and orphans of those who fell in battle, and also a necessity to care for sick and wounded in hospitals and in their homes. For the former purpose, in addition to voluntary contributions, a relief tax was ordered. For the latter purpose an organization known as the "Balaam Association" was organized in 1864. In April of that year it was represented in the different townships by the following named collectors: Thomas MARSHALL, J. N. POLLOCK, H. W. GRANT, George WALTER, J. G. McCLYMONDS, W. D. McCANDLESS, Adam BLACK, Dr. Frank HAMILTON, John LOVE, Alex KUHN, Peter RAY, Joshua GARVIN, Henry GUMPPER, Major ADAMS, Alex. WALKER, R. I. BOGGS, Russell BOGGS, James WRIGHT, P. SCHEIDEMANTLE, William SMITH, William MORROW, Calvin POTTS, Reuben SHANOR, Lieutenant MELLINGER, J. M. BOAL, Leander WISE, William CROCKER, John MURRIN, P. HILLIARD, John KEEVER, and Firley BALPH. For Centreville, A. J. BARD was collector; for Harmony, James GUTHRIE; for Zelienople, George B. BASTIAN; for Saxonburg, John CARSON; and for Butler, Joseph ELLIOTT and H. D. TIMBLIN. Captain W. M. CLARKE was "Thistle" or secretary of this association.
In the spring of 1864, the people of Butler county became liberal contributors to the Pittsburg Sanitary Fair Association. Committees to solicit subscriptions of money, provisions, and clothing were appointed in each township in the county. The responses were prompt and liberal, the collections up to June 1, 1864, amounting to $2,606.51 in cash; including $160 received from the Balaam Association. Clothing and provisions were also contributed valued at $736.14, bringing the total amount up to $3,342.65. Later contributions of money, clothing and provisions considerably increased this amount. The chairmen of the various township committees were as follows: Samuel MARSHALL, Adams; James KISKADDON, Allegheny; J. M. THOMPSON, Brady; A. D. WEIR, Buffalo; Newton MAXWELL, Butler; Dr. Josiah McCANDLESS, Centre; H. C. McCOY, Cherry; Rev. W. P. BREADEN, Clay; James NORRIS, Clinton; J. H. CHRISTY, Concord; Rev. JAMISON, Connoquenessing; William DICK, Franklin; James G. WILSON, Jackson; David LOGAN, Jefferson; Rev. J. F. BOYD, Mercer; Rev. J. G. BARNES, Middlesex; John FORRESTER, Muddy Creek; Isaac ROBB, Oakland; J. Q. A. KENNEDY, Penn; T. STEPHENSON, Slippery Rock; William LINDSEY, Summit; R. A. MIFFLIN, Washington; William STEWART, Winfield and Thomas McNEES, Worth. The chairmen of the borough committees were R.C. McABOY, Butler; John T. BARD, Centerville; Alfred PIERCE, Harmony; James KERR, Harrisville; Rev. W. A. FETTER, Millerstown; A. W. McCOLLOUGH, Prospect, and Mrs. Anna HARBISON, Portersville.
The fall of Richmond and the surrender of the Confederate forces under Gen. Robert E. Lee, announcing as they did the final triumph of the Union Armies and the return of peace, caused much rejoicing throughout the entire North. The people of Butler, among the first to respond to the call for troops, were also among the first to rejoice over the success of the "Boys in Blue" in [p. 265] saving the Union from disruption. This rejoicing took the form of a "Jubilee Meeting," held at the court-house in Butler April 7, 1865. This meeting was presided over by Hon. Lawrence L. McGUFFIN. The vice-presidents were Capt. Samuel LOUDON, William CAMPBELL, and William STOOPS, and the secretaries, Col. John M. THOMPSON, Capt. George W. FLEEGER, Jonathan CLUTTON and James BREDIN. After a number of patriotic speeches were delivered, the following resolution, offered by John H. NEGLEY, was adopted:
Resolved, That we learn with irrepressible joy of the success of the armies of the Union; the downfall of the rebel capital and the surrender or capture of the rebel hosts. Victory and peace have come through war, and, God be praised, the Republic lives.
In the midst of the general rejoicing that followed the close of the war and the return of peace, the entire country was plunged in profound sorrow by the assassination of Abraham LINCOLN. Flags and banners that had been flying to the breeze to celebrate the last great victory of the Union armies, were placed at half-mast and draped in mourning, and the emblems of a people's sorrow everywhere met the eye.
For the purpose of giving fitting expression to their sorrow, a meeting of the people of Butler borough was held on the afternoon of Wednesday, April 19, 1865. Gen. John N. PURVIANCE was chosen president; James Gilmore CAMPBELL, William STEWART, Charles McCANDLESS, E. McJUNKIN and E. M. BREDIN, vice-presidents, and W. S. ZIEGLER, Thomas ROBINSON, and James BREDIN, secretaries of the meeting. In calling the meeting to order, General PURVIANCE delivered a brief address, the closing portion of which is as follows:
Abraham LINCOLN lived to see the Rebellion ended and the promised land of peace. The possession is the heritage, we may confidently hope, of a free and Christian people, who love liberty and hate slavery.
A committee on resolutions was appointed consisting of William STEWART, James BREDIN, Dr. D. W. COWDEN, Col. John M. THOMPSON, and L. Z. MITCHELL, and a committee on organization consisting of Capt. W. O. BRACKENRIDGE, J. A. SEDWICK, James G. CAMPBELL, H. C. HEINEMAN and W. STOOPS. Addresses in English were delivered by Revs. WHITE, TIBBES, NIBLOCK and LIMBERG, and in German by Rev. MIESER. William STEWART, the chairman of the committee on resolutions, reported the following preamble:
"Know ye not that there is a Prince and a great man fallen in Israel?" The chosen head of this mighty Nation; the beloved of the people; the home of the poor and down-trodden; the friend of mankind; the devoted lover of his country, has fallen, stricken down by the hand of an assassin. In the middle of his life and usefulness, while bending all his energies "to gather again into one" the broken fragments of our divided and hostile section; when he hoped very soon to see our distracted and desolated people folding up their banners of war, sheathing the sword of slaughter, and again embracing each other as brothers of a common country, his life is suddenly taken, sacrificed for his stern unbending fidelity to his duty as the preserver of the Nation's life.
Among the resolutions adopted, expressive of general sorrow was the following;
Resolved, that President LINCOLN, by his strict adherence to his conceptions of right; his straightforward honesty of purpose, his kindness of heart; his tender and forgiving disposition, shown by his advocacy of all conciliatory and merciful measures [p. 266] toward those who, without cause, rebelled against the mildest and most beneficent government, as administered by the mildest and most beneficent rulers, has justly endeared himself, not only to the people of this land, but to the virtuous and enlightened, as well as the oppressed of all climes; and his name shall live throughout all ages among the highest on the scroll of martyrs in the cause of human freedom. Millions yet unborn will do homage to his memory.
Soon after the close of the war and the return to their return to their homes and to the pursuits of peace of the war-worn defenders of the Union, a monument to the memory of those of their comrades who had fallen in battle, or died in hospitals or in the prisons of the South, was suggested. For lack, however, of organized effort, the matter failed to take a practical form, notwithstanding repeated efforts on the part of patriotic citizens, until September 15, 1892, when at a meeting of soldiers and citizens, preciously called by Col. John M. SULLIVAN, a board of directors was appointed and steps taken to secure the success of the long-delayed undertaking. In order to give this board the proper authority, it was duly incorporated as the Butler County Monument Association, and a board of directors elected of which G. D. SWAIN, of Harmony, was made chairman; I. J. MCCANDLESS, secretary, and Charles DUFFY, treasurer. This board named committees in every voting district in the country, and the work of securing the funds needed was earnestly carried forward. Reports made to a meeting held in December, 1893, showed that collections had so far advanced that it was deemed safe to advertise for bids and the presentation of designs. This was accordingly done. After the design had been agreed upon, the contract for the erection of the monument was let to Campbell & Harrigan, of Pittsburg, for $3,500. The monument was completed, placed and ready for the dedication by July 4, 1894. The dedicatory ceremonies, which took place on that day, were appropriate and impressive, and were participated in by old sailors and citizens from all parts of the county. An address, turning over the monument to the old soldiers and to the people of the county, was delivered by G. D. SWAIN, of Harmony, president of the Butler County Soldiers' Monument Association. The address accepting the monument was delivered by Capt. George W. FLEEGER. In the course of his address, Mr. SWAIN said:
Let me say that in raising this shaft we awaken a deeper interest in the minds of the young of this country in their country's welfare and its free institutions, and as they pass under the shadow of the monument they will be strengthened in their respect and devotion for the flag and all that it represents, and as they grow to manhood and womanhood they will uphold its principle, perpetuate its glory and hand it down to future generations more bright and more glorious as the centuries grow old.**** When this generation shall have passed away, and the children of another generation shall ask their parents what means this monument? then will they relate to them the heroic valor, the untold suffering and the true devotion of those which this monument represents. They will also tell them of the bitter anguish, the fervent prayers, the scalding tears of wives and mothers, all endured that the government might live. To the mothers who are present to-day I would say: As you gather your little ones around you and teach them to lisp their infant prayers, as they kneel at your side teach them, too, that next to their religion and their God, they should love their country and the stars [p. 267] and stripes, the emblem of our liberties, and as they grow into the love of God of the universe, so they will also honor the land of their birth and the flag of their country.
In his address accepting the monument, Captain FLEEGER said:
This monument which we to-day dedicate to the memory of all who gave up their lives for our country during the war; it matters not whether they served in a Butler county organization or in an organization outside the county, whether they fell amid the smoke and storm of battle, or whether with fevered brow and parched tongue they gave up their lives in the hospital; this monument is for them, for all who died for our country.
Money spent in memorials to valor or devotion to duty and country is not spent in vain. There is something in such a monument that touches the heart, that awakens and stirs all the nobler and better qualities of our nature. What teachers of patriotism such monuments are! Who can look upon them with indifference? Who can estimate what Bunker Hill monument has been to us as a nation? And what has it been to us as a nation, this monument will be to us as a county--a teacher of patriotism for all the future; there all our patriotic impulses can gather, and around it can cling; and should the hour of danger and trial come, as come it may; should our sky darken, as darken it may, then this monument will be more eloquent in its voiceless appeal to patriotism and duty than the words of any orator.
The monument is of Barre granite, twelve feet square at the base and forty-eight and one-half feet high. The shaft is surmounted by an infantry soldier in full dress, standing at ease. On the side of the shaft are emblazoned crossed muskets, sabers, cannon and one anchor representing the four branches of the service, and at the base are the words, "Our Silent Defenders." It is one of the first objects that attract the attention of the visiting stranger and is worthy of the praise and admiration accorded it as a work of art.
The Soldiers' Monument at Evans City, a beautiful and shapely shaft was dedicated August 29, 1894. It was erected to the memory of the brave men who went into the service from Jackson, Forward, Connoquenessing, Lancaster, Cranberry, Adams, Middlesex and Penn townships, who sleep in unknown and unmarked graves. The project was started by Capt. WILLIAM Stewart Post Number 573, of Evans City, in 1892, and solicitors appointed to collect funds. Sufficient money was obtained to warrant the appointment of a committee, consisting of D. B. DOUTHETT, John ROHNER, Dr. William IRVINE, Edward DAMBACH, Enos BARKEY, Capt. J. P. BOGGS, H. C. BOGGS, and George MARBURGER, who were authorized to let the contract and superintend the erection of a monument. This committee organized by the election of D. B. DOUTHETT, chairman; Captain BOGGS, secretary, and John ROHNER, treasurer. On December 6, 1893, the contract for the work was let to J. B. EVANS, of Evans City, and cost when completed about $1,400.
The monument stands in the center of a plot donated to Stewart Post, G. A. R., by the Evans City Cemetery Association. It is of Quincy granite, is nineteen feet and three inches high, and is surmounted by the figure of an eagle standing on a globe. On one side is a wreath and crossed swords, and on the four sides of the die are inscribed the names of the dead whose memory the monument is designed to perpetuate. They number forty-five in all. There is also inscribed on one side in plain and enduring letters these appropriate lines:
The muffled drum's sad roll has beat
The soldier's last tattoo;
No more on life's parade shall meet
That brave and fallen few.
On fame's eternal camping ground
Their silent tents are spread,
But glory guards, with solemn round,
The bivouac of the dead.
The record made by Butler county during the war was one of unfaltering patriotism. The first call for troops found her people absorbed in the pursuits of peace. Her hills and valleys resounded to the song of the husbandman; her factories and workplaces were filled with busy workmen, and her stores and offices with men devoting their energies to business affairs or to professional duties. All, whether laboring with head or hand, were doing their share toward developing her great natural resources and keeping her abreast of the procession of progress. The happiness that follows well-rewarded and prosperous industry reigned in her homes, which were the abodes of content, comfort, and culture. The only reminders of wars that had passed, were a few venerable men who had served in the War of 1812, and a few middle-aged men who had served in the Mexican War. The only suggestions of the possibility of wars to come were a few companies of militia, organized to keep alive the military spirit, and to parade on holiday occasions. Few dreamed of the possibility of their ever being called upon for more serious service.
The startling news that Sumter had been fired upon and had fallen, changed all this and brought the people of the North face to face with the realities of war. The call to arms resounded in every part of the land. Fathers, husbands, sons, brothers and lovers, made prompt and patriotic response, and, leaving home with kindred behind, marched to the front to do battle for their country's flag and win for themselves imperishable fame on many a hard-fought field. The battles came quick and fast, victories and reverses following each other in rapid succession. There was mourning for fathers, husbands, sons, brothers, and lovers slain. There was scarce a family circle in the North from which a loved one was not missing. Every battle also added to the number of maimed and crippled heroes. The crutch and the armless sleeve became familiar sights. Each was a sad reminder of the fearful price that was being paid to preserve the Union. Others, wasted by disease or weakened by starvation in southern prisons, came back with pallid features, hollow cheeks, and sunken eyes to linger awhile and die. When the last battle had been fought, the last shot had been fired and the last grand review had been held, the bronzed and battle-tired veterans, who had saved the Union from disruption, returned amid patriotic rejoicing to resume again the duties of citizenship and the pursuits of peace.
But the sacrifices were not all on the side of the men who dared and died for the flag. Their mothers and wives, daughters, sisters and sweethearts exhibited a devoted, unselfish and unfaltering patriotism. They endured with fortitude tearful partings from loved ones; mourned for those who fell, glorifying [p. 269] in their valor and their bravery; encouraged those in camp, and field by messages breathing love and patriotism; sewed for the sick and wounded, and tenderly nursed them back to life and health; looked after the widows and orphans; and in more ways than can be enumerated exhibited a patience, fortitude, and patriotism such as entitles them to share in the honor, the fame and the glory won in the field by Butler county's valorous sons.
[End of Chapter 18 - War of the Rebellion: History of Butler County Pennsylvania, R. C. Brown Co., Publishers, 1895]Previous Chapter 17--Early Military History
Updated 3 Jul 2001