Vincent ("Erin") and Teresa Alva Hughes
August 1928
Brother and Sister
Wellington, New Zealand
Teresa is age 4 years and seven months in
this picture and Erin is age 2 years and one month. The original photo was a prize-winning photograph created by the
Royal Studios on Willis Street in Wellington, and was retained by the studio company.
Source: Photo Collection of Teresa Alva (Hughes) Sweeney
Mother of Bob Sweeney

A War Bride Comes to Pennsylvania

With A Sidebar on the
Hansby and Hughes Families of New Zealand



Teresa Alva (Hughes) Sweeney and Lynn Franklin
September 2005
She was the "war bride" of the late Robert Gerard Sweeney of Towanda, PA,
and the mother of Bob Sweeney, the Sullivan County historian.
Lynn is Bob's wife.
Source: Photo by Lynn Ann Franklin

In September 2005, Bob Sweeney, the administrator of this web site, and his wife Lynn Franklin interviewed Bob's mother, Teresa Alva (Hughes) Sweeney, at her home in Binghamton, New York. Teresa, born January 11, 1924, was the daughter of Bernard and Ellen (Hansby) Hughes. We were also able to scan the photographs in three of Teresa's albums. These conversations and pictures bring to life her life in New Zealand before World War Two, and her "true love" encounter with Robert Gerard Sweeney of Towanda, PA, when the First Marine Division debarked in New Zealand in preparation for war. We also see Teresa preparing to board a transport ship in September 1945 for the long trip to North America. She was leaving her family for the first time and her mother, Ellen, fainted on the dock when the ship set sail.

Here is another picture of Teresa taken in January 2011, just after her 87th birthday, with her daughter Colleen (Sweeney) Ford. Still healthy if a little forgetful at times, Teresa reamins upbeat and ready ever morning for the new day. Ask her how she is doing and you'll hear "I'm still here!", coupled with an infectious laugh. Colleen lives in nearby Endwell, NY, but sees her mother daily, as does yet another daughter, Terry Louise (Sweeney) Luttrell. Terry shares Teresa's home on Beethoven Street in Binghamton, New York.


Colleen (Sweeney) Ford and Teresa Alva (Hughes) Sweeney
Kitchen of Teresa's Home
48 Beethoven Street, Binghamton, NY
January 2011
Source: Photo Courtesy of Colleen Ford

Let's digress further with some photos which recall Teresa's life in the United States.


Infant Wrist Bracelet for
Robert Emmett Sweeney
Eldest of Nine Children of
Robert Gerard and Teresa Alva (Hughes) Sweeney
Born August 4, 1946 in Sayre, PA
Source: Photo by Bob Sweeney


Robert Gerard Sweeney and Teresa Alva Hughes
Outside Sweeney Family Home at 27 Pratt Avenue, Towanda, PA
Just After Teresa Arrived in America in 1945
Source: Photo Collection of Teresa Alva (Hughes) Sweeney


Robert Gerard and Robert Emmett Sweeney
Father and Son
West Orange, NJ in 1947
Where Robert Gerard First Went to College and Teresa Was A Mother
Source: Photo by Bob Sweeney

As Teresa tells the story:

In the Fall of 1945, the Japanese still had submarines at sea that were in combat mode. They may not have even known the war was over. So, the ship we sailed on had all its portholes covered over in "dark out" style. We sailed for two weeks across the Pacific Ocean that way, arriving on the West Coast of Panama. From there, it was a bus ride to the eastern side of the Canal, where I boarded another ship for New Orleans. * All of this was very strange and foreign to me; we might as well have gone on a safari to another planet. The only reason my parents let me go at the age of 21 was because my father, Bernard Hughes, was convinced that my fiance, Bob Sweeney, was honorable. bob had promised my dad that he would always take care of me if he gave his blessing!

I loved Bob, but then I had no real way of knowing if he would be waiting for me 11, 000 miles away. In fact, my father had to guarantee the return fare if something went wrong, before the New Zealand authorities would let me go. When we got to New Orleans, we were all supposed to stick together, but I went off on my own, walking around in what I later learned was a particularly dangerous part of the city! Eventually, the train master gruffly rounded me up and told me not to get off that train until we reached Philadelphia! So, on we went on the train ride north. As we approached Philadelphia, I wondered how I would find Bob or if he would know how to find me. But there, to my surprise and delight, he was standing on the train station in Philly in his Marine Corps dress blues waiting for me. We went on to his home in Towanda, and were married November 5, 1945. I had to borrow a wedding dress because mine was lost enroute in one of my trunks. This is the true story of how I came to America.


* In March 2008, we learned from Michele Thomas of the WWII War Brides Association that Teresa actually arrived 22 Oct, 1945 at the age of 21 yrs. 9 mos. in New Orleans onboard the USAT Florida.

You can learn all you want to know about the Sweeney family, its origins in County Sligo, Ireland, and its history as an early settler family in rural north central Pennsylvania at The Sweeneys of Ringer Hill. Also, since the Sweeney family is directly related by marriage to the Kelly Family of Bradford and Sullivan Counties, Pennsylvania, you may want to meet the Kelly and Sweeney family members in person at the Kelly Reunion 2006 site. This event, organized by Ed Kelly of Washington, D.C., brought over 150 relatives togehter in rural Forksville, PA and the surrouding towns for three days in the summer of 2006. Back to our story......

The Hansby family is an old Catholic family whose history goes back beyond the days of the English Civil War and the Glorious Revolution. Sir Ralph Hansby, who died in 1643, was a loyal supporter of the Stuart royal family and leased Tickhill Castle in 1611 from King James I. Ironically, this was the very year in which the famous King James Version of the Bible was published. You can read about Sir Ralph and see pictures of the castle at Sir Ralph Hansby. He was a contemporary of William Shakespeare as well. In 1955, one of the Hansby descendants living in London, Joyce Atkinson, was married to a lawyer, John Barradale. Joyce was the granddaughter of George and Catherine (Hansby) Russell. Catherine in turn was a younger sister of William Michael Hansby, Teresa's grandfather. In April 2013, David Morley, another Hansby cousin living in Australia, explained how these events came about:

Greetings from Melbourne, Australia.
My name is David Morley, my mother is Joy Morley (nee Hansby). Her father is Thomas Cyril Hoskin Hansby, and he was the original recipient of the Barradale family tree in Australia in 1955. John Barradale's wife was Joyce Atkinson, a descendant of Michael and Catherine Russell, and he received the information via this channel. Barradale noted there were few Hansbys left in England, and, on a trip to Australia, he sought to locate any Hansbys in Australia to hand the tree on to. He contacted my grandfather and conveyed it to him in 1955. My grandfather forwarded it to some other relatives in New Zealand at that time, and it has found its way around since then, including to yourself I believe.
We are keen followers of the Hansby ancestry - in 1983 (30 years now this month) we did the family pilgrimage to Tick Hill Castle to see the ancestral home of Sir Ralph. Not much more than a mound at that time, and the manor house in poor repair. Mum has also been to Abergavenny previously to follow up leads there.
The main reason we make contact at this time is to follow up a mystery - in Barradale's letter to my grandfather, he mentions a family painting of Mary Anne Sharpe +/- Michael W. Hansby * that had 'gone to Mexico' possibly with May Maund *. I note your contact with Bill Stevens *, and I wonder if you or he or any other connections there may know anything of this painting.
I will endeavour to forward you a copy of the letter in a future email; I look forward to your reply.
My mother's grandfather, Thomas C. H. Hansby's father, was Cyril J Hansby; His father was Ralph Joseph Hansby, who went by the name "Joseph" *. He was a brother to your mother's grandfather, William Michael, and Catherine (Hansby) Russell. He was the ship's captain in NZ on the wreck of the "Hawea"; he came to Australia subsequent to that event in 1888. And the rest, as they say, is history!
Yours sincerely,
David Morley.
* Editor's Note: You will find out who these people are as the story proceeds. However, as a preview, let me tell you that Michael William and Mary Anne (Sharpe) Hansby were the parents of William, "Joseph" and Catherine. Next, May Maund was a daughter of Louisa (Hansby), yet another sibling of William, Joseph and Catherine. Louisa married John Maund who subsequently started a wine business in South Africa, and then in Mexico. Their daughter, May, married Nicholas Lonergan and ended up in Mexico. Eventually, we get to Bill Stevens, their descendant. We also now know that Ralph "Joseph", after moving to Australia with his family, was killed in an accident in Sydney within a year of his arrival. He fell from a tram on August 5, 1889, and was crushed by rail cars, leaving a widow and four children. Here, thanks to David Morley, is his book of Ship References from his time in New Zealand and shortly after his arrival in Australia. There is also an old newspaper clipping describing his fatal accident. These documents were preserved by David's mother, Joy (Hansby) Morley.
Let's now return to Teresa's story.


Teresa's College Diploma
State University of New York at Binghamton
Teresa went back to school in her 50s and earned a degree in 1979.
Source: Photo by Bob Sweeney


Family of William Michael and Ann (Courtney) Hansby
Taken in Reefton About 1895

Front row, second from left: Ellen Ann Hansby, Teresa's mother
Second row: Child in her mother's lap is Alice Bernardine ("Bernie") Hansby. Child in his father's lap is Anthony Basil ("Tony") Hansby. The boy at far right is Cyril Hansby, the youngest boy. His brother, Michael ("Mick"), who was one year older than Cyril, is therefore probably the boy who is second from the left, next to his mother.
Back row: first from the left is the oldest child, Joseph Patrick ("Joe") Hansby, who fought in the Boer War. The fourth from the left is William Charles Hansby, the second eldest.
Aloysius John Hansby **, later killed at Passchaendale, Belgium in World War One, on October 12, 1917, was one year older than his sister Ellen Ann Hansby. He is therefore likely to be the boy in the front row.
We also believe that the young man who is second from left in the top row is Frank Hansby. This identification is by comparison to a photo shown below where he is known to be pictured with his wife Mary.
We also know the names of some of the other children--Molly and Alva--
but not all, and not which is which yet in this photo.
Source: Photo Courtesy of Teresa Alva Hughes Sweeney


** Aloysius John "Jack" Hansby was born August 17, 1889 in Reefton. He worked in the Shamrock Gold Mine in Addison before volunteering for the New Zealand Expeditionary Force. He was a private in the Canterbury Regiment. Hansby was 5 feet seven inches tall, weighed 140 pounds, and had blue eyes and fair hair at the time of his pre-enlistment physical in July, 1915. He enlisted on October 18, 1915 at Trentham, and was shipped out initially to the Suez area in Egypt. In 1916, his unit was posted to France in the area of Rouen. He was among 117 officers and 3917 men killed within a few hours on October 12, 1917 when the Allies launched one of their many foolhardy assaults on fortified trench positions that came to characterize the war on both sides. Ellen Ann Hansby claimed that he was killed by a shell explosion. His body was never recovered, but his name is listed on the Memorial to the Missing at Tyne Cot Cemetery, Zonnebeke, West Vlandaaren (West Flanders), Belgium. Nearly 1200 New Zealanders who fell there were never recovered. Here is a link to his actual Casualty Record: Aloysius John Hansby. There is a mystery surrounding the service of Aloysius, called "Uncle Jack" by family members. His service record shows him "wounded" earlier in the year and being treated at a facility behind the lines. At some point, his records shows him "not wounded" and returned to the front, where he subsequently died. Under what circumstances could this have happened? There is really only one explanation that make any sense, since a wounded man, whether seriously hurt or not, even if rehabilitated or treated, would not be returned to battle with a note that he was not really wounded. There are anecdotal reports of men such as Uncle Jack, overcome with guilt at not sharing the same risks with their combat brothers, finding ways to get back into the front lines. A truly injured man would not normally be able to do so, unless he were able to persuade the command that he was really okay. This kind of behavior was particularly prevalent with men being treated for "combat fatigue", otherwise known as "shell shock" or, nowadays, post-traumatic stress syndrome (PTSD). Whatever the underlying circumstances, for which we would have to see the actual medical records from the war, it appears that Uncle Jack rejoined his unit and made the ultimate sacrifice at Passchaendale.

In December 2010, Gregory Hughes, son of Vincent ("Erin") and Marie Hughes, visited Tyne Cot with his wife, Barbara, and son, Paddy. The attached photos were taken on site at Tyne Cot:


Greg Hughes and Family at Tyne Cot Cemetery
Before Wall Listing of New Zealand Dead
Near Passenchendale, Belgium
December 2010
Source: Courtesy of Gregory Hughes
Great nephew


A. J. Hansby Name Marker
Listing and Service Medal
Tyne Cot Memorial Near Passenchendale, Belgium
December 2010
Source: Courtesy of Gregory Hughes
Great nephew

Ironically, Bernard Hughes, who married Ellen Ann, was also in World War One in the New Zealand cavalry. Bernard actually served for a total period of one year and 89 days from April 1918 through August 1919, per his service record. At the time of his enlistment at Masterton on August 10, 1917, he listed his occupation as a railway fireman with the New Zealand Railways. He listed his sister Agnes, residing at McCarthy's Hotel in Wanganui, as his next of kin. Bernard was overseas for nearly a year in England, arriving there in October 1918 by ship. About a week later, he was admitted to hospital at Tidworth with the terrible flu which killed thousands towards the end of the war. Hughes was hopsitalized for over a month, first at Tidworth and then at Hornchurch. Family legend says that the latter facility was little more than a hospice where the infirm were sent to die. but Bernard thankfully proved them wrong and survived; otherwise, neither Bob Sweeney nor Teresa, Erin or Michael Hughes would be here. At the time of his enlistment, Bernard was five feet and five inches tall, had a ruddy complexion and had dark brown hair. He was finally discharged from hospital, still complaining of "cough at nights" and weighing "9 stone 11 lbs", at the end of November 1918. He embarked for New Zealand from Plymouth on May 19, 1919 aboard the Ruahine [ orRuahire].

One cannot really imagine what the experience of war was like for these brave soldiers one hundred years ago. However, Bob Sweeney, himself a historian, recommends a book that comes as close as we can to understanding how these men came to serve, their routine lives on the front, the sheer terror and chaos of combat, the utter futility of many of the battles, and the emotional and physical impact of the war on soldiers and their families alike. The book is Death's Men: The Soldiers of the Great War by Denis Winter (London: 1978).


Three Hansby Brothers
Joseph Patrick ["Joe"], William Charles, Unidentified [perhaps Alva based on his known birth date]
Photo Date Estimated to About or Just After 1900 Based on Joe's Known Service in the Boer War
Source: Courtesy of Terri Hynes
Great niece

Bob Sweeney has in his possession copies of the official military records of both Aloysius John Hansby and Bernard Hughes. Aloysius was awarded posthumously both the British War Medal and Victory Medal. Bernard was awarded the British War Medal. In April, 2007, Teresa's brother Vincent "Erin" Hughes was looking at an old service medal from World War One, which he had always thought belonged to his father, Bernard Hughes. A program on television in New Zealand reported that the name and outfit of the recipient was usually provided on the rim of these medals. Erin scrubbed the medal and got out a magnifying glass to look it over. This particular medal is called a British War Medal. On the rim was engraved: "6/6726 Pte. A.J. Hansby NZEF". The medal had been awarded to Aloysius Hansby, the uncle killed in battle. Here is a photograph of the restored medal, courtesy of Erin.


British War Medal
Awarded to Aloysius John Hansby
A Hero of the Great War
Photo by Gregory Hughes, son of Vincent "Erin" Hughes,
who has the medal in his possession
Erin is the nephew of Aloysius John "Jack" Hansby.


Canterbury Regiment
On Leave in London in 1917
The soldiers in this picture are unidentified, but this was the Second Regiment,
the very battalion in the Canterbury Regiment in which Aloysius John Hansby served and died. We know for certain that Private Hansby was in London on leave for some time before his final deployment, so he could very well be in this picture.
Source: A Photo Posted on The Canterbury Page.
You can also order The History of the Canterbury Regiment NZEF, by David Ferguson, online.

 


William Michael Joseph and Ann Theresa "Annie" (Courtney) Hansby
Husband and Wife
Married in Reefton on February 4, 1877
Taken Before 1927
Wellington, NZ
Photo Courtesy of Terri Hynes

In early September 2006, Terri Hynes, granddaughter of William Charles and Ursula Hansby, informed us of the identity of her grandfather in the 1895 family picture shown above. Terri also identified Anthony and Joseph in the photo. She is the daughter of Regis (Hansby) Hynes and therefore a first cousin of Teresa. Regis, age 89 in 2006, and her younger brother Leo Hansby, age 82 at that time, were the only two surviving children of William and Ursula at the time Terri wrote to us. Regis has eight children--three girls and five boys; Leo has ten children--eight sons and two daughters. Terri is the oldest of the eight children of Regis (Hansby) Hynes. She spent twenty years working for the World Bank in Washington, DC before returning to her home in Melbourne 15 years ago. We anticipate more information as time passes from this cousin who now lives in Australia. You can read more about her branch of the family at Family of William Charles Hansby.

Almost within a week of our first communication from Terri, we received a message from William Hansby, who lives in Auckland and is a grandson of Michael Hansby, the youngest son shown in the family picture above. We owe him our thanks for identifying Michael and his brother Cyril in the 1895 picture, and therefore, by elimination, Aloysius as well. William tells us that his grandfather Michael and his wife Agnes (Hughes--yes, she was a sister to Teresa's father, Bernard Hughes!) had five children: Gerry [William's father], Mick [the oldest], Vincent, William ["Bill"] and Patricia ["Pat"]. The family originally lived in Huntly, near Auckland, NZ. Today, Gerry and Vincent, and Gerry's son William, live in Auckland, although William moved to China at the end of 2006! Of the other children of Michael and Agnes, Mick lives in Christchurch; Bill lives in Perth; and Pat, in Sydney. Bill, William's uncle, once qualified as a youngster for the All Blacks trials, but his father would not let him travel all the way from Huntly to Christchurch due to his youth! William also has a sister named Maria who lives in Australia.

We mentioned earlier a photo of Frank Hansby that served to identify him in the 1895 Hansby family group photo above. Here it is:


Frank and Mary Hansby
Husband and Wife at Home
Date and Location Not Known
Source: Photo Collection of Teresa Alva (Hughes) Sweeney

Little is known of Teresa's paternal lineage, so let's take a look at the known lineage of Teresa's family. It turns out that Teresa's paternal grandparents, Peter and Catherine (Quinn) Hughes, ended up divorced, a great scandal in those days. Two of their children were nuns, so that even added to the secretiveness about the parents and Teresa's father never discussed them. This information about her father's Hughes family came from her brother, Michael Hughes.

Peter Hughes was born in 1850 in Monaghan, County Monaghan, Ireland. On April 25, 1880, he married Catherine Quinn, age 32, born in Castleconnell, County Limerick, Ireland. Michael and his wife, Rosemarie nee Sullivan, visited Castleconnell in 1991 and found the little town on the banks of the River Shannon to be "delightful". While they were visiting Ireland and in the course of checking out the birth places of some of their relatives, they found that Rosemarie's maternal Grandmother lived about 10 miles down the road from Castleconnell, the birthplace of Michael's paternal Grandmother. It is possible that they even knew each other.

Any way, Peter and Catherine were married in Mosgiel in Otago Province on the South Island of New Zealand. Mosgiel is a suburb of Dunedin and is named for the home of Robert Burns, the poet, who was the uncle of Thomas Burns, the founder of the Otago Settlement in 1848. The Otago area on the southeast coast of the South Island was originally a base for whaling fleets about 1840.

Bernard Hughes, Teresa's father, was born in Kaitangata on September 22, 1888. Kaitangata is a small coal mining town on the lower East Coast of the South Island, off the beaten track these days. His family left there when he was a small baby for Westport on the west coast, not far from Reefton. This event no doubt accounts for how he and Ellen Ann Hansby met up and married later on, since the Hansby family lived in Reefton. That is also where the divorce of Peter and Catherine took place. We do not know what the causes were. Later, Bernard served in the New Zealand cavalry in World War I; we will attempt in time to learn more about his military record. Here is what the online Wikipedia encyclopedia had to say about Kaitangata in 2006:

Kaitangata is a town near the coast of South Otago, New Zealand, on the left bank of the Clutha River ten kilometres south east of Balclutha. Close to the town lies the small lake, Lake Tuakitoto.

According to the 2001 census, the usually resident population of Kaitangata was 789, a decrease of 75 since 1996.

The origin of the town's Maori name is uncertain. It is the name of a figure in Polynesian mythology, but more likely comes from cannibal feasts held after tribal fighting in the district between Kai Tahu and Kati Mamoe. The name loosely translates from Maori to English as, 'Kill a man and eat him'.

Kaitangata's European history is closely tied to coal extraction. One of New Zealand's early industrial disasters occurred at the Kaitangata mine in 1879, when the lives of 34 miners were lost in an underground explosion.

Coal mining was the mainstay of the town's economy from the 1870s until 1972, when the last state-owned underground coal mine closed. Several open-cast mines have continued to exist (both state and private) up to the present day. From 1876 to 1970, the Kaitangata Line railway served the mines; initially privately owned, it later came into the state Mines Department's position. The locomotive that operated the line for many years, known during operation as an "Improved F", was donated to the preservation society at Shantytown in Westland and it operates heritage trains today with the nameplate "Kaitangata" in honour of its former home.

The underground mines produced sub-bituminous coal of a high quality, which was used primarily as fuel for the steam locomotives, in use in NZ until the 1960s. When the railways switched to diesel locomotives the decline of underground mining occurred. The open-cast mines produce lignite, which is primarily used in household fires. The continuing decline in the number of houses with coal fires, and the environmental push to replace the remaining fireplaces, means that the remaining open-cast mines days are numbered.

Let's meet Teresa's brother and sister-in-law, Michael and Rosemarie Hughes of Christchurch, New Zealand. Their memories, comments and photos have been immeasurably valuable to the creation of this family page. It was a great pleasure for Teresa's son, Bob Sweeney, to arrange a phone conversation between Teresa and her brothers, Michael and Erin, and their spouses, on January 11, 2007, Teresa's 83rd birthday. Erin and Marie actually live in Palmerston North, so there was a three-way international phone link involved.


Michael and Rosemarie (Sullivan) Hughes
Fiftieth Wedding Anniversary
February 12, 2008
Christchurch, New Zealand
Source: Photo by Sean and Kate Hughes

In January 2006, Michael Hughes made the following affectionate reminiscence about his father, Bernard Hughes, in the latter years of his life:

Our father Bernard died on 29th.May 1969,in the Palmerston North hospital with Erin, our Mother and myself around his bed, I can't remember if Sheila was there or not. Our father was quite a character, very well liked by all who met him. Up until just a week before he died, he was able to walk into town to meet Erin and me. He really looked forward to meeting us for a beer and talking about the sporting events of the time. I often used to ring him up if I was going out into the country on business and he would come along for the ride. He was a wonderful person, very kind with lovely old world manners, a pleasure to be with. His passing was a hard loss to take. He had a great affinity with all children. Must have run in the Hughes family as his sister Sister Majella was of a very similar nature

The following data on the Hansby side of the family was compiled in large part by a London-based legal firm at the request of Ralph Hansby, a cousin of the family living in Australia:

Teresa Alva Hughes, born 1924

Bernard Hughes (1888-1970) and Ellen Ann Hansby (1890-1987)
Peter Hughes (born in 1850) and Catherine Quinn (born in 1848),both natives of Ireland; married April 25, 1880 in Mosgiel, Otago Province, New Zealand

William Michael Joseph Hansby, born in Abergavenny, Wales (August 21, 1848- November 21, 1930) *) and Ann Courtney (November 17, 1858-August 22, 1927)
Michael William Hansby, MD (died 1869) and Mary Ann Sharp **
Michael Hansby (April 21, 1750-) and Catherine James; married 1795 in Bristol, United Kingdom
Ralph Hansby (1720-1760) and Catherine MacCarthy; married 1746
Michael Hansby and Judith Calvert
Ralph Hansby and Winifred Morgan
Sir Ralph Hansby and _______ Gerrard (born in Macclesfield, England)***
John Hansby and Audrey Lovell
Richard Hansby and Beatrix Hatcliffe

* Editor's note: Teresa remembers her grandfather William, who lived with the family when she was a little girl. He had a white beard and white hair, and would sit in a chair in the kitchen reading. William had owned his own "chemistry" shop, i.e., a pharmacy on the South Island. The Hansby family lived in the Reefton/Westport area on the west coast. According to Teresa's brother Michael Hughes, William actually practiced in the small mining town of Reefton. The somewhat larger port city of Greymouth was founded as a mining port in 1864. William's father had come to the area, originally as a dentist or physician, and died in that area in 1869. He married Annie Courtney in 1877 in Reefton. As a young man, the family legend was that William was sent to Paris, France to study for the chemist profession. He actually studied at the St. Francsi Savier Institute in Bruges, Belgium, as would be indicated in the advertising for his dental and pharmacy activities once he returned to New Zealand. William was multilingual and could read and speak French and German, and possibly other languages. He kept books in foreign languages in the home. Teresa's brother Vincent ("Erin") recalls his coffin being in the family front room in Wellington about 1931. He died in Wellington and is buried at the Karori Cemetery in Karori, Wellington, along with his wife, Ann (Courtney) Hansby. Bernard and Ellen Ann (Hansby) Hughes are also buried there.

** Editor's Note: In April 2009, in response to having seen this web site, William Frederick "Bill" Stevens of Montgomery, Alabama in the United States sent Bob Sweeney the following astonishing message:

Michael William Hansby happens to be my great-great grandfather. He was the father of Louisa Clifford Hansby who married John Maund. They had a daughter, May Maund. who was my grandmother and married Nicholas Lonergan and moved to Mexico where my Mother was born--her name was Hilda Mary Lonergan. I was born in Mexicot City in 1926, where the Hansby family had settled to pursue the wine industry.

In August 2009, Bob and his wife Lynn met in person with Bill and his wife, Rose, at a Starbucks near Atlanta, Georgia. The following photos portray these third cousins, Bob and Bill, and their wives.



Bob Sweeney and Bill Stevens
Great-great grandsons of Michael William and Mary Ann (Sharp) Hansby
With Spouses, Rose and Lynn
August 28, 2009
Douglasville, GA
Source: Photos by Lynn Franklin

Editor's Note: We were saddened to hear that Bill Stevens passed away on November 22, 2011, surrounded by his children and grandchildren. Here is his obituary:

Opelika-Auburn News
Opelika, AL
November 25, 2011

WILLIAM (BILL) FREDERICK STEVENS William (Bill) Frederick Stevens, 85, of Auburn, AL passed away on Tuesday, November 22, 2011 at his residence. Bill was born in Mexico City, Mexico on July 14, 1926 to Frederick Stanley Stevens and Hilda Mary Lonergan Stevens. He attended the American School in Mexico City and spent the last year of high school at Mt. Allyson Academy in Sackville N.B., Canada. After studying engineering at Georgia Tech, he went to work for the Gillette Safety Razor Company in Mexico City. In 1956 he was transferred to Buenos Aires, Argentina where he ran manufacturing operations for Gillette. In 1961, he moved to Boston, MA to work in the corporate home office in South Boston. The Stevens family moved to Opelika, AL in 1973 where Bill worked for the Ampex Corporation. In 1983, Bill joined Shape Corp. in Biddeford, ME and in 1986 moved to Dadeville, AL to start the Shape South plant. He retired in 1992 and enjoyed gardening, playing golf, travelling and family gatherings. Mr. Stevens is survived by his loving wife, Rose, his children Debbie Stevens Descheemaeker (Henrie), Danny Stevens (Karen), Jackie Stevens Shelton (Jake), Charlie Stevens (Lori), his grandchildren Jesse and Maggie Taylor, Will, Riley and Nolan Stevens, Rosemary Shelton, and Emily and Davis Stevens, and his sister Winnie Stevens Erickson. He is preceded in death by his parents, Frederick and Hilda Stevens, his two brothers, Alexander Charles and Paul Stanley Stevens, and his beloved daughter Patricia Stevens Taylor. Memorial Services will be held on Monday, November 28, 2011, at 11:00a.m. CST at St. Michael's Catholic Church, with Rev. Monsignor William J. Skoneki officiating. Jeffcoat-Trant Funeral Home in Auburn, AL is handling arrangements. The family requests that in lieu of flowers, donations be made to the St. Michael's Catholic Church of Auburn Building Fund or Hospice Advantage at 665 Opelika Rd., Auburn, AL, 36830.

*** Editor's Note: Sir Ralph Hansby came into possession of Tickhill Castle in Yorkshire in 1611. The castle was originally built in the eleventh century and today is a tourist attraction. The Hansby family maintained its presence in the general area of Doncaster, where the castle is located, even until the 21st century. To wit, a property at Number 1, Hansby Close in Doncaster sold for 450, 000 pounds in July 2001. Your can learn more about the castle and its history, and see a picture at Tickhill Castle.

We also know that William Michael emigrated to New Zealand in 1869 from Wales, and that his future wife was born in Melbourne, Australia. In addition, his brother Joseph Hansby was a sea captain. On June 12, 1888, the Hawea, a steamer under his command, sank in the harbor at New Plymouth after striking an unmapped subterranean rock or other obstacle. All the passengers, as well as two racehorses, were rescued, but the ship was a total loss.

Here is what Wikipedia, the online encyclopedia, had to say about Reefton in early 2005:

The small town of Reefton is located in the west of New Zealand's South Island, some 80 kilometres northeast of Greymouth, in the valley of the Inangahua River.

Formerly a gold and coal mining town, coal and forestry make up the main two industries of Reefton today. The rich veins of gold found in a quartz reef near the town led to its name, and also its former delightful name of Quartzopolis. Gold was discovered near the town in 1866, although the major discovery did not come until 1870. Shortly thereafter the town briefly boasted a population of several thousand. Today the population stands at a little over a thousand. One feature of historical note about Reefton is that it was the first town in the Southern Hemisphere whose streets were lit by commercial electric power, generated a water-driven steel turbine, in 1888.

Grandfather William Hansby was a chemist/pharmacist but only practiced in Reefton, which we have mentioned was a small mining town. Michael Hughes remembers that his and Teresa's mother used to say that her father was not only the chemist, but also doctor, vet and dentist. She still had his dental instruments when he was growing up and Michael would use them in model making.

Recently, The Inagahua Times, the newspaper for Reefton and the area in the late nineteenth century, has been put online. An initial, but hardly exhaustive review of these documents, shows that W. M. J. Hansby activley advertised his practice in this newspaper. Here are just a few examples pulled from random issues:

The Inagahua Times
Reefton, New Zealand
Wednesday, August 17, 1892, page 3

Fixers!

Hansby's Hair
.........Digestive ops,
Quinine and Iron Tonnic,
Wind and Liver Pills,
Castor Oil Pills,
Carbolized Dentifrice,
Camphorated Tooth Powder

W.M.J. hansby
Eleve de l'Institut St.
Francois Xavier, a Bruges
La Belge

Chemist, Druggist
Broadway, Reefton

The Inagahua Times
Reefton, New Zealand
Tuesday, June 9, 1896, page 2

Hansby
Teeth extracted, 2s6d
Hansby
Teeth scaled and cleaned, 2s6d
Hansby
Teeth stopped and filled, 5s

W. M. J. Hansby
Chemist Reefton

Teresa had a close family and her reminiscences and comments are scattered through the coming story. For example she recalls that her brother Bernie and sister Moira were always the "gold medal" winner for academic efforts at school. Teresa in turn had artistic ability and was an excellent dancer. Her younger brother Michael was also artistically inclined; he made models from plasticine. So, here are the photographs and captions from Teresa's scrapbook, with commentary where suitable.

We are immensely grateful to Michael and Rosemarie (Sullivan) Hughes and to Vincent ("Erin") and Marie Hughes for many of the identifications in the photographs shown below.


Grainy Photo of Extended Hughes Family
About 1927
Wellington, New Zealand
William and Ann (Courtney) Hansby are the older couple in the center.
Clockwise from left: Daisy Hansby holding her son Tony; Ellen (Hansby) Hughes holding Vincent ("Erin") Hughes;.1st man, top back left is Tame Anini Haimona Patete, husband of Bernardine Hansby **; 2nd man at back, either Michael or Cyril Hansby; next to him, 3rd. man is Anthony ("Tony") Hansby.
Coming down right side: lady is Bernardine ("Bernie") (Hansby) Patete holding her son, Bill
Front row, right to left Moira Hughes, Teresa Alva Hughes, Keith Hansby, Bernard ("Bernie") Francis Hughes
The other children are from these families, but at this time we are not certain just how. They may be children of Mick and Agnes (Hughes) Hansby.
Source: Photo Collection of Teresa Alva (Hughes) Sweeney
Identifications by Vincent and Marie Hughes

** Editor's Note: In December 2006, we received the following message from Marilyn McDonald, granddaughter of Tame and Bernardine:

Hello Robert,

Bernadine Hansby is my maternal grandmother. Marewa Patete is my mother. Bernadine married Tame Anini Haimona Patete. Europeans translated his name to "Tom", however in the family we all refer to our grandfather by his Maori name. Both our European and Maori heritage is very important to us. In New Zealand Bernadine, received celebrity status as an opera singer - she was known as "the Nightingale of NZ". Tame was the son of a paramount Maori chief and their marriage was most extraordinary for the time - both by European and Maori standards.

My mother's sister's name is spelt "Ngareta". Ngareta is more commonly known by her nickname 'Micky'. Marewa married Dudley "John" Dobson and they had seven children - 4 girls and 3 boys. I am the eldest. It was terrific to find this research on the site and I thank you for it. If you would like any further information I am happy to supply what I know.

Thank you,
Marilyn McDonald (nee Dobson/Patete)

You can see pictures of her family and learn more at Descendants of Tami Patete and Alice Bernardine Hansby. Marilyn also has a web site at Marilyn McDonald.

We also heard about a week later from Marilyn's brother, Dudley "John" Dobson, named for his father, John Dudley Dobson. His comments have been very helpful to those of us unfamiliar with Maori traditions and terminology. You can find John's lineage studies of the Patete, Dobson and Hansby families on the same page as Marilyn's pictures.

Teresa remembers her aunt "Bernie" as being a "small thing" just like her sister, Ellen Hansby. Bernie and her husband lived in a rural community about "twenty miles" or so from Auckland. Teresa remembers taking a bus from Auckland as a girl and walking a good distance to get to the home of Tami and Bernie. Bernie, per Teresa, had dark hair and a narrow face and a voice that seemed "too big" for someone so small.


Hansby and Hughes Group Family Photo
About 1940
Wellington, New Zealand
Two men in the back: Mr. Brooks and his son [elder Brooks was a friend of Bernard Hughes]
Next to last row: Ellen Hansby's brother, Tony Hansby, and his wife Daisy; Jean Gerrard [friend of Teresa]; Sisters Majella and Bridget [siblings of Bernard Hughes]; Mrs. Feeney [family friend]; Frank McNeill [Bernard's best man] and his wife; Vincent "Erin" Hughes; Mick Hansby [son of Ellen Hansby's brother Mick]
Back middle row: Bernard and Ellen Ann (Hansby) Hughes, Sheila Hughes [Teresa's sister, leaning over Ellen]; Mrs. Brooks
Front middle row: Michael Hughes, Colleen Hansby [daughter of Tony and Daisy], Moira Hughes [Teresa's sister]
Front row: Teresa Alva Hughes, Maureen Bell
Source: Photo Collection of Teresa Alva (Hughes) Sweeney
Identifications by Michael and Rosemarie Hughes

Michael Hughes has offered the following additional comments about the preceding photograph:

Mick Hansby, whose son, also named Mick, is pictured above, was married to Agnes Hughes and they lived in Huntly near Wellington. The Bells were a large family who lived up the street from us in Wellington. We grew up with the various members of their family whose ages coincided with our own. Back in the mid-forties, when telephones were a scarce commodity in our city, they had the nearest phone. Consequently, when your mother went over to America to marry your father, we used to book calls to her for an agreed time, and we would all gather around the phone at the Bells to have a turn at speaking to her.

Note that Huntly lies about 55 miles south of Auckland and is famous as a source of coal and power. It was originally called Rahuipokeka by the Maoris and sits on the Waikato River.


Teresa Hughes and Patricia Kelly
Friends in What Appears to Be School Attire
1936
Wellington, New Zealand
Source: Photo Collection of Teresa Alva (Hughes) Sweeney


St. Mary's Convent School
Teresa Hughes is on the far left in the back row, next to Patricia Kelly.
This may be her graduation class.
Wellington, New Zealand
About 1940
Source: Photo Collection of Teresa Alva (Hughes) Sweeney


The Hughes Sisters
Left Photo: Teresa, Moira and Sheila
Right Photo: Teresa and Moira
1940s
Wellington, New Zealand
Source: Photo Collection of Teresa Alva (Hughes) Sweeney


Moira, Teresa and Sheila Hughes
Three Sisters
Daughters of Bernard and Ellen (Hansby) Hughes
About 1945
Wellington, New Zealand
Note: Teresa was an excellent seamstress and actually made the dresses that she and her sisters are wearing in this picture.
Source: Photo Collection of Teresa Alva (Hughes) Sweeney


Girlfriends
Top, l to r: Sheila Hughes ,Maureen Bell [neighbour and family friend],Moira Hughes, Unknown, Unknown
Bottom: l to r:Jean Gerard and Teresa Hughes
1940s
Wellington, New Zealand
Source: Photo Collection of Teresa Alva (Hughes) Sweeney

Jean Gerard, Teresa's best friend as a girl in New Zealand, eventually married an English sea captain named Peter Slocum. She moved to London, England, his home town, for a while, but then returned to New Zealand at some point. Teresa was also very close to her first cousins Joyce Hansby and Marewa Patete, both shown elsewhere on this page.


Teresa and her Friends
L to r: Unknown, Unknown, Joyce Hansby [Teresa's first cousin], Unknown, Unknown, Teresa Hughes, Moira Hughes, Sheila Hughes
About 1945
Wellington, New Zealand
Source: Photo Collection of Teresa Alva (Hughes) Sweeney


Selected Hughes Family Scenes
Top, Left Photo: Teresa Hughes Holding the Family Wash House Door
Right Photo, l to r: Moira, Erin and Teresa Hughes
Bottom, Left Photo: Teresa Hughes and Jean Gerard
Right Photo: Moira, Erin, Bernard [father], Ellen Ann [mother], Michael [in front], Bernard, Sheila and
Teresa [holding her hat behind her; Teresa was angry because she was told she could not wear her hat for this picture]
1939 or Thereabouts
Wellington, New Zealand
Source: Photo Collection of Teresa Alva (Hughes) Sweeney

Michael Hughes has helped with the dating of the preceding pictures. The final picture of the entire family must have been taken in 1939 or somewhat earlier. According to Michael:

The picture of my whole family was really unique in that I think it may be the only one of its kind from that time period. My eldest brother Bernie went off to the 2nd World War in 1939, so nearly all the family photos I have seen were taken after that time. When he returned from the war, your mother [Teresa] had gone off to be with your father in the States, so she was missing. From then on, even at weddings, there was always someone who could not be there.


Teresa and Friends
Top Photo, l to r: Moira Hughes, Teresa Hughes and Jean Gerard
Early 1940s
Location Unknown
Bottom Photo, l to r: Teresa Hughes, Unknown, Unknown, Jean Gerard
Early 1940s
Wellington, New Zealand
Source: Photo Collection of Teresa Alva (Hughes) Sweeney


Teresa Alva Hughes
Just Before Her Departure for America in Fall 1945
Wellington, New Zealand
Source: Photo Collection of Teresa Alva (Hughes) Sweeney


Michael and Moira Hughes at Aotea Quay
Wellington, New Zealand
1945
This is the harbor facility where the First Marine Division landed and then debarked for their campaigns in 1942. The Quay had at that time five berthing docks for ships. The "summer" weather in July 1942 was continually windy, cold and rainy. The Marines had to reload their ship supplies in the middle of this weather.
Source: Photo Collection of Teresa Alva (Hughes) Sweeney


Reception for John and Sheila (Hughes) Cable
Sister and Brother-in-law of Teresa (Hughes) Sweeneys
L to r: Aunt Daisy Hansby, Ellen (Hansby) Hughes, Vince and Gladys Fraser, Unidentified Friend of Ellen
There is a copy of the wedding photo for Robert G. and Teresa (Hughes) Sweeney hanging behind Ellen's head.
New Zealand
December 28, 1949
Source: Photo Collection of Teresa Alva (Hughes) Sweeney
Identifications by Michael and Rosemarie (Sullivan) Hughes


Sheila (Hughes) Cable and Vincent "Erin" Hughes
Sister and Brother
Brisbane, Australia 2005
Source: Michael and Rosemarie Hughes

Aunt Daisy was the wife of Anthony "Tony" Hansby, brother of Teresa's mother, Ellen. Vince and Gladys Fraser were cousins on the Hansby side of the family and lived in Wairoa, on the East coast of the North Island in the heart of Maori country. Michael Hughes, Teresa's brother, in 2006 described a visit he made to Wairoa in his early twenties with his parents. He described the community as something like the American Wild West. "Uncle Vince" was quite a character, apparently, and not one inclined to be easily denied. Unfortunately, per Michael, there has been no contact with that branch of the family since the 1960s. Perhaps this history will unearth some old ties!

As an aside, Teresa's brother had this to say about the distribution of the Maori population in New Zealand in early 2006:

The major settlement of the Maori people took place in the North Island and in fact only a few tribes took residence in the south, mainly to expand their food resources and to obtain supplies of greenstone from which they made weapons and adornments. The Maori population in the South Island has always been small in comparison to the North, and that is still the case today. When we moved down to Christchurch in 1976, we rarely ran into a Maori in the street. That has changed a little in recent years following the Government's payment of Treaty Settlements and the creation of business ventures employing mainly Maori.


Bernard and Ellen (Hansby) Hughes
With Family and Friends
L to r: Mick Hansby [Ellen's brother], Ellen, Agnes [wife of Mick Hansby and siter of Bernard], Unidentified couple, Bernard
Undated
Source: Photo Collection of Teresa Alva (Hughes) Sweeney
Identifications by Michael and Rosemarie Hughes


Bridget and Majella Hughes
Nuns and Sisters of Bernard Hughes
Source: Photo Collection of Teresa Alva (Hughes) Sweeney

Here also is a special artifact in the possession of Robert E. "Bob" Sweeney, Teresa's oldest son. It is a letter, handwritten by his grandmother, Ellen (Hansby) Hughes in 1955 to Bob when he was not quite nine years old and living in Binghamton, NY. In the day before much television or any internet or easy phone connections, imagine the pleasure and surprise at receiving this loving communication from so far, far away! The letter references two of the sisters of Bernard Hughes, the nuns Majella and Bridget; it also mentions two siblings of Bob Sweeney, his sister Sheila Doreen Sweeney and his brother Phillip Peter Sweeney.




Source: Photos Scanned by Robert E. Sweeney

Next is a magnificent group photograph provided by Michael and Rosemarie Hughes in February 2006. It was taken in 1980 or thereabouts, probably in Wellington. It reunites Teresa, the "war bride", and her husband, Robert G. Sweeney, with the Hughes/Hansby family in New Zealand. Note that missing from this picture was John and Sheila (Hughes) Cable's eldest daughter, Geraldine, and her family. However, in 2002 and then again in 2007, Geraldine sent to Bob Sweeney several pictures that can be accessed at Geraldine's Family.


Family Photo From Early 1980s
Johnsonville, New Zealand
Front row--Robert G. Sweeney, Vincent "Erin" Hughes, Natalie and Aaron Cox [children of Yvonne and Terry Cox, and also grandchildren of Sheila Hughes, Teresa's sister]
Second row--Teresa Alva (Hughes) Sweeney, Moira (Hughes) Hyman, Ellen (Hansby) Hughes, Sheila (Hughes) Cable, John-Paul _______ [family friend], John Cable [deceased], Tina (Cable) Large [youngest daughter of John and Sheila]
Third row--Terry Cox [Yvonne's husband; deceased], Yvonne (Cable) Cox [second eldest daughter of John and Sheila], Bernard Francis "Bernie" Hughes, Michelle [second youngest daughter of John and Sheila, with her daughter Tanya], Moira (Hyman) Jamieson [eldest daughter of Moira Hughes, and her daughter Lara], Sheila (Cable) Gaywood [John and Sheila's third child, with her child], Ralph Gaywood
Back row--Michael Hughes and Paul Jamieson
Source: Photo Collection of Michael and Rosemarie Hughes
Taken at the Home of John and Sheila (Hughes) Cable

On May 3, 2008, Christina ("Tina") (Cable) Smith, daughter of John and Sheila (Hughes) Cable, met Bob Sweeney and his wife, Lynn Franklin, in Washington, D.C. They spent that Saturday afternoon and evening and the following breakfast morning talking and touring the city. Washington is a beautiful place at that time of the year, so all the monuments and special places were fully accessbile and many pictures were taken. Tina persuaded Bob and Lynn to agree on a visit "down under" in 2009, with Tina and her sister, Geraldine, to organize the details. Here is the first of many wonderful photos taken, showing Tina and Bob in front of an outdoor cafe in the Dupont Circle section of Washington:


Tina (Cable) Smith and Bob Sweeney
First Cousins
Dupont Circle, Washington, DC
May 3, 2008
Photo by Lynn Franklin

Incidentally, Sheila (Cable) Gaywood is another daughter of John and Sheila (Hughes) Cable. The family lives in the Sydney area. In 2012, they had been living in Australia for 18 years. Sheila was the first "Cable girl" to be a grandparent and asserts that she loves it!

Now, let's take a look at several recent photos of Michael and Rosemarie Hughes, their children, grandchildren and beautiful city of Christchurch on the South Island of New Zealand. Remember that Michael Hughes is Teresa's younger brother. Michael and Rosemarie have three children: Ross, who lives in Austria; Sean, who lives in Melbourne; and Kim Marie who lives in Christchurch.


Michael and Rosemarie (Sullivan) Hughes
With Grandson Thomas Hughes
Taken in Melbourne, Australia
November 2005


Card Made from Painting by Michael Hughes
Street Scene in Verona, Italy
Source: Photos Taken by Michael and Rosemarie Hughes


Two Views of Christchurch 2006
First scene: Looking Back Over the City Toward the Mountains
Second scene: Looking Out to Sea from the Hughes Home
Source: Photos Taken by Michael and Rosemarie Hughes


Sean Hughes
Fortieth Birthday Party
Melbourne November 2005
Sean, a barrister, and his wife Kate live in Melbourne, Australia
Source: Photo Taken by Michael and Rosemarie Hughes


David Beckingsale and Kim Marie Hughes
Husband and Wife 2005
With Michael and Rosemarie Hughes
Kim Marie, a dentist, is their daughter.
Christchurch, New Zealand
Source: Photo Taken by Michael and Rosemarie Hughes


Kim Marie and Children 2005
L to r: Edward von Dadelszen, age 20, son of Kim Marie: Rosemarie and Michael Hughes, grandparents;
Tessa von Dadelszen, age 17,
daughter of Kim Marie; Kim Marie
Edward and Tessa are children of Kim Marie by a first marriage; their surname is von Dadelszen.
Christchurch, New Zealand
Source: Photo Taken by Michael and Rosemarie Hughes


Tessa von Dadelszen in 2004
Daughter of Kim Marie
At Age 16 Ready for the College Ball
Christchurch, New Zealand
Source: Photo Taken by Michael and Rosemarie Hughes

Here are four lovely photos taken at Easter 2006 in Christchurch. They are provided courtesy of Sean and Kate Hughes:


Sean Hughes with Parents
L to r: Sean, Rosemarie and Michael Hughes
Christchurch, New Zealand
Easter 2006
Source: Photos Courtesy of Sean and Kate Hughes


Thomas Hughes with Grandparents
L to r: Rosemarie, Thomas [son of Sean and Kate Hughes] and Michael Hughes
Christchurch, New Zealand
Easter 2006
Source: Photos Courtesy of Sean and Kate Hughes


Hughes Family
Top to bottom: David Beckingsale and Michael Hughes; Tessa and Edward, children of Kim Marie;
Rosemarie and Kim Marie Hughes; Thomas and Sean Hughes, his father
Christchurch, New Zealand
Easter 2006
Source: Photos Courtesy of Sean and Kate Hughes


Hughes Family
Easter Meal
L to r: Michael and Rosemarie Hughes; Kim Marie, Sean, Thomas and Tessa
Christchurch, New Zealand
Easter 2006
Source: Photos Courtesy of Sean and Kate Hughes

Next we present several photos taken on or about July 17, 2006 for the occasion of the 80th birthday of Vincent "Erin" Hughes in Palmerston North, New Zealand. They can be accessed at Erin's Birthday Party. Erin died on Boxing Day, December 26, 2008 at his home in Palmerston North, New Zealand. Here is a photo taken shortly before his death and posted to the real estate company site for which he consulted as a Chartered Accountant.


Vincent Erin Hughes
December 2008
Palmerston North, NZ
Source: KBB Realty Web Site

You might as well meet Bob Sweeney and his family all at once, while we are at it. So, here they are at the Inaugural Ball for President George W. Bush in Washington, DC in January 2005:


The Sweeney Family
Robert Emmett "Bob" Sweeney, Lynn Ann Franklin and Their Daughter, Becca Ariella Sweeney
Inaugural Ball 2005
Washington, DC
January 2005
Source: Photo Courtesy of Lynn Ann Franklin

Copyright 2005 Robert E. Sweeney and individual Contributors. All Rights Reserved. Prior written permission is required from Robert E. Sweeney and individual Contributors before this material can be printed or otherwise copied, displayed or distributed in any form. This is a FREE genealogy site sponsored through PAGenWeb and can be reached directly at ~Sullivan County Genealogy Project (http://www.rootsweb.com/~pasulliv)