1809 Ziba Webb the mouth of Conestoga. This hotel was kept in one end of a large building that stood at the mouth of the Conestoga Creek, and occupied as a warehouse, from which family flour was shipped down the Susquehanna River. John Kendrick Jr., on road to Moore's Fishery. This was afterwards called "Shenk's Ferry," at which place there is at this time a hotel.
1Kendig kept this tavern during the years 1805-9
Township officers, 1743-1840. No record of the township officers is in existence prior to the year 1743.
1743 David Jones, John Postlethwait, overseers of the poor.
1744 Adam and Stephen Brenneman, overseers of the poor.
1744-55 No records.
1755 Samuel Myer, Jacob Harnish, overseers of the poor.
1756 Joseph Stone, Abraham Kegy, overseers of the poor.
1757 Martin Kendrick, Abraham Blazler, overseers of the poor.
1758 David Jones, Tobias Stoneman, overseers of the poor.
1759 Abraham Beam, Adam Good, overseers of the poor.
1760 Samuel Hess, John Byers, overseers of the poor.
1761 Abraham Miller, John Miller, overseers of the poor.
1762 George Seiglar, Christian Brenneman, overseers of the poor.
1763 Melchoir Brenneman, Isaac Brenneman, overseers of the poor.
1764 Benedict Eshleman, Christian Forrer, overseers of the poor.
1765 No Record.
1766 Frederick Rathvon, Frederick Shopp, overseers of the poor.
1767 Ulrich Miller, Jacob Gochenauer, overseers of the poor.
1768 Henry Lesh, George Warfel, overseers of the poor.
1769 Jacob Menart, Jacob Cryttas, overseers of the poor.
1770 Michael Overstake, Michael Kreider, overseers of the poor.
1771 Abraham Newcomer, Peter Good, overseers of the poor; Samuel Hess, Samuel
1772 Adam Brenneman, Philip May, overseers of the poor; Abraham Newcomer, Samuel Myers, John Rahter, auditors.
1773 Frederick Rathvon, Abraham Kendig, overseers of the poor; Samuel Myers, John Rahter, auditors.
1774 Philip Swartz, Jacob Stones, overseers of the poor; John Rahter, Abraham Newcomer, auditors.
1775 Adam Kendig, Jacob Metzgar, overseers of the poor; Benedict Eshleman, Adam Gall, auditors.
1776 Philip Swartz, Jacob Stoner, overseers of the poor; John Rahter, Abraham Newcomer, auditors.
1777 The same officers served this year that served last.
1778 Andrew Fehl, Jacob Smith, overseers of the poor.
1779 Abraham Hess, William Falck, overseers of the poor; Frederick Rathvon and George Rathvon, auditors.
1780 Benjamin Eshleman, Daniel Brenneman, overseers of the poor; Abraham Newcomer.
1781 John Barr, Jacob Gochenauer, overseers of the poor; Abraham Newcomer, Martin Bare, auditors.
1782 Henry Deitrich, Ludwig Urban, overseers of the poor; Abraham Newcomer, Jacob Metzgar, Samuel Myers, auditors.
1783 No Records.
1784 John Beam, Jacob Fogel, overseers of the poor; George Rathvong, auditor (the only one named.
1785 John Beam, Jacob Harnish, overseers of the poor; Abraham Newcomer, Samuel Myers, auditors.
1786 No Records.
1787 Christian Forrer, John Bachman, overseers of the poor; George Rathvong, John Bear, Samuel Hess, auditors.
1788 _____ Ehrman, Tobias Johnson, overseers of the poor; Samuel Myers, Jacob Metzgar, auditors.
1789 John Bachman, Richard B. Armon, overseers of the poor; Jacob Metzgar, Samuel myers, auditors.
1790 Jacob Brenneman, Abraham Huber, overseers of the poor; Jacob Metzgar, Jacob Barr, auditors.
1791 Jacob Beam, Melchoir Hackman, overseers of the poor; Samuel myers, John Bear, auditors.
1792 No Records.
1793 Christian Gochenour, Jacob Deitrich, overseers of the poor; Henry Deitrich, Christian Shenk, auditors.
1794 Jacob Bear, Jacob Stoner, overseers of the poor; Samuel Myers, Michael Myers, auditors.
1795 No records.
1796 No records.
1797 Henry Gochenour, Michael Harnish, overseers of the poor; John Bachman, Henry Deitrich auditors.
1798 Jacob Myers, John Thomas, overseers of the poor; John Bachman, Henry Deitrich, auditors.
1799 No overseers of the poor named; Christian Hess, Abraham Huber, auditors.
1800 Michael Hess, Jacob Haverstick, overseers of the poor; Daniel Seabrooks, Jacob Myers, auditors.
1801-4 No records.
1805 Lewis Urban, John Burkholder, supervisors.
1806 Jacob Barr, Abraham Warfel, supervisors; Henry Resh, Daniel Sterneman, John Barr, auditors.
1807 Henry Deitrich, Lewis Urban, Jr. supervisors; Henry Resh, Daniel Sterneman, John Barr, auditors.
1808 Michael Hess, Christian Shenk, supervisors; John Good, Henry Resh, George Urban, auditors.
1809 John Brenneman, Jacob Warfel, supervisors; John Bachman Jr., Jacob Shenk, Henry Resh, auditors.
1810 Michael Kreider, George Stones, supervisors; Jacob Barr, Samuel Myers, John Bachman, Jacob Smith auditors.
1811 Jacob Warfel, John Beam, supervisors; George Yentzer, John Good, John Bachman, auditors.
1812 George Urban, Henry Resh, supervisors; John Good, Lewis Urban, Jacob Ripley, John Bachman, Jr., auditors.
1813 John Bachman Sr., Adam Warfel, supervisors; Christian Kendig, John Bachman Jr., Lewis Urban, Jacob Bachman, auditors; John Good, town clerk
1814 Jacob Haverstick, Adam Warfel, supervisors; Christian Kendig, Lewis Urban, auditors; John Good, town clerk.
1815 Christian Hess, _____ Eyman, supervisors; Christian Kendig, Herr Joseph, Lewis Urban, auditors; John Good, town clerk.
1816 Jacob Good, Abraham Gochenour, supervisors; John Good, Adam Warfel, auditors.
1817 Jacob Shenk, John Landis, supervisors; John Bachman, Christian Thomas, Adam Warfel, auditors.
1818 John Mehaffey, supervisor; William McMillan, John Bachman, Christian Thomas, auditors.
1819 Christian Hess, supervisor; John Good, John Bachman, Adam Warfel, Christian Thomas, auditors.
1820 Christian Hess, Michael Haverstick, supervisors; John Good, George Haverstick, Adam Warfel, Christian Thomas Auditors.
1821 John Hess, Jacob Heidlebaugh, supervisors; John Good, Jacob Ripley, John Bachman, auditors; George Yentzer, town clerk.
1822 Adam Thomas, John Hess, supervisors; Jacob Shenk, Benjamin Bear, Jacob Ripley, auditors; John Good, town clerk.
1823 Jacob Burkholder, Jacob Warfel, supervisors; John Good, Michael Haverstick, Jacob Ripley, auditors; John Good, town clerk.
1824 Jacob Ripley, Tobias Stehman, supervisors; John Good, George Haverstick, Adam Warfel, Christian Miller, auditors; John Warfel, town clerk.
1825 Jacob Menart, Michael Kreider, supervisors; George Haverstick, Adam Kendig, Christian Miller, auditors; George Yentzer, town clerk.
1826 George Kreider, Jacob Menart, supervisors; Adam Kendig, Benjamin Musser, Christian Miller, auditors; John Good, town clerk.
1828 Henry Charles, George Kreider, supervisors; Jacob Shenk, Jr., Jacob Fehl, Jr., John Good, Tobias Stehman, auditors.
1827 Daniel Hess, John Forrey, supervisors; Jacob Shenk Jr., Jacob Fehl Jr., John Good, Tobias Stehman, auditors; John Good, town clerk.
1828 Henry Charles, George Kreider, supervisors; Jacob Shenk Jr., Jacob Fehl Jr., John Good, Tobias Stehman, auditors.
1829 Adam Kendig, Christian Herr, supervisors; Jacob Shenk Jr., John Mecartney, Hugh Mehaffey, Henry Hess, auditors; George Yentzer, town clerk.
1830 Jacob Hess, Jacob Frantz, supervisors; Henry Hess, John Mccartney, Benjamin Charles, Jacob Fehl Jr, auditors; GEorge Yentzer, town clerk.
1831 Joseph Good, Jacob Frantz, supervisors; Christian Herr, Benjamin Musser, Jacob Shenk, Christian Zecher, auditors; Adam Duke, town clerk.
1832 Joseph Good, David Hess, supervisors; John Bachman, Jacob Frantz, Benjamin Good, auditors; Adam Duke, town clerk.
1833 Joseph Good, Jacob Good, supervisors; John Bachman, Jacob Frantz, Benjamin Good, auditors.
1834 Joseph Good, Jacob Good, supervisors; John Bachman, Christian Miller, John Mecartney, Jacob Fehl Jr., auditors.
1835 Conrad Sourbeer, John Johns, supervisors; David Book, Benjamin Musser, Christian Miller, auditors; Benjamin Urban, town clerk.
1836 Christian Shenk, John Huber, supervisors; David Book, Christian Miller, Henry Hess, auditors; Benjamin Urban, town clerk.
1837 Conrad Sourbeer, Christian Herr, supervisors; Christian Miller, Henry Hess, Benjamin Charles, auditors.
1838 John Byers, Martin Good, supervisors; Henry Hess, Samuel Mehaffey, Jacob Warfel, auditors.
740HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY
1839 Abraham Charles, John Byers, supervisors; Samuel Mehaffey, Jacob Warfel, auditors.
1840 John Lechy, Adam Warfel, supervisors; Samuel Mehaffey, John Brenneman, auditors.
Justices of the Peace
Samuel Mehaffy, April 14, 1840 Benjamin Urban, May 3, 1861
John McCartney, April 14, 1840 Jacob Fehl, April 12, 1864
John Kendig, April 13, 1841 Benjamin Urban, 1866
Daniel Fulton, April 12, 1842 Jacob Fehl, April 1869
John Martin, April 15, 1845 Benjamin Urban, April 1871
Daniel Fulton, April 12, 1847 John Martin, April, 1874
Hugh Mehaffy, April 10, 1849 B. S. McLane, April 1875
Daniel Fulton, April 15, 1852 Benjamin Urban, April, 1876
Hugh Mehaffy, April 11, 1854 B. S. McLane, April, 1880
Jacob Fehl, April 1854 A. G. Hudson , April, 1881
Hugh Mehaffy, April 18, 1859 Peter C. Hiller1, April 13, 1883
Jacob Fehl, April 19, 1859
County officers Elected from Conestoga. Michael Shenk, county commissioner in 1804; Jacob McAllister, county commissioner in 1832; John Warfel, member of the State Legislature in 1842; Hugh Mehaffey, register of wills in 1836-1839; Jacob G. Peters, member of the State Legislature in 1868; Dr. J. C. Gatchell, member of the State Legislature in 1871; John W. Urban, clerk of quarter Sessions in 1872-1874; Amos Groff, coroner in 1875-1877; John P. Good, recorder of deeds in 1880-82.
Freeholders of Conestoga Township in 1840
Aston, John Eshleman, Benjamin
Burkholder,Jacob Eshleman, David
Beam, John Eshleman, John K.
Barr, Benjamin Eby, Christian
Book, David Fehl, Jacob
Bair, David Fisher, John
Brenneman, Jacob Frantz, John
Buckwalter, John Good, Jacob Sr.
Brenneman, John Good, John
Buckwalter, David Good, Benjamin
Barr, Christian Good, Christian
Barr, Emanuel Good, John Jr.
Bachman, John Sr. Good Joseph
Brooks, Samuel Good, Jacob
Beck, Josiah Gardner, John
Barninger, Daniel Graver, John
Bostick, Jacob Groff, Jacob
Byers, Jacob Gall, Henry H.
Barr, Jacob Gall, Martin
Brubaker, David Gross, Michael
Bates, John Goutner , George
Brenneman, Abrm. Graybill, Jacob
Coleman, Edward Goodman, Jacob
Caldwell, James A. Harman, Philip
Charles, Henry Hess, Christian
Charles, John Harnish, David
Charles, Jacob Harnish, Michael
Conrad, Daniel Harnish, David
Charles, Daniel Harnish, Jacob
Costloe, John Haverstick, Abraham
Charles, Samuel Harnish, Abraham
Crummel, Christian, Sr. Hess, Christian
Christ Daniel Heidlebaugh, Henry
Caldwell, Edward Hess, Henry
Crossen, Samuel Hess, Jacob
Deitrich, Tobias Hess, Abraham
Doebler, George Hess, Rudolph
Duke, Thomas Hess, Daniel
Derridinger, John Heiney, John
Erb, Rudolph Hershock, John
Hable, Conrad Miller, Joseph
Herr, Martin Mundorf, Isaac
Herman, John Miller, Christian
Haverstick, David Miller, John
Herr, John Myer, Samuel
Hess, Michael Mehaffey, Hugh, Esq.
Hersh, Jacob Musser, John
Hoover, Daniel Musser, Samuel
Huber, John Musser, Jacob
Hess, David Manart, Jacob Sr.
Harnish, John Miller, Frederick
Hackman, Henry Miller, Martin
Hess, Samuel Miller, Christian
Hess, Edward Pennypacker, James
Harnish, Rudolph Russel, Samuel
Harnish, Benjamin Russel, Michael
Henry, Michael Ream, Frederick
Hillers, John Retz Daniel
Herr, Christian B. Rankin, Samuel
Hackman, Jacob Rohrer, Henry
Herr, Christian Rohrer, Christian
Henry, John Rohrer, Abner
Henry, Christian Sterneman, Daniel
Hershey Christian Sterneman, Christian
Hess, Abraham Stehman, Tobias B.
Harnish, Martin Stehman, Tobias, Sr.
Hess, Daniel Shenk, Henry
Henry, George Shenk, John
Herr, Henry Shenk, Jacob
Jones, John Stouter, Jacob
Kendig, Christian Shenk, Joseph
Kreider, George Shenk, Abraham
Kreider, Christian Shenk, Benjamin
Kreider, Jacob Shoff, Frederick
Kendig, Adam Stettler, Abraham
Kline, George Snavely, Christian
Kline, Peter Stoner, Jacob, Sr.
Keeports, John Snavely, Abraham
Kling, George Stettler, Emmanuel
Kling, Michael Shaub, John
Kreider, Michael Sr. Sourbeer, Conrad
Kendig, George Shenk, Christian
Kreider, John Thomas, Adam
Kneissley, Valentine Urban, George
Kienbortz, John Urban, John
Landis, John Esq. Warfel, Jacob
Lipp, Christopher Warfel, John
Lines, Christian Warfel, Jacob, Sr.
Lines, Abraham Warfel, Daniel
Lines, John Warfel, Christian
Myers, David Warfel, George
McCartney, John Warfel, George
Mehaffey, John Waller, Rubertus
Mylin, John Wright, James
Mylin, Christian Warfel, Abraham
Martin, David Yentzer, Jacob
Miller, Peter Jr. Yorden, Daniel
Mylin, Abraham Yeider, John
McAllister, Jacob Esq. Yeider, Emanuel
Mackey, Samuel Yordy, Christian
Musser, Benjamin Zercher, Andrew
Conestoga Centre was originally laid out in 1805, by John Kendig, and consisted of a part of thirty four acres, late the property of Martin Kendig, which John Reitzel, Sheriff, sold to Henry Brenneman in 1805. The original plan of the village was, however, never followed. The village is about a mile and a fourth in length, stretched along a ridge of considerable elevation; contains about ninety houses, and upwards of five hundred inhabitants. It has one post-office, three stores, two cigar manufactories, one saloon, one hotel, two blacksmith-shops, two cabinet
makers' shops, one cooper shop, four churches, three schools, and one shoe store.
Safe Harbor was laid out and built at the time of the erection of the iron-works at that place, though quite a number of houses had been put up there prior to that time. During the continuance of the operation of the iron-works it was the principal centre of population, but at present the greater part of the houses are unoccupied. It contains one furnace, one rolling-mill, one foundry, two stores, one drug-store, one school-house, one church, two hotels, and a postoffice.
Colemanville was built to accommodate the persons employed in the iron-works there erected.
Slackwater.-The greater portion of the houses in this village are owned by John A. Schober, owner of the paper-mills, and are occupied principally the the employees of the mill.
Rockhill is a small-post town situated on the Conestoga River, about midway between Slackwater and Safe Harbor, containing a grist-mill, hotel, blacksmith-shop , about twenty dwelling houses, and a post-office.
Schools--The common school system was adopted by Conestoga township in the year 1836, which had at that time 561 taxables.
In 1837 1 it had 9 school houses, 9 teachers, and 567 pupils. The tax levied for the same year was $800, the State appropriation was $1124.35; total receipts for 1837, $1960.52; expenditures $1777; expended for buildings, $575.
The tenth school house was built in 1865. This is a two-story brick building. The lower room was owned by the township, and the upper story by a stock company. In 1876 it was burned down, and the school directors purchased the stock company's interest and built a school-house with two rooms, but furnishing and using only the lower for school purposes. All the school houses are of brick or stone, and are valued at an average of $1200 each.
In 1877, or forty years after the adoption of the common school system, the township had 10 schoolhouses, 10 teachers, and 503 pupils. The tax levied was $3989.64; State appropriation, $420.44; total receipts, 5059.64; expenditures $4322.87; expanded for buildings, $600.
For 1882 the tax levied was $3611.75; State appropriation, $435.46; total receipts $5138.77. Expenditures, teachers' wages, $2416; building, $1224.40; total expenditures $4408.01. Cash on hand, $730.76. The present directors are Amos Warfel, H. H. Kurtz , Andrew Good, Adam Good, Jacob Harnish, and Samuel Crossen.
Safe Harbor Independent School District.--This district comprises the property owned by the Safe harbor Iron Company. It was part of Conestoga township until about 1854, when application was made to have it a separate school district.
It has two schools, but at present only one house, the other (a brick) being destroyed by a storm a few years since.
In 1882 the schools were held on the second floor of Odd-Fellows Hall, eighty pupils being in attendance.
The tax assessed for 1882 was $350; State appropriation $22; total receipts, $372; expenditures, $5.00. Present directors are W. W. Bones, president; George T. Rose, secretary; Theodore F. Patterson, treasurer; Christian B. Henry, George A. Tripple, Alonzo G. Hudson.
The teachers of Conestoga Township who were educated and began the work at home were;
Joseph R. Urban, retired.
Casper Hiller, now a fruit-grower.
Calvin B. Kendig, now of Buffalo, N. Y.
Adam Kendig, lately a German Reformed minister, now deceased
John M. Kendig, now a minister of the Reformed Church in Ohio.
John J. Zercher, deceased.
Christian R. Sterneman, now a dentist in Iowa.
W. W. Woods, now of York County.
Samuel L. Fehl , George J. Fehl, now farming.
Ann Costolo, deceased.
Henrietta Costolo, now the wife of John W. Gardner.
James E. Hess, deceased.
Benjamin K. Maynard, now of lancaster.
B. F. W. Urban, druggist and physician, Lancaster, Pa.
Sallie A. Hess, not teaching at present.
Mary E. Lenhardt, now teaching in Manor township.
Peter C. Hiller, now teaching in Conestoga and a justice of the peace.
George E. Lawrence, now teaching in Conestoga.
Samuel B. Good, now teaching in Conestoga.
Samuel S. Mehaffey, deceased.
Sebastion Rohrer, now a house carpenter.
Jacob O. Rohrer, now teaching in Pequea township.
Martin L. Kendig, now a cigar-maker.
William K. Sourbeer, deceased.
Frederick Sourbeer, now a minister of the Reformed Church in York, York Co., Pa.
H. H. Rhineer, now teaching in Conestoga.
Charles H. Fralich, now teaching in Manor township.
Old Mennonite Church-The first building belonging to this denomination in Conestoga township was a small log house, built on the site of the present one about the year 1760, under the supervision of Benedict Eshleman. Among the original members were Joseph Miller, Daniel Hess, Anna Hess, John Reider, Barbara Derridinger, and Jacob Good. In 1828 the log building had to give way to a larger one
1At this time Conestoga included Pequea Township
742HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY
which was built of stone during the summer of this year. In 1882 the old building was remodeled and made considerably larger. Its present seating capacity is about three hundred and fifty persons.
There are at present connected with the church fifty members, the value of church property being about three thousand five hundred dollars. The following ministers have served the church in the order named: John Shenk, Daniel Sterneman, Samuel Myers, Henry Shenk, John Huber, Joseph Burkholder, Martin Miller, John Harnish, and Abraham Herr, who are the present ministers.
The African Methodist Episcopal Church was organized in 1839, and in the following year a neat frame building was put up. The original members were Simon Richardson, John Wanner, Washington Cooper, Harriet Sweeny, Nancy Richardson, Susan Wanner, and Sarah Harley.
In 1875 the old house was torn down and a new frame building, with a seating capacity of one hundred and seventy-five persons, was put up under the supervision of Mrs. Harriet J. Sweeny. The cornerstone was laid in the summer, and it was dedicated in the fall of 1875.
The following ministers have officiated in the order in which they are named, each having served two years; Jacob P. Hamar, Abner Bishop, Henry H. Blackson, Isaac Gathaway, _____ Johnston, Jacob Anderson, _____ Harris, James Payton, Henderson Davis, _____ Norris, A. A. Robinson, _____ Campbell, J. R. Davis, and L.. L. Hamilton, who is the present minister.
The German Reformed Church, Conestoga Centre, was reorganized on Whitsunday, 1842. The original organization took place a number of years prior to this time. The earliest knowledge attainable is from a deed dated July 1, 1820, for a tract of land containing twenty perches, deeded to them and the Lutheran congregation at Conestoga on a warrant of Aug. 30, 1791, and surveyed on the 12th of October, 1791. At the time of the reorganization Rev. C. F. Hoffman, a student of Rev. G. W. Glessner, was the regular minister for seven years. In 1844 they built a brick church on the same ground on which stood the Lutheran Church (a frame building over one hundred years old), in which they have worshiped since. Rev. E. D. Reinecke, the next minister, served four years; Joel L. Reber, three years; C. W. Hoffmier, two years; J. F. Eckert, twelve years; S. D. Steckel, one year; A. B. Shenkle, nine years; J. P. Moore, six years. The church has a capacity for seating two hundred and fifty persons. The church was remodeled in 1881, under the supervision of J. R. Yentzer. The present value of the church property is two thousand five hundred dollars; the present number of members, forty-five. Connected with the church there is a Sunday-school with an average of fifty pupils.
The Evangelical Association- This association or, as it is known in some localities, "The Albrights" built their first church in Conestoga township, on the road leading from Conestoga Centre to Safe Harbor, in the year 1846, at which time the church was organized. The building was frame, and was used as a place of worship until the year 1873, when they built a new house of brick at a cost of about two thousand dollars. The first trustees were Jacob McAllister, Jacob Hackman, and Benjamin Kneissley. The following are the names of the ministers; Rev. Fred. Danner, Hull, Cole, Shulty, Francis Lare, James Lare, Jacob Addamey, Samuel Hambright, Moses Dissinger, C. Becker, M. Henry, Joseph Specht, Widner, S. Harper, W. Black, Shoemaker, A. Stirk, Samuel J. Homberger, Jesse Lawrence, A. De Long, Markley, Knerr, Jacob Zern, Cautner, and F. A. Hess, the present minister. Benjamin Kneisley is a local preacher in this church, and has been such for a number of years. The number of baptisms have been seventy. There are at present fifty members. The present trustees are Peter Snavely, Benjamin Kneissley, John Lynes, Benjamin Warfel, and Amos McAlister.
Colemanville Methodist Episcopal Church was organized in 1849 by members of the church at Mount Nebo, Martic township. The original members were Morris Clark, James A. Ewing, George McCombs, Benjamin Stoner, Daniel Keller, and a number of others. These same persons constituted the first board of trustees, and also the building committee. The building, a neat brick, was finished early in the fall of 1849, and was dedicated at that time by Rev. J. Sanderson, who was the preacher in charge at that time and for two succeeding years. The first class-leader was Morris Clark. The land upon which the church was built was donated by Mrs. Coleman. The following are the other pastors who had charge; Revs. Joseph Cook, two years; H. B. Mauger, three years; _____ Edwards, two years; J. N. Magee, two years; ____ Cumins, two years; W. L. Gray, two years; H. H. Bodine, two years; N. W. Bennum, two years; George L. Sheaffer, two years; James Gregg, two years; S. Horwell, two years; W. W. McMichel, two years; F. Illman, two years; F. M. Collins, two years; T. Montgomery, two years; R. C. Wood, the present pastor. During the first year the church was built there were thirty members; at present the membership numbers forty-four. The church property is valued at fifteen hundred dollars.
The Roman Catholic Church at Safe Harbor was organized as part of St. Mary's Church of Lancaster City, about the year 1853. The following year (1854) the puddlers of the Safe Harbor Iron-Works built a neat, substantial stone church. The first clergyman was Rev. John Balf. The house was built under the supervision of the Right Rev. Father Keenan. The other ministers were Revs. O'Brien, J. C. Hickey, and McMonagan.
During the continuance of the operation of the iron-works regular state meetings were held, that is,
up to the summer of 1865, after that only at long intervals until the fall of 1880, from then to the fall of 1882 meetings were held every four weeks. There are, at present, residing at Safe Harbor less than a dozen members, and no meetings have been held for nearly a year.
Conestoga Centre Methodist Episcopal Church was organized in August, 1856. An informal meeting was held in the house of Dr. B. S. Kendig early in August, at which time the matter of organizing a church here was spoken of, and a meeting for the purpose of organizing was called for August 13th, at which the following board of trustees were elected; Rev. William Major, Christian B. Herr, James Bones, John Perkins , Joseph R. Urban, Frederick M. Brady, Daniel Rhineer, and John Campbell; Rev. William Major, president; Joseph R. Urban, secretary; and F. M. Brady, treasurer. At the same time the following building committee was appointed; Rev. William Major, A. M. Warfel, Frances B. Groff, John H. Lorimer, and Dr. B. S. Kendig. Shortly after this the building was begun, and in the fall the corner-stone was laid. Rev. Mr. Major conducting the services. The following spring (1857) the church was dedicated to the service of God by Revs. Curtis F. Turner and William Major. The original members were Joseph R. Urban, Elizabeth Urban, Abraham M. Warfel, Elizabeth Warfel, Henry B. Shenk, Matilda Shenk, Frances B. Groff, John H. Lorimer, F. M. Brady, Esther Mehaffey, Daniel Rhineer, Hugh Mehaffey, Esq., Dr. B. S. Kendig, Susan Kendig, John Jones, Susan Jones, Christian Hupper, Mary Hupper, Henry Flinchbaugh, C. K. Henry, John Henry, and Leah Brady. Their first meetings were held in the dwelling-house of Joseph R. Urban.
Following is a list of the pastors of the church and the length of time each served: William Major, two years, assisted by T. J. Martin, three months; C. Walters, one year, assisted by _____ Formosa, one year; H. B. Mauger, two years, assisted by A. Fisher, two years; William B. Gregg, two years, assisted by George B. Shaffer, two years; William M. Dalrymple, two years; John Watson, two years; John Kessler, three years; David Shenk, two years; H. B. Mauger, two years; F. M. Collins, one year; J. G. Hare, two years; F. M. Brady, two years; J. W. Harkins, three years; A. J. Amthor, the present pastor.
There are at present forty members. The church property is valued at two thousand five hundred dollars.
Connected with the church there is a Sunday-school, with an average of sixty pupils, under the present superintendency of B. F. Hookey.
Burial Grounds-In giving these the oldest dates as recorded upon the gravestones can only be given. Nearly all of them were set apart for his purpose many years before, but we have no means at our command of ascertaining the length of time they have been established.
On Valentine Warfel's farm, near Safe Harbor, the older grave marked is that of F. Menart, 1774.
On George J. Fehl's farm, near Slackwater, are stones marked Andreas Fehl, died in 1783; Andreas Fehl, Jr. died 1795; the latest burial, Catharine Lenhardt, Sept. 28, 1880. This lot contains about fifty burials.
The German Reformed Cemetery, connected with the church in Conestoga Centre, contains the following marked stones: Andreas Martin and Peter Kline, 1784; Jacob Metzgar, July 8, 1790. This ground contains about six hundred bodies.
On Christian E. Miller's farm burying-ground, on road from Conestoga Centre to Shenk's Ferry, first marked burial was made in 1797, name illegible. Contains about twenty.
On Jacob Bausman's farm, near Colemanville, the oldest marked grave is that of Barbara Stehman, Jan. 17, 1793; Henry Steman, April 16, 1793, aged forty four years; Peter Warfel, March 27, 1802; Peter Warfel, Jr., Feb. 6, 1803; George Warfel, Sept. 14, 1804. Latest burial Adam Warfel, October, 1859. Contains about one hundred and fifty bodies.
On Samuel Harnish's farm graveyard at Shenk's Ferry. This ground contains no stones to mark the graves, except the members of the Shenk family who have died lately.
On Elizabeth Kendig's farm, on the road from Conestoga Centre to Slackwater, the oldest marked grave is that of Henry Hackman, who died in 1776, aged fifty-one years; the cemetery contains about seventy-five graves.
On Jacob Stehman's farm, on the road from Conestoga Centre to Slackwater. This burial-ground was established in 1806 by the Stehman family. John Stehman being the first person buried there in that year; Elizabeth Keller, who died in 1880, being the last.
The Colemanville Methodist Episcopal Church burial-ground was established in 1849.
The Colored or African Methodist Episcopal Church burying-ground was established in 1846; first burial was Nancy Richardson, who died at that time. In it are about fifty burials.
The Evangelical Association's burying-ground was first established in 1846 at their church near Safe Harbor, but at the time of the building of their new church all the bodies were removed to these grounds.
The Methodist Episcopal Burying-ground was established at the time of building the church in 1856, and now contains upwards of one hundred and fifty graves.
On Benjamin Good's (now Frank Warfel's) farm near Colemanville; this ground contains about twenty burials.
On the Abraham Buckwalter (deceased) farm, near Conestoga Centre; contains about fifty burials.
The Catholic burying-ground connected with the church at Safe Harbor contains about fifty.
744HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY
On John Hess' farm, on the road from Conestoga Centre to Marticville , a graveyard was established in 1841, and contains twenty graves.
On Jacob Harnish's farm, on the road from Conestoga Centre to Lancaster, a graveyard was established about the year 1790, and contains about fifty graves.
Conestoga Lodge, No, 334, I.O.O.F., was instituted as Safe Harbor in 1848, and had a successful existence until the breaking out of the great civil war, when the greater part of its members enlisted. After the close of the war its prospects brightened, and it is at this period in a flourishing condition. Its charter was granted by the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania on the 20th day of October, A. D. 1848. The charter members were Benjamin Middleton, James H. Collins, Alexander H. Carpenter, Adna S. Gillet, and Jacob K. Habecker.
The position of Noble Grand has been filled by Rev. George A. Tripple, Urias Warfel, William W. Bones, William W. Tripple, Samuel Crossen, L. D. Douglass, B. F. Hookey, Rev. Ephraim Potts, Samuel Z. Tripple, S. M. Wright, Joseph B. Wright, J. J. Watson, Thomas C. WRight, John Clark, Jacob B. Urban, and others, some of which we have been unable to learn.
The membership at present is sixty. The meetings are held every Saturday evening in the Odd-Fellows' Hall at Safe Harbor. The room is finely furnished, at a cost of about one thousand dollars. The building is now the property of the Safe Harbor Iron Company.
Present officers; Thomas C. Wright, N. B. ; Daniel R. Shenk, V. G.; W. W. bones, Sec; Urias Warfel, Treas.
Kishacaquillas Tribe, I. O. R. M., No. 65, was instituted at Conestoga Centre in November, 1865, and had a successful existence until the year 1877, when it dwindled almost out of existence, but has since revived, and is at present increasing rapidly in membership.
In February, 1876, the building in which the lodge met was burned, which entailed a loss of several hundred dollars upon the lodge, which was the cause of its crippled condition. In 1877 they built a frame building, twenty-six by thirty-six feet, two stories, at a cost of two thousand one hundred dollars, and at present their meeting-room is tastefully furnished, at an additional cost of eight hundred dollars.
The original number of members were fifteen. The charter members were Dr. Peter S. Clinger, Jacob Henry, Benjamin F. Hookey, John J. Watson, Jacob B. Urban, Rev. Ephraim Potts, John Clark, B. Frank Watson, Dr. J. C. Gatchell, John T. Henry and John M. Kendig.
First officers: John J. Watson, Sachem; John R. Witmer, S. Sag; B. Frank Watson, J. Sag.; Jacob B. Urban, H. of Wamp.; Rev. E. Potts, C. of Rec.; J. M. Kendig, Prophet.
Charles M. Howell Lodge, No., 496, F. and A. M., was instituted Aug. 17, 1871, with the following charter members: Thomas J. Davis, of No. 43; William J. Fordney, of No. 43; Charles J. Rhoads, of No. 43; William W. Bones, of No. 43; and David F. Young, W. W. Tripple, Urias Warfel, and John J. Tripple, of No. 156. The first officers were T. J. Davis, W. M.; William J. Fordney , S. W.;' C. J. Rhoads, J.W.; W. W. Bones, Sec.; and David Davis, Treas. The lodge had in July, 1883, forty members, but the aggregate membership has been about fifty. Its meetings are held in Odd-Fellows Hall at Safe Harbor, which has accommodations for two hundred persons, on the Friday evening on or before full moon. The present officers are W. W. Bones, W. M; E. T. Kauffman, S. W.; Theodore F. Seiple, J. W.; W. W. Tripple, Sec.; David O. Herr, Treas.; Dr. E. B. Herr, Chaplain.
Myers Tannery was started in operation in October, 1812, owned by Samuel Myers, and operated by Socrates Myers, afterwards operated by Samuel Myers & Son (Rudolph) to 1839, then by Rudolph Myers from 1839 to 1876, and by Abraham Myers (Rudolph's son) from 1876 to the present time. He tans from eight hundred to one thousand hides and from five hundred to six hundred calf-skins per annum. He uses horse-power for grinding the bark.
Pequea Iron Company was first organized under the name of the Pequea Magnetic Iron Mining Company, on the 23d of January, 1881, for the purpose of concentration magnetic iron ore, being the first corporation attempting to concentrate magnetic ore in the United States. The first officers were John J. Zeigler, president; William Hart Carr, secretary; and John F. Kelly, treasurer. Present officers are John J. Zeigler, president; Samuel Wilson, secretary; and F. F. Bernadon, treasurer, all of Philadelphia. The company owns large and extensive magnetic mines of a low grade, running from sixteen to fifty per cent., , which is concentrated up to seventy per cent. grade, making it fit for all uses of a high grade magnetic ore.
The main building is thirty-five feet by one hundred and fifty feet, with an L thirty-five feet by fifty feet, containing a Fontaine & Abbot engine of eighty horse power, three Foster Crushers, with a capacity of one hundred and fifty tons per day of twenty-four hours, and three concentrating tables. There is connected with the mines a steam-pump capable of throwing 14,800 gallons per hour, and a reservoir with a capacity of 135,000 gallons. Mr. Charles Douglass is the superintendent.
The Safe Harbor Iron-Works, - These works consist of a blast-furnace, foundry, and rolling-mill.
They were built in 1846 by David Reeves, Samuel J. Reeves, Dr. Pancoast, and Charles and George Abbott, all of Philadelphia. The building of these works was brought about by the discovery of vast amounts of iron ore in the immediate vicinity. The principal product was railroad iron, great quantities of which were used by the Pennsylvania Railroad Company when the railroad came into possession of the present company. These works continued running steadily from the completion of their building until 1865, when the dam across the Susquehanna River, which connected the Conestoga Canal with the Tide-Water Canal, was destroyed, thus cutting off the means of transportation. They remained inactive until the fall of 1879. The works finally came into possession of David and Samuel J. Reeves, whose heirs are the present owners. The works were all built under the supervision of Mr. John Griffen, the present general superintendent of the Phoenix Iron Company, and it was here that Mr. Griffin first made his wrought-iron, many of which were used during the late civil war by the Union army.
In the fall of 1879 the mill was again put in operation for the purpose of manufacturing puddle iron for the use of Phoenix Iron Company at Phoenixville, and also for working the Du Pay direct process. During the winter of 1879 and 1880 the company built a branch railroad one mile in length for the purpose of connecting their works with the Columbia and Port Deposit Railroad, which runs along the Susquehanna River. The blast-furnace has not been in operation since 1865.
The following gentlemen have been the superintendents in the order named: John Griffen, Wyatt W. Miller, Samuel M. Wright, Isaac Reeves, and Theodore F. Patterson, the latter gentleman being there at present. The product of the mills under his management in the year 1882 was ten thousand net tons of puddle iron.
The Slackwater Paper-Mills-These mills are owned and operated by John A. Shober, of Lancaster. They are located in the north end of the township, on the Conestoga River, from which it receives its supply of water. The mill is used for the manufacture of book and news paper from rags, under the management of the proprietor. Up to the spring of 1866 part of the buildings were used as a grist mill, at which time it was purchased by Emanuel Shober, father of the present owner, and converted into a paper-mill; extensive extensions were made to accommodate the business, and in November of the same year the mill was put in operation. The buildings are in the form of a hollow square, the open face towards the public road leading from Slackwater to Millersville. The front building is three stories high. Upon entering the building we come into the finishing-room, where the paper is made ready for shipment, to the left of which are two twenty horse-power steam boilers, used for generating the steam used for drying the paper and cooking the rags and paper stock, heating the buildings, etc; passing from this room we next enter the paper-making machine-room, which is one hundred and forty feet long by thirty feet wide, wherein is a sixty-six-inch Fourdrinier paper machine, having a capacity of five tons of paper per day of twenty-four hours, and is driven by a twenty-three-inch Leffell turbine water wheel; turning to the left, we next enter the pulping-room, which is forty by eighty feet, in which are four beating-rag engines and one Jordan pulping-engine, which are used to reduce the half-stuff into pulp preparatory to going on to the paper-machine; then turning again to the left, we enter the rag-boiling room, in which are one large rotary rag-boiler, twenty feet long and six feet in diameter, in which the rags are boiled in alkali under a pressure of sixty pounds, with a capacity of boiling five tons of in twenty-four hours, and also iron vats used in boiling, sizing, etc. The second floor front is used for millwright and machine-shops, rag-sorting, rag-cutting, dusting, etc. The third floor front is used for storing rags and all kinds of paper stock. Passing from the pulping-room to the right, we enter a room wherein are three washing-engines, used in washing the rags and reducing them to half-stuff preparatory to using them on the pulping-engines, to the right of which is another rotary boiler, twenty feet long and five feet in diameter, used in boiling stock, also several large iron tanks used for dissolving chloride of lime (bleaching salts) for the purpose of bleaching the rags and other stock used in the manufacture of paper. The second floor of this part of the building is used for storing and assorting. From this part of the building we next enter a room parallel to the face of the main building, one hundred and twenty feet long and thirty feet wide, which is intended for a machine-room, in which another sixty-six inch Fourdrinier paper-machine will be placed during the year. The whole machinery of the mill is driven by five Leffell turbine water-wheels. There are forty persons employed by Mr. Shober. the product during last year (1882) was four tons of paper per day, and will for this year (1883) be six tons per day. All the stock used in this mill in the manufacture of paper is gathered in Lancaster and adjoining counties.
Cigar Manufactories- The leading cigar manufacturer of Conestoga township is J. R. Yentzer, who resides in Conestoga Centre. The business was first started by Mr. Yentzer's father in 1830, and by him carried on until 1962, when J. R. began and still continues. Mr. Yentzer employs an average of fifteen persons, and makes upwards of one million cigars annually, which he sells at wholesale and retail. He ships many of his cigars to nearly all the Western and Middle States.
Maris Good began in May, 1882, with one hand and increased during the year to five. There was manufactured at his factory during the year over two
746HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY
hundred and fifty thousand cigars. At present he is manufacturing over fifty thousand per month, and has in his employ at present (July, 1883) 12 persons.
Some of the Prominent Families of Conestoga.-The Miller family originally came from Zurich, Switzerland. The earliest one of the family of which we were able to learn was Jacob Miller. He received a patent for a tract of land in Conestoga township, containing one hundred acres and the usual allowance, from Thomas and Richard Penn. bearing date April 1, 1748.
Jacob had a son named Abraham, to whom he willed the farm, who devised the same to his son John. John, having no sons, devised the farm to his nephew, Amos Miller. At present the farm is owned by David H., the second son of Amos.
Amos Miller was one of the school directors of the township from 1850 to 1854. He died in 1864, leaving the following children: Henry H., married to Barbara Warfel, residing on one of the Postelthwait farm (the one upon which the children of J. Postlethwaite are buried); David H., unmarried, residing on the old homestead; Fanny, married to John Becker, of Lancaster township; and John, unmarried.
Andrew Fehl came from Wutemberg in September, 1749, and first settled in Manor township. He moved into Conestoga township in 1764, and purchased the property that still remains in the Fehl family. He had two sons, Jacob and Andrew. Jacob became the next owner of the farm, and after him his son Jacob, who was the father of Jacob Fehl, Esq., who was a justice of the peace for Conestoga township for over thirty years. This same property is now in possession of George J. Fehl, one of Jacob, Esq.'s sons, his other sons, Samuel L. and Albert, residing close by the old homestead. It was on this farm that the first Court of General Quarter Sessions was held while owned by John Postlethwait, and has now been in the Fehl family over one hundred and twenty years.
The Warfel family came originally from one of the German States. There were three brothers; two of them settled in Conestoga township, one in the northern and the other in the southern part.
Peter Warfel lived on the farm belonging at present to William Rice, his son Adam, next owning the same. Adam had several children, of whom John became a member of the Legislature in 1842, prior to which time he held several prominent positions in his native township. He died in 1865, leaving a widow and five sons and three daughters. The sons of one daughter are yet living.
Amos is in Conestoga township. He was one of the auditors of the township for three years, and is at present serving his second term of three years as a school director. Jacob, residing in Millersville. John M., now residing on a farm originally granted by Thomas and Richard Penn to Michael Quackel in 1761, and by him to Rudy Miller in 1763, and by him to Andreas Fehl in 1764, and by him to Jacob Miller in 1772, and by him devised unto his eight children, and in Orphans' Court, held at Lancaster, it was decreed that John Miller have and hold the same, etc. in 1782, and in the same year sold by him to Henry Lighty, and by him to Daniel Sterneman in 1792. He has held the offices of inspector and judge of elections for three successive years.
In addition to this family, there are other Warfels in the township, prominent among whom are Christian Warfel, who has been school director and auditor a number of years; George W., also a school director; Henry, a very extensive tobacco-raiser and general farmer; George B., farmer; and Valentine, a retired farmer. The Warfel family is not only one of the oldest in the township, but is among its wealthiest and most respected inhabitants.
Casper Hiller was born in Manor township in 1817, and removed to Conestoga township in 1828, since which time he has resided in the latter township. In 1837, one year after the adoption of the common-school system by the township, he began teaching school, and continued until 1849. In the latter year he began a small nursery, growing fruit, shade, and ornamental trees for the accommodation of those wanting them in the immediate neighborhood, and a few years after began growing fruit for profit. In the fall of 1869 he took into partnership with him his son , Peter C., and is yet engaged in the same business on a small scale in connection with a small farm of about thirty-five acres. He was elected a school-director in 1852, and re-elected to fill the position until the year 1865. He was a delegate to the Lancaster County conventions for nominations of county officers for many years, but since the adoption of the Crawford County system of nominating officers, has retired from politics. His children are Peter C., John, Emma, and Clara. Peter C. began teaching in 1866, and has been engaged in teaching ever since, with the exception of three years, and is at present one of the justices of the peace for the township; John, a house carpenter, now employed at the Pequea Iron Company's mine. Both live in Conestoga Centre. Emma and Clara, both married, are residing in Martic township.
Casper Hiller has been prominently connected with the State Horticultural Association of Pennsylvania and the Lancaster County Agricultural and Horticultural Society for many years and has produced and read many valuable papers on fruit-growing and farm products before these organizations. He has also been a surveyor and conveyancer for the last forty years.
Martin Kendig emigrated from Berne, Switzerland. He had two sons, Martin and Jacob. Martin had three sons and two daughters. John, one of his sons married Fanny Witmer, and lived in Conestoga township,
keeping hotel in Conestoga Centre as early as 1804, on what was then known as the road from Lancaster to Burkholder's Ferry. They had three sons and one daughter, -John Martin, Daniel, and Martha. John married Elizabeth Kline, and from her had three sons and three daughters. After Elizabeth's death he married Esther Sangree, from whom he had one son and two daughters, - Benjamin S., Sarah, and Catherine. Benjamin S. became a practicing physician in 1844, and continued practicing medicine until 1878. In 1863 he began purchasing and packing tobacco, packing that year about two hundred cases, employing a capital of about five thousand dollars, and increasing the business to such an extent that in 1869 he had to build a warehouse twenty-eight by thirty-four feet, and he is at present using it and three large ones in Lancaster, packing this year (1883) four thousand five hundred cases, and employing a capital of two hundred and twenty-five thousand dollars, employing during the season from sixty to seventy hands. The doctor's father died when he was six years of age, and left him without any pecuniary assistance. All his success in life he owes to his determination in early life to succeed. His children are D. G. (associated with him in packing tobacco, the name of the firm being Kendig & Son), C. Walter, William, Clara, and Esther.
Dr. P. S. Clinger came from Upper Oxford township, Chester Co., in the year 1843. He graduated from Washington University, at Baltimore, Md., in the spring of 1843, and came here and began the practice of medicine in March of the same year. He was prominent in politics of the township and county, being a delegate from Conestoga many years until the adoption of the Crawford County system, since which he seldom takes any active part. He was examining surgeon for the Ninth Congressional District for nine years, serving a part of the time under Lincoln's and the remainder of the time under Grant's administrations. The doctor has had a lucrative practice, and owns one of the finest residences in Conestoga Centre.
Dr. Jacob L. Mowery was born in Strasburg township in June, 1855. At the age of twenty-one years he began the study of medicine in the office of Dr. I. H. Mayer, of Willow Street, and graduated at the Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia, in March, 1878, and began the practice in April, at which time he came into this township. In May, 1881, he married Mr. John Steigleman's daughter, of Manor township. The doctor then purchased the property used as a hotel for seventy-nine or eighty years in Conestoga Centre, and moved into it in June, 1881, remodeling it and making therefrom a handsome residence.
Military. The following-named persons served as soldiers from Conestoga township in the great civil conflict:
Capt. George H. Hess William W. Aument
Capt. William G. Wasson Jacob J. Brady
1st Lieut. Calvin BKendig John A. Diel
1st Lieut. Wm. A. Trapnell Mifflin A. Campbell
2d Lieut. David Warfel Martin Daily
2d Lieut. Amos M. Sourbeer Amos Funk
Elias Funk Abraham M. Gall
John R. Courtney Benjamin E. Hess
Frank Sourbeer Jeremiah E. Hess
Jacob Shaub Zachariah E. Hess
John F. Dabler Daniel Hess
William Klineyoung Aaron Henry
James Boyle William Houseal
Miller Brady David S. Herr
Mark Beatty Benjamin Harmon
Aaron Fralich William Hickey
John Hill John Little
Amos Hoak John May
John Hebble Henry May
Jacob Hiller Joseph G. Rankin
Isaac Musser Martin W. Ressel
John McFarland William H. Lyons
John Sourbeer Noah Wade
Henry Shoff Hiram Daily
Franklin Smith Charles Davis
Charles D. Tripple Franklin Sourbeer
John W. Urban Benjamin F. Daily
B. F. W. Urban Samuel Lee
Frederick Virling David Lee
Urie Wilson Benjamin Fralich
Rohrer Phrame Joseph Urban
John McLaughlin Amos S. Urban
Jacob Stouter William Harley
F. M. Sourbeer Wesley Evans
Frank E. Jones Joseph Martin
George H. Daveler Martin Gossel
Jacob Crummel Christian Koll
John P. Good John Sawyer
Benjamin Kneissley Simon McCue
Ephraim Potts Amos Daveler
Amos Chambers Samuel H. Hess
Gustavus A. Kendig Henry Hall
Christ A. Lines John Caldwell
Benjamin K. Maynard Frank Henry
The following is a list of men who went into the field on the invasion of Pennsylvania:
Captain Calvin B. Kendig Albert Hull
1st Lieut. Casper Hiller Jacob Henry
2d Lieut. Ephraim Potts John Heron
Michael Benedict Jacob Hess
John J. Watson Valentine Kneissley
Jacob R. Yentzer Samuel S. Mehaffey
Eli W. Shenk Obed. Musser
Benjamin Hess Amos Musser
John M. Kendig John Miller
Amaziah W. Erb Benjamin Markley
Henry Hall Amos Eckman
Christian Benedict James McPherson
Frank Carrigan John Rohrer
Benjamin F. Hookey Jacob Ream
Benjamin Bortzfield Michael Rathvon
P. Martin Bruner John M. Shenk
William Chambers Philip Sourbeer
Daniel Eckman David Tressler
John Finen Aaron G. Warfel
Samuel Gall, Sr. Christian Yentzer
William Guiles, Jr. John Zell
Daniel Hess John J. Zercher
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