Erie County, Pennsylvania

History of Erie County, Pennsylvania 1884

by Samuel P. Bates, 

Submitted by Gaylene Kerr Banister


 

Part III Chapter VII
Leading Manufacturing Interests - Board of Trade and Business Statistics

The earliest attempt at manufacturing in Erie was made in 1795-96, when Capt. Russell Bissell erected a saw-mill near the mouth of Mill Creek, which gave rise to the name of that stream. The dam was built just east of Parade street, and nearly opposite Fourth. This mill was used by the garrison in getting out building material for barracks, swellings, etc., and stood until 1820, when it was burned down. In 1831, George W. Reed and William Himrod built another saw-mill on the old site, the frame of which was standing for more than thirty years after its erection.

The second saw-mill erected in the immediate vicinity of Erie, was built by John Cochran in 1800, on the site of the Densmore Mill, which is just across the southern boundary line of the city. The following year, he added a grist mill, both being constructed of logs; but in the year 1816, John Teel replaced them by a frame, which was subsequently operated by John Gray and son James, Jonathan Baird and John McClure. In May, 1836, upon the death of John Cochran, it fell into the hands of his son Robert, and about 1845 was sold to Gen. C. M. Reed, who soon conveyed it to George A. Eliot. In 1850, Mr. Eliot gave the control of it to his son John, who in March, 1871, sold it to Henry Shottwell; thence it passed into the possession of William Densmore, by whom it is now operated.

In 1806, Robert Brotherton built a saw mill at or near the site of the Hopedale Mill, in South Erie. The farm and mill was purchased by John Gingrich, and the latter was discontinued when timber became scarce in the neighborhood. An oil mill was subsequently erected there by C. Siegel. Upon his father's death, Henry Gingrich inherited the property, and about 1850, built a flouring mill, which he called "Hopedale." This mill was operated for some years by Oliver & Bacon, who left it in 1865, having secured the canal mills, and it was then taken by its owner Henry Gingrich.

During the years 1807-8, another saw mill was erected on Mill Creek at its intersection with Eighth street, by Thomas Forster and William Wallace, who got control of the water power from Twelfth to Parade streets. About 1810, R. S. Reed purchased the property and built a grist mill below, and in 1822, George Moore bought these mills and added thereto a carding and fulling mill. Some time during the winter of 1834-35, the mills were purchased by E. D. Gunnison, who became associated in business with Abraham Johnson, and they built and named the Fairmount Flouring Mill. Gunnison sold his interest to John H. Walker, who converted the carding and fulling mill into a plaster mill, and built a large tannery opposite and a number of dwellings for the workmen. Jehiel Towner was miller here for many years. The tannery burned down and the mill fell into the hands of Liddell, Kepler & Co. In the spring of 1859, it was bought by P. & O. E. Crouch, and is now owned and operated by J. B. Crouch & Co.

Rufus S. Reed built a grist mill on Mill Creek in 1815. It was located on Parade street between Fourth and Fifth, and the dam crossed the stream just below Sixth street. He afterward added a distillery, both of which were carried on by him until his death, the mill standing until ten or twelve years ago.

The same year (1815), Robert Large erected a grist mill near the corner of Eleventh and French streets, with the dam above Twelfth. It did not, however, prove successful, and in 1822 was sold to Alvah Flint, who converted it into a cloth, carding and fulling mill. This was kept up until 1840, when the site and water power were purchased by Vincent, Himrod & Co., who erected thereon a foundry subsequently known as the Erie City Iron Works, one of the pioneer iron establishments of this portion of the State.

The pioneer tannery of Erie was erected by Ezekiel Dunning, on Holland street, between Fifth and Sixth, about the beginning of the present century. It was long known as Sterrett's tannery, and kept in operation until 1852. The next tannery in the order of time was established in 1805, by Samuel and Robert Hays, on the corner of Ninth and French streets. The latter sold his interest to Samuel, and he in turn was succeeded by his sons W. B. and J. W. Hays, who carried on a tannery in Erie for many years. William Arbuckle, who learned the trade with Samuel Hays, started a tannery in 1820, on Eighth street, west of Myrtle, which he ran until 1830, when it ceased operations.

The first beer brewery in the city was built in 1815, by Maj. David McNair, on Turnpike street, near where the Erie City Mill was afterward erected. He added a distillery in 1823, and in 1827 built a grist mill on State street, south of the Lake Shore Railroad, the motive power for all being furnished by the water of Ichabod Run.

In 1803, the first brickyard in the county was opened by Isaac Austin and B. Rice, and was located east of Parade, between Second and Third streets. From brick made in this yard, James Baird erected the first brick house in Erie County. It stood on German, between Front and Second streets, was two stories in height, and occupied for many years by Thomas Wilson. It was used as a hospital in 1813, for the wounded prisoners captured at the battle of Lake Erie, and was burned down in 1827.

The following men were the pioneers of Erie in their respective trades, to wit: Jonas Duncan and John Teel, carpenters; Peter Growotz, mason and bricklayer; Robert Kendall, cooper; John Morris, hatter, Thomas Stewart and Archibald McSparren, tailors; while the first hop-yard planted in the county was west of Peach street, between Buffalo and Simpson. There was no regular copper or brass smith until 1822, when Charles Lay opened a chop on the south side of East Park. He subsequently went East and became a locomotive engineer.

Two other mills deserve mention among the earlier ones of the city, viz., the Canal, and Erie City Mills. The first was erected by William Kelley, near the corner of Sixth and Myrtle streets, and was constructed under the direction of Jehiel Towner, a pioneer miller of Erie. Its motive power was supplied from the surplus water in the canal, but in 1865 Oliver & Bacon became proprietors and converted it into a steam mill. The Erie City Mill was commenced in 1849, by Clark McSparren and John R. Dumars, on the site of the State street railroad bridge,\; but McSparren soon purchased Dumars' interest. The farmers did not like to go above the railroad, and consequently the mill never did much business. The building stood in the way of the railroad then under construction, and after long negotiation it was bought by the company and removed south on State street, where it is still standing.

It is not our intention in this article to mention many of the smaller factories that have come and gone during the past three-quarters of a century, as such matter would be of little or no historical value, but only to give those best remembered as having done most toward building up the present manufacturing interests of the city. Having glanced over the leading pioneer mills and factories, we will continue the subject with brief sketches of the leading manufacturing establishments of to-day. The material contained in these sketches was obtained directly from the proprietors of the respective manufactories, upon whom we had to depend for the correctness of the matter which we here present to our readers.

Our first attention will be given to an account of the Erie Car Works, limited, on Cascade and Sixteenth streets, as the first indications of substantial industry that meet the eye of the traveler on his approach to Erie from the west are the works of this company. One is impressed with the magnitude of the plant, which embraces about thirteen acres of ground, the structures which cover it from one end to the other, and the army of workmen engaged in the various departments of the works. On a closer view, he will find a complete system of arrangement and an attention to details hardly to be looked for where the work is of such volume, and the number of operatives so great. The works were established in the year 1868, and have been a powerful illustration of the fact of Erie's admirable location for manufacturing purposes, as well as a monument to the enterprise and executive ability of the founders and present managers. At the time, they have a capacity of sixteen freight cars per day, and give employment to about 600 men. This statement, to those familiar with car building, will be at once appreciated, but to those unfamiliar with it we will simply say that it involves the using annually of 170 tons of brass, 250 tons of malleable iron, 380 tons of steel springs, 150 tons of paint, 500 tons of tin and solder, 3,250 tons of axles, 5,000 tons of iron castings, 6,000 tons of wrought iron, 11,000 tons of car wheels, and 20,000 tons of lumber, or 5,000 car loads of material of ten tons each. In the distribution of this work the company has erected seventeen substantial buildings, several of them of large dimensions. The machinery is driven by an engine of 200 horsepower, and a locomotive owned by the company is always engaged in hauling the materials used, or drawing the finished cars out to the main tracks over the sidings which traverse the works in all directions. The class of cars built are box, gondola, ore, drift (or mine cars), coal and stock cars. The very best of materials are used, and every particle of the iron in the wheels and axles is tested, and if not found of the requisite strength is rejected. The value of this great industry cannot be overestimated, while the reputation of the city is materially enhanced by the extent of its operations. The officers of the works are: President, W. R. Davenport; Treasurer, William A. Galbraith. The former is a gentleman of wide experience in this line of production, and of great enterprise and public spirit. The latter, in addition to his connection with this establishment, is a gentleman of wide reputation as a lawyer, and is at present the Presiding Judge of the Sixth Judicial District of Pennsylvania. They represent in business and social life the best elements of our civilization, while their contribution to the city's industry is one of marked value and importance.

The Erie City Iron Works are, doubtless, next in importance. The rapid advancement in the manufacturing arts which so strongly characterizes our American industries is a subject of interesting study. In almost every department of mechanics do our people excel, and the products of American looms and workshops stand unrivaled in the markets of the world. This statement is particularly true of heavy machinery, engines, etc., and the products of American genius are noted for their strength and adaptability to the work required of them. The city of Erie has achieved almost a world-wide reputation as the producer of much of the finest and best machinery in this line, and is justly entitled to rank among the important manufacturing towns of the United States. The founding here of the largest and most important establishment of its kind in the country is a just tribute to Erie's claim to superior advantages of location, which appeals strongly to the consideration of the manufacturer seeking a location, or to the purchaser seeking his supplies. The cost of iron and coal, the splendid shipping facilities, and many other attractions combine to emphasize the statement that if her advantages are fostered, this city's present importance as a manufacturing center, is but a faint premise of what her future will become. We invite the attention of our readers to a brief sketch of the Erie City Iron Works, which is one of the most important enterprises located here, and the best evidence we can give of the claims we have made. These works were established in 1840, by Vincent, Himrod & Co., on what would now be considered a very small scale, and did a general foundry and machine shop business. Several changes have taken place in the title, the present firm of Selden, Bliss & Co. becoming sole proprietors in 1864, and it is under their management that the Erie City Iron Works have grown to such wonderful proportions. The location of the original works was at the corner of Twelfth and State streets, and the foundry, 86x240 feet, on the corner of Twelfth and French streets, is still a portion of the works. The increasing business of the firm demanding greater facilities, in 1880 they purchased a tract of five acres of land adjacent to the L. S. & M. S. R. R., in the eastern suburbs of the city, where they have erected several of the most important buildings connected with the works, among them being a boiler shop 100x600 feet in dimensions, with an L 30x50 feet for engine room, and another L 40x50 feet for office, besides a frame flanging shop 40x180 feet in dimensions, and a machine shop 80x120 feet. These buildings, except one, are substantial brick structures, admirably adapted to the business. The works are supplied throughout with the latest and most improved machinery, much of it being specially constructed for their particular business, and required for its operation three engines, which combined aggregate 140-horse power and employment is furnished for 350 men constantly, with weekly pay roll averaging $3,000. The range of work includes horizontal and upright flue and tubular boilers; stationary, portable and agricultural engines; saw mills and mill machinery; steam riveting machinery, etc. The number of boilers built in 1880 was 857; engines, 400; saw mills complete, 48. The business of 1881 shows the following gratifying increase: Number of boilers made and sold, 1,097; engines, 457; saw mills complete, 96; besides other work of a miscellaneous character. The sales in 1882, amounted to $785,098.00. The Erie City Iron Works have depots for the sale of their products in all the important business centers of the country, and their work is sold in every State and Territory of the United States, and in the West Indies, Mexico and South America, and ranks second to none made in the world. They claim that they make more boilers than any other establishment in the United States. The individual members of the firm are George Selden, President; John H. Bliss, Secretary, and George D. Selden, Treasurer. Of their energy and enterprise, the Erie City Iron Works are a lasting monument of which themselves and the city of Erie may well be proud.

The firm of Black & Germer is the lineal successor of the pioneer stove foundry of Erie. In July, 1834, Ebenezer A. Lester, Pardon and James Sennett, Thomas G. Able and Allen Hinckly established a small foundry on the northwest corner of Eleventh and State streets, under the title of Hinckly, Sennett & Co. The motive power was furnished by two horses hitched to sweeps upon an upright shaft propelling the machinery for blowing the cupola. Prior to 1835, William H. Johnson bought out the interests of Hinckly & Able, and the firm became Johnson, Sennett & Co. In 1838, Pardon Sennett sold his interest to Johnson, but the title of the firm remained the same until 1841, when Johnson disposed of his interest back to Pardon Sennett, the firm then becoming Lester, Sennett & Co. Many changes followed in the ownership and title of the firm, which we will briefly name. Soon after the above change occurred, James S. Sennett sold to his partners, and the firm became Lester & Sennett; in 1843, Lester, Sennett & Chester; in March, 1851, Sennett & Co.; in March, 1855, Sennett, Barr & Co., and afterward, Barr & Johnson; in March, 1862, Barr, Johnson & Co. William T. Black obtained an interest in Marcy, 1867, but the title of Barr, Johnson & Co. remained until March, 1872, when M. R. Barr, having previously purchased the interest of George B. Sennett, sold out to his partners, Grove H. Johnson and William T. Black, who associated with them Otto Germer, and organized the firm of Johnson, Black & Co. In 1878, Johnson sold to Germer, and the title became and has since remained Black & Germer. The first castings in this foundry were made direct from the ore, and the stoves were peddled through the country. The business has grown from insignificant dimensions, until to-day they claim to be the largest institution of the kind in this part of the State. The old works on the corner of Eleventh and State streets will soon be abandoned for the large new works recently erected on the corner of Sixteenth and German, which cover a piece of ground 240x360 feet. The new buildings are the following dimensions: Foundry, 154x175; pattern shop, 35x70, four stories high; mounting shop, 54,212, five stories high, and basement; engine and boiler house, 36x38 feet, furnished with a 100-horse-power engine, besides the usual number of outside buildings surrounding such establishments. These works are supplied throughout with new, first-class machinery, while a switch from the Pennsylvania Railroad affords the best of shipping facilities. The firm now (October, 1883) employs at the old shops 150 men, but the new works have a capacity of 250. It is the only establishment in the United States that make the manufacture of parlor base-burners a specialty, and claims to be the pioneer of the trade in that line, having started in 1866 with the "Morning Glory."

The Chicago & Erie Stove Company, limited, west Twelfth street, was established in the year 1840, by Johnson, Himrod & Co. The title was several times changed, until in 1876 it became a stock company with W. H. Whitehead, of Chicago, as chairman, and C. C. Shirk, Secretary and Treasurer. The plant of the works covers two and one-half acres of the best and most eligibly located property for the purpose within the city limits, and is improved with substantial buildings of the following proportions: Moulding room, 85x240 feet; mounting shop, 85x150 feet; store room, 80x160 feet; engine and boiler room, 20x40 feet; besides warehouses, pattern houses and offices. The works necessitate the use of two cupolas of eleven and forty tons capacity respectively, an engine of 60 to 75-horse-power, and the employment of 140 men skilled in the different departments of stove manufacture. The trade of the house, which runs up into the hundreds of thousands of dollars, besides being largely local extends all over the Western country. The Chicago depot for the sale and distribution of all western business, is located at 171 Lake street, that city, and is an establishment of large proportions, employing five travelers to represent its interests. At this point but two men are engaged in capacity, yet the business annually offered the company is largely in excess of its ability to supply, even with its exceptionally fine facilities. The company has an excellent reputation as the producers of fine work, both as regards fine castings, handsome finishing, mounting and the great variety of their manufacture. Stoves for heating and cooking purposes, ranges, furnaces, etc., in many designs and sizes are manufactured, and are made with special reference to the science of combustion and economy of fuel. Though making various styles and patterns, the "helper" cooking stoves and ranges, and the invincible base burner, are their leading stoves, and enjoy a high reputation. Taken in its entirety, as the disburser of large sums in wages and in the ramifications of its business, giving the city a wide celebrity, it is one of the notable industries of the place, and contributes largely to the substantial welfare of the community. Mr. Charles C. Shirk, the Secretary and Treasurer of the company, is the controlling head of the manufacturing department of the business, and is a gentleman of wide experience and sterling business qualities.

Another important manufacturing industry is the Jarecki Manufacturing Company, limited, corner Ninth and Holland streets. Any person familiar with the city of Erie twenty years ago will remember the small lathes of rude construction, and the small furnace for smelting brass, which at that time represented the capital and equipment of the Jarecki Manufacturing Company. The present works are a transformation, wonderful as great, and almost magical. No lucky combination of circumstances, however, has brought about this change. It has been secured by the most indomitable will, careful attention, a masterly knowledge of the minutest details, the careful accounting in every department, and a superior class of work. Formerly engine-makers, plumbers, steam fitters, and that class of artisans were compelled to make their own valves, pipe connections, etc. which made their work one of much detail, and the absence of machinery especially adapted for it made it tedious and laborious. When this condition of things was recognized and the positive assurance secured that with the advance of our industries all over the land, the manufacture of this class of materials could be made a separate industry, it was then that the Jarecki Manufacturing Company started on the career which has placed them in the very front rank of America's manufacturers. Go where you will over our land, and among the very best appliances of the nature alluded to will be found those made in the shops of this company. So large has the business grown that to-day two acres of ground are in use, all built upon in a handsome and substantial manner. The main building, three stories and basement, is 330 feet long by 60 feet in width, utilized from cellar to roof. The galvanizing shop is 70x40 feet; the malleable iron foundry is 80x150 feet; the gray iron foundry 60x100 feet; the annealing room 50x80 feet; the core shop 50x160 feet, and the cutter room 40x100 feet. The entire premises, as an architectural adornment, is one of the best in the city, and is a monument to the character of its founders. The principal specialties of the works are malleable iron fittings, oil well supplies, brass work for engine builders, plumbers and steam and gas fitters, which comprehends a vast variety of articles of various styles and sizes. The firm in all the departments of their works gives employment to 400 men, an army of artisans, who when busy in their various departments present one of the most interesting scenes of activity to be met with. Their work finds its market in the oil fields of this State, all over the country -- East, West, North and South -- and across the lakes into Canada, where the reputation made at home is emphasized by foreign use. Messrs. Henry and Charles Jarecki came to this country about thirty-five years ago, since which time they have made their name famous in this land, and have contributed to the industries of America an establishment second to none in the fine character of its products.

The Stearns Manufacturing Company, on Tenth street, between Holland and German, familiarly known as the "Presque Isle Iron Works," was established in the year 1866, but was not marked by any particular degree of prominence until some years later, when, under patents of Mr. E. H. Stearns, the company secured several valuable points applying to their machinery, the adoption of which has given it a national reputation. The plant of the works covers an area of two and one-half acres of ground, all utilized by them, and improved with the different buildings necessitated by their work. Partially quoted, they are as follows: Foundry, 60x100 feet; boiler ship, 50x150 feet; four machine shops, each 50x100 feet; millwright shop, 40x100 feet; blacksmith shop, 35x80 feet, besides others devoted to the general uses of the company. Employment is given to 325 men, and a vast amount of work turned out which reaches every State and Territory in the Union, and probably every section of manufacturing industry. This consists of engines and boilers of all lines and grades, and saw-mill machinery, the extent of which, in its great variety, would require too much space for particular enumeration by us. But, as a simple matter of justice, we should mention their improved circular saw mills, gang and muley mills, patent rossers, for removing bark and grit before the saw, off-setting and anti-vibrating carriage wheels and track, head blocks, etc., for saw mills, log turners, gang edgers, jackers, lath mills, etc. These productions, which are known in every lumber camp and saw mill in the United States, have maintained their excellence of construction during the entire period of their manufacture, and whether the works are crowded with orders, or to the contrary, the same carefulness of details, harmony of arrangement and uniformity of construction, is observable. To the combination of these three essentials of successful manufacture, the valuable patents owned by them, and the marked ability of its management, do they owe their present position. The officers of the Stearns Manufacturing Company are: George Burnham, President; William M. Davids, Vice President; William Burnham, Secretary, and H. R. Barnhurst, Treasurer and General Manager.

The Erie Malleable Iron Company, limited, corner Cherry and Thirteenth, streets, is the most complete and extensive of its kind in this section of the country, and in the thrift and substantial well-being of the community is an important and valued factor. Established in 1880, its success was pronounced from the start, and during the period of its operation it has considerably augmented its business, and added to its reputation. The works are located on a plant of two acres of ground, improved with substantial buildings devoted to the various purposes of their manufacture, and of the following dimensions: Foundry, 80x300 feet; annealing room, 45x95 feet; pattern vault, 45x34 feet; machine shop, 35x64 feet; galvanizing room, 25x110 feet; core room, 34x34 feet; engine and boiler house, 30x60 feet; pattern room and offices, 60x100 feet, besides outside shedding for storage of coal, sand, etc., 200 feet in length. The steam power is furnished by an engine of 80-horse-power, and the works give employment to from 175 to 200 men. The particularly advantageous location of these works in a center of manufacture which gives them a large local trade, and the existence of a demand which they are eminently prepared to supply, have given an impetus to their work which keeps them running up to their full capacity, and makes the annual output large. The specialty of the works, as its title implies, is principally malleable iron castings, but now contemplate making steel castings, and the fact that the trade extends to a large section of the country, sufficiently guarantees the quality of all the product of the establishment. The officers are John Clemens, Chairman, and J. P. Metcalf, Secretary and Treasurer, whose careful and business-like management of the details of the business has placed it in the front rank of Erie's industries.

The Bay State Iron Works, corner Third and Peach streets, were established in the year 1865, and occupy a fine property in one of the best portions of the city. The plant covers over an acre of ground, and is improved with substantial buildings, erected solely for the purpose used. They consist of a main building of brick two stories in height, in which is the machine shop, 50x225 feet; foundry, 50x125 feet; boiler shop, 60x190 feet; pattern rooms, storage room for iron, engine and boiler room and offices. Every appliance for the rapid production and complete finish of all their products is in use, and the entire machinery is driven by two engines of 40-horse-power each. The mechanical force of the works amounts to 125 men, most of whom are skilled in the production of fine machinery. The work of the firm comprehends all classes of fine engine building, upright and horizontal, portable and stationary, and a special line of fine machine building. Among the most prominent productions of the works may be noted the Variable and Automatic Cut-off Engine, which was awarded a gold medal at the St. Louis fair in 1878, for 93 percent efficiency; agricultural and portable engines from 4 to 150-horse-power; locomotive, tubular, flue and upright boilers; steam punches, Hall's patent steam cranes, upright friction and detached hoisting machinery; the Acme cube pipe tongs, and many other specialties, all bearing evidence of the highest style of workmanship to be had in this section of the State. The thorough system which prevails in every department of these works, and the splendid facilities enjoyed enable the firm to conduct an immense business, and the trade extends to all parts of the Wet, South and Southwest, they having agencies in New York, Chicago, St. Louis, Toledo, St. Paul, Denver, Dallas and Charlotte. The members composing the firm are Orange Noble and L. H. Hall, the latter being the practical manager. Mr. Noble is a gentleman too well know in the business circles of the State to need any introduction at our hands, while Mr. Hall, as a thorough master of the details of the works, has a reputation based upon the intrinsic merit of its productions.

The Mt. Hickory Iron Company, office Scott's block, corner Tenth and State streets, was established in the year 1879, and produces a line of iron known as merchant and bridge iron. Their furnaces, two in number are located at Sharpesville, Mercer Co., Penn., where employment is given to a large number of men, and an annual production attained of 35,000 tons of Bessemer, foundry and mill pig, the ores used being the Lake Superior, Specular and Hematite, from the most celebrated mines in that favored section. Much of this production finds its way to the various rolling mills of the State, but a large part is utilized by the company's mill at Erie, which it is more properly our province to notice. The Mt. Hickory Rolling Mill is located in the western suburbs of the city on a plant of thirty acres of the company's property, and is the largest concern of the kind in this section of the State. The mill is a well-built structure, 120 feet in width by 280 feet in length, and is systematically appointed for the rapid presentation of its work. It is full supplied with rolls and other machinery necessary in the production of its specialty, the motive power being supplied by nine engines of 350-horse-power combined. Employment is given to from 250 to 275 men, the most of whom live about the mill in houses furnished by the company -- twenty four in number. The annual production aggregates 15,000 tons of fine grade of merchant and bridge iron, railroad angle splicers, etc., which is sold to some extent locally, and largely in Chicago and other Western points. The influence of a concern giving employment to so many men, necessarily involving a large outlay in wages, must be great in a community of this size, while the character of its iron tends largely to maintain the city's reputation. William L. Scott, a gentleman whose name is the synonym of enterprise wherever known, is the Chairman of the company, while W. S. Brown is Secretary and Treasurer. The superintendency of the rolling mill in detail is intrusted to Thomas Palmer, a thorough and experienced man in this line of business.*

*Since the above was written, these works, with all their contents, was completely destroyed by fire on the 9th of December, 1883.

The Erie Forge company, corner Cascade and Fifteenth streets, was organized in 1872, and began operations the year following on a comparatively limited scale. In 1879, the works were entirely destroyed by fire, but were immediately rebuilt on a much larger scale, and important additions made to the size of the building, and to the machinery in 1880. The works are located south of the tracks of the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railroad, from which a siding connects the shops with all the railroads. The plant includes several acres of ground, well adapted to the purpose, the shops being 65x241 feet in dimensions. The east end is a machine shop, fully equipped with the heavy machinery needed in the successful prosecution of the business, which is operated by an engine of 40-horse-power. In the forging shop there are in use five heavy hammers, six large furnaces and one large steam shear, all operated by separate engines. The products of the works are hammered iron and steel, car and engine axles, shafting, cranks and heavy forgings of all kinds, the value of which amounts to a large sum annually. Employment is given to 125 men, and the consumption of iron amounts to 125 tons, and of coal to 240 tons per week, the works being run day and night. The character of the work turned out has always been such as to give them a rank second to none. The Erie Car Works use in their shops the axles produced by this company, and the trade extends through all the country east of the Mississippi river, and amounts to an immense sum annually. As a monument to the skill, energy and enterprise of the proprietors, it stands among the most prominent in the city, and is an important contributor to Erie's importance as a manufacturing center. In the spring of 1883, it was changed from a corporation to a firm, the members of which are George W. Starr, A. Brabender and J. P. Harrington, the last named having charge of the works.

Davenport, Fairbairn & Co.: The works of this company are located just west of the Erie Car Works, and adjoining them. They are among the most famous, and are probably the largest in the country. The capacity is 350 wheels per day. One hundred men are employed, and six cupolas are kept in blast. Two of the cupolas used in melting charcoal iron for wheels, have a capacity of 100 tons of metal per day. Four engines, ranging from twenty to fifty-horse-power, are employed. This company owns a large blast furnace at St. Ignace, Mich., said to be the finest charcoal furnace in the world. Here they give employment to 250 men, all the iron produced being used in the manufacture of car wheels in their own foundry of Erie. This company makes all the wheels used by the Erie Car Works, and also supplies a large trade in different sections of the country, and makes in addition a general line of railroad castings. The members of the firm are W. R. Davenport, John Fairbairn and Col. H. B. Plumer, of Franklin, Penn.

The Selden & Griswold Manufacturing Company, corner of Tenth and Chestnut streets, began business in the year 1868, and at once secured a reputation for excellence in their line second to no concern of its kind in this section of the State. The works are situated in a portion of the city convenient to the railroads, on valuable property, and consist of foundry, 100x150 feet; finishing room, 30x90 feet, two stories in height, the upper floor being used for machinery and mounting room; store room, 30x40 feet, two stories; store room No. 2, 60x95 feet, also two stories, and engine and boiler room, in which an engine of fifty-horse power. The number of men employed aggregates 100 and the production amounts to more than $75,000 per year. The specialties of the works consist of small castings, hollow ware of special sizes and extra finish house furnishing utensils, stove trimmings and a great variety of work common to establishments of this nature. The casings are of a fine grade, and all the products of the house show careful and intelligent workmanship. Samuel Selden's heirs, J. C. Selden and Matthew Griswold, are the proprietors, and are fully posted in all the details of their business. They are thoroughly in earnest in their work, are prominently identified with the substantial welfare of the community, and their works are an important and valuable adjunct of Erie's prosperity.

Jarecki, Hays & Co.
, Eleventh street, between State and Peach, date their origin back to the year 1865, when the works were started by G. and F. Jarecki. They were succeeded by Jarecki & Metz, who in turn were followed by Jarecki, Metz & Co., who continued the business until 1870, when the firm became Jarecki, Hays & Co., as now known. The goods here manufactured consist principally of supplies for water and gas companies, brass goods, yard hydrants, extension service boxes, street washers, etc. In this production, embracing many of the most important accessories of water and gas service, the firm have been highly successful, and in one or two specialties have won a national reputation. We refer particularly to "Jarecki's Patent Extension Shut-Off Box" for water and gas, and "Jarecki's Patent Extension Street Washer," which have secured the most flattering testimonials from all parts of the country. They make the hydrants known as McNamara's Patent Compression Valve Dry Pipe and Jarecki's Keystone Compression Valve Hydrants, besides a great variety of brass work, consisting of cocks for all departments of gas and water service. The works consist of a substantial brick building, three stories in height, 40x160 feet in dimensions, and are fully equipped with every appliance for the rapid production of their work. They employ twenty-eight hands, skilled in the various pursuits, and manufacture a large amount of good annually. The members of the firm are F. Jarecki, J. W. Hays, W. B. Hays and S. J. Law. These gentlemen have become through their present work, strongly identified with the substantial interests of the city.

T. M. Nagle
, manufacturer of portable, stationary and agricultural steam engines: These works, located at the corner of Sixteenth and Holland streets, were erected by Mr. Nagle in September, 1879. The plant covers a space of 125x350 feet, improved with substantial buildings, the main shop being 45x200 feet in area, with a wing 40x60, and a blacksmith shop adjoining 30x45 feet in dimensions. In 1883, there was erected a substantial brick foundry 70x125 feet, while other improvements are contemplated in the near future. From sixty to seventy skilled mechanics are employed, and all the boiler work is made under contract by outside parties. This force turned out 400 finished engines, ranging from eight to fifty-horse-power, during 1883, while more than 1,000 engines have been manufactured since the works were established. They are sold in all portions of the United States, from Maine to Texas and from Florida to Colorado, and the demand is fully up to the capacity of the works. The specialty is portable steam engines, of which more are claimed to be turned out at these works than at any other in this section of the State. Mr. Nagle brings to his present business a thoroughly practical knowledge of it, in all its details, gained from a long experience and a natural aptitude of the business. The marked success he has met in this new contribution to Erie's important industries is but a just tribute to his ability as a manufacturer, and the energy and push which mark the successful business man.

Cleveland & Co.: The foundry department of the Erie City Iron Works, owned and operated by this firm, was organized in June, 1868, and is located on the corner of Twelfth and French streets. They manufacture all kinds of building and machinery castings. The building is a substantial brick structure, 86x240 feet, wherein sixty men find employment, turning out annually more than 2,000 tons of castings. The firm is composed of W. L. Cleveland, F. F. Cleveland, George Selden and J. H. Bliss, who are all favorably known and identified with the leading manufacturing interests of Erie.

The Erie Engine Works, owned and carried on by Cleveland and Hardwick, are located on the corner of Twelfth and State streets, formerly the site of the Erie City Iron Works. The firm was organized in May, 1879, and manufacture portable, stationary and cut-off engines, boilers, etc., employing sixty men, and turning out 12,000 horse power annually in various sized engines ranging from 6 to 150-horse-power. W. L. Cleveland, F. F. Cleveland and William Hardwick compose the firm.

Skinner & Wood's Engine Works
were removed from New York State to Erie in 1873, and began business on the corner of Eleventh and French streets. In the winter of 1880-81, the firm erected their present works on the corner of Twelfth and Chestnut, where the plant covers 125x300 feet of ground. Fifty men find employment in these works, engaged in the manufacturing only one style of portable and stationary engines, turning out about 250 annually, though the works have a capacity of 300. The buildings are frame and of the following dimensions: Machine shop, 45x150, two stories; boiler room and blacksmith shop, 40x60, one story; foundry, 40x60; pattern house, 20x30; boiler finishing room 40x60; store house, 55x60, besides about 400 feet of shedding for storage, etc. The firm is L. G. Skinner and Thomas C. Wood, whose enterprise and public spirit have added much to the wealth and prosperity of their adopted city.

Ball Engine Works, on French, above Twelfth street, were established in 1881, and incorporated in March, 1883. The plant is large and improved with buildings ample for the accommodation of all the departments of their work. The main shop of the works is 50x100 feet in dimensions, supplemented by engine and boiler room and blacksmith shop. The capacity of engines used is twenty horse-power, and employment is given at all times to thirty men. The machinery, which is adapted especially for the purposes for which it is used, is of the latest and most improved patterns, and embraces every appurtenance and appliance for the manufacture of the specialty of the works. Mr. Ball is a thoroughly practical engine builder of many years' experience, and the engines made here are the result of that experience and a thorough knowledge of mechanics. The company is composed of W. H. Nicholson, President; F. H. Ball, Secretary and Treasurer, and since its incorporation the firm has been engaged in manufacturing their new automatic cut-off engines, embodying a new system of regulation, in which the governor weighs the load. They turn out from 100 to 120 engines annually, ranging from twenty to sixty horse-power. This company is one of the prominent factors in Erie's prosperity, and is an enterprise of substantial merit.

Taper Sleeve Pulley Works
, on Twelfth, near Peach street, were established in 1873, by A. B. Cook, and were conducted by him until May, 1877, when the present firm took possession. The works consist of a three-story brick building, 50x155 feet in dimensions, with an addition on the west side for lowering manufactured material. They are fully supplied with all the machinery necessary in the production of their specialty, operated by a sixty-horse-power boiler and twenty-horse-power engine, and give employment to thirty-five men. The annual output amounts to from $75,000, $100,000 and the trade reaches to all parts of the country. The productions consist of taper sleeve wood belt pulleys, taper sleeve and compression couplings, adjustable dead pulleys, wood pulleys, split or in halves, friction clutch pulleys, and cut off couplings. These pulleys possess points of merit, based upon true mechanical principles, which make them valuable parts of well-adjusted and scientifically constructed line shafting, which their use has fully demonstrated. The firm is composed of A. H. Gray, Treasurer, and H. C. Crowell, Superintendent.

The South Erie Iron Works were established in 1868, on Peach street between Nineteenth and Twentieth. They are the successor of the Eagle Foundry, which was commenced some nine or ten years prior to that date by William Henry and Adam Acheson. In 1868, the works were incorporated under the above title, with William Henry, President, and R. Liebel, secretary. The former was succeeded in 1882 by Adam Acheson, while Mr. Liebel is still Secretary, and James Acheson, Treasurer. The main building is of brick, 42,325, the front portion being two stories, and the rear one story in height; the salesroom is a three story brick, 23x80, and there is a frame storage room, 22x120, partly two stories high. Fifty men find constant employment in these works, principally in the manufacture of all classes of stoves. It is one of the leading establishments of South Erie, and its enterprising proprietors are deserving of honest commendation in this article.

The Erie City Nickel Plating Company, corner Thirteenth and Parade streets, are the largest works in the city devoted to this business, and were established in the year 1880. From their inception, the reliable character of their work drew large amount of business to them. The building used for the purpose is in dimensions 24x100 feet, furnished throughout with the latest improved appliances of the business, and is supplied with an engine of twelve-horse power. The number of men employed is at all times from 25 to 30, and the value of the work done runs up into the thousands of dollars annually. When the nature of the art of nickel plating is considered, and the comparative smallness of the cost of the service rendered, it is to the uninitiated a mystery how a concern engaged in the business can do enough work to show a business that amounts to thousands of dollars per year, but a visit to these works will enlighten the most ignorant on the subject, when he sees the innumerable articles, and the vast quantities of them sent from the largest concerns in the city to be plated. Excellence of workmanship and durability of finish are the characteristics of all the work at this establishment, and have won it high praise. The firm is composed of A. McArthur and J. McArthur, father and son, respectively. The latter is the practical head of the works, and is a thoroughly posted man in all the finer details and secrets of the art. This establishment does all the plating of the Chicago and Erie Stove Company, which alone is an invincible proof of the superior class of work turned out.

Root & Burrows Nickel Plating and Metal Finishing
works began operations in July, 1878, at 1237 Peach street, its present location. The building is a three-story brick, 40x60 feet in dimensions, and the firm gives employment to from twenty to twenty-five hands. All the plating of the Black & Germer stove works is done in this establishment, which in itself is a sufficient guarantee of the excellent quality of their work.

Stonemetz Printers' Machinery Company is the successor of that branch previously carried on by Noble & Hall, who began the manufacture of the Stonemetz Folding Machines in July, 1879. They were made at that establishment until August, 1882, when the present company was established and began operations on Twelfth street, between Sassafras and Chestnut. The machine shop is 40x120 feet; the engine room is 18x25 feet; the blacksmith shop is 14x25 feet, besides a storage room, all of which are one-story brick structures. One 25-horse-power engine furnished the motive power, and the firm employs on an average thirty hands, who find steady work throughout the year. Their market extends all over the Union, and twenty-six different styles and sizes of these machines are manufactured by the Stonemetz company. The business is constantly growing, and the future has, doubtless, in store a fitting reward for the energy and enterprise of this firm.

The F. F. Adams Company, corner of Fifteenth and Cherry streets: No establishment in Erie furnishes such a striking illustration of the results of enterprise, vigorous, persistent work and splendid management as is afforded in the present condition of the works of the F. F. Adams Company. Notwithstanding the severe competition which the products of the factory have to meet, and the fact that the premises were swept by fire, December 13, 1880, they have been replaced by structures more substantial and of greater utility than those destroyed and the products maintain a position in the trade which the fiercest competition has failed to weaken, or the rapid invention of the age to excel. The works had their origin in the year 1869, and were known by the firm name of Adams & Lovell, continuing so until 1870, when they were operated by F. F. Adams until 1874, when, by the admission of A. H. Gray, they were known as F. F. Adams & Co. There were one or two other changes between that and 1878, at which time they assumed the title of F. F. Adams & Co., limited, which remained until January, 1883, when the present name was adopted. The plant is one of the best and most eligibly located in the city, being directly on the line of the Lake shore & Michigan Southern and Erie & Pittsburg Railroads, with switches into their yards for the convenience of receiving and shipping goods, and covers an area of two and one-half acres. The building utilized are as follows: Factory No. 1, 50x135 feet, two stories high, with an L of the same height, 40x50 feet; Factory No. 2, 40x105 feet, two stories high, with an L 30x40 feet in the two story portion, and 30x60 in the one-story portion; Engine House, 40x40 feet, of brick, two stories high, in which are two engines of 50-horse power each; store rooms and offices, 50x125 feet, besides the dry house and outside shedding devoted to various uses. The products of this establishment comprise the celebrated Keystone Wringers and Washing Machines, step and extension ladders, and household articles of too great a variety for enumeration. Employment is given to 175 hands, involving a large outlay of wages, while the business aggregates the sum of from $300,000 to $400,000 per annum, and reaches to all parts of the country. An output of these proportions from any concern devoted to the productions of wooden articles, will be appreciated by those familiar with such production, and in the trade must place this house as one of the largest in the country. The possession of a vast amount of machinery, with facilities for making their own malleable iron castings, annealing and nickel plating, make the works the most complete in every department, and fully explains their ability to produce such a large quantity of work. The members of the company are F. F. Adams, President; W. T. Farrar, Secretary and Treasurer; C. W. Farrar and C. F. Adams. These gentlemen have given to the city of Erie an establishment which as a factor in its manufacturing wealth, is one of the most important, and while endowing the city, have made for themselves a reputation co-extensive with their productions.

The Burdett Organ Company, limited, corner Twelfth and Walnut streets: Probably the name of Erie has become more widely known through the sale of the products of the Burdett Organ Factory than from those of any other establishment located in her midst. These organs have been shipped to every civilized country on the globe, and even among the schools, churches and missionaries located in heathen lands, and wherever their melody is heard the fame of Erie as a manufacturing center has been attested. No man living has done more to perfect this popular instrument than Mr. Burdett, and the twenty-six patented inventions embraced in the Burdett organs, effecting movement, tone, construction, material, and in fact pervading the entire mechanism, justifies this statement. A Mr. Carhart, of Buffalo, is entitled to credit for important improvements made from 1839 to 1846. It was about this time that Mr. Burdett began the business which, under his hands, has become the important enterprise of which we write to-day. Commencing in Brattleboro, Vt., Mr. Burdett continued his work there till 1865, when the firm of R. Burdett Organ Company was organized and located in Chicago. They remained there until burned out in the great Chicago fire. Then the Burdett Organ Company, limited, was organized, and a new factory built in Erie, on ground now occupied, which is a tract embracing about five acres of land, nearly one-half of which is utilized in their business. The main building is an imposing five-story brick structure, 150 feet front, in which are the various departments devoted to the building of every part of an organ. The machinery used is the most perfect of its kind made, especially adapted to the work required, much of it being of the most novel and ingenious construction, and is operated by an engine of 75-horse power. In the selection of timber, every possible pains is taken. The company employ one man constantly in looking up and getting out black walnut lumber in the West, and they have often on hand in one lot over 900,000 feet of sawed walnut, seasoning. All lumber first time-dried, then kiln-dried, and afterward piled under cover until it is exactly in a condition to be used. Nothing but the fines possible class of materials is used, and every part of the organ, except the ivory keys, is made at the factory. Employment is furnished to 125 men, all thoroughly skilled in making some particular part of an organ, and by being constantly employed on this one part of the work, is enabled to produce it in perfection. The product of the factory reaches 300 organs per month, and the demand is such that no stock ever accumulates on hand, being sold as fast as made. No better comment can be made on these celebrated organs than the statement that the entire make is sold, and none are ever consigned to agents. The company has neither depot, salesroom nor agent of its own, and finds ready sale for all it can produce. The Burdett organ is made in several styles of case, in almost numberless styles of action, and at list prices ranging from $175 to $1,200. The sale of over 45,000 instruments is the best evidence that can be brought of their merit. The company is a limited corporation, its principal officers and stockholders being R. Burdett, Chairman; P. Metcalf, Treasurer; C. C. Converse, Secretary and Business Manager; and B. O. Church, Superintendent, gentlemen who are justly accorded a high position among Erie's enterprising manufacturers.

Erie Burial Case Company, limited, office over Dime Savings Bank: This enterprise was started in 1873, under its present title, and after several charges came under the present management in 1881, with William Smith as President and W. Barry Smith, Secretary and Treasurer. These gentlemen, with Mr. Giles and George Caldwell, are present managers and principal owners. The works are well located just south of the city limits, are substantially built, and enjoy every facility for the rapid and economical production of work, yet the demand for their goods has outgrown their capacity and they have been adding new machinery and enlarging the works, adding also to the variety of the line of manufacture. Under the present management there has been a very gratifying yearly increase of trade. All kinds of wooden coffins and caskets, cloth covered or finished in wood, are made, man of them in new styles peculiar to this company. A full line of undertakers' supplies is dealt in, and metallic caskets of all kinds handled. The works occupy two large brick buildings three stories in height, each 40x100 feet in dimensions, besides a three-story brick addition, 20x30, for engine, boilers, etc., the plant covering two acres of ground. Fifty men are employed in the different departments of the work, and a full line of wood working machinery, which is driven by an engine of 40-horse-power. The company has no competitor in this section, and its trade extends over a wide extent of country. The present statement of its affairs odes not do the Erie Burial Case Company justice and gives no adequate idea of the amount of energy and enterprise manifested in the management and capacity to do business. The improvements and additional facilities recently put in will surely place it in the front rank of the manufactories of this line of goods.

A. B. Felgemaker & Co., organ factory, corner of Twenty-fifth and Ash streets, was originally established in the city of Buffalo in the year 1865, but was removed to this city in the year 1871, when it was operated as a stock company up to the year 1875, under the name of "The Derrick & Felgemaker Pipe Organ Company," but after that year became as now know. The premises occupied are one of the most complete possessed by any concern in this city, and consists of a handsome four-story brick structure 40 feet wide by 200 fee long, built in 1872, with a frame wing 20 feet wide by 100 feet long, erected in 1871, and used for the machinery necessary in the business. The steam power is supplied by an engine of 30 horse-power, and employment is given to twenty-five practical organ builders. The trade of the house, which has been made solely on the merits of the instruments turned out, extends to all sections of the South and West, and aggregates a large sum annually. Mr. Felgemaker, a practical and experienced organ builder, has his work in many of the best churches in this State and others, and his references represent some of the best professional performers in the United States. The special points of excellence which characterize all his work are amply set forth in his pamphlets, and while it is apparent to all, that all work turned out is of a fine character, the critics of this class of manufacture are the ones most impressed with its excellence. These works deserve the highest considerations from the people of Erie, while the products entitle it to a conspicuous position among the organ factories of the land.

Erie Steam Bending Works
, corner Twelfth and Cherry streets, were established originally in 1868, by Hartleb, Metz & Co., who operated them for about ten years, when they were succeeded by H. H. Fink & Co., and later on by H. G. Fink, who has since conducted them entirely alone, in a manner reflecting much credit upon himself as a business manager. The works are located in one of the best sections of the city for manufacturing purposes, occupying two acres of ground, improved with substantial buildings, as follows: Main factory, 60x165 feet; saw mill, 24x60 feet; engine house, 22x30 feet, containing two engines, one of 20 and one of 45-horse power, besides eight store houses of large capacity, shedding, etc. They give employment to from thirty to forty men, and the annual production amounts to over $120,000. The work turned out consists of bent felloes, poles, shafts, bob-runners, rims, etc., and the market extends all over the country, to the principal carriage building centers, while a steady local trade is enjoyed. The material used in the best selected hickory and oak, which is obtained principally from the adjoining counties of this State and the State of Ohio. The Erie Steam Bending Works, as a permanent industry, are one of the most important located here, and the history of their progress from the time of Mr. Fink's connection with the, furnishes one of the best examples of the results of enterprise and sound business principles properly applied, which the city affords.

Erie Wooden Ware Works, corner Twelfth and Poplar streets: This section of Pennsylvania being one favored with a prolific growth of the woods most sought by manufacturers of wooden ware, has stimulated the prosecution of that line of industry to a degree which makes it one involving an immense investment of capital, and the employment of thousands of men. The Erie Wooden Ware Works of this city is an illustration of this fact. In the filling of their annual orders they have found it necessary to procure supplies from the State of Ohio, where they have erected saw mills in the heart of the best lumber country, and take out large quantities annually. This company was established in the year 1873 and has enjoyed since then an uninterrupted success. The plant cover two acres of ground, inclosed and covered with buildings devoted to the various wants of their business. They have a steam power of 70-horse, employ fifty men, and have a capacity of 2,400 pails per day. These consists of water pails, horse buckets, lard and tobacco pails, candy buckets, butter and jelly packages. They are made in the most workman like manner, and their sale reaches to many parts of the East, West and South. To such proportions has the firm brought the business that they now produce annually $75,000 worth of pails of all kinds. This display of enterprise bespeaks the character of the owners, while it has placed their works in the front of the producers of this line of manufacture. The firm is H. J. Howe, R. T. McClure and T. W. Shacklett, all of them residents of the city to which they have contributed such an important industry.

Bauschard & Bros.' Planing Mill, corner Tenth and Holland streets: The business of this firm really dates its origin from the formation of Bauschard, Gloth & Co., in 1866. That copartnership was succeeded by Gloth, Schulte and Co., and in 1868 Messrs. Bauschard & Son built the present factory, or rather, a part of it, the original building having been added to from time to time since, until now the establishment is one of the most complete of its kind in the city. The main factory, which was originally 24x48 feet, has brown to the proportions of 46x165 feet, and dry-kiln of brick three stories in height, 24x36 feet in dimensions. The dry-kiln and lumber yard are across Holland street from the factory, and occupy three city lots. The machinery is of the newest and most approved kinds, consisting of planers, molding machines, and the great variety necessary in their business, with a steam power of 45-horse. Employment is given to from fifty to seventy-five men, and the production annually amounts to about $75,000. This consists of sash, doors, blinds, siding, flooring, molding, stairs, verandah work, etc., besides a line of hard wood work for court houses, churches, banks, dwellings, halls, etc., of a very superior and ornamental style. The works enjoy a large local trade, while that derived from distant points in the State is constantly increasing.

Constable Bros.' Planing Mill, corner Fifth and Sassafras streets, was established in the year 1849 by Constable & Jones, and ever since its commencement has been a successful concern. John Constable was at that time the practical head of the business, and continued to be so until a few years ago, when he disposed of it to his sons W. H. Constable and E. W. Constable, but is still to be found at the works, actively supervising the details of all work. The firm is fortunate in being able to command the services of this gentleman, as his knowledge and ripe experience are of great benefit in the practical administration of the affairs at the mill. The plant has a frontage and depth of 165 feet, or nearly one acre of ground, and is improved with shedding for the storage of lumber, besides the sash and planing mill, which is in dimensions three stories high, 44x80 feet, and an engine and boiler room 14x40 feet. The supply of machinery embraces molding and mortising machines, planers, and in fact everything in the line of improved wood working machinery, the whole being driven by an engine of twenty-five horse-power. The production includes sash, doors, blinds, siding, moldings, flooring, pickets, brackets, verandah work, and box and crate making, requiring the use of nearly 500,000 feet of lumber per annum, and giving employment to twenty-five men at all times. The firm are also contractors for the furnishing of any desired work, taking contracts from foundation to roof of any sized building, or number of them, and some of the most prominent buildings in the city bear evidences of their handiwork.

Erie City Planing Mill, corner of Eleventh and French streets: among the widely known establishments for manufacturing and furnishing lumber, the "Erie City Planing Mill" deserves notice. W. H. Deming established this business on Peach street in 1870, though for several years prior to that he had been a very extensive dealer in lumber, and was located in Warren County. In 1874, he erected the present establishment, which is a substantial brick structure, on the corner of Eleventh and French streets, 90x100 feet in dimensions, with a lot of much larger proportions. The building is about one-half three stories, and the remainder two stories high, and contains a full equipment of all the machinery required in the business, which is new, of the most improved construction, and includes a saw mill with circular saw, where in addition to its own work, a large amount of custom sawing is done. An engine of one-hundred-horse-power is used, and a force of men running from twenty to twenty-five find constant employment. Everything in the way of dimension timber, rough and dressed lumber, flooring, siding, moldings, sash, doors, blinds, hard wood work for banks, court houses and churches, and all other planing mill work is done to order, and every facility enjoyed for turning out work promptly, and in the most workmanlike manner. In November 1882, Althof Bros. rented the mill and succeeded to the large trade which had previously been secured by Mr. Deming. Much attention has been devoted to contracting and building, and the factory has always enjoyed a fair share of business in this department.

H. Ramsay, Fourth street, between Peach and State, has for many years been a prominent builder and contractor in this city, and his skill is recognized in some of Erie's handsomest and most enduring structures, among which we may mention the Scott Block, which has the reputation of being the best constructed building in the city. His work is not confined to Erie alone, but takes in a large section of the adjoining country. His shops are in dimensions 40x75 feet, built substantially of brick, supplied with necessary machinery for turning out window frames, sash, doors, blinds, flooring, etc., and employing an average of twenty men. The motive power is supplied by an engine of forty-horse-power, and the business done annually amounts to about $50,000. Mr. Ramsay cam to Erie in 1863, and was formerly in business as Constable & Ramsey, but after the dissolution Mr. Ramsay established the present works in 1877. His resources are such that he is prepared to take contracts for any sized buildings or any number of them, and the many specimens of his work to be found here are a sufficient guarantee of its excellence.

Daniel McDonald, Parade street, between Eighth and Ninth, is one of the best known contractors and builders of Erie who has become prominent from his work, and since much of it is to be found in the best structures of the city, we accord him space here as a contributor to the arts thereof. He came to Erie some eighteen years ago, and in 1879 began business on Eighth street near State, whence he removed to his present location where stair building and general jobbing is carried on, and employment given to thirty men. His principal business is contracting, which he carries on to a large extent in the city and other portions of the State, amounting to $100,000 annually. He is prepared to contract for all classes of buildings, and his well known reputation and ability for the satisfactory filling of all contracts is a sufficient guarantee that any work of this nature will be thoroughly and honestly prosecuted.

Downing Carriage Company, Eighteenth, between German and Holland streets: One of the most important manufactories in the city of Erie is the above, which was formerly the Erie Chair Company, and was established in 1874. Mr. Downing having originated and perfected what is now universally known as the Excelsior Sleeping Couch (a child's carriage), the firm on January 1, 1882, determined to adopt the present tile in honor of his patents, and to manufacture these carriages almost exclusively, of course continuing to make the "combination baby chairs," but no others. The factory is a brick building, three stories in height, 40x44 feet in dimensions, with a frame L attached 38x85 feet, two stories in height, the first floor being used for machinery, and the upper for a finishing department. The blacksmith shop is separate, 15x30 feet, and a frame storage room, 30x60, two stories, and brick engine house 21,30 feet. The steam power is supplied by two engines, one of 40 and the other of 3-horse power. The number of men employed is about 20 at all times, and the number of carriages produced will this year reach 3,000, and probably more, ranging in price from $14 to $50, according to style, size and finish. The trade of the factory extends to all parts of the United States. The proprietors, Messrs. C. F. Bostwick and H. N. Thayer, are both practical men in every department of the work, and personally supervise all details. They have for a long while been identified with the business interests of the city and in this enterprise have given it an establishment which is a credit in every way.

Keystone Carriage Works, corner Eighth and Holland streets, were established in 1878, by the firm of Harrison & Leemhuis Brothers. The premises which they own are 123x165 feet, and are conveniently located and arranged, one shop being 25x60 feet in dimensions, and the other 36x70, both being two stories in height. There is also a woodshop 17x48, and a storage room 20x38. During the busy season, a force of fifteen hands is employed, and the work turned out embraces everything in the line, including fine carriages, platform spring wagons, tracks, cutters, sleighs, etc. In 1880, Leemhuis Brothers became the sole proprietors of the business, and by their energy and the fine reputation of their work they are building up a substantial trade. Horse-shoeing, general blacksmithing and repairing are important features of the factory, and every facility is enjoyed for the prompt prosecution of the business in a most workmanlike manner. Both members of the firm are practical workmen, and give their personal attention to all branches of the business.

Noble Sewing Machine Company, corner Eighteenth and Plum streets, was started in 1881. It is located in the western part of the city, on grounds 60x200 feet, improved with substantial buildings, which are fitted with the most approved machinery known for the production of their work, costing $55,000. This is driven by an engine of 50-horse-power, and employment is given to sixty men. In the manufacture of the Noble Sewing Machine, the company possesses two points which entitle them to the fullest consideration; first, valuable patents, which are the result of a life-long study, and familiarity with sewing machine manufacture, the patents covering the most important essentials of a light running, durable and convenient machine, and secondly, the patentee, Mr. Mayo, is on hand, personally supervising the application of his patents, and looking after the construction of the machine in every part. George H. Noble is proprietor of the works, and possessing full qualifications for the prosecution of his enterprise, and being so situated that every facility for the conducting of an extensive business is enjoyed, he is destined to make the Noble Sewing Machine one of wide repute upon its merits, while to the city he gives an industry which adds much to its wealth and reputation.

Eureka Manufacturing Company, limited, corner of Twelfth and Raspberry streets, was established in January, 1881, by a coterie of investors, who began business in Schutte's planing mill, which stood on Fourth street near Cascade. During the same year, E. J. Cowell and William Varnum, together with John Minnig and John J. Roemer, of the original stockholders, became principal owners, and erected the nucleus of the present works. The buildings were then 40x60, two stories high, but in the summer of 1882, they were enlarged being now 60x100, a portion of which is three stories in height. One 30-horse-power engine furnished the motive power, while an average of 35 men find employment here, the annual sales amounting to about $40,000. All classes of wooden notions for household use, are manufactured at this establishment, which have been so well appreciated that the business done is surprising, while the trade is steadily growing and surely becoming an important one under the efficient management of the present proprietors.

Riblet Brothers, furniture factory, corner of Twelfth and Peach streets: Fifty years ago, John H. and Jonathan Riblet began the manufacture of furniture in Erie, which through their industry, the factory known by the above title has grown to its present large dimensions. John H. Riblet was the head of the firm until his death, in 1879. About 1865, they commenced manufacturing by machinery, at the intersection of Canal and Eighth streets, but in 1871 removed the factory to its present location. The building is 30x125, three stories high with basement, furnished throughout with first-class machinery, and operated by a fifteen-horse-power engine. The firm employe thirty-two men and manufacture only for their own retail trade, their house being at No. 926 State street. A. K. and E. J. Riblet comprise the firm, and they intend in the near future to erect a fine salesroom adjoining the factory, thereby saving the expenses of much hauling, by concentrating their business at one point, besides obtaining the necessary room now required for their growing trade.

The Exhibition Show Case Company was organized in 1877, and began business the following year over Snyder Brother's shop on State street, near Turnpike. In 1883, the firm removed to the large frame on the corner of Eighteenth and Peach streets, which had previously been used as a carriage shop by Henry Mankle. The building is 50x120, three stories high, and the machine work is done at the Erie City Planing Mill. The firm is composed of G. W. Churchill, J. W. Churchill and P. Hendrichs, employs thirty-eight hands, and are the exclusive manufacturers of the Upright Sectional Show Cases, which are sold all over the United States and Canada, their annual sales amounting to $35,000.

Olds' Pump Company
, limited, had its beginning in 1845, when L. W. Olds started a factory in East Mill Creek Township. In 1853, he removed to Erie, and has ever since carried on the business in this city. In March, 1881, the company was incorporated, and now employs six men in the manufacture of well, cistern and water tubing. L. W. Olds, the senior member of the company, claims to be the pioneer manufacturer of wooden pumps in the State. George Olds has had a pump factory on Thirteenth, between Peach and Sassafras streets since 1865, but in 1881 the two firms were consolidated under the present title, Clark and William Olds being also members of the company.

Two extensive planing mills and lumber yards are located on Front street, viz., James McBrier & Co., and George Carroll & Bro. The first mentioned lying between State and French streets, is one of the oldest and widely known yards of Erie. The mill is 66x170, the lumber yard covering the block between State and French, north of Front street to the bay. In the summer season the firm employs sixty-five men, and thirty in the winter time. About 4,000,000 feet of lumber are manufactured, beside 6,000,000 feet of rough lumber handled annually. All the pine is obtained from Michigan, while the firm also handle the native hard woods. The firm of George Carroll & Brother, whose planing mills and lumber yards are located on Front street, east of French, is well and favorably known, having been organized in 1865, and is one of the flourishing manufacturing interest of Erie.

We have previously given the early history of the Densmore Flouring Mills, now owned and operated by William Densmore & Co. They contain many of the latest improvements in cleaning and grinding wheat, though not using the roller process, and the product ranks high in the market of Erie. Though located on Mill Creek, the motive power is supplied by an engine. The mill is fitted with four run of stone, all used in grinding wheat, the daily capacity being about 400 bushels. The product finds a ready sale in the home market, and a large portion of it is consumed here, though some shipping trade is enjoyed. Mr. Densmore has been a resident of Erie since 1838, and of his ability as a miller, the high reputation enjoyed by the Densmore Mills is the best evidence.

The Fairmount Mills, Eighth street, near Holland, is one of the pioneer mills of Erie, and we have previously mentioned it in that connection, but though its hewed timbers and outward appearance bespeak its age, its internal arrangement and the improved character of its machinery mark its proprietors as enterprising, progressive millers, and the reputation of its product is equal to any mill in this section of the state. It came into the possession of J. B. Crouch & Co. in 1872, and prior to the fall of 1883 was operated by both water and steam power, but at that time the mill underwent a thorough repairing, a full line of Stevens' rolls, with a capacity of 150 bushels of flour per day, were put in, and the use of water-power abandoned, steam alone being now used. The mill is a three-story frame structure, wherein twelve men find employment, and their markets are along the several railroads centering in Erie.

In 1865, Oliver & Bacon purchased the Canal Flouring Mills, on the corner of Sixth and Myrtle streets. They had been in operation some years, the native power being supplied from the canal, but they were finally converted into a steam mill, and water-power abandoned. In the spring of 1883, a complete line of Stevens' rolls, with a capacity of 200 barrels per day, were added, and, besides, running up to the full capacity in the manufacture of flour also grinds daily about twenty tons of meal and feed. It is a four-story frame building, 40x90, furnished with a Colt double engine of 100-horse-power, and was erected by William Kelley, under the supervision of Jubiel Towner, one of the pioneer millers of Erie. The grade of flour turned out by this mill is second to none, and besides a large home trade the product is sold along the line of the Philadelphia & Erie Railroad, any surplus of low grade being shipped to New York for export. The firm is John Oliver and S. E. Bacon, and twenty-two men find steady employment at this mill, which runs day and night.

Merchant Mills: In 1872, Crouch Brothers erected the four story brick mill, 80x140, on the corner of Holland street, and the Pennsylvania and Lake Shore Railroads, a very eligible site on of the fine shipping facilities afforded by these lines. The mill began business with ten run of stone buhrs, but in 1882 it was furnished with a complete set of Stevens' rolls, having a capacity of 400 barrels of flour per day, besides twenty-five tons of meal and feed. The firm of P. & O. E. Crouch employs in this mill twenty men, and besides a large local trade ship their flour through Pennsylvania, Ohio and New York. A large amount of grain is also bought at this mill and shipped to the Eastern cities.

C. E. Gunnison & Co., tanners, No. 238 West Eighteenth street: The tannery to whose interests this article is devoted was established by the present proprietors in 1859, and has been operated by them ever since. The tannery consists of a large brick building, partly two and partly three stories in height; the three-story part 53x54 feet, and the two-story part 22x70 feet in dimensions. Attached to this building is their office, 20x20 feet, besides an engine and boiler room 30x75 feet in dimensions. They use a twenty-horse-power engine and boiler of much larger capacity, give employment to sixteen hands, and have a capacity of about 250 sides per week. They make harness and rough leather principally, and find a ready market for all the produce, the harness leather being sold to the general trade here, while all the rough leather is shipped to the East. The average annual production will reach the sum of $50,000. The individual members of the firm are C. E. and J. B. Gunnison. The latter is thoroughly practical in the business, attends carefully to details, and their product is the equal of any in the market.

E. Streuber & Bro., tannery, State street, between Eighteenth and Nineteenth: The manufacture of leather is a branch of industry very extensively pursued in Erie, and the above firm are leading tanners and curriers of the city. The business was founded by John Streuber, the father of the present proprietors, in 1861, and was conducted by him until his death in 1872. In 1871, the senior member of the present firm was admitted to an interest in the business, and five years later George Streuber became a partner, when the present firm name was assumed. The premises occupied are a brick building five-stories high, and a rear frame L., the whole covering an area of 100x165 feet. The establishment gives employment to twenty-four men, and turns out finished calf, kip, upper, harness and sole leather, besides some unfinished light stock, which is worked into carriage leather, etc. The total value of the product reaches annually $120,000. The stock is shipped to all sections of the country, principally to the West, but sales are not confined to any locality. The reputation of this tannery is high wherever its product is known, and every attention is bestowed to maintain a high standard of quality.

Lake City Malt House, No. 432 West Ninth street: This enterprise was started in 1859 by Ben Butterfield, annually producing 5,000 bushels of malt, and in 1864 was purchased by Jacob Weschler, its present proprietor. The large and conveniently arranged office an warehouse is 55x110 feet in dimensions; the malt house is five-stories high and is built of brick; the drying kiln adjoining is 30x45 feet in dimensions, also of brick, containing two wire cloth floors, which are the best in this city, and as good as any in the Union. These buildings are admirably located, being in close proximity to the railroads and lake navigation, having a storage capacity of 60,000 bushels, thus affording excellent facilities for the reception and shipment of goods. The production of this malt house aggregates from 100,000 to 125,000 bushels yearly, which is principally barley malt. In the spring of 1883, Mr. Weschler erected a brick malt house, 70x100 feet, five and six stories high, with a storage capacity of 100,000 bushels. It is located on the corner of Parade and Sixteenth streets, opposite the freight depot of the Pennsylvania Railroad, having switches to that and the Lake Shore road. The great bulk of grain is purchased in Canada, while a small percentage is of home production. By far the largest portion of malt made by this house is shipped to New York City, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh and Allegheny City, where it always finds a ready market and the preference of trade. Mr. Weschler has in his employ fifteen experienced workman, besides being a practical man himself in both brewing and malting. He has lived here for the past thirty-four years, and is a gentleman with whom it is a pleasure to do business. His two sons, Daniel D. and Leo B. Weschler, are valuable assistants in managing the business, the former traveling, selling the malt and buying barley, of which nothing but the finest quality is used, the latter having charge of the malting.

The Erie Malting company, corner of Eighteenth and Parade streets: The nucleus of this business was laid by Alfred King, who purchased nearly five acres of ground from Gen. C. M. Reed, upon which he erected a part of the present building. The property passed into the hands of the Keystone Bank who sold it to the present owners. The firm as now constituted was established in the year 1873. The premises consist of a plat of ground 120x200 feet, on which is erected a brick malt house four stories in height, where employment is given to fifteen experienced maltsters. The house is one of the best appointed for the production of its specialty, every part being arranged for the most convenient handling of the grain in its first receipt, and the subsequent processes through which it passes. A twelve-horse-power engine is utilized, and the annual product aggregates 85,000 bushels of barley malt. The firm malt no other grain, and in addition to giving employment to the number of men engaged, afford the farmers of this section a ready market for all the barley offered, at the highest cash price. The enterprise of the firm at this point is only a portion of their business, they operating the business on a large scale in the city of Baltimore, where the Strauses are well known as among that city's most enterprising citizens. The firm is composed of H. Straus, L. Straus, S. Straus and A. Bell, all residents of Baltimore, while the practical oversight of their business at this point is looked after by A. L. Straus, the son of one of the owners, a young man of thorough business training, who has strongly identified himself with the city's best interests.

Downer & Howard, brewers, corner of Seventeenth and Parade streets: This brewery was established by Adam Dietz many years ago, the building being erected by him on land bought of Rufus S. Reed. A law suit afterward came up over the right to the water of a spring some distance south of the city, which Dietz claimed to have purchased of Reed, and the courts sustained the claims of the former to the spring water. Alfred King bought the brewery of Dietz, and it subsequently passed into the possession of the Keystone Bank, who sold it to Downer & Howard in 1872. The brewery consists of four large and substantial structures, completely fitted up in every department with all the latest improvements. The annual capacity is about 3,000 barrels, and six hands are constantly employed in its production. The beer from their brewery has become very popular, not only in Erie, but is sold in large quantities in Cleveland, Chicago, Buffalo and elsewhere. It is made from well-selected malt and hops, is entirely free from all impurities and adulterations, and is highly prized as an excellent and healthful beverage. In connection with their brewing interests, the firm is engaged in the shipment of malt and hops, their principal market being in the West.

The Eagle Brewery, State street, was established about 1846, and was owned by Fry & Schuff. The former gentleman retired from the business in 1854, and was succeeded by J. H. Kalvelage, who two years later, became sole proprietor. The premises occupy nearly a square between Twenty-first and Twenty-second streets, running from Peach to State, besides an extensive ice house on the east side of State street. The cellars are very extensive, and furnish unsurpassed store room for the large stock of lager always carried. A patent ice house, of approved construction, 50x80 feet, built in 1871, is an important addition, while the latest improvements and appliances for brewing purposes have been introduced. The Eagle Brewery makes most of its own malt, and the care bestowed here add largely to the reputation of the lager. An engine of 13 horse power is used, twelve men and three teams are employed, and the product reaches from 8,000 to 10,000 barrels per annum. The reputation of the Eagle Brewery is such that almost the entire make is sold at home though some shipping trade, extending East, West and South, is enjoyed.

J. S. Riddle, maltster, corner of Fourteenth and Holland streets: The malt house owned and operated by Col. Riddle was established in 1875 by Densmore & McCarter, and so continued until 1879, when W. J. McCarter became sole proprietor. In November, 1882, he was succeeded by Col. Riddle, who has since carried on the business. The malt house is of brick, two stories high, 70x130 feet in dimensions, and is in close proximity to the railroads, thus being admirably located for the reception and shipment of goods. His production aggregates 35,000 bushels yearly, and is principally barley malt. The great bulk of grain is purchased in Canada, while a small percentage is of home production. In addition to malting, he annually handles about 35,000 bushels of barley, of lake shore and Canada growth, which is sold to the general trade. The greater portion of malt produced by this house is shipped to New York.

The National Brewery, corner of Sixth and Parade streets, was established about 1848 by Jacob Fuess, after whose decease his stepson, C. M. Conrad, fell heir to the property. The house has a capacity of 25,000 barrels, but its annual production is about 15,000. Since Mr. Conrad became proprietor, the business has gradually increased, and twenty men now find employment at this brewery, while its beer is of first-class quality.

Koehler's Brewery, corner of Twenty-sixth and Holland streets, was established in 1860, by Charles Koehler, after whose death his son, F. Koehler, became proprietor. The father began business on a very small scale, which increased with the passing years until today a fine four story brick building 60x200 feet, stands upon the old site. This brewery employs eighteen men, consumes about 30,000 bushels of malt per year, and manufactures about 14,000 barrels of beer annually, which is second to none in the market.

Erie Boot and Shoe Company, corner of Ash and Twenty-fifth streets. The most extensive establishment devoted to the production of boots and shoes in this section of our State is the Erie Boot and Shoe Company, of which J. Eichenlaub is president and General Manager, and J. W. Ryan, Treasurer. This company was organized and started business in 1871, and from its inception until the present day has grown in importance until now it can justly be ranked among the leading industries of the city. The factory of this company, located at the corner of Ash and Twenty-fifth streets, was erected solely for the purpose for which it is used, and offers all the perfections requisite for the handling of such a volume of business, encompassing ventilation, light, repositories for machinery, and rooms for the various departments. The building has a frontage of thirty-five feet and a depth of 150 feet, is built of brick, and is four stories high, each story carefully fitted up and furnished for the prosecution of the business in all its branches, and employing from 75 to 100 hands. Here is carried on, upon an extensive scale, the manufacture of ladies', misses', men's and youth's hand-sewed, machine-sewed, pegged and standard screw boots and shoes, of various styles and sizes, and with special reference to rapidity and convenience, the factory is divided into several departments, comprising that for the cutting of upper leather, the cutting of sole leather, the crimping, bottoming, treeing, stitching, finishing, packing, etc. All these operations are conducted with the greatest skill and dexterity by competent workmen, the company manufacturing goods to the value of $200,000 annually. The trade extends over Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and Michigan, and wherever introduced at once gains a reputation for superior workmanship.

Watson's Paper Mills, corner of Sixteenth and Holland streets, built and operated by H. F. Watson, are one of the most important enterprises of Erie. The premises are finely located with double sidings from the L. S. & M. S. and P. & E. Railroads, giving unsurpassed facilities for receiving and shipping, and consist of a tract of land 200x450 feet in area, which is improved with buildings required in the business of the following proportions and uses: Main building, 80x120, two stories; machine room, 120x50; engine room, 35x35; boiler room, 40x65; sizing room, 36x60; boiler room, 20x35; tank house 30x40; bleach house, 36x40; stock house, 40x120; warehouse, 80x40; office 21x40. these buildings are not only substantial and convenient, but of a finish and appearance seldom employed in works of a similar character, and with the machinery used have cost upward of $150,000. In the spring of 1883, a chemical works, 40x120 feet, were erected, and Mr. Watson contemplates building a warehouse in the near future, 40x200. The machinery in use consists in part of a 64-inch and an 94-inch double cylinder machine; seven 1,000-pound and three 1,200-pound beating engines, seven steam boilers, and other machinery, driven by five engines of 600 combined horse-power. The product of the mill is building and roll manilla paper, of which from twenty to twenty-five tons are daily manufactured, also cold tar products and chemicals, giving employment to 75 men. Mr. Watson enjoys a high reputation as a paper manufacturer, and his extensive facilities are fully taxed to meet the demands of the trade.

Lovell Manufacturing Company, limited, was incorporated in 1882, successor to M. N. Lovell, who began the business now carried on at Erie in 1879. The company manufacture spring beds, etc., which business Mr. Lovell established in 1881. Their factory is in the Tracy Block, on French street, between Fifth and Sixth, where from forty to fifty hands find steady employment. In the fall of 1883, a new factory was erected on the corner of Thirteenth and French streets, where they own a log 125x450 feet in size. The new buildings are as follows: One two story, 40x100; two additional one story wings, 25x52 and 27x40 respectively, all of which are brick; also a frame 16x20. These buildings are furnished throughout with entire new machinery for the manufacture of wire and springs, and is the only establishment of the kind in Erie. Twenty-five men find employment in the new works. The company intend to erect additional buildings, and remove their entire business to the new location. M. N. Lovell is Chairman; W. W. Hunt, Treasurer; and A. W. Walker, Secretary of the company, and own stores for the sale of their goods in the following cities: New York, Philadelphia, Boston, Chicago, Buffalo, Rochester, Albany, Brooklyn, Newark, Providence, Syracuse, New Haven, Worcester, Scranton, Lowell, Springfield and Easton.

Marks & Meyer, merchant tailors, 806 and 808 State street, have been in business since 1867 under the same firm name, and for the past fourteen years at their present location. The business is divided into several departments, each separate and distinct from the other. Two experienced and reliable cutters and thirty skilled workmen are constantly employed in the merchant tailoring department. Their trade in this line is probably the most extensive in the city, and the reputation of the house for stylish, reliable work, stands second to few in the State. In the ready made clothing department, the assortment is fully as complete. The stock is of their own manufacture, and every attention is paid to details in making it up. In this department, from two to four practical cutters are employed, and work is steadily furnished to from sixty to 100 hands. The trade conducted is wholesale as well as retail, each branch of the business occupying a separate portion of the building. An idea may be gained of the extent and variety of the stock from the fact that it represents a cash value often exceeding $100,000. The location occupied embraces two of the handsomest and best lighted stores in the city, each 24x125 feet in area, and the first and second floors and basement are fully taken up with stock. The house is well represented on the road, and has an honorable representation among the trade. The copartnership consists of Charles S. Marks and P. A. Meyer, gentlemen whose long residence in Erie has fully identified them with the city's growth and progress.

Baker, Ostheimer & Co., clothiers, corner of Fifth and State streets: In 1849-50, Mr. B. Baker laid the foundation of the splendid business which is now conducted by his sons and son-in-law. From a small beginning, he has seen it grow to its present proportions; and to his sound judgment and honorable business record, its success is largely due. Over a third of a century since its foundation, it is one of the oldest houses in the city, and under the impulse of young and active managers, whose ambition is to lead the trade in this section, it is year by year reaching out further for trade and season after season is making its name and reputation more widely known. The firm occupy with their business the handsome block on the corner of Fifth and State streets, four stories in height, with a frontage of sixty feet on State and eighty feet on Fifth street. The first and second floors are used as salesrooms, the remainder of the building for manufacturing purposes. The firm makes all the goods they handle, except a few of the cheaper grades, thus enabling them to offer their stock to the trade with the certainty that it is carefully cut, honestly made, and can be confidently recommended for style and quality. They employ seven cutters, and from seventy to 125 hands in their manufacturing department, and are represented on the road by three energetic, capable salesman. The individual members of the present firm are Isaac Baker, Jacob Ostheimer and Henry Baker. They assumed the management of the affairs of the house in 1866, and by their energy and enterprise have largely increased the business.

Mart. Maner, confectioner and baker, No. 21 West Seventh street, began business at Erie in 1870, taking his part in the struggle for commercial honors and success. Today he owes his attainment of the distinctions not to any lucky hit, but to the display of the roughness, pluck, perseverance and perfect knowledge of his work. His store is an attractive building, three stories in height, built substantially of brick. His store and retail department occupy the first floor, and is 26x160 feet in dimensions. The factory department occupies the basement and third floors, while the wholesale department is conducted in the first and second rear stories, the dimensions of all floors being alike. In the manufacturing department, Mr. Maner employs twenty-five hands, skilled in their business, and turns out a large quantity of manufactured goods yearly. The stock embraces not only confections of his own make, but imported rarities of merit, in great variety. His employment of a large number of hands about the house and four travelers on the road makes him a large disburser of money in wages, and his trade in New York, Pennsylvania, and Ohio adds not a little to Erie's celebrity as a distributing center.

Jarecki Chemical Works
, east Twelfth street, near P. & E. R. R.: Among the most recent additions to the city's industries may be noted the Jarecki Chemical Works, which were established in the year 1880 on a plant in the eastern portion of the city, convenient to the railway lines for the receipt and shipment of goods, and which have since their establishment taken a reputable position for the excellence of their productions. The works consist of a building well adapted for their business, and is two stories in height, 75x155 feet in dimensions. Their machinery consists of crushers and all the accessories of this manufacture, driven by an engine of forty-horse-power. The products of the works consist of super-phosphates and other fertilizers, sulphate ammonia, sal ammonia, sulphuric acid, etc., and the amount produced is constantly increasing. Their phosphates are rapidly making their merits known and felt in the agricultural regions of the country, and bid fair to take a foremost place among these valuable aids to successful farming which have become so large an article of commerce in later years. They analyze everything they use in manufacture or sell, consequently their fertilizers are always alike; every bag is marked with the analysis according to law, and therefore every one knows what he buys. The company will buy all the bones offered at highest cash price at the works. The ground bone is made of pure bone., ground fine, and the phosphate is manufactured from bone black, ground bone meat dissolved in acid, ammonia salt and potash, and contains no sand, muck, dirt or adulterations of any kind. The members of the firm are Gustav Jarecki, President of Humboldt Bank; Alfred Jarecki, a practical and thorough chemist, and C. J. Englehart, who has charge of the works. These gentlemen are all known in Erie as men of sterling business qualities and as public spirited citizens.

Eclipse Lubricating Oil Company, limited, office Keystone Bank building: In 1875, Thomas Brown started the "Erie Lubricating Works," but in June, 1878, they were consolidated with an oil company of Franklin, Penn., and organized under the above title. This well-known company, manufacturers of the celebrated "Matchless Valve and Cylinder Oil," as well as a general line of lubricating and parafine oils, have a branch of their works at Erie, and are doing an extensive business. The works, covering an area of nearly two acres of ground, are located on Tenth street, near the P. & E. R. R., from which a siding runs into the yard. The Eclipse Lubricating Oil Company manufacture all grades of lubricating oils, of all gravities, cold tests, and adapted to the weather and climate. They also manufacture refined oil to some extent. A special brand upon which they have built up an extensive trade is the "Matchless Valve and Cylinder Oil," which is warranted not to corrode the iron or eat the packing, and to be of the best quality. It is sold only to railroads, or through the company's special agents, and is not handled by the trade generally. The capacity of the works at Erie is about 100 barrels per day, giving employment to from twenty-five to thirty men. The main works are at Franklin, Penn., where they employ about 150 men, and produce about 1,000 barrels of oil daily. The Eclipse Lubricating Oil Company is a limited corporation, of which Thomas Brown is Chairman. The extent of their operations, as well as the high standard maintained in all their products, justly entitles them to the most favorable consideration.

Ashby & Vincent, job printers, manufacturing stationers and lithographers, 423 State street: this enterprising and well-known firm stands at the head of their line of business in Northwestern Pennsylvania, and possess every facility for doing fine, first class work. The establishment contains six presses and three ruling machines, of the latest and most improved construction, with other machinery incidental to their business, and furnished constant employment to from thirty-five to forty hands in the different departments. Its productions embrace everything in the line, from the ponderous bank ledger to the pocket memorandum book, and from a business card to the most elaborately ruled and printed railroad stationery, besides engraving in all its branches, lithographing and electrotyping. The house does an extensive business as wholesale stationers, carrying a large and complete assortment of goods included under this head; also a full line of blank books and fancy stationery. They possess every facility not only for turning out a large amount of work, but work of the finest description, and the annual business aggregates a large sum. The firm is composed of J. E. Ashby and Harry Vincent, who in 1867, founded their present business on a modest scale, and the present proportions are due to their energy and enterprise, as well as to the character of their work.

John C. McCrea, pork packer, corner State and Twenty-first streets: The only house in Erie making a specialty of this business is the above, which was founded by the present proprietor in 1880. The building occupied is a substantial brick structure, two stories and basement, 80x140 feet in dimensions, and is fitted up with every convenience for the rapid and successful presentation of the business. During each season, from 5,000 to 10,000 hogs are slaughtered here, though this represents but a small portion of the business done. Much of the stock is bought dressed, and still more of that handled is packed and cured in the West. From ten to fifteen men are constantly employed during the season, and the business transacted is large and steadily increasing. The line dealt in embraces, besides pork, the celebrated Erie brand of sugar-cured hams, lard, bacon and dried beef. Mr. McCrea was formerly a member of the firm of McCrea Brothers, the well-known pork packers of Cleveland, and is a gentleman thoroughly familiar with the business in all its details. In his enterprise he has added an important feature to the growing commercial advantages of Erie.

Erie Lime and Cement Company, foot of French street: This enterprise, the only one of the kind in Erie, was established in 1864 by a number of business men, but was never incorporated. Several changes in the company were made from time to time, until in 1867 the plant and business became the property of H. W. Spooner and Samuel Rea. They burn the celebrated Kelly's Island limestone, running two kilns, with a capacity of 500 bushels per day. The Keystone Plaster and Limestone Mills are also a apart of the plant and here they grind the Canada land plaster and limestone, fine, for fertilizing purposes. Besides these products, they deal extensively in super-phosphates, Nova Scotia calcined plaster and water lime, and are the agents of the Pacific Guano Company. These goods have an established reputation, and the farmers can rely upon their strength and freedom from impurities. The firm owns and run in the business the schooner Julia Willard, and give employment to twelve men, the capital employed being very large, as they own an extensive dock property, besides the kilns and plaster mills.

Swalley & Warfel, manufacturers of soap and candles, Nos. 1119 and 1121 Peach street, are the successors of the oldest soap factory in this portion of the State. Established in 1852, by G. F. Brevillier, it so continued until 1871 when it came into the possession of J. W. Swalley, who in the spring of 1883 associated with him Martin Warfel. The factory was then on the corner of Sixth and Holland streets, but the new firm immediately erected the present works on Peach street, and abandoned the old location. The main building is a three-story brick, 45x100 feet in size, with a boiler room 20x45. In July 1883, the new works were occupied, and here seven hands find steady employment in the manufacture of soaps and candles, the firm also handling tallow, caustic soda, soda ash, sal soda etc., in large quantities, their markets being Erie and the oil regions of Pennsylvania though shipping principally to the larger Eastern cities, which illustrates the push and enterprise of the proprietors.

Erie Mantel Works, 1226 State street: this enterprise was started in March, 1881, and is therefore one of the latest additions to the manufacturing enterprises of Erie. The works are located for the present at No. 1226 State street, occupying a factory 40x75 feet in dimensions, and a show room 25x40 feet, in which is displayed many handsome specimens of their work. All varieties of variegated marble, from Tennessee, Virginia, the Hudson, and from Europe, are used, and under the hands of experienced artists are carved and finished in the highest style of the art. In marbled work, the Euclid sandstone is used, and when finished with panels of granite set into the marbled surface and relieved by ornaments cut into the natural stone, it would be difficult to imagine anything more artistic in design and finish. These mantles are made to order of any size or style required, and at prices ranging from $20 to $500. Furniture tops are also made, and grates, English Minton tiles for hearths and wainscoting are largely dealt in. It is the design of the company to remove to more extensive quarters, on State street, between Ninth and Tenth, in the spring of 1884, and largely extend their business, as their present capacity, which is limited to the production of only one complete mantel per day, will not supply the demand. The enterprise is in the hands of men whose ambition is not measured by small results, and promises to become an important addition to the business interests of the city.

F. L. Pelton, monuments, had stones, etc., No. 405 State street: this business was established by Roderick Pelton, the father of the present proprietor, in 1845. At his death, in 1871, E. L. Pelton became the owner, and has conducted the business in a highly successful manner. The found occupied is 42x165 feet in dimensions, roomy, and conveniently appointed for the work. The buildings consist of a two-story brick front for show room, etc., 28x28, and a shop in the rear of the 20x50 feet in dimensions, while the works contain steam machinery for polishing purposes. Five workmen are employed, while an elaborate stock of finished work is always on hand. Mr. Pelton is prepared to execute marble and granite work to order in the most artistic designs. The specimens of his handiwork compare favorably with those produced in any other section. His stock of imported statuary has been carefully selected, and evinces taste and judgment. A stock of Italian and Vermont marble and Scotch and American granites is always on hand, from which is produced headstones and monuments of any desired style of sculpture.

M.A. Dunning's marble works No. 1227 Peach street, are the largest and most important in the city, and he enjoys the patronage of a large extent of country. He makes a specialty of fine cemetery work, and has turned out some of the most beautiful, artistic and graceful designs in this section. He also furnished marble and sandstone for building purposes, marble mantels and grates. The yard is desirably situated, and is convenient in every respect for the transaction of his business. The ground occupied is 40x165 feet in dimensions, upon which are substantial buildings. He employs ten to twelve hands, all of whom are skilled. He makes a specialty of designing monuments to order, and has gained a wide reputation for the high character of the productions. Many evidences of his handiwork can be seen in the many new buildings and dwellings that have been erected here since he established the business in 1865. He is a large importer of Scotch granite and dealer in Italian and American marble, having always on hand a stock estimated in value at from $6,000 to $7,000, and also manufactures American granite monuments and headstones. These works have a steam polishing machine for polishing granite and marble, operated by a ten-horse-power engine. Mr. Dunning is one of the enterprising business men of the city.

American Fusee Company, limited, was started in February, 1874, on Twenty-first and Liberty streets, where the business was carried on till April. 1883, when the company removed to the present location on the corner of Seventeenth and Cascade streets. The building is a three-story frame structure, 40x150, with an L 50x75 feet in size, and about twenty men find steady employment in the manufacture of safety parlor and blazing fusees. The capital stock is $200,000, and the following gentlemen are the officers of the company: W. R. Davenport, President; John Dodge, Jr., Secretary and Treasurer, whose names are synonymous of enterprise, progress and public spirit.

Erie Rubber Company, whose works are on the corner of East avenue and Twelfth street, was organized in April, 1882, and began business the following September. The building occupied was partially erected by the railroad company, but has been much enlarged by its present owners. It is a two-story frame, 40x160 feet in dimensions, furnished with new, first-class machinery, and operated by one engine of 125-horse-power. From twenty-five to thirty hands now find steady work in the manufacture of all kinds of rubber goods for mechanical purposes, the mill having a capacity of about $350,000 worth of business per annum. The company is composed of W. H. Charles and N.J. Whitehead, who find a ready market for their goods in every portion of the United States.


Board of Trade
This organization originally established in the year 1874, for the bringing together in closer social and business relations the business men of Erie has from year to year extended and increased its power for good until now it is one of the features of the city. It is composed of the very best men in the community, whose efforts to enhance the material wealth of the place are apparent, from the magnificent establishments which many of them operate and the increased business which they now enjoy. The Board of Trade rooms are in the Reed House Block, and the following gentlemen were its officers in 1883: George V. Maus, President; S. E. Bacon, Treasurer; Douglass Benson, Secretary. We are indebted to Mr. Benson for the following summary of Erie's industries, which also gives a comparative statement of their output for the four years, ending December 31, 1882, and will prove of value as showing the growth of the city's establishments:

INDUSTRIES
1879
1880
CAPITAL
MEN
PRODUCT
CAPITAL
MEN
PRODUCT
Iron manufactures
$1,398,000
987
$2,098,000
$1,435,500
1,167
$2,373,000
Flouring mills
205,000
44
700,000
245,000
48
900,000
Brass foundries
330,000
360
695,000
500,000
450
950,000
Car manufactories
740,000
975
1,520,000
1,045,500
1,050
1,950,000
Stove manufactories
350,000
287
363,000
375,000
312
398,000
Boots, shoes and leather
220,000
180
250,000
220,000
170
245,000
Oils
75,000
25
200,000
75,000
25
200,000
Breweries and malt houses
875,000
98
395,000
400,000
75
485,000
Sash, blinds, planing mills
222,000
84
418,000
215,000
102
375,000
Pumps
35,000
20
35,000
35,000
21
40,000
Organs
125,000
116
275,000
125,000
120
300,000
Woodenware, chairs, etc
320,000
216
340,000
200,000
182
345,000
Miscellaneous manufactories
798,000
473
927,000
775,000
510
955,000
Totals
$5,193,000
3,865
$8,211,000
$5,646,000
4,232
$9,606,000
 
INDUSTRIES
1881
1882
CAPITAL
MEN
PRODUCT
CAPITAL
MEN
PRODUCT
Iron manufactures
$1,728,300
1,618
$4,272,000
$2,397,000
1,714
$3,923,000
Flouring mills
245,000
67
1,165,000
250,000
67
1,215,000
Brass foundries
575,000
435
1,078,000
575,000
435
1,050,000
Car manufactories
1,080,000
1,100
2,075,000
1,025,500
578
965,500
Stove manufactories
390,000
307
440,000
401,000
338
564,000
Boots, shoes and leather
220,000
175
250,000
220,000
175
250,000
Oils
75,000
25
200,000
75,000
25
250,000
Breweries and malt houses
445,000
106
687,000
537,000
106
777,000
Sash, blinds, planing mills
220,000
187
390,000
235,000
200
459,000
Pumps
35,000
21
40,000
35,000
21
45,000
Organs
125,000
115
225,000
125,000
120
225,000
Woodenware, chairs, etc
238,000
284
500,500
460,000
301
609,000
Miscellaneous manufactories
990,000
524
1,247,500
791,000
612
1,541,000
Totals
$6,367,100
4,964
$12,570,000
$7,126,500
4,692
$11,873,500



The annual meeting of the Erie Board of Trade was held March 13, 1884, for the election of officers and for hearing the Secretary's report on the city's commerce for the years of 1883-84. Matthew R. Griswold was elected President, George W. Starr, Vice President, and S. E. Bacon, Treasurer. The following commercial statistics were reported: The total capital investment in manufactures is $7,817,500, the total product of which is $12,113,900, giving employment to 4,921 skilled workmen. The product of iron industries is $3,532,500; flouring mills, $1,165,000; brass foundries, $1,146,200; car manufactories, $1,650,000; stove works $507,000; boots and shoes, $202,700; oils, $300,000; brewers, $740,000; planing mills, $372,500; pumps, $53,000; organs, $531,000; miscellaneous, $1,672,000, being an increase of $240,400 over the total products of last year.

Of coal receipts, $397,932 tons were received from the Philadelphia & Erie Railroad, and 76,680 by the Erie & Pittsburgh road. Of this amount 339,880 tons were anthracite and 134,812 tons bituminous. The banking capital of Erie is $1,582,000, of which $1,067,000 belongs to national banks, and $515,000 to private and savings banks. The bank deposits amount to $4,663,000, of which $2,222,000 represents national banks, and $2,441,000 private and savings banks.

The grain receipts from the following ports were: Chicago, 3,604,978 bushels; Milwaukee, 265,124; Toledo, 393,349; Sandusky, 160,133; Canada ports, 37,000. This was disposed of as follows, to New York, 663,405 bushels; to Philadelphia, 1,812,085; Baltimore, 1,470,586; New England ports, 404,710; interior, 20,575; Erie local, 79,319.

The lumber receipts were 36,026,886 feet, of which 17,575,675 came by lake and 18,651,161 came by the Philadelphia & Erie road.

Within the past decade, Erie has made wonderful progress as a manufacturing point, and to-day occupies an enviable position among the cities of Pennsylvania. Its factories are in full operation and prospering, giving employment to mechanics and laborers from home and abroad. The immense iron industry is the most import department of manufacture, and is one possessing wonderful possibilities of development, and of increasing the municipal wealth. The various other industries, as the shoe, lumber, coal, milling, furniture, carriage, woodenware, musical instruments, paper malting and leather, are working to their fullest capacity. Some have recently enlarged their works and others are contemplating the same. The merchants of the city generally do a thriving business, the stores in many cases being mammoth, and the stocks well kept up, while the standard of credits of all the city's establishments is high. Erie represents socially, commercially, educationally and religiously the best fruits and advancement of modern civilization.



Bibliography: Samuel P. Bates, History of Erie County, Pennsylvania, (Warner, Beers & Co.: Chicago, 1884), Part III, Chapter VII, pp. 613-649.

 


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