Kalinowszczyzna


Kalinowszczyzna is one of three satelite towns, or villages, around the city of Lublin, the other two being Wieniawa and Piaski. All three are now just districts of the city and are indistinguishable from the city unless one looks very closely, but as late as the end of the 19th century it was still possible to see them as separate entities on a map and presumably on the ground. Kalinowszczyzna is located quite close to the oldest part of Lublin and was the first really to become part of the city. The main contributory factor to this was the growth of the main Jewish district of Lublin, which reached out quite early. The old Jewish cemetery is located on a small hill and can be considered the demarcation between old Lublin and Kalinowszczyzna.

Kalinowszczyzna is located on the first slopes of a low upland on the northern and western sides of the flat Bystrzyca river plain, just north of the junction of the Bystrzyca and Czechowka rivers. The land is cut through with many wide and flat bottomed gulleys, and through an east-west one lies the old road east from Lublin. As directly to the east and southeast of the centre of the old town of Lublin was a boggy valley, the Kalinowszczyzna route was an important one and lay on the road between such places as Krakow and Lithuania and even Moscow. Kalinowszczyzna experienced quite a bit of growth throughout the 19th century and into the 20th century. There was a market held here, called the straw market, and business could be transacted away from the direct control of the cityauthorities. However a new character was imposed on the village from the 1960's onwards when the northern side became one of the new housing districts of Lublin, and a new road was cut across the northern part of the Bystrzyca river flood plain just to the south of the village. Before that, during the second world war the natural connection between the village and the city was severed when the Germans destroyed the greater part of the Jewish district. The result of these two actions and the gradual loss of the traditional merchantile function has left Kalinowszczyzna a sleepy, remote and disjointed island not far from the heart of the city.

Kalinowszczyzna Through Maps

Kalinowszczyzna is lucky as it usually appears on Lublin maps as although it was separate from the city it was still of relative importance.

The 1829 map is of interest as it shows the geographical features well, you can see the gullied plateau in the north and the lake (staw) in the south. In the very top left of the picture is the former Franciscan monastery and church, although by this time it was doing time as a soap factory, which marks the westerly end of the dry gully that avoids the lakes and mud to the south and hence the most practical route east from Lublin. Down and right from the monastery is the walled old Jewish cemetery. In the bottom right corner of the map we can see the Bystrzyca river, and above it the easterly end of Kalinowszczyzna and the straw market at the point where the road widens. The plateau does not show any field markings and is of the type that would have been suitable for cattle and sheep to graze. There are fields marked near the lake, where the land is more lush and only slightly sloping.

Notice how the village is effectively in two parts, the easterly end around the straw market, and the tight grouping in the centre of the map. The church is located at the western end of the market, on the north side, and what with the market we can assume that this was the main trading part of the village. Here you would have been able to find all the craftsmen and other essentials that go to support a busy market. The other part of the settlement has a much more agrarian nature and seems not to have existed solely because of the market but through functions almost separate from it. Today this is the poorer part of Kalinowszczyzna and the lack of any significant looking building on the map seems to indicate that it was also true in the past.

For the 1875 map we again can see the former Franciscan monastery and old Jewish cemetery in the top left hand corner. Here we can see that the two parts of the settlement seem to have parted, each with its own centre. The second most noticable thing is that the roads are much more clearly defined now, although this might be more down to the individual cartographer's style. There also seems to be fewer buildings and one wonders how much this is due to the economic backwater the whole region had become during the 19th century, with the exception of Lublin itself. Trading patterns had certainly altered since the partitioning of Poland, the last of which was early in 19th century when the Lublin region became part of the Russian empire, cutting off links with places like Krakow and Lwow.

The course of the Bystrzyca has changed, now flowing through what had formerly been the lake. This is quite natural for an uncontrolled river system, especially where the river flows across a flat bottomed valley like this one.

Now in 1931 we can see that there has been a bit of an explosion in the population, paralleling what was happening in Lublin. We can see that a paper mill (Mlyn Papierna) has been established on the other side of the river. Most of the growth is in the westerly settlement, although it is likely that this cartographer has been quite exuberant in his use of red ink. The mill itself was established at a point which had long been a natural river crossing and it must have been an easy walk to work at the mill if you lived in the westerly settlement. Now we have a new road in the westerly settlement plus a road has been effectively created at the straw market by new building on part of the market area. The market has also seen encroachment at its easterly end with the creation of three narrow fields. There is a new 'market' are that has been created out of what was formerly fields, and it is possible that these are actually shops that have been created to supply the burgeoning new population. The road for this new centre is 'Okolna' street (Round street!).

The 2000 map shows how much Kalinowszczyzna, although of all the maps it is the least accurate in terms of the nature of the buildings (This map is from Pilot.pl). The Bystrzyca river has a completely new course on the south side of the 'village', there are major roads on the southern and eastern sides, and there is a new housing district enclosing it on the northern side. Some things are visibly much the same, the monastery, the Jewish cemetery, the church and the straw market. If you look a little closer you will realise that 'Sienna' street has always been there, 'Kalinowszczyzny' still winds through its gully and crosses the river, the road to the mill crossing and if you were there you would realise that despite the encroachments, it is still a separate community from Lublin and still looks across the river flats to the castle and the old town.

Slomiany - The Straw Market

The straw market is located at the eastern end of the village, with Kalinowszczyzna street on the northern side and Towarowa ('Business' street) on the southern side. Not far to the east lies the Bystrzyca river, a convenient water supply, while in the grounds of the church is a fine well also designed to service the needs of the market. The market itself developed over time, particularly since the latter part of the 19th century until the market decayed almost completely by the time of the second world war.

Just outside the church is this old well.

One may at first wonder why you need a whole market devoted to straw, but of course a name does not always encompass all the business transacted, especially when a market is in use over several centuries. Straw, and its near relation hay, are essential items for what is essentially a city based on agriculture. Before the latter half of the 19th century Lublin could in no way be described as an industrial city. Even from that time on, including those industries imposed by the Communist authorities in the 1950's, have done little to change this. Lublin needed food to supply its own population's need as well as that it traded in, including related goods. Cattle need food to eat while waiting for market, as well as something to sleep on. Outside of the central part of the city there were many wooden houses and other buildings with thatched roofs were straw was also used for wall insulation. Earlier single walled houses would have straw attached to the outsides as insulation, while later twin walled ones would have the gap between the wood panelling filled with hay and straw.

Today the market is a park, with many trees approaching maturity, and although not very well maintained is one of the most easily recognisable parts remaining of old Kalinowszczyzna. The western end is the most ragged and there is a tumbledown former summer kitchen in the middle. At the eastern end there is a rectangular sunken region, quite large, with a raised mount almost in one corner. It looks like the remains of some kind of market, with a place for the auctioneer to stand, but there could equally well be a different explanation. It is clear, however, from the maps that the actual size of the market decreaed over time. This might partly be explained by the creations of other market places around Lublin and other changes in the nature of goods sold. Sometime around the beginning of the 20th century the market may have been improved, with the creation of this 'arena' while buildings were allowed to encroach from the west and fields from the east. The start of the market area is quite recognisable as you approach from the western end as it is defined as the point where Towarowa street forks off Kalinowszczyzna street and opposite the church, with only trees and a few old buildings blocking the view of the main market. For a hundred metres or so, along either road the view is unpromising, with some weedy areas where formerly some buildings had stood and other slowly decaying buildings that still remain. The remaining market area, which is most of it, is very pleasant to visit in the summer as it is a mixture of sun and shade, although the hum of traffic on 1000-lecie avenue is ever present in the background.

Little remains of buildings on the northern side of the market, most has been built within the last 40 years and has little local character, with the possible exception of the last building at the eastern end, a small shop called a 'Mini Market' (yes, in English!). On the southern side there are plenty of buildings, some easily datable and others which could date anywhere from the late 18th century onwards. Starting at the western end there are some forty year old sheds built on the remains of earlier buildings, possibly with some original connection with the market. These are part of a garbarnia, or leather workshop, but access is not possible and they seem very fond of barbed wire. It is logical, although unproven, that this is the continuation of a trade that was connected with a market, where leather things are always in demand. Next we come to some buildings of indeterminate age, divided into apartments and probably late 19th century. There is next one very interesting, although sadly decayed, building that faces onto the market. Presumably there must have been a building somewhere for the organisers of the market, and while this is the most likely remaining building by its appearance and location, that does not mean that it was as another, now demolished, building could equally well have been it.

Now we have a set of apartment blocks, getting older the further east we go. The first looks to be from the 1930's, and it joins one that must be at least 20 years older, which then joins one that could be twenty years older still. Next there is a gap and then again what appears to be a late 19th, early 20th century apartment block, decaying so much that most of the plaster has fallen off its back and revealing the brick structure. Strangely enough it forms one arm of an 'L' shape with the next building, this next one being far older and facing not onto the street but towards the Bystrzyca. There is a building of about the right shape and location marked on the 1829 map, so it is possible that it is the same building. The most likely owner would be someone like a merchant, a landowner is less likely as Kalinowszczyzna was part of the vast Firlej estates, and across the river is another folwark (estate) building anyway.

The Western Settlement

As was already discussed in the maps section, this appears to have been an agrarian settlement on the trade route through Kalinowszczyzna, not really coming into its own until the paper mill was built in the early part of the 20th century. It is difficult to see anything remaining from before that time in the present settlement, most housing being of quite a cheap nature and often repaired and rebuilt.

Starting from the former Fransiscan monastery and heading east into the settlement along Kalinowszczyzna street we must first examine the monastery church. These days the monastery buildings function mainly as a dormitory for priests and nuns attending the Catholic University of Lublin (KUL) and is under the control of Salesian monks. The church is relatively unusual on the inside as it has two floors, but this could date from the time it spent as a factory in the 19th century. The Franciscans first arrived in Lublin in 1635 and built there church beside the road to the east and remained there until, like many orders, they were forced to leave when the Lublin region came under the control of Russia in about 1813. The church and monastery became a miltary warehouse and hospital until they were bought by a local businessman, Antoni Domanski, to be turned into a cloth factory. By 1855 it had become a factory producing soap and candles and so it remained until 1913 when it was purchased by Tadeusz Wiesburg, a Jew who at about this time became a Roman Catholic. He gave the church and buildings into the care of the Salesian Order in 1927, who rebuilt the church and divided it into two levels.

The next obvious thing is a high brick wall that appears on the right, which completely surrounds Grodzisko hill and contains the old Lublin Jewish cemetery. This was officially established in 1555 with permission from King Zygmunt August, although there is evdence that it was in use sometime earlier. There is a small gate in the wall, which is kept locked. Further along the wall there is a plaque and a memorial stone commemorating ten prominent Lublinian citizens shot there in December 1939 by the Germans. On the other side of the road are some early 20th century houses and at the small crossroads at the end of the cemetery there is a brick kapliczka (shrine) in the form of an octagonal pillar. It is in the name of Saint Florian, the patron saint of firemen. The small road to the north used to head into the pasture land to the north, while the one to the south, Bialkowska Gora, follows the perimeter of the Jewish cemetery and eventually once headed towards Lublin castle and the old town.

Now the road runs through quite a deep cutting, this is deeper than it used to be as it was altered early in the 20th century. On the southern side of the road is what was to be the village museum, and where there is only the relocated Wincenty Pol dworek. On the same side is a small path which climbs gently, and although having a metal railing, doesn't look as if it goes anywhere. In fact this is the access from the west to the houses up on top of the small plateau between the Jewish cemetery and the western settlement known as Bialkowska Gora. There are houses marked up here on the 1829 map, but by 1931 it appears to have become quite crowded. Soon we come to the remains of some of these, they are all quite small, no more than two rooms per house, and in quite poor condition. Through the latter half of the 20th century, up until the 1990's this was quite an unsavoury part of Lublin and proof of the lie of Communist propaganda. The descent to the western settlement is wider and paved with tarred bricks, but with a view to the housing blocks further to the north through the trees.

Houses on the main road through the village.

Another cottage in the same part as above, and near the old Jewish cemetery.

Poorer housing on the southern side of the village, around a network of small lanes.

Business Kalinowszczyzna
The signs of current business in the centre of the former village is quite small, the market has long been out of use and there are only a few shops left to serve the locals. There is a car dealership, places selling wood, glass and other home improvement articles, a bakery.

Back on the main road is this 19th century building. Notice that it has a door on the corner, this was a very common practice for shops located at the junction of two streets. Currently this shop sells meat.
 

The Roman Catholic Church
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The Roman Catholic Cemetery
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Part of the Roman Catholic cemetery, at the eastern end of the village.
The Jewish Cemetery
This is the most important artifact of Kalinowszczyzna, and lies its the western edge. It is located on a roughly triangular shaped hill and is enclosed by a high brick wall of some antiquity. It is thought that there was once some fortification on the hill, but there are no signs visible on the ground as it became a cemetery in the 17th century. By the mid 19th century it was obvious that the growing population of Lublin and its surroundings was outstripping the capacity of this cemetery and a new one was created to the north, near the Unitarian (Greek Catholic) cemetery.

The wall has been frequently repaired and is itself an unwitting museum to the development of the brick in the region, as many repairs have had to done to it over the centuries. There is no free access to the cemetery, one has to contact the man responsible for looking after it and ask him to open it up.
 

The Village Museum

Back in the 1960's when Lublin was planning its vilage museum, skansen, Kalinowszczyzna seemed the ideal location once the current inhabitants of the area next to the Jewish cmetery could be encouraged to move to one of the new districts. By the early 1970's the first major building had been purchased, the Wincenty Pol dworek, and assembled on site. For some unknown reasons the council then decided that maybe Kalinowszczyzna was not so ideal and instead they decided that an abandoned estate in Slawin would be better. For the sake of the village museum this was the best thing that could have happened because this then gave them plenty of room to expand into, good access and a much lower level of traffic noise - more like, in fact, the rural setting they were trying to recreate.

Unfortunately, the Wincenty Pol dwor still remains in Kalinowszczyzna and as a result it gets few visitors. It is not easy to find and being a single exhibit there is not much to encourage the visitor unless he happens to be wandering this way.


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