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King's Pocket-book of Providence, R.I.

Moses King, Cambridge, Mass., 1882. Tibbitts, Shaw & Co., Providence, RI
p. 3 - 4.

It is the design of this book to describe briefly the interesting and most important public features of the city of Providence.  The descriptions are all arranged in strictly alphabetical order, so as to afford instantaneous access to any subject.  The material has been carefully compiled and critically revised.  The work was done chiefly by Harry E. Manchester, a native of Providence, and for several years past clerk in the office of the Superintendent of Health.  A part of the work was done by Robert Grieve, who was the author of several important chapters in 'Picturesque Rhode Island'. To them and to others who have assisted in its compilation, and also to the business men who have encouraged its publication by means of their patronage, is due the gratitude of the EDITOR AND PUBLISHER.

illustration, facing page:  Macullar, Parker and Company, Manufacturers of Ready Made and Custom Clothing, No. 112 Westminster St., Providence, R.I.

ads preceding introduction:
D. P. Isley & Co. of Boston, Hatters and Furriers, 281 Washington St., Boston.

Lewando's French Dye House, 17 Temple Place, Boston, U. S. A., branch office 270 Westminster St., Providence, R.I.

Horsford's Acid Phosphate (Liquid), for Dyspepsia, Mental and Physical Exhaustion, Nervousness, Diminished Vitality, Etc., Manufactured by the Rumford Chemical Works, Providence, R. I.

A BATCH OF HISTORICAL NOTES -- In 1636 Roger Williams, with a few followers, exiled from the colony of Massachusetts for their religious views, crossed the Seekonk River, exchanged salutations with the Indians at State Rock, coasted around the headland of Tockwotton, and finally landed near a spring of pure water on the banks of the Moshassuck River.  Here Roger Williams began a settlement, which in gratitude for the 'Providence of the Most Holy and Only Wise', he called Providence.  In 1649 it was incorporated as a town, the north part of which was almost entirely destroyed by fire in 1676 by the Indians, during King Philip's war.  In 1708, by the first census ever taken in the colony, Providence number 1,446 souls, or about 800 less than Newport.  The latter town never recovered from the effects of the Revolution; and the census in 1800 returns the population of Providence as 7,614, while that of Newport was 6,739.  The growth of Providence from that time has been steady and rapid.  In 1832, the date of its incorporation as a city, it contained about 18,000 inhabitants.  In 1850 this number had increased to 41,513, in 1870 to 68,904, and in 1880 to 104,587.  The present estimated population of the city is 116,000.  This increase of over 60 per cent in the past 12 years is due in part to important annexations.  In the succeeding pages will be found much historical matter pertaining directly to the subjects of the respective paragraphs.  At no time in its history has Providence been more prosperous than it is in 1882.

ABATTOIRS.  -- Very little slaughtering of cattle is done here; as within the past few years it has been found that the business could be done better and cheaper in the West, and the carcasses instead of the live animals are now shipped East.  Several local firms, however, have slaughter-houses where they kill sheep and hogs, and occasionally a few cattle.  On the line of the Boston and Providence Railroad, between Providence and Pawtucket, the most extensive of these houses are situated.  The firms using them, each of whom have separate establishments, are I. B. Mason & Son, 98 Canal St., who slaughter between 40,000 and 50,000 hogs yearly; Comstock & Co., 101 Canal St., who kill about the same number; and H. W. Clark, 99 Canal St., about 25,000 sheep yearly.  I. M. Lincoln, 112 Canal St., has a slaughter-house in North Providence, in which from 4,000 to 5,000 cattle and from 15,000 to 18,000 sheep are annually killed.  Wilbur & Kendrick, 50 Canal St., at their slaughter-house in Olneyville kill annually 12,000 to 15,000 sheep.

ABBOTT PARK, on Broad St., adjoining the Beneficent Congregational Church, was conveyed, in 1746, by Daniel Abbott, to a committee of that church, 'for public use'.  It contains 7,800 sq. ft.  In the centre of the lot stands a graceful iron fountain, presented to the city in 1875 by Wm. H. Charnley and others.

ACADEMIES.  --  The chief local private schools or academies are LaSalle Academy; Mowry & Goff's English and Classical School; St. Francis Xavier Academy; Female Seminary of the Sacred Heart; School of the Society of Friends; J. P. C. Shaw's School; and the University Grammar School.  Most of the above are described in their alphabetical places.  See Schools and also Catholic Schools.

ACADEMY OF MUSIC is a  name which a few years ago signified in Providence a dramatic hall, in the present Phenix Building, at No. 129 Westminster St., wherein numerous miscellaneous performances took place for a number of years.  It outlived its usefulness when the Providence and Low's 'opera-houses' were built, and left the name to be used in course of time by some institution which will be more worthy of it.

ADAMS, John, the President of the United States, with his family, passed through Providence in August, 1797.  He was escorted through the town by the Light Dragoons, and welcomed by the ringing of bells and the firing of cannon.  The address presented to him by the citizens, and  his reply, are printed in William R. Staple's 'Annals of the Town of Providence'.

p. 5 - 6.

ADVENT CHRISTIAN CHURCH, Hammond St., nr. Division.  The society was org. in 1871 with 10 members, and worshipped in a hall on Broad St. until the erection of the present edifice in the summer of 1873.  There have been four pastors since org.  Present membership, 135; membership of Sunday school, 150; pastor, Norman P. Cook.

AFRICAN UNION CHURCH, Clayton St., belonging to the African Methodist Episcopal body, Eastern Conference, was founded Oct. 16, 1856; incorporated Feb. 7, 1860.  The society worshipped in a hired room until 1870 or 1871, when a house near the upper end of Clayton St. was bought, and converted into a church, in which services have ever since been held.  Present membership about 25.  The pastor is Dennis Johnson.

AGRICULTURE.  --  According to the State Census of 1875, there were then in the limits of Providence 57 farms, containing a total of 2,383 acres, more than one-half of the entire area of the city.  Of this acreage, 324 were ploughed land, 96 bog-meadow, 652 mowing-land, 673 pasture-land, and 567 woodland.  The total value, including farms, buildings, and implements, was $1,910,410; value of live-stock, $41,505; of the produce of market-gardens, $29,855; of all farm-products, $92,070.  Since 1875, although the city has increased in population, and many new dwellings have been erected, it is safe to assume that the amount of land under cultivation has increased rather than diminished.  See Green-Houses.

AKERMAN COMPANY, incorporated in 1881, are the proprietors of the longest-established and largest bindery in Rhode Island.  It was established in 1836, by Charles Akerman, who had learned his trade at the bindery of the famous University Press of Cambridge.  Its premises now include the upper floors of the Washington Buildings, at the corner of Westminster Street and Washington Row.  The main bindery-room is the old Mechancis' Hall, formerly occupied by the Mechanics' Association, of which for several years Mr. Akerman was president.  The specialty of this firm is the manufacturing of blank-books, pattern cards, etc.  In 1882 a job-printing office was added, so as to enable the Company to make on its own premises the complete stationery and blank-book outfits for counting-rooms and manufactories; and the binding of all kinds of books for individuals and for private and public libraries.  Employment is given to about thirty-five hands, many of whom are old and very skilled workmen.  The machinery and appliances of the establishment are of approved patterns; so that, although the concern is the oldest, it is nevertheless thoroughly equipped for the most modern work. The treasurer of the company is George T. Paine, a well-known resident of Providence for many years; and the manager is T. B. Rawson, who has been connected in various positions with the Akerman bindery for the past fifteen years.

ALDERMEN.  -- See Board of Aldermen, and City Government, for names of aldermen in 1882, and their functions.

ALFREDIANS is a secret order 'intended to provide for the welfare of born subjects of the lineal descendants of King Alfred, and those descended from branches of the same stock which have thrown off the political allegiance, but who rejoice to be bearers forward and the amplifiers of the glorious civilization inaugurated by Alfred.'  It has no life-insurance features, but provides 'weekly sick-benefits'.  In Providence there is one society called 'Brigade No. 1'.  It meets at the Knights of Pythias hall, 56 Westminster St., the first and third Mondays of every month.

ALL SAINTS' MEMORIAL CHURCH, cor. of High and Stewart Sts., is a handsome specimen of Gothic architecture built of rough Portland stone.  It has several beautiful windows, noticeably the large front window and that of the chancel.  The massive doors, with their elaborate hinges of brass, are of oak, as is most of the interior wood-work.  At the west end, facing the chancel, is a mural tablet in memory of the late Bishop Henshaw, father of the present rector.  The society worshipping here was originally that of the old St. Andrew's Church, org. in 1846; whose church building, a small wooden structure, stood on Hospital, cor. Allen St., where the great gasometer now stands.  In 1854 the building was removed to Friendship St., near Plane St., and in 1856 was enlarged to almost double its former size.  The corner-stone of the present church was laid in 1869; the first service was held before its completion at Easter, 1872; and the final consecration, under the new name, took place on All Saints' Day, 1875.  The rector, Rev. Daniel Henshaw, has held the position for 28 years.

AMATEUR DRAMATIC HALL, S. Main, cor. Power St., is a small hall with a stage and scenery adapted to private entertainments.  Dramatic performances, concerts, fairs, socials, etc., of a select nature, are held here.  The building has quite a history:  erected in 1833 for a church, it served the Power-st. Methodist Episcopal Society nearly 40 years, was afterwards used as a riding-school, and since 1876 has been leased by the Amateur Dramatic Club.

ANNEXATIONS AND DIVISIONS.  -- Providence originally included in its jurisdiction nearly the whole of the territory now forming Providence County.  As settlements were made in this region at a distance from Providence, portions were set apart and formed into separate townships as their situation and wants required.  In this manner the towns of Gloucester [sic], Smithfield and Scituate were set off Feb. 20, 1730-31; Cranston, June 14, 1754; Johnston, March 6, 1759; and North Providence, June 13, 1765.  The other towns in the county, as at present existing, were either formed by divisions of these just mentioned or by annexations of Massachusetts territory.  Portions of the town of Cranston were annexed to Providence, June 10, 1868, and March 28, 1873.  Portions of North Providence were annexed June 29, 1767, and also March 28, 1873, and Mary 1, 1874.

p. 7 - 8.

ARCADE, THE, serves as a pleasant and convenient passageway from Westminster to Weybosset St.  It is a large granite building, lighted by a glass-covered central court.  It was erected in 1828, in the Ionic style, and divided into three stories of 26 stores each. At either end of the building stairways lead to galleries around the upper floors.  As it is a much-frequented thoroughfare, it is a favorite place for retail stores, especially those in the millinery, fancy-goods, and kindred trades.  Its cost was about $140,000.

AREA OF PROVIDENCE.  --  See Providence.

ARION CLUB, THE, org. in 1880, has about 160 active members, both ladies and gentlemen, and about 300 associate members.  The music practised is of a high order, and the concerts given by this society have been some of the most enjoyable ever heard in Providence.  Jules Jordan is director.

ARSENAL, Benefit, nr. Meeting St.  This gloomy structure of plastered stone, with its two castellated towers, was built in 1840 for a State Arsenal. Since the distribution of arms and munition in various parts of the State, it has been leased to the Providence Marine Corps of Artillery as an armory.

ART CLUB, THE PROVIDENCE, occupies a pleasant suite of rooms at 35 N. Main St.  It was org. in 1880, and has at present a membership of nearly 250. The interests of art are promoted by meetings for mutual discussion and suggestion, by exhibitions in the spring and fall, and by a course of entertainments during the season.  Occasionally loan exhibitions are held. A reading-room supplies the latest art intelligence.  Admission on invitation by members.  Yearly tax $6.00.  Courtlandt B. Dorrance, sec'y.

ARTILLERY.  See Marine Corps of Artillery.

ATHENAEUM, THE, College St., cor. Benefit, occupies a small and handsome granite building of the Grecian temple pattern.  It stands upon a terrace approached by two flights of steps, bet. which is a drinking-fountain (see Drinking Fountains), and consists of a main story and a basement.  The main floor holds the library collection of 40,000 vols.; the reading-room occupies the basement, which from the slope of College St., is a good height.  Paintings, statues, busts, curiosities, etc., adorn the rooms. Nicholas Brown and the heirs of Thomas P. Ives, in 1836, offered the lot, $6,000 for the building, $4,000 for books; provided sums of $10,000 for a building and $4,000 for books should be raised.  This was done, and the edifice completed late in 1837.  The Athenaeum corporation, formed in 1836, was the outgrowth of two library associations, - The Providence, which established about 1754 the first library in Providence; and the Providence Athenaeum, chartered in 1831.  The Athenaeum stock is divided into 699 shares, held by 685 individuals.

ATHENAEUM DRINKING-FOUNTAIN, THE, in front of the Athenaeum building, is a finely executed work of granite, presented to the corporation by the late Mrs. Anna Richmond.  It bears the date of erection, 'A. D., 1873', and the inscription, 'Come hither every one that thirsteth'.

AUTON HOUSE, RECOLLECTIONS OF, is the title of a most entertaining and uniquely illustrated book for children, published in 1881 by Houghton, Mifflin, & Co. of Boston.  The book is more truth than fiction, and is a wonderfully interesting sketch of scenes in early life, which are supposed to have occurred in what, not many years ago, was a stately mansion at the cor. of Westminster and Walnut Sts. in Providence.  The book and illustrations are nominally by C. Auton, a name which is merely a play on the Greek 'oeavtov' or 'himself'; the C. Auton being Augustus Hoppin, a promient local artist, a son of Thos. C. Hoppin, at whose home the scenes are supposed to have taken place.

BANK CLERKS' MUTUAL BENEFIT ASSOCATION, THE, org. in 1871, is composed of cashiers and clerks of the local banking-institutions.  It holds an annual meeting and banquet in April, and other business and social meetings during the year.  Its insurance feature provides for an allowance to family members or their heirs of from $500 to $1,200 in case of permanent disability or death.  Francis E. Bates, sec'y.
 

BANKS, NATIONAL.
First, 47 Westminster.
Second, 56 Westminster.
Third, 12 Market Sq.
Fourth, 65 Westminster.
Fifth, 54 N. Main.
American, 97 Westminster.
Blackstone Canal, 25 Market Sq.
City, 98 Weybosset.
Commercial, 53 Westminster.
Globe, 62 Westminster.
Lime Rock, 41 Westminster.
Manufacturers', 26 Westminster.
Mechancs', 46 Weybosset.
Merchants', 14 Westminster.
Nat'l Bank of Commerce, 4 Market Sq.
Nat'l Bank of North America, 48 Weybosset.
Nat'l Eagle, 27 Market Sq.
Nat'l Exchange, 55 Westminster.
Old Nat'l, 21 Weybosset.
Phenix, 7 What Cheer Building.
Providence, 70 S. Main.
Rhode Island, 19 and 21 Custom House St.
Roger Williams, 27 Market Sq.
Traders', 4 Westminster.
Weybosset, 55 Westminster.

BANKS, SAVINGS.
Citizens', 344 High.
City, 21 Weybosset.
Jackson Inst. for Savings, 29 Weybosset.
Mechanics, 98 Weybosset.
Merchants, 62 Westminster.
People's, 1 Market Sq.
Providence Inst. for Savings, 76 S. Main.
R. I. Inst. for Savings, 19 and 21 Custom House St.
Union, 10 Westminster.

BANKS, STATE.
Atlantic, 62 Weybosset.
Bank of America, 62 Weybosset.
Butchers' and Drovers', 49 Weybosset.
High St., 344 High.
Jackson, 29 Weybosset.
Liberty, 62 Westminster.
Northern, 56 Weybosset.
Pawtuxet, 87 Westminster.
State, 65 Westminster.
Union, 10 Westminster.
Westminster, 56 Weybosset.

p. 9 - 10.

BANKING INSTITUTIONS.  --  The first bank established in Providence was the 'Providence', which was incorp'd in 1791.  It was started by wealthy merchants, who were moved to do so by observing 'the great advantages which had resulted to Boston from the bank established there'.  This institution has continued in existence from that time until the present.  June, 1865, it was re-org'd as a national bank by the name 'Providence National Bank'.  In 1819 the Providence Institution for Savings was incorp'd by the General Assembly, and since then has enjoyed a career of great prosperity, having a reputation at present of being one of the safest institutions of the kind in the country.  Monday, Nov. 28, 1881, according to State auditor's report, the deposits of this bank amounted to $10,129,258.03, and the number of depositors, 25,618.  According to 'Staple's Annals', there were in Providence in 1842, 21 banks, the greater number of which had been incorp'd between the years 1818 and 1836.  Nearly all of these banks are now in existence.  The failure of the A. & W. Sprague Manufacturing Co., in November, 1873, seriously crippled a number of local banks that held a large amount of the Sprague paper.  Nov. 21, 1881, the resources of the 11 State banks in Providence were $3,386,469.57; and capital actually paid in, $2,199,035.  The Rhode Island Hospital Trust at same date had resources of $7,721,132.29.

BAPTISTS.  --  The Baptists of Providence, as of Rhode Island in general, count thier org'n from Roger Williams.  They hold to separateness of Church and State, church independency, regeneration and baptism as conditions of church-membership, equal rights of church-members, and democratic forms of church government.  Yet the law of fraternal interdependence binds all the churches together in conferences or councils, in associations, conventions, and missionary societies.  Under the voluntary principle, a remarkable unity pervades the denominations, both in faith and practice.  In growth the denomination has kept pace with the increase of the city.  Notwitstanding come regular distictions of name, as Regular, General, and Free Will, - the first being far the most common, - they are a substantial unity in their religious life. The best evidence of the intelligence, activity, and benevolence of the denomination may be found in the style of their churches, in the history of the First Church founded by Roger Williams, the founding and growth of Brown University, the Mite Society, - the first Protestant missionary society in America, - the Warren and Providence Associations, the Rhode Island Baptist State Convention, the Rhode Island Baptist Education Society, the Rhode Island Baptist Social Union, and other benevolent bodies. It has had its eminent preachers, writers, and teachers, such was Williams, Manning, Messer, Wayland, Hague, Dowling, Granger, Sears, Caswell, Caldwell, Lincoln, and Robinson.  In the pulpits to-day are such able men as Brown, Bixby, Farnham, Montague, Taylor. -- F. Denison.

BAPTIST EDUCATION SOCIETY, The Rhode Island, was org. in 1791, to aid 'destitute young men who give evidence to piety, and of a call to the gospel ministry, in obtaining such knowledge as shall be thought proper to their sacred calling'.  This aid is usually given to needy meritorious students of Brown University.  The management of the Society is intrusted to a Board of Directors (eleven in number), and the funds for carrying on the work are raised by collections in the Baptist churches and from the avails of a small fund.  R. A. Guild, LL.D., Sec'y.

BAPTIST SOCIAL UNION, The Rhode Island, aims 'to promote a more friendly and intimate association among the laymen of the Baptist denomination'.  Social and business meetings are held four times a year, and an annual meeting on the third Monday in November.  Membership about 90.  Alvin F. Pease, sec'y.

BAR CLUB, THE PROVIDENCE, is an association of gentlemen of the legal profession, availing itself of the educational, social, and other advantages which a union of members of one profession secures.  The club occupies no permanent headquarters, but assembles upon call to social or business meetings as the case may be.  Its membership includes most of the prominent lawyers of the city.  Its managers comprise an executive committee of five members.  Lorin M. Cook, sec'y.

BASE BALL GROUNDS, Messer, nr. High St., opened in 1878, are considered the finest in the country.  The are owned by the Providence Base Ball Asso'n, which holds membership in the National League.  In 1879 the 'Providence Nine' held the League championship.  All Olneyville cars pass nr. the grounds, and when the games are played cars run direct from Market Sq. to the grounds.  H. B. Winship, pres't.

BATH-HOUSES, PUBLIC.  --  The city owns two floating bath-houses each 55 ft. long, 33 ft. wide.  They are provided with suitable dressing-rooms; and each is in charge of a keeper, whose duty it is to preserve order and to limit the number of bathers. The bathing is free; towels are furnished, if desired, at a nominal rate. The houses are under the direction of the Committee on the Harbor, who assign locations for them, subject to the consent of the City Council.  The houses in 1882 were moved, one nr. the Red Bridge and the other in the dock at the end of South Main St.  The latter, formerly located at Point-st. Bridge, was, on account of the filthiness of the water at the bridge, removed to its present place.  At this house, according to Joseph Higgins, the supt., the record of baths given in past years is as follows:  in 1876 it was 36,210; in 1877 only 29,767; in 1878 it rose to 38,602; in 1879 it fell to 28,751; in 1880 the house was not opened; and in 1881 it was 37,698.  The variations were due largely to the differences in temperature in the several years.  A movement was inaugurated this year to petition the city government to provide bathing-houses supplied with water from the city water-works.

BAY VIEW.  See St. Mary's Seminary.

p. 11 - 12.

'BEE-HIVE OF INDUSTRY' is one of the familiar titles of Providence; so applied by reason of its being one of the most extensive manufacturing cities in America.

BENEFICENT CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH, Broad St., nr. Chestnut St., was erected in 1809 at a cost of $20,000, on the site of the former edifice, dating from 1750.  It is a large, rectangular wooden building, having a portico of the Doric order, and surmounted by a dome.  The latter was given the church  the popular name of  the 'Round Top'.  In 1836 improvements were made an an expense nearly equal to the original cost of the building.  A bell imported from England is still in use by the society.  Adjoining the church, on Chestnut St., is a school and week-day meetings.  The organ is one of the largest and finest in Providence.  It was built by Hook & Hastings of Boston in 1857.

BIBLE SOCIETY, The Rhode Island, formed nearly 70 years ago to circulate the Holy Scriptures, 'recognizes in its constitution the duty of giving the Bible to those who do not possess it'.  This is accomplished by the appointment of a judicious agent to canvass all parts of the State.  During the 34 months' canvass previous to the annual meeting, October, 1882, 17,909 families were visited, and 623 destitute families or persons supplied with the whole Bible or else with the New Testament.  The membership list includes the names of prominent clergymen and laymen of every denomination, as the society is non-sectarian in character.  Rev. J. P. Root, agent, 112 Clifford St.   Depository with S. S. Rider, 17 Westminster St.

BICYCLING is a favorite amusement of the young men and youths of this city, notwithstanding the obstacles which the severe grades in many portions of the city would seem to present.  There are numerous local clubs, such as the Providence Bicycle Club, the Hermes Club, Narragansett Club, Centaur Club, etc.  These are tastefully uniformed, and include among their members many expert wheelmen.  The Providence Bicycle Club is the oldest and chief organization.  It was formed in July, 1879, and has 30 members (active and associate).  It occupies pleasant quarters in the Rose Building, Custom-House Street.  The longest jaunt taken by the members of this club, collectively, has been to Boston, Mass., a distance of 44 miles.  Individual members have considerably exceeded this distance.  The officers are Albert G. Carpenter, pres't; J. A. Cross, capt.; and W. P. Anthony, sec'y.

BLACKSTONE CANAL.  --  In 1796 a navigable canal was projected to extend from tide-water in Providence, along the valley of the Blackstone River to the north line of the State, and thence through Worcester to the Connecticut River.  The Massachusetts Legislature refused to grant a charter; and the subject was not revived until 1823, when renewed efforts resulted in the incorporation of a Blackstone Canal Co. in 1825.  Work was commenced at once, and a canal nearly 45 miles long was built, with depth of 4 ft., and width at bottom 20 ft., at top 45 ft.  Its cost was $750,000.  Owing to misunderstandings and controversies rising bet. the corporation and the mill-owners on the Blackstone, and to the long and bitter litigations which ensued, the project finally failed; and on Nov. 9, 1848, the last toll was collected.  For some distance beyond the city limits the narrow bed of the Moshassuck River was made to serve the purpose of this canal; and some of the stone locks then erected could until recently have been seen on the river.

BLACKSTONE PARK extends from Butler Av. to the Seekonk River.  It is a wooded ravine of much natural beauty. A brook flows through the park; and in summer the place, though little improved by art, is quite attractive.  The park was presented to the city in 1866 by Wm. P. Vaughan and Moses B. Jenkins.  Governor St. H. C.

B'NAI B'RITH.  -  See German Secret Societies.

BOARD OF ALDERMEN.
Henry R. Barker, Prest.
Henry V. A. Joslin, Clerk.
Ward 1.  -- Alfred Metcalf.
Ward 2.  -- George E. Martin.
Ward 3.  -- S. P. Carpenter.
Ward 4.  -- Chas. F. Sampson.
Ward 5.  -- John W. Briggs.
Ward 6.  -- Geo. H. Burnham.
Ward 7.  -- Gilbert F. Robbins.
Ward 8.  -- Wm. B. Greene.
Ward 9.  -- Henry R. Barker.
Ward 10.-- Joseph F. Brown.

BOARD OF HEALTH.  --  The Mayor and the Board of Aldermen constitute ex-officio the Board of Health.  See Superintendent of Health.

BOARD OF PUBLIC WORKS comprise two members (together with the City Engineer, an ex-officio member), one chosen by the City Council annually for two years.  The care of the streets and highways, sewers and water-works, is intrusted to this Board.   Clinton D. Sellew, sec'y; office, City Hall.

BOARD OF STATE CHARITIES and CORRECTIONS consists of nine members, eight are appointed for a term of six years by the Governor of the State, with approval of the Senate; and the ninth is the sec'y, member ex-officio, appointed by the Board.  It controls State institutions at Cranston.  Wm. W. Chapin is sec'y.

BOARD OF TRADE, THE (Board of Trade Building, Market Sq.), incorporated in 1868 for the promotion and protection of the various business interests of the city, is similar in its plan to organizations of the same name elsewhere.  It occupies the first floor of the Old City Building.  The chief rooms are two reading-rooms, handsomely furnished and supplied with files of the representive journals of the day, and a Market-Report room where sales of stock, commercial news, and market quotations from all parts of the world, are promptly received and bulletined.  The Board of Trade has now over 500 members, and the number is continually increasing.  Admittance to the privileges of the rooms is given only to subscribers.  F. P. Little, sec'y.

p. 13 - 14.

BOOKS RELATING TO PROVIDENCE.  --  There are few works treating wholy of Providence as town or city.  The most important are:  Annals of the Town of Providence (1630 - 1832, with appendix), 1843, by Wm. R. Staples; Illustrated Hand-book of the City of Providence, 1876, by J. C. Thompson; The Planting and Growth of Providence (R. I. Historical Tract, No. 15), 1882, by Henry C. Dorr.  Of the numerous publications bearing more or less on this subject may be mentioned:  History of Rhode Island, 1859, by Samuel G. Arnold; Short History of Rhode Island, 1877, by Geo. W. Greene; Picturesque Narragansett, 1879, by Rev. Frederic Denison; Picturesque Rhode Island 1881, by W. H. Munro; and Rhode Island Historical Tracts by different authors, issued at various times by Sidney S. Rider.  No list of reference books would be complete without mention of the valuable biographical works upon Roger Williams, by Professors Elton, Knowles, and Gammell.  A complete list of publications having reference to Providence, published previous to 1863, is found in the Bibliography of Rhode Island, by Hon. John R. Bartlett, copies of which may be seen at the principal libraries in this city.  Blake's 'History of the Providence Stage', Guild's 'History of Brown University', and Hoag, Wade, & Co.'s 'History of Rhode Island' also furnish important materials for persons seeking a knowledge of Providence.

BOOKSELLERS.  --  The chief booksellers in Providence are:  Harry Gregory, 133 Westminster St. (noticed elsewhere); Daniel Perrin, 167 Westminster St.; Chas. G. A. Peterson (chiefly periodicals and newspapers), in the Butler Exchange; Tibbitts, Shaw, & Co., 21 Westminster St. (noticed elsewhere); Rhode Island News Co., 113 Westminster St.; and Sidney S. Rider, 17 Westminster St.

BOSTON & PROVIDENCE RAILROAD was the second railroad opened out of Boston, and the first out of Providence.  Its first through trains were run in 1835, at a time when steam-railroads were in their infancy.  The road proper, from Boston to Providence, is 44 miles; and the branches and leased lines are 23 1/2 miles in length.  On this road is run the fastest train, as by regular schedule, between terminal points, in the United States.  This train is the Shore Line Express to New York, which leaves Boston at 1 P.M. and arrives in Providence 57 minutes later.  This road is the favorite and most direct to Boston, where the station, erected at a cost of $800,000, is one of the finest in the world.  The superintendent is Albert A. Folsom.

BOUNDARIES.  --  Providence is bounded on the N. by the towns of N. Providence and Pawtucket; on the E. by the Seekonk River and the harbor, separating it from E. Providence; on the S. by Narragansett Bay and the town of Cranston; and on the W. by Cranston, Johnston, and N. Providence.

BRIDGE, THE, is a popular designation of Great Bridge (which see).

BRIDGES.  --  There are 39 public bridges in and around the city.  There vary in style from the simple wooden bridge to the costly and ornamental structure of iron.  Of these, the city engineer has charge and control, under the direction of the Advising Committee on Bridges.  See Central Bridge, Great Bridge, Point st. Bridge, Washington Bridge.

BROAD ST. is a wide thoroughfare extending from the centre of the city to the village of Pawtuxet, a distance of 4 1/2 miles. It is the direct road to the Park Garden and Roger Williams Park, and is a favorite drive, particularly in the sleighing-season.

BROADWAY, 1 3-8 miles in length, is a fine st., 80 feet in width, lined for almost its entire length with handsome residences. Starting from near the centre of the city, and gradually rising, it reaches its highest elevation near St. Mary's Church, at its western extremity.  From this point, a fine veiw of the valley of the Woonasquatucket River, of Mt. Pleasant, and other portions of the Tenth Ward, is obtained.

BROOK-ST. DISTRICT (east side) lying south of Wickenden St., and facing the harbor, was taken by the city in 1873 for the purpose of grading and draining.  A steep hill, whose narrow lanes were crowded with wretched tenements, has given place to a gradual slope, with streets regularly laid out and open to the healthful breezes of the bay.  The improvements thus far have cost $1,200,000.

BROWNSON LYCEUM, THE (Roman Catholic), 159 Westminster St., incorporated in 1858, has a library of about 1,200 vols., open on Wednesday and Saturday evenings.  This asso'n meets weekly for debates, and holds a monthly course of entertainments.  It has a membership of bet. 100 and 200.

p. 14 - 16.

BROWN UNIVERSITY was at first called Rhode Island College.  Its name was later (in 1804) changed to Brown University, in honor of Nicholas Brown, who had been its most munificent benefactor.  The University property lies at the head of College St. (east side), occupying extensive grounds commanding fine views.  It is a liberally managed Baptist institution, was founded at Warren in 1674, and removed to Providence in 1770.  Officers 22, students 275.  Ezek G. Robinson, D.D., L.L.D., Prest.; F. W. Douglas, A.M., Registrar.

The college buildings stand upon the crest of Prospect Hill in the midst of some 15 acres of grounds, which are well laid out, grass-planted, and adorned with magnificent elms.  Hope College, Manning, University, Slater and Rhode Island halls, form a continuous straight line bet. Waterman and George Sts., and face Prospect St.  The enclosure in front of these buildings is known as the 'front campus', and in the rear as the 'middle campus'.  Beyond this, and in the rear of Sayles Memorial Hall and the Laboratory, is a narrower strip of land, sloping toward the ball-grounds, designated as the 'back campus'.

Below are enumerated the buildings, laboratories, libraries, etc.

Base-Ball Grounds are on Thayer St., bet. Waterman and George Sts.  The 'nines' of various colleges play on these grounds frequently during the summer term.

Gymnasium.  --  The university greatly needs a gymnasium of its own.  At present the students have access to a gymnasium hall at reduced rates.

Hope College, facing Prospect St., is a brick dormatory, four stories in height.  Erected in 1822, at the expense of the Hon. Nicholas Brown, and named by him in honor of his sister Mrs. Hope Ives.

Laboratory, The Chemical, on the 'middle campus' of the University grounds is a brick structure, containing rooms for chemical experiments, and recitation rooms.

Library, The, Waterman St., cor. of Prospect, was erected through the munificence of John Carter Brown, who at his death in 1874 bequeathed a lot and $50,000 to supplement a previous donation (amounting with interest to about $26,000) for this purpose.  To this amount ($76,000) Mrs. Brown added $20,000.  The building is in the Venetian Gothic style, of pressed brick with stone trimmings.  Over the porch is carved an owl with book, and above the doorway is the seal of the college.  The edifice is in the form of a cross.  In the centre is a reading room, 35 ft. in diameter, 68 ft. high. Two octagonal galleries run around this room, and extend into the different wings.  In the basement is a neatly fitted up room containing four herbaria, which comprise upwards of 70,000 specimens.  There are accommodations for 150,000 volumes; the present collection numbering more than 53,000, besides 17,000 unbound pamphlets.  The building was donated Feb. 16, 1878.  William R. Walker, architect.

Manning Hall, bet. Hope College and University Hall, was the gift of Hon. Nicholas Brown in 1834.  It is of stone, cement-covered, and is an enlarged model of a Grecian temple of the Doric order.  Height, 40 ft.  Divided into two stories, the upper of which is used as a chapel, the lower for recitation-rooms.  The lower story contained the library until the new building was completed in 1878.

President's House, College, cor. Prospect St., is a plain wooden edifice, with an Ionic portion.  Built in 1840.

Rhode-Island Hall, erected in 1840 by subscription, stands at the S. end of the 'front campus' close to George, and facing Prospect St.  It is of stone, covered with cement, and divided into two lofty stories.  On the lower floor are lecture-rooms, and in the upper story is a natural-history museum, containing about 30,000 specimens in zoology, 10,000 in mineralogy, 5,000 in geology and palaeontology, together with a collection of coins and medals, and a number of Indian and other barbaric implements and curiosities. Recently an ell was added to the building, the lower floor of which is used for a physical laboratory, and the upper story for a portrait-gallery.  The basement is used for a zoological laboratory.

Sayles Memorial Hall, on the 'middle campus', facing University Hall, is, with the exception of the Library, perhaps, the most elegant of the college buildings.  It is the generous gift of the Hon.William F. Sayles of Pawtucket, in memory of his son William F. Sayles who died in 1876, while a member of the sophomore class.  The building, Romanesque in style, is of red-faced Westerly granite, trimmed with brown Londmeadow sandstone.  It contains a hall and recitation-rooms.  The hall is 107 ft. long and 55 wide, and seats 1,100 persons, or, at alumni dinners, about 550 persons.  It is wainscoted in ash, and a trussed roof of the same material rises to a height of 65 ft.  The gallery is capable of seating 100 persons.  The entire front of the edifice is devoted to eight recitation-rooms.  On the band of stone-work between the second and  third stories of the tower (94 ft. in height) is this inscription:  'Filio Pater Posuit MDCCCLXXX.'  A. C. Morse, Architect.

Slater Hall, on the 'front campus', between University and Rhode-Island halls, is an ornamental four-story brick dormitory building, with terra-cotta trimmings, and a tiled roof; and was erected in 1879, through the liberality of the Hon. Horatio N. Slater of Webster, Mass.

University Hall is the central building of those which line the 'front campus'.  It is of brick, cement covered, 150 ft. long, and is crowned by a small belfry.  The corner-stone was laid in May, 1770, and the building constructed in imitation of the Nassau Hall, at Princeton, N. J.  From Dec. 7, 1776, until May 27, 1782, it was occupied for barracks and a hospital by the American and French troops.  It is now used for dormitories, offices, and recitation-rooms.  It shows the footsteps of time, especially before the doors and on the stairways.  The president's and the registrar's offices are on the ground floor of this building; and a room at one end is occupied by a students' reading room association.

BUILDING ASSOCIATIONS.  --  See Saving-Fund and Loan Ass'n.

'BUILDING HILL' is the name given to that part of Orms St. immediately W. of Charles St., and extending as far as Black St. Although not a particularly prepossessing locality, it is not as formidable as the name would imply.

BURIAL GROUNDS.  --  See Cemeteries.

BURNSIDE MEMORIAL, THE.  --  Through the efforts and liberality of a number of prominent gentlemen of the city, a fund has been raised towards the erection of a bronze statue of Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside, to be placed in some public sq.  It is hoped that this may be sufficently increased to obtain an equestrian statue.  Subscriptions are received at the 'Journal' office, 2 Weybosset St.

BUTLER EXCHANGE affords a covered passage-way bet. Exchange Pl. and Westminster St.  It is an iron building, 6 stories in height, erected 1872, and contains stores and offices.  The main office of the Prov. Telephone Co. is in this building.

p. 16 - 19.

BUTLER HOSPITAL FOR THE INSANE is situated on the W. bank of the Seekonk River, adoining Swan Point Cemetery. The building is a handsome brick structure, standing in the midst of 140 acres with fine pleasure-grounds and tillage-lands, beautifully diversified with ravines and native woodlands. The institution originated in a bequest of Hon. Nicholas Brown, who, at his death in 1841, bequeathed $30,000 to establish a home for the insane.  In 1844 Cyrus Butler offered to add $40,000 to this bequest, provied a like sum should be raised by subscription.  This was soon done, and the hospital was completed in 1847.  It is a private institution, supported by the receipts for board and treatment of patients, and by the income of four funds (Permanent, Duncan Improvement, Donations, and Library funds), amounting in all to about $84,000.  The charges are varied according to the requirements of each case, and liberal allowance is made for patients of limited means. 310 patients were treated in 1881; the average number at a time being 180, filling the hospital almost constantly to its utmost capacity.  The average weekly expenditure per patient was $8.45; the average weekly charge, $8.01. The most important improvement of the past year was the erection of a large brick barn, at an expense of $10,500, to increase accommodation for horses and carriages for the use of inmates.  By the bequest of Dr. Isaac Ray, the first supt. of the hospital (died March 31, 1881, at his home in Philadelphia, Penn.), the institution becomes the possessor of his valuable collection of books, and is made the residuary legatee of his property, subject to the life estate of Mrs. Ray.  Visitors admitted from 9 to 12 A. M., and from 2 to 6 P. M., every day except Sunday.  Amos C. Barstow, prest.; John W. Sawyer, M. D., sup't and physician.

CALEDONIAN CLUB, THE PROVIDENCE, was org. in July, 1879, by a few seceding members of the Caledonian Society (mentioned below) and others. The membership is small.

CALEDONIAN SOCIETY, THE PROVIDENCE, is an org. of Scotchmen numbering over 50 members, formed for the purpose of keeping alive an interest in the customs and observances of their native land.  Its rooms at 142 Westminster St. are opened Saturday evenings for social converse and enjoyment; business meetings are held first and third Wednesdays in each month.  The society hold their 'Scotch Games' annually at Rocky Point, and many members of the org. and invited guests may then be seen in Highland costume.  Sick members receive benefits of $5.00 a week, and assessments are made on the death of a member for the benefit of his family.  Jas. Wallace, sec'y.

CALENDER STREET runs from Fountain to Mason St., and is named from the Prov. Dyeing, Bleaching, and Calendering Co.

CALENDER-STREET FIRE was a lamentable calamity which occurred bet. 10 and 11 o'clock A. M., Nov. 22, 1882, and caused the death of four persons and the serious injury of nearly a score of others.  The fire took place in the Calender Building, cor. Calender and Mason Sts., a four-story brick structure owned by the Slater Mill and Power Co.  It started on the third floor, in the workroom of the 'Le Jolly Dye House', by the ignition of naphtha, then being used in cleansing garments; the ignition occurring it is supposed, from the portable stove of a plumber who was making repairs.  In the fourth floor was W. H. Robinson's jewelry shop, where about 30 persons, male and female, were employed, among whom were those injured or killed. The firemen were somehow unable to render aid in saving life, and the hero of the fire was Christian Timman, a German, about 40 years old, employed as a truck-man.  Mounting a ladder which reached but a short distance above the top of the third-story windows, he supported himself on the topmost rounds, and, taking hold of a telegraph-wire, he dexterously managed to bring two girls from a fourth-story window safely to the ground.

CALLENDER, McAUSLAN, & TROUP occupy one of the best business blocks in New England, and carry on the largest wholesale and retail dry-goods business in this State.  Their record is most remarkable:  only sixteen years ago they began in this city, under the same name and with just the same partners as at present; but they have demonstrated the possibility of acquiring  an honorable reputation and an ample fortune simply by means of upright dealing, industry, and thorough knowledge in one's calling.  The three partners, Walter Callender, John McAuslan, and John E. Troup, were born in Scotland; and all have been engaged their whole lifetime in this one line of business.  By reason of their ability, and devotion to their work, they set out on what has ever since been an uninterrupted success.  In 1866 they began in Low's Building, then standing on Westminster St.; but in about seven years they had outgrown their premises, and had accumulated the means of building for themselves their present attractive new block, expressly constructed for their business, on Westminster St., on the site of the once familiar brick stone-lined First Universalist Church with its unique wooden steeple.  At first their new building was large enough to accommodate them on the first two floors, while the upper part was rented for offices and other uses.  But the business constantly developed, and gradually all the other occupants made way for the requirements of the firm.  And even then, only four years after the building was erected, an addition had to be made of about the same dimensions as the original building.  A short time afterward an addition was made for offices and sample-rooms.  And now the firm occupy solely for their business the whole structure familiar to every one who ever visited Providence.  It is a splendid specimen of mercantile architecture, and was designed by Gen. William R. Walker.  The main building is 96 by 60 feet, practically five stories high; and the addition is about the same dimensions, three stories high, giving a total floor surface of nearly 50,000 sq. ft.  The rooms are exceedingly lofty, well-lighted, and admirably ventilated.  Every convenience is provided for conducting this extensive business, which consists of the innumerable lines of goods which are to be found in the modern wholesale and retail dry-goods establishment. Early in the career of the firm, the people of Providence and vicinity gained the impression that the partners were from Boston, and consequently spoke of the establishment as the 'Boston Store', a name which the firm was compelled to adopt, and the people have always adhered to.  There are nearly 250 persons in the employ of the firm; and they appear to be better paid, and better satisfied with their work, than are the employees of most establishments in the same and kindred lines of trade.  The members of the firm, too, in spite of their rapid success, have never lost sight of their obligations as members of society, and citizens of this country; all of then having early and constantly been identified with various social, literary, religious, political, and other associations for the benefit of some part of the community.

p. 19 - 20.

CAMP STREET, at the N. end of the city, takes its name from the old camp-ground occupied by the French soldiers in 1798, nr. what is now the cor. of Camp and North Sts.  Traces of the excavations are still visible.

CANAL STREET extends from Market Sq. to Smith St., and is chiefly occupied by wholesale and retail dealers in groceries, meats, and produce.  The southern end of the street was established Feb. 19, 1792, under the name of North Water St.; but until 1814 it extended only to Steeple St.  From that time until 1825, the warehouse lots north of Steeple St. were gradually filed in; and in January, 1825, the street was opened as a public highway to its present extent.  The Blackstone Canal Co. widened the street shortly afterwards, and then it received its present name.  The canal ran along the west side of the streeet, where a portion of the walled-up banks may yet be seen.

CANONCHET, known also as Nanuntenoo or Quananshett, a noted chieftain of the Narragansetts, of whom he was the last sachem.  He espoused the cause of of King Philip, and was incessantly and bitterly hostile to the settlers.  He could not be persuaded to surrender, or to betray his tribe.  Irving said of him, 'The last scene of his life is one of the noblest instances on record of Indian magnanimity'.  When he was condemned to die, he said, 'I like it well:  I shall die before my heart is soft, or I have said any thing unworthy of myself.'

CANONICUS [1565-1647], the eldest of four sons of Tashtassuck, the first of the recorded chiefs of the Narragansett tribe of Indians.  He lived on Conanicut Island, and was a warm friend of Roger Williams, to whom he made the grant of the 'Providence Plantations'.  He maintained friendly and peaceful relations with the early settlers.

CARPENTER'S GOLD AND SILVER REFINING, Assaying, and Sweep-smelting Works is a representative establishment of a leading industry in Providence.  In a three-story brick building at Nos. 29 and 31 Page St., the interesting processes of refining and assaying gold and silver are carried on the year round.  The smelting of 'sweeps' seems a peculiar business, but nevertheless it is an important one.  Mr. Carpenter alone, for instance, works over every day about a ton of seeming rubbish, which has been swept up or gathered from establishments using gold or silver in any form.  These 'sweepings' are made by jewellers in filing and polishing jewelry; binders, in golding edges and covers of books; frame-makers, in making frames; photographers, in printing photographs; gold-beaters, in hammering gold-leaf; dentists, in filling teeth; platers, in plating table-ware, cutlery, etc.  Out of this seeming rubbish, by grinding, sifting, heating, and various other processes, is obtained whatever precious metal, however small the quantity, it contains; and this usually amounts to considerable in value, although the product is but a minute particle of the quantity worked over.  This smelting is done usually on a percentage of the value of the product; and the establishments which send their sweepings here are not only those in the city, but hundreds of firms scattered throughout the United States and British America.  Horace F. Carpenter, the proprietor of the works, is an old resident of Providence, and a scientific-school graduate, in the class of 1860, of Brown University, where he ranked high as a chemist.  For upwards of 20 years he has devoted himself to this business, and for the past 10 years has been sole proprietor of these works.

CASINO, THE, Brook St., cor. Manning St., is a frame building with an iron-covered hip roof, just completed for the Providence Tennis Club, a society which embraces a number of wealthy citizens.  It comprises a main building and three wings.  The building proper is about 45 ft. high, with a concreted floor 95 ft. sq., divided into two 'tennis-courts'.  One wing contains a bowling alley, the second is an archery-court, the other furnishes a spectators' gallery for the tennis-hall.

CATHEDRAL OF SS. PETER AND PAUL, High St., cor. Fenner.  This magnificent edifice, the corner-stone of which was laid with all the pomp and ceremony of the Romish Church, Nov. 28, 1878, will require at least two years more for its completion.  It is on the site of a church of the same name, is in the Gothic style, cruciform, with nave, transept, and clerestory, and is constructed of red Longmeadow stone, rough-faced.  The total length of the building is 170 ft.; width at the transept, 122 ft.  The nave is 50 ft. wide and 74 ft. wide; the side aisles are each 10 ft. wide.  There are two towers in front, each 156 ft. high, eventually to be crowned by spires.  The interior space of the cathedral is unbroken except by the two rows of white marble clustered columns which support the clerestory.  The vaulted roof is of oak, stained and polished.  Over the front entrance is the organ gallery. There are four large rose-windows, one at either end of nave and transept; these as well as the smaller windows, are as yet without decoration, but it is the intention to fill them with richly stained glass.  P. C. Keely of Brooklyn is the building architect, T. E. Read of New York contractor; A. G. Macomber of Providence furnished the mason-work of the exterior, and A. McDermott of Boston that of the interior.  The estimated cost of the building and land is $500,000.

p. 21 - 22.

CATHOLICS.  --  This city is in the diocese of Providence, which, in 1872, was set off from that of Hartford, and which embraces the State of Rhode Island, and that part of Massachusetts comprised within Bristol, Barnstable, and part of Plymouth Counties, together with Martha's Vineyard, Nantucket, and adjacent islands.  The first priest regularly stationed in Providence was in 1827 (see First Roman Catholic Priest).  His congregation was not more than 200.  They first worshipped in Mechanics' Hall, and for several years afterward in the 'Old Town House'.  SS. Peter and Paul Church was erected in 1837.  Rt. Rev. T. F. Hendricken was consecrated first bishop of Providence in April 28, 1872.  In the city are 11 churches, 2 chapels, 7 convents or religious institutions, 1 orphan-asylum, 5 academies, and 6 parochial schools.  See Churches, Roman-Catholic, and also Academies.

CATHOLIC PAROCHIAL SCHOOLS.  --  In SS. Peter and Paul Parish there are 2 schools, both common to boys and girls, -- Lime-st. School, about 350 pupils; South-st., about 200 pupils.  These schools are conducted by the Sisters of Mercy, and are preparatory for pupils intending to enter either La Salle or St. Xavier Academy.  Adjoining St. Patrick's Church on Smith Hill, is another school for boys and girls, also conducted by the Sisters of Mercy, 650 pupils.  Adjoining the Church of the Immaculate Conception, West River St., is a school for boys and girls, and an academy for girls, both conducted by Sisters of Charity.  Near St. Mary Church, Broadway, is an academy for girls, both conducted by the Ursuline nuns.  Adjoining St. Joseph Church, the Sisters of Mercy conduct a school for girls, 400 pupils. See Academies.

CATHOLIC RELIGIOUS ORDERS.  -- Sisters of Mercy, convent on Claverick St., c. of Broad.The sisters of this order have charge of the parochial schools on Lime St., South St., Smith's Hill, and the one adjoining St. Joseph Church, Hope St.; of the ophan-asylum, Prairie Av.; and also of St. Xavier and Bay View Academies.

Sisters of Charity, convent on West River St., where they have charge of a school and an academy.

Ursuline Nuns, convent on Broadway, near St. Mary's Church.  They manage the academy and school adjoining.

Ladies of the Sacred Heart, convent at Elmhurst, where they conduct the Academy of the Sacred Heart.

Christian Brothers, 119 Fountain St., conduct the La Salle Academy.

Jesuit Fathers, in charge of St. Joseph Church, Hope St.

Little Sisters of the Poor, c. Slocum and High, whose work is the care and attendance upon the sick, aged, and poor.

CAT SWAMP, so called as early as 1668, is a piece of marshy land in the rear of the Friends' School grounds, at the head of Tabor Av.  It is a picturesque spot, and, by reason of certain varieties of wild flowers found here, is a favorite resort of botanists.  In cold weather, part of the swamp is frozen sufficiently smooth to permit skating on its surface.

CECILIA SOCIETY, org. 1879.  Under its auspices, a course of chamber-concerts is given during the winter at Amateur Dramatic Hall.  It has only 100 members, each paying $10 a year, which entitles the subscriber to four tickets for every concert.  The limited membership gives a semi-private character to the entertainments.

CEMETERIES AND BURIAL-GROUNDS.

Bishops' Cemetery.  See new Catholic Cemetery.

Grace-Church Cemetery, incorporated in 1840, is a triangular piece of ground, lying bet. Broad and Greenwich Sts., and Trinity Sq.  It is under the directorship of the Vestry of Grace Church. Visitors admitted daily. Emwood or Broad-st.  H. C.

Jewish Burying-Ground, Reservoir Av., is a neatly arranged burial place.  It was re-dedicated Sept. 10, 1882.

Locust-Grove Cemetery, in Elmwood, bet. Greenwich and Melrose Sts.  Elmwood H. C.

New Catholic or St. Francis' Cemetery, also known as the Bishop's Cemetery, Smithfield Av., just within the Pawtucket line, contains 80 acres.

North Burial-Ground, Sexton St., nr. North Main St., is on land set apart by the town, about 1700, for 'a training-field, burying-ground, and other public uses.'  Parts of it are very beautiful, particularly the western portion, where the land falls off towards the Moshassuck River.  Some of the most noteworthy memorials are those erected by the John Carter Brown, Hall, Markland, and Webb families.  The remains of Stephen Hopkins, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, rest here.  The receiving-tomb in the cemetery is 90 ft. long, 11 ft. wide.  Visitors admitted daily.  Pawtucket H. C.

Oakland Cemetery, Broad St., in the town of Cranston, just beyond the city line.  Thebportion not deeded to lot-owners is the property of one individual, N. M. Briggs.  It contains over 20 acres, simply but tastefully laid out. Broad-st. or Pawtuxet H. C.

Old Burial-Ground, adjoining the Church of the Saviour, Benefit St., cor. Transit St., contains several curious stones, dating from the early part of the last century.

Old Catholic or St. Patrick's Cemetery, Douglas Av., opposite Bailey St., is about 10 acres in extent. No new lots can now be purchased.

Riverside Cemetery, Swan-Point Road, just beyond Swan-Point Cemetery, and within the limits of the town of Pawtucket.  This place of sepulture belongs to the Riverside Burial-Society, an association incorporated in 1874.  It contains upwards of 50 acres of land, sloping in a gradual and picturesque manner toward the Seekonk River.  Governor-st. H. C.

St. Francis Cemetery.  See New Catholic Cemetery.

St. John's Church Burial Ground adjoins the church edifice on the N.

St. Patrick's Cemetery.  See Old Catholic Cemetery.

Swan Point Cemetery (E. side), on the Seekonk River, bet. the Butler Hospital grounds and Riverside Cemetery.  It is a beautiful spot, containing about 200 acres of land, tastefully laid out and adorned with shrubbery, flower-beds, fountains, etc.  There are many elegant and costly monuments within the enclosure, noticeably those belonging to the Abell, Barnaby, Billings, Nightingale, Sayles, and Sprague estates.  The remains of Gen. Burnside were interred in this ground Sept. 16, 1881 (three days after death).  Visitors admitted daily, including Sundays.  Governor-st., H. C., and connecting coach.

West Burial-Ground, cor. Plane and Beacon Sts., is no longer a place of interment.  A portion of the ground was converted a few years since into house-lots, while the remainder has been left in a neglected and disgraceful condition.

Besides these, there are numerous small private burial-grounds, within or near the city limits.

CENTRAL BAPTIST CHURCH, THE, society was organized in 1805.  A church building was erected on Pine St. in 1807, which was destroyed Sept. 23, 1815; but a new edifice was immediately erected.  The present church edifice, at the junc. of Broad and High Sts.,. was completed in 1857, at a cost of about $65,000.  Extensive alterations in the church building were made in 1882.  The organ was enlarged, and transferred from a gallery over the vestibule to a corresponding gallery at the rear of the church and just behind the pulpit platform.   New seats in an amphitheatrical form were put into the main auditorium, extensive improvements made in the lecture-room, and the whole building generally renovated.  Members, 500.  The pastor is Richard Montague.

CENTRAL BRIDGE, or 'Red Bridge' as it is better known from its color, crosses the Seekonk River, connecting Providence with E. Providence.  It is an iron bridge, 390 ft. in length, constructed in 1872, with a draw operated by hand-power.  It supersedes a plane wooden structure, also painted red, which stood here for many years.  Distance from Market Square, 1 1/2 miles.

CENTRAL CONG. CHURCH, Benefit nr. College St., is a large brick edifice, with an imposing freestone front surmounted by two towers.  It was consecrated in the autumn of 1852.  A fine Roosevelt organ of three manuals of 58 notes each and a pedal of 27 notes, 51 stops, and 2,374 pipes (with spaces for 116 more) was dedicated to the uses of the society April 4, 1882.

CHARITABLE FUEL SOCIETY, THE PROVIDENCE, assists worthy persons who are temporarily in want.  It has been in existence over 50 years, and distributes annually between $4,000 and $5,000 worth of fuel to those who need its aid.  Robert B. Chambers, sec'y.

CHARITY BUILDING, 3 N. Court St., is a plain wooden structure, where temporary relief is furnished to the destitute.  Only women and children lodge there; but meals are given to both sexes, on orders of the Overseer of the Poor.  Able-bodied men applying for food are required to work at the City Wood-Yard before obtaining it.  Lodgings for the men are provided at the police-station.  Those who desire to earn their passage to a given destination are furnished work enough for this purpose.


Continued

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