By William Chandler, Esq.
Geography and Topography.-Drumore is one of the original townships of the county, as confirmed by the Magistrates' Court on Aug, 5, 1729. It extended south to Mason and Dixon's line, east to the west branch of the Octorara and Stewart's Run, north to what is now Pequea and Providence townships, west to the Susquehanna.
The dividing line between Drumore and Little Britain was filed in 1777, and in the accounts of that date it is shown that there was " received from Thos. Clark, supervisor, Seven Shillings and Five Pence, by John Hubley, for endorsing on the back of the order of the court for the division line of the Townships of Drumore and Little Britain, filing the same and certifying a copy thereof March 26,1778."
The surface of Drumore is formed of gently-rolling uplands, and valleys, The soil is fertile and responds generously to the demands of its owners. It is well watered on its borders by the west branch of the Octorara, Muddy Run, and the Susquehanna River, Diagonally across the entire right and left centres of the township flow Fishing Creek and the Conowingo with their tributary streams, which flow in a southerly direction, and empty into the Susquehanna.
Iron ore of good quality is found in this township, and large quantities have been taken to different furnaces in the State. From the earliest history of Drumore general farming has been the main occupation of its inhabitants. In later years some have engaged extensively and successfully in dairying and tobacco-raising.
Points of Interest.- One of the most attractive rural scenes on the Susquehanna is the view from Cutler's, in Drumore. The lover of natural scenery has here spread out to his view on the south a long and broad expanse of the Susquehanna as it slowly bends its course to the Chesapeake. The river at its greatest width here is nearly two miles. On the western shore is seen Peach Bottom, at the foot of the York County range, Looking southward for miles there is an unbroken river view, with its islands and grass-beds, From the eastern shore these broken ridges or spurs jut out into the river and form a series of beautiful natural abutments, affording cover and shelter for rafts in the rafting season. From Cutler's the upper end of the big island rises abruptly out of the water, and conveys to the observer the impression of a large sphere partly submerged and floating at anchor. In summer-time, when the slate-broken hills. the islands, the grass-beds and shores are enveloped in their dark-green foliage, the sight is one of surpassing beauty. Tourists who have visited many foreign scenes of great merit assert that when the view from Cutler's is seen at its best in the summer-time it compares favorably with those in other lands, .
But the river view is not the only attractive scene at this point. For a radius of many miles you have in sight some of the most productive farms in the State. A pleasant variety of fields and woodlands, with the substantial homes of prosperous far-mers, greet the eye at every turn. SICilY island and Phite's Eddy are popular places of resort for fishermen during the black bass season. Mitchell's Rock, Brown's Summit, Murphy's Loop, and Skelpie are places of note.
Pioneer Settlers.-Drumore was settled by Scotch-Irish as early as the year 1700. Aggressive, persistent, and sincere in their religious and political opinions, they incurred the displeasure of their royal rulers for maintaining that monarchical authority should be limited by law, also for their constant protest against contributing to the support of a church unfriendly to their faith.
To be freed from their political and religious persecutors they first emigrated from Scotland to the north of Ireland. A residence of a few years there plainly convinced them that the only entire relief from their oppressive environment was in the New World. For a life in the enjoyment of civil and religious rights these determined men again gathered together their families and goods, and committing all to the care of the All- Wise Ruler sailed for their unknown homes. They brought with them decided religions and political opinions and their integrity of character. A century and a half has passed away, and the impress of their convictions is as strong as ever in their descendants.
Drumore township received its name from Dromore Druim Moil', Great Ridge), a strongly fortified place in County Down, on the Lagan. The township account-book has written on its headings from the year 1765 to 1800 "Dromore" and" Drommore." Since then it is written" Drumore."
In 1756 the township contained the following residents and freemen:RESIDENTS OF DRUMORE IN 1756.
The following-named persons, living in the back settlements, fled from the Indians, and probably crossed the Susquehanna at McCall's Ferry. Arthur McConnell, Eliz. Wilson, William Patterson, William Ewing, Lowdywick Leard, Thomas Shirely, John Martin, and Robert McClung.
The following assessment-returns of Drumore township for the years 1759, 1769, and 1779, showing the number of acres of land held by each resident and non-resident, the occupation of the inhabitants, the list of freemen, the valuation of the taxable property in pOUndS, shillings, and pence, furnish subjects of interest to the antiquarian.
ASSESSORS' RETURN OF DRUMORE
Capt. William Steele
lived along the road leading from Chestnut Level to the" Unicorn," on the property now owned by Mr. Nathaniel Mayer. He was a Revolutionary officer, and was engaged in the battles of Germantown and Brandywine. He had seven sons in the war, all enlisting on the same day. During the absence of the men in the army, a Tory came to their house and used personal violence to their mother for Allowing her sons to enlist in the American cause. For his temerity the Tory lost his life, as he was shot by one of the sons on his return home.
Gen. John Steele was born in Drumore in the year 1758, and lived on the farm lately owned by James Barnes, a short distance east of the" Unicorn." At the age of nineteen he was a company commander, and at the battle of Brandywine narrowly escaped death from the effects of a severe wound.
In 1801 he was a member of the Legislature, subsequently he was State senator and Speaker of the Senate. Commissioned to adjust Indian aggressions, it was in his presence that the Indian chief Logan delivered his celebrated speech. Its tender and magnanimous sentiments won the eulogiums of Thomas Jefferson and others. Gen. Steele died in 1827.
Archibald Steele, a brother of Gen. John Steele, commanded a pioneer company under Benedict Arnold on his celebrated winter march through the wilderness from Maine to Quebec. .
Col. James Porter, a famous officer of the Revolutionary war, lived on the road leading from the "Unicorn" to Lancaster, and about two miles east from the" Buck Tavern," on the farm now owned by Elias Aument. He was a lieutenant-colonel in Col. James Watson's battalion, and participated in the battles of Brandywine and Germantown. He at one time lived just over the creek from Puseyville. **He left no children, and after his death his property went to his children.(**aswrittten but makes no sense)
John J. Porter, who was at one time clerk of the Court of Quarter Sessions, was the grand-nephew of Col. James Porter.
William Porter emigrated to Kentucky, and John Porter, who resided near the" Unicorn," moved to Indiana, and from him descended the present Governor of that State.
There remains in this township none of the once prominent Porter family.
James and William Calhoun were second lieutenants in Col. Watson's battalion.
Hugh and William Penny moved to Northumberland County. Some of their descendants lived for many years below Simpson's, now Liberty Square, and others at present reside in Fairfield. They are relatives of the Niles and Calhouns.
Moses Irwin, Esq., lived on the property of John Long, near Liberty Square, and was a prominent personage during the Revolutionary war. John Long was captain of a company during the Revolutionary war, and later a member of the Legislature of this State. Lieut. Thomas Niel was a member of the Fifth Company of Col. Watson's battalion, and was a powerful man physically.
Capt. Patrick Marshall, of the same battalion, having been killed at the battle of Germantown, Lieut. Niel picked Marshall's body up and carried it on his back for more than a mile. This was during the heat of the engagement, when the bullets were flying fast around him. Niel's descendants have always been distinguished as stalwarts.
Robert King, a Revolutionary company commander at the battle of Brandywine, lived near Fairfield. He was the youngest son of Robert King, who emigrated from the north of Ireland and came to what was then a part of Drumore. He made his home near the Susquehanna River, one and a half miles from the Peach Bottom Ferry. There he married Miss Ann McLaughlin, a Scotch.Irish lass, They reared a large family of children, five sons and four daughters. Lieut. Robert King was born Sept. 24, 1744, and died Aug. 14, 1827. He was married to Jennett Smith April 29, 1773. Their children were Sampson, Elizabeth, Sampson S., Robert, John, and Jennette. The Kings came originally from Scotland. Mrs. Jennette McCullough, wife of Sanders McCullough, and Mrs. Ellen Sides, wife of Dr. B. F. Sides, are descendants of the King family.
In 1756, Capt. Moses Irwin, of Drumore, raised a company of volunteers for the French and Indian war. John Mitchell was lieutenant, and Samuel Morrison was ensign. During the war of 1812, Capt. McCuliough, uncle of Sanders McCullough, and Capt. Thomas Neil recruited two companies and marched to Baltimore. The war lasting but a short time, they soon returned to their homes.
Justices of the Peace.-
Since the adoption of the State Constitution, allowing townships to elect such officers, the following-named persons have been honored with the office of justice of the peace for Drumore:
April 14, 1840 John Buchanan. _____________April 15,1862. William Chandler.
Alexander B. Ewing.________________________April 15,1866. John Moore.
April 13,1841. William W. Steel____________April,1867. Hiram WatBon.
April 15,1840. George T. Clark_____________April,1869. John C. Lewi..
April 14,1846. Joseph Boyd.________________April, 1871. Charles W. Pusey.
April 15, 1851. Joseph Boyd._______________April, 1874. John C. Lewis.
April 13,1853. Wm. W. WatsOn.______________April,1876. Charles W. Pusey.
April 10,1855. P. W. Housekeeper.__________April, 1879. John C. Lewil.
May 1,1856. William W. Steel.______________April, 1881. Samuel Boyd.
April 9, 1860. William W. Steel.
Presbyterian Church.-The earliest records of Presbyterian history in Drumore having been accidentally destroyed, much valuable information of the pioneer history of the church and township was irreparably lost. The minutes of the New Castle Presbytery, in Wilmington may contain a few important facts.
We have authentic information, however, that the first place of Presbyterian worship in this township was about a mile south of Chestnut Level, prior to 1730. The second meeting-house stood at the foot of the hill, near the old graveyard. The present substantial stone church has been standing a century and a quarter, and is a grand monument of the skill, energy, and Christian liberality of its builders. During the pastorate of Rev. John Patton some internal repairs were made, and in the early pastorate of Rev. Lindley C. Rutter the pews and pulpit were placed in their present positions.
Under the pastoral care of Rev. John Galbreath, in 1833, extensive repairs and improvements were completed, the roof was reslated, the walls frescoed, a tower built over the entranceway, a new pulpit furnished, and stained glass windows, including a memorial window to the Rev. Lindley C. Rutter, took the place of the old ones. The cost of repairs was three thousand dollars. A. Scott Clarke and James G. McSparran, of the building committee, made a full report on the completion of the work, and the church was rededicated to the service of God free of debt.
It is a pleasant, veuerable structure. The tooth of time has made but slight impressions on its strong walls. Present appearances indicate that the present congregation and their descendants may worship for another century in their old church, around which cluster so many tender memories. Among the oldest elders of the church were Robert King, Robert Clarke, Hugh Martin, William Calhoun, David Scott, James Penny, Joseph Penny, John Long, and Edward Crawford. The present elders are Thomas A. Clarke, A. Scott Clark, James A. McPherson, Sanders McCullough, W. W. Watson, William T. Clarke, Samuel Boyd, William S. Hastings, and William R. Boyd.
The pastoral roll, commencing back as far as 1730, is headed with Rev. John Thompson until 1744; Sampson Smith until 1771; James Latta, from 1771 to 1801; Charles Cummings, from 1804 to 1808; Francis Latta, son of James Latta, from 1810 to 1825; John Patton, from 1832 to 1834; Lindley C. Rutter, from 1835 to 1875; John M. Galbreath, Oct. 12, 1875, the present pastor. , John Thompson came from Ireland a probationer in 1715. In 1730 he came to Chestnut Level from Middle Octorara. July 31, 1744, he was released from his pastoral relationship and went as a missionary to Western Virginia and North Carolina, after which an effort was made to bring him back to Chestnut Level He was very prominent in the disculsions-of his day, was the author of several religious works, ; and ranked with Dickinson, Blair, and Tennant, and died in 1753. The pastorate of Rev. James Latta, from 1771, covers a space of thirty years. He was a noted scholar and a pioneer in thought; advocated the introduction of Watts' psalmody in the church *********************Mt Zion, Mount Hope, The Drumore Baptist***************** pg 796 Stor until 1881. Since then the Rev. Alfred Wells las been the pastor in charge. The church is a nember of the Central Union Association of Baptist Churches. The property is valued at fifteen hundred dollars.
Old Mennonite Church.- Within the last ten years the Mennonites have rapidly increased in numbers in Drumore. In 1881 they erected a plain and comfortable house of worship a little north of Mechanics Grove. It is known as the Mennonite Church at Mechanics' Grove. It is forty-six by thirty-five feet, a and its erection was completed at a cost of seventeen hundred dollars. The original members numbered about twenty, among whom are Samuel Nissley, J. Is M Swarr, Jacob Martin, Amos B. Miller, S. J. Ressler, and Abraham Brubaker. The church was dedicated, free of incumbrance, in the spring of 1882. It belongs to the Old Mennonite Church order. Bishop Benjamin Herr, Bishop Jacob N. Brubaker, and Rev. t a Amos Herr participated in the dedication. The number of members is steadily increasing. They have a flourishing Sabbath-school of eighty pupils, under the superintendence of J. M. Swarr.
Friends.- The Friends' meeting-house in Drumore was erected in 1816. It is located one-half mile south of Liberty Square. The land was donated by Jacob Shoemaker, and is a portion of the land purchased by him of Moses Irwin, Jr. He inherited the same from his father, Moses Irwin, who in the year 1748 took out a patent for three hundred and nine acres of land, and in 1750 another patent for one hundred and fifty acres. Previous to the erection of their present meeting-house the Friends assembled in an old school building, one mile west of the present location, on the south side of the road. Among the members are fouud the names of Joseph Stubbs, David Parry, Jacob Shoemaker, Robert Clendenin, Isaac Smith, Isaac Bolton, Joseph Smith, Simon Pennock, George Lamborn, Amos Walton, Jesse Lamborn, James Worral and wife, and Ezekiel Atkinson. The present elders are Jason Bolton and Alban Cutler. The meeting includes about one hundred members, and is known as the Drumore preparative meeting. It belongs to the Little Britain Monthly Meeting, Nottingham Qnarterly, and Baltimore yearly Meeting.
Education in Drumore was carefully fostered by the Scotch-Irish element in its early history. In 1770 the Rev. James Latta, pastor of Chestnnt Level Presbyterian Church, was principal of a Latin school. The school was on the farm now owned by Joh n Myers, about a mile west of the Friends' meeting-house. Latin and English were thoroughly taught. Many of his pupils became famous in after-years. After Mr. Latta retired from active service, the school was continued by his son, Francis. Another son of the Lattas', for his classical acquirements, was selected by Aaron Burr as tutor for
his gifted daughter, Theodosia. In 1852 an academy building was erected at Chestnut Level, and in a few years an extensive boarding-house was added and the school flourished for several years. The first teacher was the Rev. J. Ross Ramsay; the last, Thomas R. Nicholson. Our semi-private normal schools, aided yearly by large State appropriations, have closed many excellent private institutions of learning in the unequal competition. Drumore township accepted the common school system in 1834, and had at that time 832 taxables. In 1837 there were 9 schools, 12 teachers, and 220 pupils, supported at an expenditure of $3023. In 1883 there were 15 schools and 15 teachers. The school near Murphy's Loup is composed exclusively of colored pupils. The whole number of pupils in the schools in 1883 was 743, 387 are males and 356 females. These are maintained at an expense of $4150 per year. The number of taxabIes in the same year was 918.
Washington Lodge, No.156, F. and A. M.-
The Masonic fraternity of Drumore, known as the Washington Lodge, No. 156, F. and A. M., was granted its charter in 1818. The lodge first organized at the public-house of Philip Housekeeper, in Chestnut Level. The first officers were Jacob Moore, W. M. ; John Ramsay,S. W.; Samuel B. Moore, J. W. Prominent among the old members were Gardner Furnace, John Kirke, Philip Housekeeper, John Keeler, John Moderwell, Wallace Null, John Robinson, Davis Snavely, John Valeutine, T. C. Tomlinson, Oliver Watson, and Richard Edwards. During the Anti-Masonic war the members were compelled frequently to change their place of meeting. Sometimes they met near Black Rock, at a public-house kept by a Mr. Dripp's, at other times ley met at the Running Pump, kept by a Mr. Elliott. Fear of injury to themselves or their entertainers compelled them to meet at different places, so fierce was the Anti-Masonic fury. At that time they were greatly reduced in numbers. Henry Rush and David Snavely were sent at times to Lancaster to Lodge No. 48, for additional members to form a Quorum. The Washington Lodge moved to Drumore Centre in 1857, and in 1868 they built their Masonic Hall at a cost exceeding five thousand dollars. It is a handsome brick structure, three stories high, and the largest public hall in Drumore. Washington Lodge numbers eighty-seven members. Its present officers are William J. McComb, W. M.; David M. Boffenmyer, S. W.; Dr. J. M. Deaver, J. W.; and Edward Ambler, Sec., since 1862.
I. O. of G. T.- The Good Templars' Lodge in Drumore is a surviving branch of the Drumore and Martic Temperance Union. In 1869, Thomas Wentz of the Union noticed that very few of those who needed instruction in temperance principles attended the meetings. He stated the fact to Hon. James Black, of Lancaster, who suggested the new organization known as the Good Templars as a remedy.
At that time there were less than a dozen lodges in Pennsylvania. During the year a lodge was insti-tuted, and the meetings were held in the old tan house, a little north of the dividing-line between Martic and Drumore. The first officers were: W. S., Edwin Shoemaker; W. A. S., Rev. K. Hambleton; W. G., James Ecklin; W. C., Rev. J. McGhee; W. M., Joshua Wilson; W. 1. G., John McKinley; W. O. G., Joseph Hackett; W. A. S., William L. Lamborn; W. D. M., A. B. Lamborn; R. H. S., Emmol Bradley; L. H. S., Tilghman Tompson; Lodge Deputy, Edwin Shoemaker.
The additional charter members were Thomas Wentz, Mary J. Wentz, William J. Wentz, John Wentz, Sarah A. WWentz, Em-mol' P. Bradley, Maria Penny,Mlargaret F. Shoemaker, Jacob Cramer, WWilliam B. Hackett, Jeremiah Cooper, Louisa Cooper, Mary C. Cooper; and Eliza M. McGhee. The lodge was reorganized in September, 1871. Their present place of meeting is in the new han at Liberty Square, which they have occupied since 1880. The lodge numbers eighty-five members.
The Drumore Lodge, No. 509, I. O. O. F.,-
was instituted on the 6th day of January, 1855. Its charter members were James Cain, S. D. McConky, Hugh WW. Ritchie, John McSparran, John Fowler, William Shank, John Kennedy, H. Coombs, Charles Parker, H. D. Hildebrand, Henry Harner, Fleming McSpar-ran, Felix W. Sweigart, Newlin Thompson, Elkana Coombs, Lawrence Hipple, John Russell, Edward Hicks, William A. Towson, and Allen S. Steele. The officers first elected and installed were Allen S. Steele, N. G.; James Cain, V. G.; S. D. MIcConkey, Sec.; Felix WW. Sweigart, A. Sec.; and Newlin Thompson, Treas. George Sanderson, D. D. G. M.. of Lancaster County, was present on the occasion. They held their meetings in the ballroom Over Fleming, McSparran's store until Nov. 14, 1868, when they purchased a lot of ground adjoining the hotel in Fairfield of James Cain. On it they erected a ball convenient for their purpose, twenty-five by forty-five feet, and two stories, each of ten feet in height. The han cost the association two thousand six hundred dollars. It was dedicated on the 11th of April, 1873, by Dr. John Levergood, D. D. G. M., and William Steadman, G. M. Up to the 6th of January the lodge had expended for relief and burying the dead four thousand four hundred and twenty-three dollars.
Conowingo Furnace was built by Michael Withers & Co. in 1809, and stopped in 1866.
It was operated by the Withers Brothers until 1828. In the mean time it became the property of James Hopkins, an attorney of Lancaster. Samuel D. Orric became a partner, and the firm's name was Hopkins & Orric. After the retirement of Orric, James M. Hopkins was associated in the business, under the name of James Hopkins & Son. After the death of the father, Charles Brooke, Jr., acquired an interest, and the firm was known as Hopkins & Brooke. Brooke withdrew from the firm in 1837, and from that time until 1867 James M. Hopkins conducted the business alone. A flouringmill was erected near the site of the old furnace in 1868, and it took the place of a mill built by Jacob Baer and wife in 1768. This mill was located south of the Furnace road, on the west bank of the Conowingo, near the Hopkins residence. The present substantial stone mill was built by James M. Hopkins, who leased it and eDgaged in farming and dairying. The quality of the ore used enabled Mr. Hopkins to manufacture iron of a supe-rior grade, and he continued in the business longer than any of the other old manufacturers in the vicinity. The iron manufactured was of the neutral grade. It differed from cold short and hot short iron. as it possessed great tenacity either cold or hot. Much of the product was made into car-wheels. and after a lapse of thirty years the wheels are free from bumps and depression, apparently as good as new.
The Conowingo Rolling-Mill Was erected by Neff & Kendric, and situated about two miles below the furnace on Conowingo Creek. It was purchased on the failure of the builders by Robert Coleman, owner of the Cornwall Furnaces, in Lebanon County, Pa. Coleman sold the rolling-mill to James Sproul, and in 1840 James M. Hopkins purchased it from Sproul. The mill was operated for a time by a Mr. Riddle, and lastly, in 1843, by Col. Peter Sides. After a time the building disappeared, the dam was swept away, and now there is scarcely a vestige left to arouse a suspicion that a rolling-mill ever existed there.
Sickle-Mills.-Sickles were extensively manufactured in Drumore at an early date. A sickle-mill was located on Fishing Creek, above the Penrose mansion, another on MMcFarlaDd's Run. north of Stauffer's mill, and a shop south of the mill; another on the Robert Moore farm, another on the farm w here George Long now resides, and one on Skelpie Run, built by Thomas Johnston and William Wright. Stephen John Hamilton had. steam sickle-mill on his farm. One stood Dear the blacksmith-shop of Samuel Wybels, and one in the forks of the road leading to Long's mill, on the Nathaniel Myers farm. One stood in the lane on the old James McPherson property, now owned by Jacob Denlinger. John King, in addition to the manufacture of scythes, also forged out siirons. He owned a tilt-hammer, run by water-power, half a mile east of Fairfield, on the King farm, now occupied by his daughter, Mrs. Ellen Sides. There was also a sickle-mill at Moderwell's, on a branch of the Octorara. Col. Hugh Long was among the first to manufacture sickles.. He lived where James Long now resides, east of Liberty Square. John Long, son of Col. Hugh and father of William and Harvey Long, carried on the business. William Wright, one of the few surviving sickle artisans, was indentured to him at three years of age, and served until he was twenty-one years of age. Fishing Creek John Long, now eighty-two years of age, is another survivor. The sickles were sent to the hardware ****************missing part of this page***************** ------- The Drumore Baptist Church is an offshoot from the Colerain Baptist Church. In May, 1876, the following persons, Lizzie Cummings, Nancy Dare, Joseph Moore, Mary Alice Moore, W. O. Owen, Rebecca Owen, Emma Owen, George Retzer, Jennie Retzer, Annie Retzer, Laura Phillips, Lizzie Shaw, John Hastings, Clara Hastings, Margaret R. Watson, John Watson, Margaret Watson, Almuz Watson, Anne Watson, Sarah R. Wilkinson, Phebe Wright, _ and Eliza Wright agreed to organize themselves into e a new church_, to be called the" Drumore Baptist a Church." Rev. Wv. O. Owen was elected their pastor, - and supplied them with preaching every two weeks o in a house furnished by M11'. Dare, of MIechanics d Grove. Soon after organization measures were s taken to build a church, which was subsequently e erected on a lot at the" Unicorn," donated by MIl's. n . MIargaret W_atson. In October, 1877, this house was _- dedicated to God. Rev. S. S. Snow, of the Atglen h Baptist Church, preached the dedicatory sermon, as- a sisted by Revs. Critchlow and Wells. The follow- ring year a flourishing Sabbath-school was established, i- with George Retzer as superintendent. During the n- following winter an extensive revival nearly doubled n- _ the original membership. Rev. w. O. Owen remained pastor until 1881. Since then the Rev. Alfred Wells has been the pastor in charge. The church is a member of the Central Union Association of Baptist Churches. The property is valued at fifteen hundred dollars. Old Mennonite Church.- Within the last ten years the Mennonites have rapidly increased in numbers in Drumore. In 1881 they erected a plain and comfort-able house of worship a little north of Mechanics' Grove. It is known as the Mennonite Church at Mechanics' Grove. It is forty-six by thirty-five feet, and its erection was completed at a cost of seventeen hundred dollars. The original members numbered about twenty, among whom are Samuel Nissley, J. M1. Swarr, Jacob Martin, Amos B. Miller, S. J. Ress-ler, and Abraham Brubaker. The church was dedi-cated, free of incumbrance, in the spring of 1882. It belongs to the Old Mennonite Church order. Bishop Benjamin Herr, Bishop Jacob N. Brubaker, and Rev. Amos Herr participated in the dedication. The num-ber of members is steadily increasing. They have a flourishing Sabbath-school of eighty pupils, under the superintendence of J. M1. Swarr. Friends.-The Friends' meeting-house in Dru- more was erected in 1816. It is located one-half mile south of Liberty Square. The land was do-nated by Jacob Shoemaker, and is a portion of the land purchased by him of Moses Irwin, Jr. He inherited the same from his father, Moses Irwin, who in the year 1748 took out a patent for three hundred and nine acres of land, and in 1750 another patent for one hundred and fifty acres. Previous to the erec-tion of their present meeting-house the Friends as- sembled in an old school building, one mile west of the present location, on the south side of the road. Among the oldest members are found the names of Joseph Stubbs, David Parry, Jacob Shoemaker, Rob-ert Clendenin, Isaac Smith, Isaac Bolton, Joseph Smith, Simon Pennock, George Lamborn, Amos Walton, Jesse Lamborn, James Worral and wife, and Ezekiel Atkinson. The present elders are Jason Bolton and Alban Cutler. The meeting includes about one hundred members, and is known as the Drumore preparative meeting. It belongs to the Little Britain Monthly Meeting, Nottingham Quarterly, and Baltimore Yearly Meeting. Educational.-Education in Drumore was care-fully fostered by the Scotch-Irish element in its early history. In 1770 the Rev. James Latta, pastor of Chestnut Level Presbyterian Church, was principal of a Latin school. The school was on the farm now owned by John Myers, about a mile west of the Friends' meeting-house. Latin and English were thoroughly taught. Many of his pupils became famous in after-years. After Mr. Latta retired from active service, the school was continued by his son Francis. Another son of the Lattas', for his classica acquirements, was selected by Aaron Burr as tutor for his gifted daughter, Theodosia, In 1852 an academy building was erected at Chestnut Level, and in a few y'ears an extensive boarding-house was added and the school flourished for several years. The first teacher was the Rev, J. Ross Ramsay; the last, Thomas R. NiCholson. Our semi-private normal schools, aided yearly by large State appropriations, have closed many excellent private institutions of learning in the unequal competition. Drumore township ac-cepted the common school system in 1834, and had at that time 832 taxables. In 1837 there were 9 schools, 12 teachers, and 220 pupils, supported at an expenditure of $3023. In 1883 there were 15 schools and 15 teachers. The school near M_urphy's Loup is composed exclusively of colored pupils. The whole number of pupils in the schools in 1883 was 743, 387 are males and 356 females, These are maintained at an expense of $4150 per year. The number of tax-abIes in the same year was 918. Washington Lodge, No.156, F. and A. M.-The Masonic fraternity of Drumore, known as the Wash-ington Lodge, No, 156, F. and A. M., was granted its charter in 1818. The lodge first organized at the pub-lic-house of Philip Housekeeper, in Chestnut Level. The first officers were Jacob Moore, W. M.; John Ramsay, S. W_, ; Samuel B. M_oore, J. W. Prominent among the old members were Gardner Furnace, John Kirke, Philip Housekeeper, John Keeler, John Mod-erwell, Wallace Null, John Robinson, Davis Snavely, John Valentine, T. C. Tomlinson, Oliver Watson, and Richard Edwards. During the Anti-Masonic war the members were compelled frequently to change their place of meet-ing. Sometimes they met near Black Rock, at a public-house kept by a M_r. Dripp's, at other times they met at the Running Pump, kept by a Mr. El- liott. Fear of injury to themselves or their enter-tainers compelled them to meet at different places, so fierce was the Anti-Masonic fury. At that time they were greatly reduced in numbers. Henry Rush and David Snavely were sent at times to Lancaster to Lodge No. 48, for additional members to form a quorum. The Washington Lodge moved to Drumore Centre in 1857, and in 1868 they built their Masonic hall at a cost exceeding five thousand dollars. It is a handsome brick structure, three stories high, and the largest public hall in Drumore. Washington Lodge numbers eighty-seven members. Its present officers are William J, McComb, W, M.; David M. Boffenmyer, S. W.; Dr. J. M. Deaver, J. W.; and Edward Ambler, Sec., since 1862. I. 0, of G. T.-The Good Templars' Lodge in Drumore is a surviving branch of the Drumore and Martic Temperance U niou. In 1869, Thomas Wentz of the Union noticed that very few of those , who needed instruction in temperance principles at-, tended the meetings. He stated the fact to Hon. James Black, of Lancaster, who suggested the new or-ganization known as the Good Templars as a remedy
The last slaveholders in the township were Dr. Long, who had a female slave, Judy Rodney. Col. Long owned James Rodney. The Morrisons had a female slave, Sall Whipper. Col. Sam Morrison's slave, Ebenezer Jackson, was freed by law at twenty- three years of age. William Ankrim, father of Martin Ankrim, had a slave purchased at his father's sale. Dr. James Ankrim owned a female slave, ::\Iint. Elijah MIackintyre held many slaves. The last living slave in Drumore was owned by William Ritchie. Her name was Phillis Bush. She was a light,colored mustee, with straight hair, and was long known as " Aunt Phillis." Her husband was Cresar Augustus. At her death involuntary servitude ceased. Many of the slaves were buried in a colored graveyard on the ridge east of Chestnut Level Church, on the Rogers farm. Past and Present Compared.-In the year 1772 John Long craves allowance for township payments and disbursements, £43 17s., about $220. For the year 1882, a hundred and ten years later, the super- visors of Drumore claim $5064.77 for the township disbursements. Granting that the wealth of the township has increased with its requirements, the comparison is startling. The first covers an estimate for what' is now Martic, Drumore, Little Britain, and Fulton townships, and is attested by William Steele, William MeAlier, Samuel ,Morrison, and Thomas Clarke, auditors. The latter includes only Drumore present, and is attested by Elias Aument, John Moore, and Solomon Gregg, anditors. Among the names prominent in the early history of the township and familiar at the present time are those of Morrison, Ritchey, Long, Boyd, Moor, Penny, McClellan, Evan, Steele, Paterson, Reed, Scott, Johnson, Collins, Clarke, Black, Newswanger, Ramsey, Smith, McCullough, McPherson, McSparran, Neal, Martin, Hamilton, Ankrim, McLaughlin, King, Nelson, and others. A civiliza- tion that has maintained itself so long amid surrounding elements, that has wrested prosperity from adversity, liberty from absolute monarchy, as did the early settlers of Drumore, is certainly a civilization worth preserving. If the history of Drumore in the future shaH be as honorable as that of the past we must preserve and practice the virtues of our ancestors
The McSparran family is one of the oldest in southern Lancaster County, and most prominently and actively associated with its local history and progress since its founder, James McSparran, settled there. James McSparran emigrated from the north of Ire-land and settled with his wife, whose family name was Fleming, near Peach Bottom, on the Susque-hanna River, but nothing certain can be traced as to the time or circumstances of his emigration or settlement, nor do his descendants possess any history of their ancestors, nor account of any branch of the family except their own, which has been so prolific here.
The son James, the father of our subject, was born at the old homestead in the year 1764, and married Elenor Neel, daughter of Thomas and Gresall Neel, nee Penny, a member of an old and widely-extended family, the direct representative of which at this writing (1883)is Thomas R. Neel, of Fulton township, Lancaster Co.
James McSparran died March 18, 1827, and Elenor Aug. 12, 1841, and were buried in what is known as " the old graveyard," near the present Presbyterian Church at Chestnut Level, of which church the family have always been energetic and steadfast members.
The issue of James and Elenor were: 1st, James, and Isabella Fleming (twins), born May 25, 1801. James married Amelia F. McCullough, .March 8, 1832, and died May 31, 1863. His widow still owns the fine old homestead farm, where she lives with her daughter Lizzie and son Sanders. Isabella married John King, April 26,1827, and died Dec. 14, 1871. Her daughter, Ellen, married B. F. Sides, M.D., and Jeannette married Sanders McCullough. The third child was Thomas Neel, born March 6, 1803, and died March 28, 1820; the fourth was Gresall, born Oct. 31, 1804, married June 2, 1831, Samuel Morrison, and died Dec. 31, 1856; the fifth was Eliza Martha, born Sept. 12, 1806, married James Barnes July 26, 1827, and died Oct. 5, 1853; the sixth child was John McSparran, born July 15, 1808, of whom we furnish a sketch; the seventh, Elenor Jean, born Feb. 15, 1810, whom James Barnes married after the death of his first wife, Eliza. Elenor died Sept. 22, 1874. The eighth, Rachel Neel, born Feb. 4, 1812, died Aug. 28, 1819; the ninth, Margaret, born Dec. 8, 1813, who married William Steele; she died May 27,1866. The tenth, Samuel, was born Nov. 20, 1815 and accidentally shot by his brother James, Feb. 18, 1837. Next, the eleventh child was born, our subject, Fleming McSparran, Sept. 12, 1817. The next birth was that of twins again, Thomas Neel and William, born Nov. 20, 1820. Thomas married Lydiann Pusey, sister of the wife of Fleming. William married Alice, daughter of James Caldwell, Esq., who lived but a short time after her marriage. William married again, his second wife being Marcilena Williamson. Joseph was the fourteenth child, born June 26, 1823, and died July 24, 1834. Rachel, the fifteenth and last child, was born March 7, 1827. Fleming was ten years old when his father died, and James Penny, who was appointed his guardian, apprenticed him when he reached the age of sixteen to William Eves, of Chester County, Pa., for two and a half years, to learn" the art, trade, and mysteries of tanning." After serving his apprenticeship, he worked on the farm at home for his brother, James, for some time. About the year 1838 he went to Illinois, where he was engaged in agricnlture for a year. The following year he spent boating on the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers from Pittsburgh to New Orleans. Returning to Lancaster County, traveling from Pittsburgh on horseback, he, with Amen Stubbs, April 4, 1840, entered the business of lumber dealer on the Susquehanna, at Barnes' saw-mill, now known as Benton Station, on the Columbia and Port Deposit Railroad, under the firm-name of Stubbs & McSparran, in which business he continued two years, when, suffering from bad health, he sold out the business to James Barnes. For the year 1842 he was tax collector for his district. The following April he returned to the lumber business at the same place, with his brother, Thomas, as partner, where he remained until March 15, 1845, when he purchased the store property at Fairfield, where he spent the remainder of his life. While in the lumber busi-ness, he and Joseph W_oodward were contractors for rebuilding the public road around Mitchell's Rock, near Benton. The road had been washed away previously by the ice and high water, but the new contractors were triumphant, and built a road that has borne the floods and battering of ice for years, and still remains an example of honest workmanship thoroughly done,thoronghness being a characteristic of Mr. McSparran, and one secret of his success. _
Dec. 30, 1846, he married his estimable wife, Mary E. Pusey, daughter of Mahlon Pusey, Puseyville, Lancaster Co., and opened his store at Fairfield the following spring. A large family was born to them, the first being a daughter, born Oct. 3, 1847, w horn they named Emma Housekeeper; next came James Mahlon, Dec. 23,1848; Lydia Ellen, Jan. 21, 1850; Edwin Pusey, April 26, 1851 ; Samuel Cheyney, Oct. 28, 1852; Mary Alice, Nov. 27, 1854; Ida Eliz-abeth, April 9, 1856; William Fleming, Dec. 13, 1857; Marion, Sept. 19,1859; Edgar Lyons, June 18,1861; Isabel King, June 16, 1863; Mlargaret Steele, May 15, 1866; and Anna Pusey, MIay 4,1867. Edwin died Aug. 14, 1867; Mary, MIay 16, 1855; Mlargaret, Sept. 10, 1866; and Anna, Mlarch 28, 1871, and Death never touched a fairer blossom or a brighter promise! Emma married David Weidley, Oct. 2, 1876, to whom one child was born-Elizabeth MIcSparran-to live only from Mlay 17, 1879, to the 27th of August following. James M. married Laura H. Wentz, Dec. 24, 1879, and settled on his farm near his old home. Two children have been born to them,Guy Fleming and John Walter. Samuel C. married Floretta C. Cain, Dec. 29, 1880, and they have named their one child Elmer Cheyney. They also have purchased a farm and settled almost within sight of the roof-tree" at home."The home-place, store and farm, is owned by three of the unmarried children,Lydia, Ida, and William F.,who conduct successfully the business so well established by their parents, the other three unmarried children making their home with them. Fleming McSparran is another example of the success of the Scotch-Irish tact and energy, exercised with temperance and forethought and guided by honesty. Certainly it is the surest evidence of no-bility in a man when those with whom he is thrown into social and business contact increase their respect for him day by day, and grow warmer in friendship as life's sun goes down the western sky. In these days of mammon-worship it is a pleasure to find a man who, though his financial success be very decided, and that success made possible only by the genius of self-denial and hard work, who sees in every man a brother, though he be on the lowest round of the social ladder, where circumstances of birth, education, and life have almost chained him; the man _who never fails to see in such a one" a man for a' that" is a benediction on his commuuity. His kind-ness of heart and human sympathies win him friends wherever he has acquaintances, who, when they fol-low his body to the grave as their last mark of respect; feel that they have lost more than he. Such a man was the subject of this sketch. Contracting a severe cold while performing an act of charity, in the spring of 1876, he died March 20th .of that year, and was buried at Chestnut Level, whither his beloved wife folowed him soon after, falling beneath a fatal stroke of paralysis at the death-bed of a nephew, March 4,1879.
Of the McSparran family, which is one of the representative families of the southern part of Lancaster County, James McSparran (grandfather of our sub-ject) is the first of whom anything definite is known at this time. He was, as the name indicates, of Irish extraction. He settled, some time in the latter part of the eighteenth century, in what is now Fulton township, in Lancaster County, on the farm now owned by the heirs of his grandson, who was also named James. At his death his farm passed into the possession of his son James. the rest of the family going in different directions. The last named, James, married Eleanor Neel, by whom he had fifteen chil-dren, viz.: James, Isabel, Thomas, Gresall, Eliza, John, Eleanor, Rachel, Fleming, William, Thomas N., Samuel, Joseph, M_argaret, and Rachel. John, of whom this sketch is written, was born on the home farm July 15, 1808, and grew to manhood there, receiving only a common school education. Arrived at his majority, he and his brother James bought of their father's heirs the horne-farm at its appraised valuation. They owned and worked it together four years, when John sold his interest to his brother James. In 1832, Mr. MIcSparran bought in Drumore township the farm he now resides upon. It was then what was, called commons and was con-sidered almost worthless, but now, after more than half a century, it ranks among the fine farms of Lancaster County, the result of good management. In 1840, with three others, Mr. MIcSparran established the store in Fairfield now known as the MIcSparran store. He continued one of the firm until 1847, when he sold his interest to his brother Fleming. Mr. McSparran has now retired from active business, his son, James G., having assumed the management of affairs. In his religious belief he is a Presbyterian, as were his ancestors before him; in politics a Dem-ocrat of the old school, and in his younger days an active worker in the party. For twelve years in suc-cession he was a school director, and has held other township offices. For many years he seldom missed a county convention, and has at different times at-tended as delegate the State conventions of his party. At present he does not take any acti ve part in politics, but his place is .ably filled by his son James, who is one of the active and prominent young politicians who are doing so much to restore the party to power. . He (James) has been school director several years, and has ably fined other township offices. He has been a delegate to both county and State conventions, and in 1879 was one of the Democratic .Presidentia] electors for his native State. John McSparran has been twice married; his first wife was Miss Isabella McCullough, who was born in 1816. Their chi]dren were Nancy E., born May 1, 1841, died Dec. 8, 1852 ; James G., born Dec. 19, 1843. Mrs. McSparran died Aug. 23, 1845. For his second wife he married Eliza Collins, who was born Aug. 8, 1812, and died Feb. 2,1870.To them were born David C. April 7, 1854, died Sept 17, same yearEleanor I born Aug 26, 1854 and died Oct 15, 1855; James G. McSparranmarried Miss Sarah M. Collins and they have had 4 children as follows Isabella M., Thomas C.(dec'd) Chella Grace, John A. and James O.
William Marsh was born in Sadsbury township. When he was quite a young man he began the manufacture of scythes, which he continued until 1840, when he purchased a farm in Bart township, where he lived eight years. In 1850 he removed to Dru-more township, and Jived there until his death, which occurred in 1872. In 1829 he married Alace, daugh-ter of John W_atson, of "Unicorn." Their children, ten in number, are Tamor, Sarah, A]ace, Mary, Rachel R., W. Harry, James R., Enos, Margaret M., and Minnie. Tamor, the eldest daughter, married B. W. Fox. They have three children, namely, Joseph, Alace, and Mary. Sarah married Hierony-mus Eckman. Their children are Alace, Harry, and Sadie. Alace married Mlarce]ona Goar. They have no chi]dren. Mlary married Joshua Eckman. Their chil-dren are Jacob, Isaac, _Margaret, and _Mary. Rache] married Dr.. B. A. Boyce,-no children. W_. Harry married Jennie Alexander. Their children are John M., Le]a M., and William E. James R. married Miss E. E. Eckman. Their children are A]ace, Mannie, and Bertha. Enos W. married Miss. M. E. Smed]ey. They have two children, Clarence WV. and Emmor E. Margaret M. married John Adams. Their children are Mary and James. AnnaM1. married O. C. Guiney. They have one child, Mab]e. Mr. MIarsh was a man who was always respected for his honor, his deeds of kindness, and many virtues that render one worthy of imitation and remembrance. Enos, Harry, and James (his sons) have been in the mercantile business for more than twenty years, and their deportment and business qualifications re-flect credit upon their name.
JOHN NEAL RUSSELL. The descendants of John Neal Russell feel a pardonab]e pride in his record as one of the most progressive agriculturists of his time. He was born in Brandywine Hundred, New Castle Co., Del., Jn]y 3, 1804, and died in Drumore town-ship, Lancaster Co., Pa., Dec. 23, 1876. His grand-father. Pau] Russel], or Roussel, as it was formerly spelled, emigrated to this country from one of the Rhenish provinces of Germany about the middle of the last century, and settled on the west bank of the Delaware, where his son John, father of John N., _ was born Dec. 12, 1765._ In 1802, John Russell was united in marriage to Ann Neal, a daughter of John Neal, a noted educator in his day, and a man of broad culture and of fine literary tastes. Ofthis union John Neal Russell was the only child. His father being a busy, energetic farmer, had but little time to devote to the educa-tion of his son. His mother, however, who was a woman of rare force of character, with a liberal edu-cation, devoted much time and attention to his y_outh-ful training. At an early age he was sent to a board-ing-school at Chester, Pa., conducted by his relatives, John and Samuel Gummcre, where he remained sev-eral years, and during which time he received a sub-stantial education. If at the threshold of his life's work his inclinations seemed to lure him into the field of literature, a decided taste for which he inherited, other influences and considerations were impelling him elsewhere. The care, responsibility, and toil of breaking up and reclaiming a worn-out farm of fonr hundred acres confronted him. The situation seemed to admit of but one solution. He was to be a farmer. This decision once reached, he entered upon his work, as he did in everything, with a stern purpose and unswerving resolution. The books that now most interested him were those that treated of agri-culture. He educated himself anew. What he read at night he put in practice through the day. Much of the farm in Dunmore was at this time under water; that is to say, there were several streams running nearly its whole length, and the valleys of these were nothing more than stagnant swamps. The observant farmer saw in these the future garden-spots of the farm. To reclaim these waste places was the work of long years, but it was successfully accom-plished. When it is known that thorough draining requires ditches to be sunk not more than fifteen feet apart, and that these ditches when dug have to be carefully laid with side and top stones and then filled in with smaller stones, and top-dressed, it will be comprehended what a careful system of underdrain-ing means. Fifty dollars an acre is the estimated cost of such thorough underdraining. In speaking of this work in after-years, Mr. Russell said it had paid him better than any other work he had ever done on the farm; and no one who walks, over that rich green sward now can well doubt it. Mr. Russell was also a pioneer in other branches of agriculture. He was one of the first in his section to use lime as a manure. Firmly convinced of its efficacy, he embarked in it boldly and extensively when. others doubted and hesitated. That the end funy justified the means was obvious enough when, a few years afterwards, the fruits of the farm had been increased many fold, the uplands and valleys had been clad in a robe of verdure, and the debt created in the face of the doubting wiseacres to pay for the fertilizer wiped out.
His was eminently an experimental farm. There was no system that did not receive at his hands a fair trial. If it failed there was an end of it. If it succeeded he not only adopted it, but freely gave the benefit of his experience to others, and urged a trial by them. Every improvement in agricultural machinery found its way to his farm, and generally remained there if it possessed any advantage over the old appliance. In the manner of his farming Mr. Russell was scrupulously painstaking; so much so, indeed, that the profit in dollars and cents was not unfrequently eaten up in time and labor. He held religiously to the maxim that" whatever is worth doing at all is worth doing welL" Thus, after a time, his farm came to be known as one of the model farms of Lancaster County; so fertile were its fields and pastures, so well kept, so com-plete in all its appointments; and thus, too, was the farm itself the workman's reward in his declining years. Mr. Russell was one of the first in his neighborhood to espouse the anti-slavery cause. His inherent love of liberty, and hatred of oppression in every form, would no doubt have made him an abolitionist under almost any circumstance; but finding himself placed as he was directly in the highway leading from slavery to freedom, and only a few miles from the slave border, his convictions concerning the subject of slavery were necessarily intensified.
In several instances slaves were captured in his immediate neighborhood and remanded into bondage. In one instance an escaped fugitive slave woman living in his father's family was stealthily caught, tied, and carried away in broad daylight. Occur-rences such as these seem to have established a strong bond of sympathy between him and the unfortunate colored race. His house became known as one of the principal stations on the underground railroad. Not unfrequentiy as many as twenty fugitives at a time were rested and fed upon his premises, and afterwards conveyed away in wagons. From 1840 to 1856 Mr. Russell felt justified in declining to participate in State or national politics, deeming the machinery of government as being at that period operated directly in the interest of sla-very, and therefore unworthy of his support. From 1856 forward he was an ardent and earnest supporter of the principles and measures of the Republican party. The cause of temperance had no more stanch friend anywhere than it had in John N. Russell. To the unfortunate victim to drink he was ever ready to extend the warmest sympathy, and scarcely any sacrifice was deemed too great where there was the remotest chance of reclaiming the fallen. Against the rum traffic he never ceased to wage the most determined warfare. Among the strongest traits of Mr. Russell's character were his strict integrity, his high regard for truth, and his fearless fidelity to duty, as he understood it, under all circumstances. To the long exercise of qualities such as these was no doubt in a great measure due the calm and peaceful close of his life.
In 1830, Mr. Russell was united in marriage to Amelia Kirk. daughter of Elisha Kirk, of Nottingham, Cecil Co., Md. She survived him but a short time, having died MMarch 12, 1877. He left to survive him children as follows: Slater B., justice of the peace and conveyancer, W_est Chester, Pa.; Annie . intermarried with George H. Kirk, superintend-ent of the Whitney Car-Wheel Works, Philadelphia; M_ary, intermarried with Jacob T. Whitson, tanner, Fulton township, Lancaster Co., Pa.; Rachel H., intermarried with William M. Hayes, a member of the Chester County bar, West Chester, Pa.; George H.. stock-grower, Utica, Montana; and Hannah, intermarried with Elwood Smedley, farmer, Fulton township, Lancaster Co., Pa.
LEA P. BROWN.
Some time prior to the Revolutionary war three brothers by the name of Brown emigrated from Ireland to America, and settled, it is thought, in Chester County, Pa., where David Brown, the first of the descendants of whom anything definite is known, was born on the 18th day of December, 1758. Of his children, James Brown, the father of our subject, was born in Chester County, Pa., Jan. 25, 1792. David Brown married Diana Allen, who was born Mlarch 8, 1757. Their children were Allen, David, John, Sarah, James, Mercer, William, Jane, and George. In 1798, David emigrated with his family to Drumore township, in Lancaster Co., anrl bought four hundred acres of land, part of which is now owned by William A. Brown and Robert Evans, on which he died April 21, 1843.' His wife passed away May 22, 1848. ; Amees Brown, who was born in Chester County, as above set forth, grew to manhood on the Drumore farm, and married Ann D. Pusey, who was born in Drumore, Jan. 30, 1796. The Puseys are an old Lancaster family, and came originally from England. On the death of his father (David Brown), he received by will the farm of one hundred and fifty-seven acres. now owned and resided upon by Lea P. Brown. James carried on farming, as had his ancestors before him. He was a Quaker, as was his wife by birth-right. He died Nov. 10, 1852, Mrs. Brown Nov 4 1853 His children were John, born Feb. 3, 1816 ; Lea P. Sept. 28, 1817; Samuel P.June 3, 1819; James A., Feb. 19, 1821; Mary D., Dec. 1, 1825; Emily . Jan. 11, 1827; and David, Nov. 15, 1828. Of these all are living but Samuel, Allen, and Emily. the home-farm Lea P. grew to manhood, obtain-_ such education as could be acquired by a few months attendance at the district schools of his time. Arrived at his majority, he started in life on his own Account by working part of his father's farm on shares. Raising potatoes at twenty-five cents per bushel, and working for forty cents a day, seemed a slow way of getting a start, but for MIl'. Brown there was no other way, and he persevered, and by such slow means obtained the foundation for the nice for-tune he now enjoys. After his father's death he and his brother David bought of the heirs the home-farm, which they owned and operated until1858, when he bought David's share. Under his management it has become one of the fine farms for which Lancaster County is noted, though at one time it would not raise grain enough to supply the family wants. MMr. Brown also owns another farm, both of which, with the help of his sons, he most successfully manages. Little Britain, where he died in 1792. His son, Thomas Patterson, was born in 1795, and died Aug. 25, 1828. Thomas married Mary Tannyhill, and resided on the farm his father had owned, where their children Rebecca, Elizabeth, Samuel, Kathan, Mary, :Margaret, Thomas, James, and Jane were born. Of these, Thomas, the father of Miss Brown, was born Feb. 13, 1790, and died July 30, 1857. He married Hannah W. Pusey, Feb. 11, 1820. She was born Jan. 9,1804, and died Jan. 26, 1848. To them were born seven children, namely, Ashmore, John L., Thomas M., Maria M., Elizabeth P., James H., and Samuel E., all of whom are living but two. Of the Patterson family, one was Gen. Thomas Patterson, who led a force to the assistance of Gen. Hull during the siege of Detroit in the war of 1812 , but did not arrive in time to prevent its surrender to the British. The general was also a member of Congress, as was his brother John, who represented a district in Ohio, and was for many years an associate judge in Belmont County in the last-named State. To Mr. and MIrs. Lea P. Brown have been born three sons, viz., James H., born Aug. 9, 1854, died April 19,1855; Thomas W., born Sept. 26, 1856, married Nov. 28, 1882, to Miss Georgie A. Paxson; and James E., born July 8, 1865.