OLD GERMAN PROFESSIONS


Document Body - Navigation Panel - Document Outline

Document Outline


OLD GERMAN PROFESSIONS, OCCUPATIONS and ILLNESSES
Translated from German into the English language by Oliver Weiss

A B
Abbauer -tenant on a (new, split-off) farm; heir with a small part of a farm (usually a second son)
Abdecker -skinner
Abendmahlgast -communicant
Abenteurer -jeweler; adventurer (also "Abentuerer)
Ablader -longshoreman
Abnahmemann -retired farmer on life estate
Abnehmer -photographer
Abschiedsmann -Man retired on life estate
Abstreifer -renderer; knacker; flayer; roof-uncoverer
Accisenschreiber -tax clerk
Achatschleifer -agate polisher
Achtbuerger -one of eight citizen representatives; citizen
(bourgeoisie, not a guild member)
Achtelbauer -farmer on 1/ 8 of a full-sized farm
Achtelhufner -farmer on 1/ 8 of a full-sized farm
Achter -Juryman
Achtermann -farmer on farm behind ones's own
Achtmann -lay juryman; spokesman
Ackerbauer -farmer; tiller of he soil
Ackerbuerger -citizen farmer
Ackerer -farmer; tiller of the soil
Ackerknecht -farmhand
Ackersmann -farmer; tiller of the soil
Ackerwirt( h) -farmer; tiller of the soil
Aderlasser -bloodletter
Adjunkt -deputy; vice-; deputy mayor (of a village other than
where the mayor himself resides in a
multi-village community)
Adjutant -(mil.) warrant officer
Adjuvant -auxiliary teacher
Adlerwirt( h) -proprietor of the Eagle Inn (at the sign of the
eagle)
Adlige( r) -noble person
Administrator -administrator
Advokat -lawyer
Aebtissin -abbess
Aeltermann -master of a guild; head of chamber of commerce
Aeltester -(church) elder; member of the church council
Aescherer -ash-burner (in glass or soap factory)
Affengiesser -brass founder; bronze founder; pewterer
Affidat -vassal; tenant
Afkaat -lawyer (from Advokat)
Afstoeter -tanner
Afteiber -apothecary; pharmacist
Agsteinfischer -'fisher' for amber
Agtschleifer -amber polisher; amber cutter

Aicher -surveyor; measurer; calibrator; supervisor of weights
and measurers
Aichmeister -master surveyor
Akesbaas -barge shipper
Aksiseher( r) -(excise) tax overseer (on council)
Aktuar -accountant; statistician
Aldermann -alderman; councilman
Allmendherr, Allmendsherr -administrator of common lands
Allmendsvogt -free farmer elected to oversee common lands
Almosenpfleger -almoner; welfare supervisor (of church
congregation)
Alpleiter, Alpmeister, Alpvogt -elected leader of an Alpine
community
Altarist -church sexton
Altarmann -assistant to pastor; sexton
Altbauer -old established farmer, possibly on life estate
Altbuerger -old citizen with full rights
Altbuergermeister -former mayor
Altbuesser, Altbutzer -cobbler; shoe repairman
Altenteiler -retired man, on life estate
Altenteilerin -retired woman on life estate
Altflicker -repairer of old shoes; cobbler
Altfrau -female overseer over the maids
Altfuehrer -co-leader of a journeyman's association
Altgeselle -senior journeyman
Altgewander -repairer of old clothes
Althaendler -second-hand dealer
Altherr -oldest man of an organization; senior
Althufner -old farmer who has retired
Altjungfer -old maid; spinster
Altlapper, Altlepper -repairer of old shoes; cobbler
Altmagd -head female servant
Altreiss -repairer of old shoes; cobbler
Altschneider -repairer of old clothes
Altschuster -repairer of old shoes; cobbler
Altsitzer( in) -person on life estate
Altwalker -clothes repairer
Altwander, Altwendter -clothes repairer; dealer in used
clothing
Ambachtkind -child of a guild member
Ambachtknecht -servant or apprentice of a tradesman
Ambachtsluede -craftsman
Ambacht( s) note -handworker; craftsman; guild member
Ambachtschriver -official clerk
Amer -admiral
Ammann -official; bailiff
Ammeister -master of a guild
Amtleute -officials
Amtmann -district judge; magistrate; bailiff
Amtsanwalt -prosecuting attorney 1
Amtsasse -appointed office holder in the provincial assembly
who sends a deputy
Amtsbruder -colleague, especially religious
Amtsbuettel -government servant, also police man
Amtsdiener -servant
Amtsfreier -free farmer
Amtsgerichtsrat -local court judge
Amtshauptmann -district administrative official
Amtsinhaber( in) -officeholder
Amtskeller -local tax administrator and collector of natural
revenues; steward
Amtsknecht -court servant
Amtsmeier -major farmer with special rights
Amtsmeister -chief guildmaster; official
Amtsmueller -miller who pays rent to government office
Amtsrat( h) -senior local judge
Amtsrichter -local judge
Amtsschreiber -local court clerk
Amtsschoesser -tax collector of a jurisdiction
Amtsstoerer -craftsman operating outside a guild
Amtsverwalter -administrator
Amtsverweser -deputy; regent
Amtsvogt -district judge
Amtsvormund -official guardian
Anbauer -small farmer (on land cleared in the early 19th
century); peasant; free villager with small
farm
Angstmann -executioner; torturer
Anlieger -person on adjoining property
Anrainer -person on adjoining property
Anreisser -salesman; recruiter; machinist
Ansager( in) -announcer
Anschaffer -mayor
Anspaenner -farmer of a full-sized farm; horse groom on an
estate
Anspinner -textile piecer
Ansteker -shoemaker
Anstreicher -painter
Antecessor -predecessor in office
Antistes -Chief minister of a Reformed city church; church
administrator
Anvald -attorney; lawyer (checks contracts, deeds, etc.)
Anwalt -attorney; lawyer (checks contracts, deeds, etc.,
appointed by owner of village)
Anwerber -recruiter for military or emigration
Anwiser -teacher; advisor
Apengeter, Apengiesser -pewterer, can maker
Apfelmann, Apfler -Apple picker, seller
Apologete -advocate
Apotheker -pharmacist
Appelmann -apple picker, seller
Arbeiter( in) -worker, male (female)
Arbeitsfrau -working woman
Arbeitsmann -working man
Architekt( in) -Architect male (female)
Archivangestellte -archive employee
Archivar( in) -archivist male( female)
Arcier -(mil.) member of a bodyguard
Armendeche -almoner
Armendiener -deacon charged with care of the poor

Armknecht -serf
Aroeder -new settler on lands belonging to and estate
Artmann, Artmeier -farmer
Arzt -physician; doctor
Aschenbrenner, Aescherer -maker of wood-ash for soap-making
purposes
Asega -judge elected by the people, sworn to the Emperor
Asenmacher -axle-maker;( vehicle) frame-maker
Assemaker, Assenmacher, Assenmaker -axle-maker;( vehicle)
frame-maker
Assessor -juryman; judge; counselor (not limited to legal
advice); legal assistant
Asshauer -axle-maker
Atten -judge in farming community; juryman
Aubergist -innkeeper
Auditeur -advocate general
Auenhaeusler -free villager with small house and garden and
some livestock
who usually works as a day laborer; cottager
Auermacher -clockmaker
Aufdinger -loader or assistant in marketplace; minor customs
official
overseeing loading of ships
Aufermann, Auffermann -sexton
Aufpasser -lookout; spy
Aufschlaeger -loader; one who levied excise tax
Aufschwemmer -raftsman
Aufseher -guard; foreman
Aufspieler -musician
Aufwarter -waiter
Aulenbaecker -potter
Auler -potter
Ausbreiter -one who beats the bushes for game; coppersmith
Ausbuerger -citizen of a town living out in the countryside
who had to pay taxes and provide
military service for his place of citizenship; citizen of a town
who lived in another town but pays
taxes to keep his citizenship alive
Ausdinger( in) -person on a life estate
Ausfaut( h) -notary; court clerk
Ausgeberin -female household overseer
Ausgedinger( in) -person on a life estate
Ausklinger, Ausklingler -servant or messenger of council
Amtskultator -probationary attorney; one who sits in on a
court without voting rights.
Ausmaerker -one living outside boundaries of a village but
with right to
common pasture and commons
Ausmann -citizen living in another town but pays a sum to
keep his
citizenship current; one who lives elsewhere
Ausmiener -auctioneer
Ausnehmer -person on a pension; one with life estate
Ausreuter -riding messenger for a city
Ausrufer -town crier
Ausschuss -committee; court assistants
Aussenbuerger -citizen living outside the city wall in the new
part of the city
Austraegler( in) -person on pension or life estate
Auswanderer( in) -emigrant
Auswartmann -one who lives elsewhere but keeps his
citizenship current
Ausweisser -whitewasher; painter
Auswohner -one who lives elsewhere but keeps his
citizenship current
Auszahler -paymaster
Auszuegler( in) -person on pension or life estate
Axmann, Axtmann -carpenter; ax-smith
Ayer, Ayrer -egg merchant

A B C
Baader -Barber, also surgeon, dentist -a "quack" Baar -Ship's carpenter; ship maintenance man
Baas -Innkeeper; ship's agent; overseer; boss
Baecker -baker alternative spelling: Beck
Baeckergesell( e) -apprentice baker
Baeckermeister -master baker
Backhausmann -cottager
Backmann -baker
Baedeker -cooper
Bademoem, Bademutter -midwife
Badener -same as Baader
Bader -same as Baader
Badewaerter( in) -lifeguard
Badgiesser -man who brings bathwater
Baerenwirt( h) -proprietor of the Bear Inn (at he sign of the
bear)
Baerschneider -pig castrator
Baetjer -cooper
Bauerle, Bauerli -farmer; peasant (swiss)
Bahnbeamter -railroad official
Balbeeder -same as baader
Balestermacher -crossbow maker
Ballenbinder -packer
Ballettierer -ringmaster; master of ceremonies
Ballierer -polisher
Ballmacher -(leather) ball manufacturer
Ballonnenmacher -(leather) ball manufacturer
Bamutter -midwife
Bandhauer,-reisser, -schlaeger, -schneider -cooper; maker of
barrel staves
Bankier -banker
Banquier -Banker
Bannere -bailiff for services to the lord
Bannerherr -administrator of the district of a city;
Bannertraeger -standard-bearer
Bannherr -lord of the manor
Banning -court messenger
Banittker -police or market clerk
Bannleute -free citizens under the jurisdiction of a noble
Bannrichter -criminal court judge
Banzenmacher -cooper; maker of beer-vats
Barbier -barber
Barbknecht -barber's helper
Barchenmeister -master of seals
Barchetweber -weaver with a loom at home
Bareler -cooper
Barettmacher -bonnetmaker
Barfknecht -barber's helper

Barfuesser -barefooted friar
Barsemeester -skipper of as boat without a mast
Bartscher( er) -barber
Bassist -(mil.) bass player
Bassuner -trombonist
Bastoever -bathhouse operator; barber
Baterleinmacher -rosary maker
Bauconducteur -contractor for rural construction
Bauer -farmer on a full-sized farm, owned or as a tenant;
peasant
Bauermeister -leader of a farm community
Bauerngelde -free farm owner subject to tax on land
Bauernrichter -justice of peace in a farm community
Bauernschulze -appointed village mayor of a farm community
Bauernknecht -farmhand
Bauherr -overseer of city buildings
Bauknecht -farmhand; construction worker
Baumann -farmer of a full-sized farm; worker in building
trades
Baumeister -overseer of city buildings; building contractor
Baumgartner, Baumgaertner -tree nurseryman
Baumhauer -woodcutter
Baumschliesser -toll collector on turnpike
Baumsiedemacher -cotton weaver
Baumwollenweber -cotton weaver
Baumwollenspinner -cotton spinner
Baumzuechter -tree nurseryman
Baur, Baeurle, Baeurli( n) -farmer; peasant
Bauunternehmer -building contractor
Bauverwalter -farm administrator
Bauwerker -construction worker
Beamte, Beamter, Beamtin -public official
Beauftragter -agent; delegate
Becherer -turner
Becherwirt( h) -tavern keeper
Bechler -pitch burner
Beck, Becker -baker
Bechdrechsel, Beckdrechsler -coppersmith
Beckenwerchte,-werte -foundry worker
Bederknecht -bathhouse worker
Bedermann -established citizen with inherited property
Bedesetzer -tax assessor
Bedienstete -servant of an important person
Bediente( r) -servant of an important person
Beflissener -student; student assistant
Begiener -pig castrator
Begine -lay female nurse
Behandinge -feudal tenure of a farm
Behelfer, Behelver -tutor
Beibauer -farmer on a new farm, officially recognized but
with few privileges
Beiermann -sexton; bellringer
Beigeordneter -assistant; deputy mayor; assemblyman
Beikramer -peddler; merchant
Beinberger -maker of iron rims
Beindreher -turner of artistic materials such as ivory
Beingewender -maker of iron rims
Beinhauer -butcher
Beinknopfmacher -bone button-maker
Beisass( e) -rental inhabitant without citizenship
Beischer -whipmaker
Beisitzer -Junior lawyer; juryman; inhabitant without land
(e. g. a son living with his parents) and
without citizenship rights or duties
Beitler -leather purse and glove maker
Beiwohner -non-citizen in village
Bekemacher, -maker -cooper
Bellenmacher -(cow) bell maker
Belter -beltmaker
Bender -cooper
Bendhack -barrel seller
Bendheuer, Bendschweicher -cooper
Bendsnider -wheelmaker
Bennemacher -wagoner
Bennenfuehrer -coachman
Benner -cooper
Bentmaker, Bentsnider -cooper; maker of barrel staves
Bereitknecht -forester's helper
Berenstecher -pig castrator
Berghauer -miner
Bergholde -vineyard owner
Bergknappe -miner
Bergler -small farmer
Bergmann -miner
Bergschreiber -mine clerk
Bergwerkbesitzer -mine owner
Berichterstatter -reporter; announcer
Berker -tanner
Bermenter( er) -parchment maker
Bernschneider -pig castrator
Berufsbeamte -tenured civil servant
Berzauter -pig castrator
Bescheper -shipper
Beschlager -blacksmith
Besemer, Besenbinder, -broom-maker; broom seller
Besener, Bessener -broom-maker; broom seller
Besenmacher -broom-maker
Besserer -one who caries out sentences of small-claims court
Bestaender, Bestaendner -farmer of a small farm
Bestanderlasser -landlord of a small farm
Bestandwirt( h) -tenant; lessee
Besteder -ship forwarding agent; shipbuilder
Bestetter -carrier; freight forwarder
Besucher( in) -inspector; visitor
Bettelvogt -beadle
Bettfedernhaendler -feather mattress trader
Bettschart -whipmaker
Bettzi( e) chenweber -linenweaver
Beuerlein -farmer
Beurtmann -member of shipowner's association
Beutelmacher, Beutler -leather purse and glove maker
Beutner -beekeeper
Bewohner -inhabitant; dweller in a house, street, region
Beysass( e) -rental inhabitant without citizenship
Beysitzer -junior lawyer; juryman
Bibliothekar( in) -librarian
Bienhalter, Biener, Bienenwaerter, Bienenmann -beekeeper
Bienzeidler -beekeeper
Bierbrauer, Biereigen -beer-brewer
Bierer -fruit merchant

Bierschenk( er) -tavernkeeper
Bierschroeter -beer hauler
Biersieder -beer-brewer
Bierspuender -beer inspector
Biesejager -almoner; policeman
Bildhauer -sculptor
Bildschnitzer -woodcarver
Bildweber -picture weaver
Billetsherr -councilman in charge of billeting soldiers
Billiter, Billetierer -(mil.) quartermaster
Binder -cooper
Birmenter -parchment maker
Birnmenger -pear trader
Bisser -dentist
Bitschenmacher -cooper; cupmaker
Biwohner -rental inhabitant without citizenship
Blankschmidt -smith (makes shiny blades, etc.)
Blattbinder -combmaker
Blattervater -hospital administrator
Blattmacher -papermaker
Blecharbeiter, Blechler, Blechschlaeger -tinworker; plumber
Bleicher -bleacher
Bleigiesser -leadpourer; pewterer
Bletzer, Bletzler -cobbler
Blicksleger -tinworker; plumber
Blidenme( e) ster -master of ordnance
Blocker -tailor
Blockkdreher,-dreier -turner
Bluethner, Bluetner -flower merchant
BM -abbr. for Buechsenmacher (gunsmith);
Buergermeisteramt (Mayor's Office)
bm. v. r. d. st. -abbr. for Buergermeister und Rat der Stadt
(mayor and
council of the city)
Bmstr. -abbr. for Baumeister (building contractor )
BO -abbr. for Bombardier (artillery man)
Boeck -baker
Boecker -cooper
Bockwirt( h) -innkeeper of the Ram Inn
Boddeker, Boeddecker, Boedeker -cooper
Bode -shipbuilder; government messenger
Bodel -beadle
Boedener -cottager
Boenhase -craftsman operating outside a guild
Boerger -citizen
Boertschiffer -shipper with regular route; member of shippers'
organization
Boesselmaker -brushmaker
Boessler -cutter
Boeter -shipowner
Beottcher, Boetticher -cooper
Bogner -bowmaker
Bohrer -driller
Bohrerschmi( e) d( t) -drillsmith
Bokemueller -flax miller
Bokverwa( h) er -librarian
Bolsmann -farmer with a full-sized farm
Bolzendreher -boltmaker
Bombasineweber -cotton weaver
Bomhauer -maker of saddle trees
Bomsidenmaker -cotton weaver
Bootsmann -boatman; pilot
Bordenwerker( in) -border seamster, -stress
Bordmagd -female servant
Bornfeger -well cleaner
Borngraeber -well-digger
Bornmacher -well-digger
Bornmeister -well supervisor
Bornzieher -water carrier
Bortenmacher -lace maker; lace border maker
Bossierer -(porcelain former)
Botaniker( in) -botanist
Botenmeister -postmaster
Bothe, Bott -messenger
Botschafter -ambassador
Bottelier -ship's provisions officer
Bottmeister -chief messenger
Br. -abbr. for Braut (bride); Buerger (citizen); Bruder
(brother)
Brachervog( e) t -almoner
Bracker -(officially appointed) cattle broker
Braemelmacher -haberdasher
Braeutigam -bridegroom; newlywed man esp. on wedding
day
Brandmeister -fire chief
Brandweinbrenner -(brandy) distiller
Brandweinschenker -liquor retailer
Branntweinbrenner -(brandy) distiller
Branntweinschenker-liquor retailer
Braueigen, Brauer, Brauherr -brewer
Brauknecht -brewer's helper
Brautkind -child born to an engaged couple
Brechenmacher -flaxworker
Brecher -quarry worker
Breier -brewer
Breinmueller -millet miller
Breisler -Border maker
Brenker -one who lives on the edge of a village near a grassy
hill called a
Brink
Brenneisen, Brenner -smith; stoker
Brennerknecht -distiller's apprentice; smith's apprentice
Brennmeister -master distiller
Brenntlerin -Alpine dairy maid
Brettschneider -sawyer
Bretzenmacher -clap maker
Breyer -brewer
Briechler -linen merchant
Briefbote -postman
Briefdrucker -printer of woodcuts
Brieftraeger( in) -letter carrier
Brinker, Brinklieger, Brinkmann, Brinksitzer, Brinkkoet( h) ner
-cottager on
the edge of a village near a grassy hill called a Brink
Briser -border maker
Brodbeck -bread baker
Brodfuehrer -bread merchant with a cart
Brotlbauer -farmer obliged to provide room and board for a
servant

Brotling -person directly dependent on lord for room and
board
Brotmacher -worker in sugar industry
Bruechler -(door-to-door) peddler; ribbon seller
Bruchschneider -physician; surgeon
Bruchvogt -court servant
Brueckenzoller, Brueckner -bridge tollmaster
Bruck( n) er -bridge builder; mason
Bruger -brewer
Brunnenbauer -well-builder
Brunnenmeister -well supervisor; welldigger
Brunnenpalier -well supervisor
Brunnenreiniger -well cleaner
Brustschneider -corset maker
Brutkind -child born prior to marriage
Bub( e) -boy; apprentice
Bubenmeister -teacher
Bubnick -drummer
Buchbinder -bookbinder
Buchdrucker -printer
Buchdruckerfaktor -master printer
Buecheraltreiss -antiquarian bookseller
Buchfeller -parchment maker
Buchfuehrer -book merchant (with a pushcart)
Buchhaendler -bookseller
Buchhalter -bookkeeper
Buchmaler -book illustrator
Buechsenmacher -gunsmith
Buechsenmann, Buechsenschuetz -watchman with a rifle
Buechsenmeister -co-leader of journeyman's association;
watchman (with a rifle)
Buechsenschmi( e) d -gunsmith
Buechsenspanner -gun loader
Buecksner -container and gun maker
Buchstaber -weaver of monograms and sayings
Bueddenbender -cooper
Buedeker -cooper
Budelbereeder -executor; (inheritance) administrator
Buedelmaker -leather purse and glove maker
Bued( e) ner -small farmer; stallkeeper; ;merchant (in market
place booth or small shop)
Bueglerin -female ironer
Buerger( in)--full citizen; (middle -class) burgher
Buergknecht -worker with pick and shovel)
Bueroangestellte( r) -office worker; white-collar worker
Buerochef( in) -office manager
Buerstenmacher -brushmaker
Buessenschaffer -guild treasurer
Buethener -beekeeper
Buettgesell( e) -paper maker; paper worker
Buettler, Buettner -cooper
Buhmann -farmer
Buitenmo( e) der -(female) administrator
Bumann -farmer
Bundtfutterer -furrier
Bungenschlager -drummer
Buntendrager -door-to-door cloth peddler
Buntfaerber -fabric dyer
Buntfoder( er), Buntmacher -furrier
Buerovorsteher( in) -office manager
Burpar( r) herr -village pastor
Burrichter -justice of the peace in a farming community
Buessenschuett( e) -gunner
Butendreger -(door-to-door) medicine salesman
Butenfahrer -sailor
Butenrecht( es) mann -district judge
Butenwever -weaver working outside the guild
Butenwohner -one who lives outside the village
Bueter -barterer
Butheler -nailsmith
Butigler -royal official
Butscher (Pennsylvania Dutch) -butcher
Buettel, Butteler -servant; butler; court messenger
Butteler -waiter
Buttermann -buttermaker
Buw( e) mann -farmer; citizen; worker in building trades

B C E
Cafetier( er) -cafe proprietor Caffamacher -velvet weaver
Cammerarius -valet; groom
Canonier -cannon gunner
Car. -abbr. for Caribiner (rifleman)
Caribinier -rifleman
Casier -cheesemaker
Chasseur -(mil.) rifleman
Chausseearbeiter -road worker
Chelista -violinist; fiddler
Chemiker( in) -chemist
Chir. -abbr. for Chirurg (surgeon)
Chirurg -surgeon, for minor wounds, animal kicks, etc.
Chirurgus -surgeon
Chymiater -alchemist
Chyrurgus -surgeon
Clausurmacher -manufacturer of clasps
Conterfetter -portrait painter
Corbo -basketweaver
Cornet( t) -cavalry flagbearer
Cossat( e) -cottager with little land
Craemer, Craer, Cramer (also with "K÷) -small grocer;
shopkeeper; merchant; trader from
backpack
Credenzer -waiter; innkeeper
Cronenwirt( h) -proprietor of the Crown Inn
Curand -guardian
Curschmied -blacksmith

C E F
Ebentuerer -jewel merchant Echterling, Echtermann, Echtermeier -farmer who lives behind the village
Ehemakler -marriage broker
Ehemittler( in) -matchmaker
Ehestifter( in) -matchmaker
Ehrenbuerger( in), Ehrenb'rger( in) -honorary citizen
Ehrenmitglied -honorary member
Eichmeister -adjuster
Eierhaendler -egg merchant
Eiersammler -egg gatherer
Eierhaendler -egg merchant
Eigengaertner, Eigeng„ rtner -cottager with a garden of his
own
Eienhaeuser( in)-one who owns his/ her own home
Eigenkaetner, -koetner, -koetter, -cottager with a garden of
his own
Eigenmann -serf; vassal
Eigenthuemer( in), -th'mer( in) -property owner
Einberufener -conscript
Einlieger( in) -free agricultural laborer
Einnehmer -tax collector
Einspaenner -farmer with one horse; outsider; odd character;
grass widower
Eisengiesser -iron founder
Eisenhaendler,-ironmonger
Eisenhauer -blacksmith; iron hewer
Eisenmenger -ironmonger
Eisenschmi( e) d -blacksmith
Erbpaechter -hereditary tenant
Erchmacher -(white) tanner
Erdarbeiter -earthworker (builder of canals and dikes)
Erdebaecker -potter
Eremit -hermit
Ersatzmann -paid replacment soldier
Eschenbrenner -maker of wood-ash for soapmaking, fertilizer,
etc.
Essigbrauer, Essigfabrikant -vinegar maker
Essigmann, Essig-, Essigmanger, Essig-, Essigmenger -vinegar
merchant
Euler, Eulner -potter
Exempt -(mil.) rank of bodyguard
Exkolon -retired farmer
Exner -small farmer with only oxen, no horses
Expectant -student at a religious institution

E F I
Fabrikant -manufacturer; factory owner, mill owner Fabrikarbeiter -facotry, mill-worker
Fabrikbesitzer -factory, mill owner
Fabrikschlosser, -schol° er -factory maintenance man
Fachmann -specialist; expert
Fachreferent( in) -consusltant
Faehndrich, Faehnrich -ensign; flagbearer
Faehrmann -ferryman
Faehrpaechter -ferry renter
Faenger -hunter
Faerber -dyer
Faessler -cooper; vatmaker
Faehndrich -ensign; flagbearer
Fahnentraeger; Fahnentr„ ger -ensign; flagbearer
Fahnenwirt( h) -innkeeper of the Flag Inn (at the sign of the
flag)
Faehnrich -ensign; flagbearer
Fahrender -juggler; jester
Fahrenheinz -vagabond
Fahrensmann -seaman; seafarer
Fahrer( in) -driver
Fahrlehrer( in) -driving instructor
Faehrmann -ferryman
Faehrpaechter -ferry renter
Fait( h) -bailiff; sheriff; constable; local representative of the ruler
Faktor -administrator; manager
Falconi( er) meister -master falcon er
Falk( e), Falkner -falconer
Familiant -servant
Familiare -s; ave' serf (member of the household)
Familienforscher -family reseacher; genealogist
Familienkundler -family reseacher; genealogist
Faerber -dyer
Farcher -hog merchant
Fasanenmeister -master of pheasants
Fassbinder, Fasshauer, Faessler -cooper
Fassschlupfer -cooper
Fasszieher -carrier
Fastbaecker -baker of brown bread
Fa( u) th -bailiff; sheriff; constable; local representative of the
ruler
Fechner -fur trader
Federbedienter -community official
Federschm'cker, -schmuecker -featherworker; plumassier
Federschneider -(quill) penmaker
Federviehhaendler, -h„ ndler -poultry dealer
Fehnrich -ensign; flagbearer
Feilbeck -baker with own bakery
Feilenhauer, Feiler, Feilhauer, Feilner -file maker
Feilpeddler, Feiltraeger -peddler (with sack or rucksack)
Feilschlaechter -butcher with a butchershop
Feiltraeger -riflemaker
Felbaweber -silkweaver
Feldbauer -grain farmer
Feldgeschworener -settler of boundary disputes.
FeldhueterFeldschuetz -field watchman
Feldjaeger -courier
Feldkaplan -(mil.) field chaplain
Feldm. -abbr. for Feldmarschall
Feldmarschall -field marshall
Feldmeister -skinner; flayer
Feldprediger -(mil.) field chaplain
Feldreiter -policeman
Feldrichter -arbitrator of field disputes
Feldscher( er) -assistant medical officer
Feldw. -abbr. of Feldwebel
Feldwe( i) bel -(mil) noncommissioned officer; sergeant
(major); sergeant (first class)
Felgenhauer -(wooden) wheel rim maker
Fellbereiter -currier
Feller, Fellhaendler -fur trader
Felllmann -animal hide skinner
Fellwerkbereiter -furrier
Fenner -ensign; flagbearer
Fensterputzer -window-washer
Ferber -dyer
Ferd( e) menger -horse trader
Ferge -ferryman
Festbaecker -baker of dark large loaves of bread
Fetthake, Fettmengen -lard merchant
Feuerer -stoker
Feuergeschworener -fire engine maintenance man
Feuermaeuerkehrer -chimney sweep
Feulner -filemaker
Feurer -stoker
Fiarant -merchant at a market
Fiaulmacher -wheelwright
Fickenwirt( h) -pursemaker
Fidler -fiddller; violinist
Fiedler -fiddler; violinist
Filterer -feltmaker
Findel -foundling; abandoned infant
Fischbeinhaendler -whalebone trader
Fischer( mann) -fisherman
Fischmenger -fishmonger
Fischweicher -seller of dried fish
Fiskal -tax inspector
Fitzer -artistic weaver
FJg. -abbr. for Feldjaeger
FK -abbr. for Freikorporal ( Free Corporal)
Flachshaendler -flax trader
Flachsmenger -flax trader
Flader -pastry baker
Flaeminger -tanner
Flaeschner -plumber
Flaeminger -tanner
Flaschenmacher -bottlemaker
Flaschner, Flaeschner -plumber
Fleischbeschauer -meat inspector
Fleisch-er, -hacker, -hauer, -mann -butcher, meatcutter
Flickschneider -repairer of clothes
Flickschuster -cobbler; shoe repairman
Flieger -aviator
Flintfiller -stonemason
Flitterer -gold leaf maker
Floesser -raftsman
Fluechtling -refugee
Flurschuetz( e) -field watch, forester
Flyerin -(female) wool-spinning machine operator
Focker -merchant
Foeniseca -mower, cutter
Foerster, Forster, Forstner -forester; forest ranger
Folterer, Folterknecht -torturer
Forense -absentee lord of and estate
Formdreher, Former Formschneider -formcutter; molder
Forscher( in) -researcher
Forstverwalter -forest superindendent
Fotograf( in) -photographer
Fotograph( in) -photographer
Fotzenstecher -animal castrator
Fourier -quartermaster
FP -abbr. for Feldprediger, field chaplain
Frachter, Fraechter, Frachtfahrer -freight hauler
Fraele -midwife
Fragner -merchant
Freibauer -free farmer with only small rent payments
Freibeuter -pirate, buccaneer
Freibote -court messenger
Freigraf -magistrate
Freiherr -ruler not subject to anyone but the Emperor; baron
Freiknecht -renderer; knacker
Freimann -tramp
Freimaurer -Freemason; member of the Masonic Lodge
Freisasse -farmer on Freisassenhof, a farm largely free
from tithes
Freischulze -village mayor and founder of a farming
community
Freischuster -nonn-guild cobbler
Freiwaechter -soldier released from duty but kept in reserve;
National Guardsman
Fremdarbeiter( in) -foreign worker
Fremde( r) -stranger; person from elsewhere
Friedhofswaerter -cemetery employee
Friedmacher -plasterer
Frischmeister -master iron founder
Friseur -male barber; hairdresser
Friseuse -female hairdresser
Froehner, Froender, Froener -one doing forced labor for the
ruler
Froehner, Froener -one doing forced labor for the ruler
Frohne -court messenger
Fruchthaendler -fruit trader; grain trader
Frumwerker -day laborer
Fucker( er), Fugger( er) -wholesaler
Fuderer -cattle feeder
Fuehrer -guide; leader; hauler; local official
Fuehrerin -female guide, leader
Fuetterer -servant who feeds cattle
Fuhrmann -freight handler; carrier; carter
Fuhrunternehmer -freight hauler
Fuker -wholesaler
Fussknecht -infantryman; foot soldier
Fuetter -cattle feed merchant
Futterknecht -servant who feeds cattle
G & H UNDER CONSTRUCTION
F I J
Imber -herb merchant Imitraeger -cooper
Imker -beekeeper
Impfartz -vaccinating physician
Infrau -female inhabitant
Ingrossist -tax collector
Ingwer -spice merchant
Inhaber( in) -proprietor
Inlaender( in) -citizen, non-foreigner
Inlieger, Inligger -tenant; lodger
Inmann -male inhabitant
Innungsmeister -master of a local guild
Innungsmitglied -member of a local guild
Innungsobermeister -chief master of a local guild
In( n) wohner -inhabitant
Insasse -male hospital patient; inhabitant
Insassin -female hospital patient; inhabitant
Insgesessene( r) -non-citizen tenant
Inste -renter; hired help; pensioner; craftsman with no land
Instmann -farm worker; hired help; pensioner; craftsman with
no land
Interimswirt( h) -farmer who marries into a farm (by marrying
the widow or heiress)
Ipser -house painter; decorator
Ircher -goat leather tanner

I J K
Jaeger -hunter; (mil.) rifleman JAG -abbr. for Feldj„ ger-Korps (Courier Corps)
Jagdgehilfe -hunting helper
Jaeger -hunter; (mil.) rifleman
Jahrmeister -guildmaster
Jammer -epilepsy
Jaufer, Jaufmann -itinerant juggler
Jgfr., Jngfr. -abbr. for Jungfrau (Miss; virgin)
Jobstkrankheit -leprosy
Johanniter -Maltese Knights
jong Gezel -bachelor; young journeyman
Jugendrichter -juvenile court judge
Jungmann -young male servant
Junker -young nobleman (Prussian army officer); country
squire
Jurist -lawyer; law student
Justizbeamte -judicial official

J K N
Kabinettmeister -administrator Kabuzenbauer -cabbage farmer
Kacheler, Kachler, Kaechler -tilemaker; tile-layer; potter
Kaehler -collier; coal merchant
Kaelker -limeburner
Kaemifaeger -chimneysweep
Kaemmerer, Kaemmerin -steward; treasurer; buttler
Kaemmerling -domestic servant; valet
Kaendler -canmaker; gutter repairer
Kaercher -wagonmaker
Kaerrner -freight hauler (by cart)
Kaesebaecker -cheesemaker
Kaeshaendler, Kaeser -cheese trader
Kaesmacher -cheesemaker
Kaestenbrenner -chestnut roaster
Kaestner -steward; treasurer; carpenter
Kaet( h) ner -cottager with samll house, garden, a little land for
cattle or anaimals
Kaeufel, Kaeufeler -small merchant; peddler
Kaeufer -merchant
Kaeufler -small merchant; peddler
Kaffhaarmacher -velvet weaver
Kafiller -renderer; knacker
Kagelbruder -fishmonger
Kageler, Kagelmacher, Kagelmann -tilemaker; tile-layer;
potter
Kaehler -collier; coal merchant
Kahnsmann -bargeman
Kallchborner -chalk burner
Kalfakter, Kalfaktor -boilerman; caretaker
Kaltschlaechter -renderer; knacker
Kaltschmi( e) d -coppersmith
Kamesierer -peddler
Kaminfeger -chimneysweep
Kammerbeamte( r) -treasury clerk
Kammerbedienter -valet
Kammerdame -maid
Kammerdiener -valet
Kaemmerer -treasurer; butler
Kammerherr -chamberlain
Kaemmerin -treasurer; butler (female)
Kammerjungfer -chambermaid
Kammerjunker -chamberlain
Kammerlakai -servant of the court; lackey
Kaemmerling -domestic servant; valet
Kammermaedchen, -maedchen -chambermaid
Kammermeister -internal revenue administrator
Kammerpaechter, -paechter -crown-land tenant
Kammerportier -domestic servant
Kammersteward -ship's cabin steward
Kammerzofe -chambermaid
Kampelmacher -combmaker
Kampheuerling -tenant of a farm belonging to nobility
Kanalarbeiter -canal worker
Kandelgiesser -(tin or pewter) can founder
Kandler, Kaendler -(tin or pewter) can founder; gutter
repairer
Kanefassmacher -canvas weaver
Kannengiesser -(tin or pewter) can founder
Kantengiesser -(tin or pewter) can founder
Kanzelredner -preacher
Kanzleibeamte( r), -bote -government official
Kanzleidiener -government servant
Kanzleischreiber -chancery clerk
Kanzleivorsteher -head chancery clerk
Kanzlist -chancery clerk
Kapauner -animal castrator
Kapellmeister -bandleader
Kaplan -chaplain; clergyman in a chapel
Kappenmacher -capmaker
Kappusmann -cabbage merchant
Karbender -wheelwright
Karchelzieher -freight hauler
Karcher -freight hauler in a cart
Kaercher -wagonmaker
Karpe -carpenter
Karrer -carter
Kaerrner -freight hauler (in a cart)
Kartenmaler -painter for (religious) woodcuts
Karter -wool carder
Kartzin -money changer
Kaesebaecker -cheesemaker
Kaesehaendler -cheese merchant
Kaeser, Kaesmacher -cheesemaker
Kassengehilfe, -gehuelfe -sales clerk
Kassi( e) rer( in) -cashier
Kastellein -innkeeper
Kaestenbrenner -chestnut roaster
Kastenkeller -tax official
Kastenmeister -administrator of a church office
Kaestner -steward; treasurer; carpenter
Kat( h) enmann -cottager with small house, garden, a little land
for animals
Kaet( h) ner -cottager with small house, garden, a little land for
animals
Kattunweber -cotton weaver
Kaeufel -small merchant
Kauffrau -business woman; female shopkeeper
Kaeufler -small merchant; peddler
Kaufmann -merchant
Kauwarz -moneylender
Kaviller -renderer; knacker
Kedde -peasant master
Keifer, Keiffer -cooper
Keiper -captain of a fishing boat
Keller -wine steward
Kellereiverwalter -administrator of the winecellar
Kellerherr -wine steward
Kellermeister -keeper of the winecellar
Kellerwart -cooper
Kellner -waiter, receiver of revenues; steward
Kellnerin -waitress
Keltermacher -winepress maker
Kemmetfeger, Kenderkehrer -chimneysweep
Kendler -canmaker
Kerkermeister -jailer
Kerzenmeister -chairman of a guild
Kerzenzieher -chandler
Kesselflicker -itinerant kettle repairman; soothsayer and
medicine man
Kesselschmi( e) d -boilermaker
Kesskaiffer -cheese merchant
Kessler, -kettlemaker; coppersmith
Kestner -steward; treasurer
Ketelbuter -pot repairer
Kettenmacher, Kettenschmi( e) d -chainmaker
Kettler -kettlemaker
Kettner -chainmaker
Keuschler -small farmer
Kiefer, Kieffer -cooper
Kindelmutter -midwife
Kinderarzt( in) -pediatrician
Kindererzieherin -female teacher of young children
Kinderfraeulein, -governess
Kinderfrau -nanny
Kindermaedchen, -maedchen -nanny
Kinderschwester -children's nurse
Kindervater male -obstetrician
Kinderzieher( in) -tutor
Kirchenbeter -church tax collector
Kirchenbuchfuehrer( in) -one in charge of church books ;
church book keeper
Kirchencensor -church censor (guardian of morals)
Kichendiener -church sexton
Kichenfuerst, -prelate
Kirchengeschworener -chuch juryman
Kirchenjuraten -church juryman
Kirchenlehrer( in) -church teacher
Kirchenmeyer -administrator of church farm property
Kirchenpfleger -church caretaker
Kirchenprovisor -administrator of church farm property
Kirchenrat( h) -church council
Kirchenschoeffe -church lay juryman
Kirchenvater -church administrator
Kirchenvogt -lay administrator of church property
Kirchenvorsteher -chairman of the church council; deacon
Kircher -sexton; pastor
Kirchner -sexton
Kirchschaffner -administrator of church farm property
Kirchspielshauptmann -president of church congregation
Kirchspielsrichter -chairman of church congregation
Kirchvater -church father; presbyter; church elder
Kistenmacher -maker of boxes; woodworker
Klagbote -lawyer
Klagfuehrer -lawyer
Klaiber -stucco worker
Klammer, Klampferer -plumber
Klausner -hermit; recluse
Kleber -stucco worker
Klecker -painter
Kleenschmi( e) d -blacksmith
Kleiber -stucco worker
Kleidermacher -maker of clothes
Kleinbauer -farmer with a small farm
Kleinbinder, Kleinboettcher -cooper for small barrels
Kleinhaendler -retailer
Kleinknecht -young helper; apprentice
Kleinkoetner, -koetter -cottager with a small house, garden
and a little land for
animals
Kleinschmi( e) d( t) -locksmith
Kleinschnitzler -detail carver
Klempner -plumber; tinsmith
Kleriker -cleric; clergyman
Klerk -writer; clerk
Klingelschmid( t) -bellmaker
Klingenkaufmann -cutlery merchant
Klingenschmid( t) -bellmaker
Klinger -blacksmith
Klippkraemer -cork merchant
Kloeckner -church sexton; bellringer
Kloterer -juggler
Klozenmacher, Klozenkorkenmacher -cork maker
Kluengelkerl, -scrap dealer
Knaebin -woman's helper (female)
Knaeufler -button maker
Knakenhauer -butcher
Knapsack -peddler
Knaufelmacher, Knaeufler -button maker
Knecht -servant; farmhand; apprentice; errand boy; laborer
Kneipwirt( h) -proprietor of a tavern; alehouse keeper
Knepsche -weaver's helper (female)
Kneveler -beer hauler
Knieriem( en) -shoemaker
Knochenhauer -butcher
Knoespler -wooden-shoe maker
Knopfmacher( in) -button maker
Knoespler -wooden-shoe maker
Kobelhirt -horse groom
Koebler -cooper; farmer of a small farm
Koch( in) -cook; chef
Koebler -cooper; farmer of a small farm
Koechin -female cook
Koehler -charcoal burner
Koelschenweber -clothweaver
Koepfler -pig castrator
Koerb( l) er -basket maker; seller of baskets
Koerner -granary protector; dealer in grains
Koer( t) zener -furrier
Koester, Koesterius -church sexton
Koestner -steward
Koet( h) ner -cottager with a small house, garden and a little
land for animals
Koggenbuwer -shipbuilder
Kohlenbrenner, Kohler, Koehler -charcoal burner
Kohlhoeker -greengrocer
Koller -leather harnessmaker
Kolon( e) -settler; farmer of a crop farm with hereditary tithe
Kolonist -settler; colonist
Kolporteur -door-to-door salesman
Koelschenweber -clothweaver
Komiss, Kommerziant, Kommis( s) -merchant's clerk on
commission
Kommissarius -clerk on commission
Kompassmacher -compass maker
Konditor -pastry-maker
Konduktor -estate tenant
Konstabler -constable; (mil.) gunner
Konstrukteur -engineer
Kontorbediente( r), Kontorist( in) -clerk; office worker
Koolke -colic
Koopmann -merchant
Kopenhauer -cooper
Kopersmid -coppersmith
Koepfler -pig castrator
Kopfwuestigkeit -influenza
Koppelknecht -horse groom
Kopperschmid -coppersmith
Koerber, Korbflechter, Koebler, Korbmacher -basket weaver
Korduan -shoemaker, with goat's leather
Koerner -granary protector; dealer in grains
Kornfuehrer -grain dealer with a cart
Kornhaendler -grain trader
Kornhausverwalter -granary administrator
Kornmann -granary protector; dealer in grains
Kornmesser -grain measurer
Kornmueller -grain miller
Korssenmeister -furrier
Koer( t) zener -furrier
Kossat( e), Kossatin -cottager with a small house, garden and
a little land for animals
Kostgaenger -boarder
Kote -cottager with a small house, garden and a little land for
animals
Kot( h) mann -cottager with a small house, garden and a little
land for animals
Koet( h) ner -cottager with a small house, garden and a little
land for animals
Kotsass, Kotasse, Kotsasse -cottager with a small house,
garden and a little land for
animals
Kotter, Koetter -cottager with a small house, garden and a
little land for animals
Kotzenmacher -coatmaker
Kotzenweber -loden cloth weaver
Kraemer -merchant; peddler
Kraemper -peddler
Kraeutler-bontanist; pharmacist
Krameramt -shopkeeper's guild
Krammoder -mid-wife
Krankenpfleger( in) -caregiver for the sick
Krankenschwester -female nurse
Krankenwaerter( in) -orderly; practical nurse
Kratzenmacher -basket weaver
Krautkraemer, -kramer -druggist
Krebisser -shell fisherman
Krebsgeschwuer -cancer sore
Kreisrat -county commissioner
Kreisser -forest supervisor
Kremer -grocer; small merchant; shopkeeper
Krenke -epilepsy
Kretschmer, Kretschner -innkeeper
Kreuzschmi( e) d -swordsmith; silversmith
Kreuzwirt( h) -inkeeper of the Cross Inn
Kriebelkrankheit -cramp
Kriegsknecht -mercenary
Krippenmacher -maker of cribs
Kripps, Krips -influenza
Kroeger, Krogmann -innkeeper
Kroemke -peddler
Kronanwalt -attorney general
Kronenwirt( h) -innkeeper of the Crown Inn
Krudener, Kruedener -pharmacist
Krueger -innkeeper
Krueppel -cripple; lame person
Krummholzhaendler -scrub timber dealer
Krueselkerl -tin founder
Kuebler -cooper
Kuechlebaecker, Kuchenbaecker, -baeker -pastry baker
Kuechenmeister -chef; master of the kitchen
Kuechenschreiber -master chef
Kuderer -flax merchant
Kuebler -cooper
Ku( e) her -cowherd; dairyman
Ku( e) hhirt( in) -cowherd
Kuehlmann -field watchman
Kuemmer -cooper
Kuemmichkehrer -chimneysweep
Kuemper -cooper
Kuenstler( in) -artist
Kueper -cooper
Kueperholzmacher -barrelstave maker
Kueppenbender, Kueppers -cooper
Kueppler( in) -matchmaker
Kuerbenzeiner -baskt weaver
Kuerschner -furrier
Kuester( in) -sexton; church custodian; pastor's assistant
Kueter -butcher
Kuefer, Kuffer, Kuefler -cooper
Kuhbauer -farmer with a cow
Kueher, Kuhhirt( e) -male cowherd
Kuhhirtin, Kuehhirtin -female cowherd
Kuhlengraeber -gravedigger
Kuehlmann -field watchman
Kulitze--furrier
Kummeder -saddler
Kuemmer -cooper
Kumper -tanner
Kuemper -cooper
Kunstdrechsler -(ivory) turner
Kuenstler( in) -artist
Kunstmaler( in) -artist
Kunstmeister -master organ builder
Kuper, Kueper -cooper
Kueperholzmacher -barrel stave maker
Kupferdrucker -copperplate printer
Kupferschmi( e) d -coppersmith
Kupferstecher -copper engraver; etcher
Kueppenbender, Kueppers -cooper
Kueppler( in) -matchmaker
Kuerbenzeiner -basket weaver
Kurdewaener -shoemaker (with cordovan leather)
Kurkeler -corkmaker
Kurschmi( e) d -blacksmith; farrier
Kuerschner, Kursener -furrier
Kuester( in) -sexton
Kueter -butcher
Kutschenbauer -wagonbuilder
Kutscher -coachman
Kuttelwamper -tripe seller
Kutter -cutter
Kuttler -offal seller

L & M DOES NOT EXIST
K N O
Nachlasspfleger( in) -trustee of estate Nachlassverwalter( in) -executor; administrator
Nachtwaechter -night watchman (sometimes held in ill
repute)
Nadelmacher, Nadelmann -needlemaker
Nadler -needlemaker; haberdasher
Naehdirne -sewing girl
Naeher -seamster
Naeherin -seamstress
Naetler -needlemaker
Nagel, Nagelschmi( e) d, Nagler -nailmaker
Naeher -seamster
Naeherin -seamstress
Naetler -needlemaker
Neiler, Neilschmieder -needlemaker
Nestler -shoelace maker
Netzmacher -(fish) net maker
Neubuaer -farmer on land newly cleared (18th century)
Neubuerger( in), Neub'rger( in) -new citizen
Neuschwander -person living on a newly burnt-out (cleared)
place
Neuwohner -new inhabitant
Noldener -needlemaker
Nonne( n) macher -animal castrator
Nosterer -rosary maker
Notar -(government) notary
Noterbe -(mandatory) heir
Nothzeuge -emergency witness
Nottaufe -emergency baptism (by a layman)
Nudelmann -needlemaker
Nuesch( e) ler -belt maker
Nuess( e) ler, -maker of nut oil
Nufeler -tweed maker
Nuldener -needle maker

N O P
Obdachlose( r) -homeless person Obentuerer, Obent'rer -diamond merchant
Oberamtmann -(government) administrator
Oberfeldwebel -warrant officer
Oberfoerster, Oberf÷ rster -chief forester
Oberkoch -male master chef
Oberkoechin,-female master chef
Oberkueper -cooper
Obermann -superintendent
Obermeister -master of a guild
Obermueller -miller (at the upper mill)
Oberpfarrer -chief pastor
Oberrabbiner -chief rabbi
Obesser -fruit merchant
Obervogt -chief local government official; bailiff
Oberst -(mil.) colonel
Obmann -chairman
Ob( t) ser -fruit picker
Obstler -fruitpicker; fruit seller
Obstverkaeufer( in) -fruit merchant
Ochsenknecht -oxen tender
Oechsner -small farmer with only oxen, no horses
Oeconom -small farmer; farm manager; steward; innkeeper,
economist
Oehler, Oehlmann -oil maker; oil seller
Oekonom -small farmer; farm manager; steward; innkeeper,
economist
Oelmann -oil miller; oil merchant
Ofener -stovefitter
Ofenfabrikant -stove maker
Ofengrgraeber -stoker
Ofensetzer -stovefitter
Ofenwaerter -furnace operator
Offermann -church sexton
Ohlenmacher -potter
Oelmann -oilmaker; oil seller
Olboeter -shoe repairer; cobbler
Oldkitter -shoe cobbler
Oleymann -oil merchant
Oelmann -oil miller; oil merchant
OM -abbr. for Obermeister (master of a guild)
Omentraeger -freight hauler
Opperknecht -apprentice bricklayer
Oppermann -church sexton
Ordner -file organizer
Orgelbauer, Org( e) ler -organbuilder
Orleymacher -watchmaker
Ortsbewohner -local resident( s)
Ortsbuerger -citizen of a place
Ortschmi( e) d -toolsmith
Ortsgeistliche( r) -local pastor; local clergy
OZD -abbr. for Oberzolldirektor (" chief customs director:)

O P R Pau( c) ken -swelling; tumor (growth) Pest -plague; pestilence
Pestbeule -pestilence sore
Pestblattern -pestilence sores
Petetchen -typhoid fever
Pfies -skin growth* Pfnuesel, Pfnusel, Pfnuesel -head cold
Pfneche -asthma* Pipf -influenza
Phronesia -insanity
Popf, nuernbergischer -"Nuremberg flu"
Pipf, spanische -"Spanish flu"
Plage -plague; syphilis
Pocken, Pockseuche -smallpox
Podagra -gout
Porpeln -measles; pox
Puls -pulse; heartbeat
Pusseln -pustules; pox

P Q R
Quartanfieber -malaria

Q R S Rachimburge -lay assessor Raecke -stiffness of the limbs
Racker -renderer; skinner
Rademacher -wheelwright
Radhauer -wheelwright
Raebbe -rabies
Raecke, Raehe -stiffness of the limbs
Raetin -female council member; official; councilman's wife
Rastelbinder -pen repairer
Rateler -night watchman
Rat( h) geber( in) -advisor
Rat( h) s, des -member of the council
Rat( h) sdiener -council employee; beadle
Rat( h) sherr -town councilman
Rat( h) smitglied -member of the council
Rat( h) sschreibe -town clerk
Rat( h) sverwandter -member of the town council
Raetin -female council member; official; councilman's wife
Rauhmaurer -stonemason
Raumpflegerin -cleaning lady
Rauschfaerber -black dyer
Rebmann -vine dresser
Rebmeister -master vine dresser
Rechtsanwalt -male lawyer
Rechtsanwaeltin -female lawyer
Rechtsbeflissene( r) -law student
Rechtsbeistand -legal adviser
Rechtsgelehrte( r) -lawyer; legal scholar
Rechtspfleger -judicial administrator
Regi( e) rungsbaumeister -superintendent of public works
Regi( e) rungsbeamte( r) -government official
Regi( e) rungsdirektor -chief administrator
Regi( e) rungsrat( h) -government council( lor)
Regi( e) rungsferendar -probationary government worker;
government intern
Regimentsartz -regimental doctor
Regisseur -male director
Reiber -masseur
Reichkraemer -herb and silk merchant
Reichkanzler -Imperial chancellor
Reichritter -Imperial knight
Reichsverwer -Imperial regent
Reidemeister -vice-mayor on council; council president
Reifer -ropemaker; rope merchant
Reifschlaege -ropemaker
Reinmachefrau -cleaning lady
Reiseknecht -ruler's servant during travels
Reisemarschall -royal courier; travel advance man
Reiser -pilgrim
Reisiger -rider
Reisner -rope maker
Reitender -mounted messenger
Reiter -rider; cavalryman
Reitschmi( e) d -blacksmith; farrier
Rektor( in) -school headmaster/ mistress; principal;
minister/ minister's wife
Relikt -relict; survivor
Rendant -paymaster; treasurer
Rentamtmann -treasurer
Renteibote -treasurer's office messenger
Rentner( in) -retiree
Reper -ropemaker
Repschlaeger-ropemaker
Retspede -lay assessor
Retuschier -porcelain retoucher
Reuss-shoemaker
Reuter -rider; cavalry; clearer of land
Reutschmi( e) d -blacksmith; farrier
Reuzze -shoe cobbler
Revisor -inspector
Richtherr -lay assessor
Richter( in) -judge
Riedemeister -vice-mayor on council; council president\
Riemenmacher, Riemenschneider, Riemer, Riemschlaeger
Riemschneider -leather
strapmaker
Rinderknecht -cattle tender
Rindsschuster -tanner
Rinker -kettlesmith
Rit( t) er -knight
Rittmeister -cavalry captain
Roback -servant
Rockener -baker of dark bread
Roeder, -clearer of land
Roepe -ropemaker; town crier
Roeseler -whitewasher
Roessler -horseman; tanner
Roet -measles; bloody diarrhea
Roeteln -measles
Rojgast -seaman
Rolladenbauer -window blind installer
Roller -coachman; freight hauler
Roeper -ropemaker; town crier
Rorenschieber -tin peddler
Rossarzt -horse doctor; veterinarian
Rosser -horse groom; freight hauler
Rosshaendler -horse dealer
Rosshirt -horse herdsman
Rosskamm -horse dealer
Rotgerber -red tanner
Royer -cooper
Ruetze -shoe cobbler
Russfaerber, Ru° f„ rber -dyer
R

S T
Saeckelmeister -treasurer; administrator Sackhuhn -sailmaker
Saeckler -sack maker; treasurer
Sackmacher -sack maker
Sadelhoefer -farmer and lay assessor
Saeger -sawyer
Saemischmacher -white tanner
Saenger -singer( s)
Saeuhirt( e) -swineherd
Sagenschneider -plank cutter
Sageter -sawmiller
Sailer -ropemaker
Salinearbeiter, Salinenknecht -helper at a salt-well
Salmann -executor; administrator
Salpetersieder -nitrate maker
Saltzitzienmacher -sausage maker
Salunenmacher -blanket weaver
Salwirt( h) -weapon smith
Salwuerker, -wurch, -tinsmith
Salzaufleger -tax official
Salzfueher -salt merchant with a cart
Salzfueller -customs official
Salzhaendler -salt merchant
Salzinspektor -salt inspector
Salzkaerrner -salt merchant with a cart
Salzmann -salt merchant
Salzsieder -saltmaker
Salzsteuereinnehmer -salt tax collector
Salzstoessel-salt merchant
Salzvogt -saltworks overseer
Saemischmacher -white tanner
Sandbauer -farmer with sandy ground
Sandler -sandal maker
Sargedromacher, Sargenweber -woolen cloth weaver
Sarghauer -stonemason
Sargtraeger -pallbearer
Sarkhauer -stonemason
Sarrwerker, -wuerker, -wurker -harness-maker
Sauhirt( h) -male swineherd
Sauhirt( h) in -female swineherd
Saeumer -freight hauler
Sauter -shoemaker
Schacherer -peddler
Schachtmeister -mine master
Schaefer -shepherd
Schaef( f) ler -cooper
Schaeuf( e) ler -shovelmaker; peddler
Schaffer -worker; laborer; administrator
Schaffmann -worker
Schaffner( in) -conductor
Schafhirt( e) -shepherd
Schafmeister -sheep farm overseer
Schaidmesser -maker of cutlery
Schal( c) k, Schall -servant
Schalenschroder -maker of knife handles
Schallaunenmacher -blanket weaver
Schankmacher -cupboard maker
Schankwirt( h) -innkeeper
Schanzenmeister -jailer
Schaper -shepherd
Scharfrichter -executioner
Scharlach, Scharlachfieber -scarlet fever
Scharnemann -merchant in a market
Scharrmacher -wagon builder
Scharwaechter-night watchman
Scharwerker -day laborer on a farm
Schatter, Schattmann -tax assessor
Schatzmann -moneychanger; treasurer
Schatzmeister -treasurer
Schauer -cloth inspector
Schaeuerchen-shooting pains in the teeth; epilepsy
Schaufert -shoemaker
Schaeuf( e) ler -shovel maker; peddler
Schaukastentraeger -traveling salesman who carries a
showcase around
Schauspieler( in) -actor/ actress
Schauwecker -shoemaker
Scheckensticker -embroiderer
Scheffler -bowlmaker; cooper
Scheibenreisser -glazier
Scheibler -salt carrier
Scheidler -knife-blade maker
Schellenschmi( e) d -cowbell maker
Schelter -jester; entertainer
Schen( c) k -innkeeper who taps beer or wine
Schen( c) ker -innkeeper
Schen( c) kjunfer -wet nurse
Schen( c) kwirt( h) -innkeeper who taps beer or wine
Scheper -shepherd
Scherenschleifer -scissors sharpener
Scherenmacher -scissors maker
Scherer -barber; beardcutter; cloth cutter
Scherge -sheriff's deputy
Schichtmeister -mine paymaster
Schiedsrichter -local court judge; justice of the peace
Schiedsverwandter -member of local court
Schieferdecker -roofer of slate roofs; slater
Schiesser -hunter
Schiffbauer -shipbuilder
Schiffer -shipper; seaman Schiffmann -sailor
Schiffseigner -shipowner
Schiffsmakler -shipbroker; shipping agent
Schilderer -sign painter
Schilderhersteller -sign maker
Schindeldecker -roofer of shingle roofs
Schindelmacher -shingle maker
Schinder -renderer; skinner
Schindler -roofer; skinner
Schinner -renderer; skinner
Schirmmacher -umbrella maker
Schirrmacher -wagon maker
Schirrmeister -master wagon maker
Schlachter -butcher
Schlaechter -butcher
Schlachtmann -butcher
Schlachtwanter -clothing wholesaler
Schlafbaas -innkeeper
Schlechter -butcher
Schlegel -turnkey of a prison
Schleifer -polisher
Schleusserin -maid
Schlieper -knifemaker; cutler
Schliesser -church administrator
Schlieter -merchant
Schlossaufseher -castle keeper; castellan
Schlossbesitzer( in) -castle owner
Schlosser -locksmith; mechanic; tinkerer
Schlossherr( in) -castle owner
Schlotfeger -chimneysweep
Schlotthauer -locksmith
Schlueter, -turnkey in a prison
Schlupwaechter -night watchman
Schm. -abbr. for Schmeid (smith)
Schmelzarbeiter, Schmelzer -(s) melter
Schmi( e) d( t) -smith
Schn. -abbr. for Schneider (tailor)
Schneider -tailor
Schnellweber -machine weaver
Schnider -tailor
Schni( t) tger, Schni( t) tker -woodworker; joiner
Schnitter -harvest hand
Schnittwarenhaendler -drygoods (cloth) merchant
Schnitzer, Schnitzker, Schnitzler -woodcarver
Schnuerer -lacemaker
Schnurmacher -lacemaker
Schnyder -tailor
Schoband -skinner's helper
Schoeffe -member
Schoeffen-, Schoeffenmeister -foreman of small claims court
Schoeffler, Schoeffler -bowlmaker
choenfaerber -dyer of colored goods
Schoepe -member of small claims court; lay juryman;
councilman
Schoesser -tax collector
Scholz -village mayor; magistrate
Schomaker -shoemaker
Schoenbeck -pastry baker
Schoenfaerber -dyer of colored goods
Schoolapper -shoe cobbler
Schopenhauer -wooden scoop maker
Schopper -ship's carpenter
Schornsteinfeger -chimneysweep
Schosserheber -tax collector
Schoesser-tax collector
Schotte -peddler
Schottler -turner; key maker
Schottilier -turner; carpenter
Schrader -tailor; cutter
Schrannengast -grain merchant
Schreiber -clerk; business manager
Schreibmeist -master of writing
Schreiner -joiner; woodworker
Schriftfuehrer( in) -corresponding secretary
Schriftleiter( in) -editor of journal
Schriftsetzer -typesetter
Schrobber -wool weaver
Schrobelmacher -loom maker
Schroder, Schroeder -tailor
Schroepfer -blood-letter
Schroeer -tailor
Schroeter -tailor; carter; driver; cooper
Schryffeyne( r) -clerk
Schubart( h), Schubert( h), Schubring -shoemaker
Schuchard, Schucherd, Schuchmann, Schuckert -shoemaker
Schuessler -bowl maker
Schuetze -hunter; (mil.) rifleman
Schuhflicker -shoe cobbler
Schuhknecht -apprentice shoemaker
Schuhllapper -shoe cobbler
Schuhmacher -shoemaker
Schuhmann -shoemaker; seller of shoes
Schuhputzer -shoe-shiner
Schuhwerk -shoemaker
Schulapper -shoe cobbler
Schuldenbote -debt collector
Schuldiener -schoolteacher
Schuldner -debter
Schulgehilfe -teacher's assistant
Schullhalter -schoolteacher
Schuljunge, Schulknabe -schoolboy
Schullehrer( in) -schoolteacher
Schulleiter( in) -school principal
Schulmaedel -schoolgirl
Schulmeister -schoolmaster
Schulrat( h) -school board member
Schulsschwester -teaching nun
Schulte, Schultheiss -appointed village mayor; magistrate;
head man of the village
governing body; originally tax collector for the ruler
Schul( t) z( e) -appointed village mayor; magistrate; head man
of the village governing body;
originally tax collector for the ruler
Schumacher -shoemaker
Schumann -shoemaker; seller of shoes
Schuerken -toothache
Schuessler -bowlmaker
Schuster -shoemaker
Schutenmaker -boat builder
Schuetze -hunter; (mil.) rifleman
Schutzverwandter -protected non-citizen with rights of a
citizen
Schuwarte -shoemaker
Schwaiger -shepherd
Schwanenwirt( h) -proprietor of the Swam Inn
Schwaer -illness
schwarzer Tod -black death; plague
Schwarzefaerber, -dyer of dark goods
Schwarzgiesser -iron smelter
Schwa( e) che -debility; weakness
Schweiger -cowherd; cheesemaker
Schweinehaendler -hog trader
Schwein( e) hirt( h) -pigherd
Schweisser -welder
Schwendimann -settler on recently burned woodland
Schwer( d) tfeger -armorer
Schwertbbauer -farmer on farm inherited through the male
line
Schwoedler -white tanner
Seelbinder -ropemaker
Seelotse -sea pilot
Seelsorger -minister; chaplain; spiritual guide
Seemann -seaman
Segenschmi( e) d -saw smith
Segesser, Segisser -scythe maker
Segner -fisherman
Seidenneger -silk embroiderer
Seidenspuler -silk reeler
Seidenst( r) icker( in) -silk embroiderer
Seidenweber( in) -silk weaver
Seifensieder -soapboiler
Seigermacher -watchmaker
Seigerschmi( e) d -clockmaker
Seigersteller -caretaker of the village clock
Seigner -fisherman
Seiler -ropemaker; rope merchant
Seimtauer -tanner
Sekelmeister -master sackmaker; treasurer
Sekretaer( in) -secretary
Selcher -butcher; smoker of meat
Selzer -salt merchant
Sendbote -messenger
Senker -fisherman
Senkler -bracelet maker
Senn -(Alpine) herdsman; dairyman
Senner( in) -(Alpine) herdsman; dairyman/ maid
Sensal -real estate agent
Sensenbrenner, -schmi( e) d -scythe maker
Sentrin -female cowherd
Sesterer -cooper
Settbur -farm administrator
Setzer -typesetter
Seuner -fisherman
Sicherheitspolizei -security police
Sichter -harvester
Sieber -sievemaker; sieve worker in a mine
Siebmacher -sievemaker
Siebmann -sieve worker in a mine
Sieche -sick person
Siedler -settler
Siegrist -church sexton
Siberarbeiter -silver worker
Silberbote -messenger
Silberschmi( e) d -silversmith
Simmermacher -sievemaker
Skribent -writer; scribbler
Smalweber -weaver of strips of linen
Smerde -slave
Smersnider -bacon merchant
Snitker -joiner
Snopel -vagabond
Soeldner -mercenary soldier; day laborer
Soldat -soldier
Soeldner -mercenary soldier; day laborer
Solepumper -helper at a salt well
Sommerkrankheit, -plague -summer complaint
Sonnenkraemer, -kramer -peddler
Sonnenwirt( h) -proprietor of the Sun Inn
Spangenmacher -brass worker; clasp maker
Spanner -freight hauler
Spediteur -freight forwarder
Speisewirt( h) -restauranteur
Spenelmacher, Spener -needle maker
Spengler -plumber; tinsmith
Spenhauer -carpenter
Spetter -market servant
Spettreiter -messenger
Spezereikraemer, -kramer -spice merchant
Spicker -cottager
Spikermann -cottager
Spiegelmacher -mirror maker
Spiegelwirt( h) -proprietor of the Mirror Inn
Spielmann -minstrel
Spiessbuerger, Spiesser -city citizen with no horse; philistine
Spillmacker -tile maker
Spindelbauer -farmer on a farm inherited through the female
line
Spindelmacher, Spindler -wooden spindle maker
Spinner( in) -spinner
Spitalpfleger -male nurse; orderly
Spitalpflegerin -female practical nurse
Spitzenhaendler -lace dealer
Splettstoesser -shingle merchant
Splittgerber -tilemaker; shingle merchant
Spurmann -hunter
Stabhalter -administrator and judge
Stabherr -judge
Staebler -peddler; beggar
Stabschlaeger -cutter of wood for barrel staves
Stabsfeldwebel -(mil.) master sergeant
Stabkapitaen, -kapitain -(mil.) staff captain
Stabskeller -court official
Stabuel -beggar
Stabulier( er) -peddler
Stadler -keeper of the tax granary
Stadtbeamter -municipal official
Stadtbewohner -inhabitant of a city
Stadtbote -town messenger; beadle
Stadtdiener -town worker
Stadtknecht -town worker
Stadtrichter -municipal judge
Stadtschreiber -municipal clerk
Stadtvogt -town magistrate
Staebler -peddler; beggar
Staettenbesitzer -owner of a place
Staffhauer -maker of barrel staves
Staffirmaler -whitewasher
Stahlschmi( e) d -steelsmith
Stallbursche, -junge, -knecht -stable boy
Stallmagd -milkmaid
Stallmeister -equerry; master of the horse
Stalmenger -ironmonger
Staerkefabrikant -starch manufacturer
Staettenbesitzer -owner of a place
Statthalter -governor; vicar
Statzauner -pharmacist
Staudenmeier -shrubkeeper; gardener
Staufer -potter; cupmaker
Staupe, boese -festering sores and fever; child's convulsions
Stavener -farmer
Sterrtenmacher -pencilmaker
Steinbrecher -quarryman
Steinbrenner -maker of lime
Steinbroecker, -bruecker -bridge paver
Steiner -field border-stone watcher
Steingutarbeiter, -brenner -stoneware potter
Steingutwarenhaendler -stoneware dealer
Steinhacker -stonecutter
Steinhauer -stonecutter
Steinmetz -stonemason
Steinschneider -gem cutter; lapidary
Steinwirker -stoneworker
Steinworte -bricklayer
Stellmacher -wheelwright; wagonmaker
Stelzer -stilt-walker
Stengelbauer -poor farmer
Sterbenslaeufe -epidemic of plague
Sticker = embroiderer, Stickerin = embroideress
Stirnwirt( h) -proprietor of Star Inn
Sterzer -tramp
Steuerbeamte( r) -tax official
Steuerberater( in) -tax advisor
Steuerbote -tax messenger
Steuereinnehmer -tax collector
Steuerheber -tax assessor
Steuermann -ship or boat pilot; helmsman
Stieffeler -maker of vineyard stakes
Stiftenmacher -pencilmaker
Stiftungsmitglied -member of board of trustees of a
foundation
Stille, in der -quietly (e. g. without the tolling of bells at a
funeral/ wedding)
Stillfaut( h) -chairman of a secret court
Stillstaende-church elder
Stirnstosser -veil merchant
Stoecker -jailer
Stockjunge -rifle cleaning-rod boy
Stoellner -mine owner
Stoker -brandy distiller
Storger -market barker
Straehler -wool carder
Straehlmacher -combmaker; grapeshot maker
Strassen-, bauer -road builder
Strassen-, Strassenfeger -street sweeper
Strassen-, Strassenkehrer -street sweeper
Strassenkoetter -cottager living by the road
Stratener -peasant on a small farm
Stricker( in) -knitter
Strohdachdecker -fletcher; thatcher
Strohhutfabrikant -straw hat manufacturer
Strohmenger -straw merchant
Strohschneider -one who cuts straw for thatched roofs
Strumpflismer( in) -stocking knitter
Strumpfsticker( in) -stocking knitter
Strumpfweber( in) -stockingweaver
Stubenmeister -proprietor of an inn with a meeting room for
guild or society members
Stueck-, Stueckwerker -piece worker
Stuenschenmacher -cooper of small buckets
Stuerzner -plumber
Stuhler, Stuhlmacher -joiner; chairmaker
Stuhlschreiber -court recorder
Stukkateur -stucco worker
Stuler -chairmaker
Stuenschenmacher -cooper of small buckets
Stuerzner -plumber
Stutenbaecker, -becker -pastry baker
Stuttknecht -stud horse groom
Stuurmann -boatman
Substitut -young pastor who takes over for and older pastor
still officially in office
Suchmann -hunter
Sudler -cook of offal
Suesskuechler -pastry baker
Suwestecher -hog castrator
Sween -swineherd

S

T U
Tabagist, Tabakist -proprietor of a tobacco shop Tabaksarbeiter, Tabakpflanzer -tobacco worker/ planter
Tobaksteuereinnehmer -tobacco tax collector
Tabourin -drummer
Tabulettkraemer, -kramer -peddler of pills
Taedinger -business agent; mediator
Taenzer( in) -dancer
Taeschner -pursemaker
Tafelitenkraemer, -kramer, Tafelit( t) -door-to-door salesman
Tagloehner( in), -day-laborer, one who works small jobs paid
by the day
Tagner( in) -day-laborer, one who works small jobs paid by
the day
Tallierer -peddler
Talmueller -miller in the valley
Tambour -(mil.) drummer
Taenzer( in) -dancer
Tapetenmaler -wallpaper painter
Tapazier( er) -wallpaper hanger
Taschner, Taeschnerd -leather bagmaker
Tater -gypsy
Taubenwirt( h) -proprietor of the Dove Inn
Tauer -tanner
Taufgesinnter -Anabaptist
Taun( n) er( in)-day-laborer, one who works small jobs paid by
the day
Taverner -innkeeper
Techniker( in) -technician
Teefuehrer, -f'hrer -tar hauler
Teerschweler -tar manufacturer
Tegtmaier -farm rent collector
Tellrer -peddler
Tepper -potter
Teufer -Anabaptist
Thalmueller, Thalm'ller -miller in the valley
Thaun( n) er( in) -day-laborer, one who works small jobs paid
by the day
Thierarzt -veterinarian
Thuchmacher -clothmaker
Tich( e) ler -tilemaker
Tierarzt -veterinarian
Tierausstopfer -taxidermist
Timmerman -carpenter
Tischer, Tischler, Tischmacher, Tischner -tablemaker; joiner
Toedde -peddler
Toepfer -potter
Torfstecher -peatcutter
Torhueter, -mann -gatekeeper
Torschreiber -gate toll collector
Torwaechter, -waechter -gatekeeper
Totenausleger -undertaker
Totenbeschauer -physician attesting death; medical examiner;
coroner
To( d) tengraber, -graeber -gravedigger; cemetery caretaker
Totenmann -undertaker
Trabant -foot soldier
Traeger -pallbearer
Traexl -wood turner
Traiteur, Trakteur -master cook
Traubenweber -cloth weave
Trautgesell( e) -trusted journeyman
Trautherr -trusted master
Trautmann -trusted man
Traexl, Traxler -wood turner
Trechsler -wood turner
Trimmer -freight hauler
Trissler -treasurer
Troedler -peddler
Trommler -drummer
Trompeter -trumpeter
Troner -peddler
Tropfhaeusler -cottager; tenant with a small house
Trossknecht -baggage servant; wagoner
Truchsess -food procurer of a ruler or noble
Truhenmacher -trunkmaker
Trumpter -trumpeter
Trunkenbold -drunkard
Tschismenmacher -bootmaker of women's long boots
Tschudi, Tschudy -judge
Tuchhaendler -cloth merchant; draper
Tuchmacher -cloth maker; clothier
Tuchscherer -cloth cutter
Tuchwalker -fuller
Tuchweber( in) -cloth weaver
Tueffelmacher -slipper maker
Tuencher -whitewasher
Tueoedde, Tueoette -peddler
Tuerhueter -guard
Tuermer -watchman in a tower; bellringer
Tuefelmacher -slippermaker
Tuencher -whitewasher
T'uedde, Tuette -peddler
Turmvader, -vater -jailer
Tuunker -gardener

T U V Uebersetzer( in) -translator
Uhrmacher -clockmaker; watchmaker
Ulan -(mil.) lancer
Ulenbecker -potter
Ulner -potter
Umsiedler -resettler; refugee
Unglueck -bad luck; epilepsy
Unterfeldwebel -sergeant
Unterhaendler-negotiator; agent
Unterkaeufer -broker
Untermieter( in) -subtenant; roomer; lodger
Untermueller -miller on the lower part of a stream
Unternaehmer -entrpreneur
Unteroffizier -(mil.) non-commisioned officer; petty officer;
sergeant
Unterschultheiss-deputy mayor; vice-mayor
Untertan -subject; serf
Untervogt -assistant bailiff; deputy sheriff
Unvermoegende( r)-without property; pauper
UO -abbr. for Unteroffizier (non-commissioned officer)
Urheber( in) -author

U V W
Vaagd -bailiff; sheriff; constable; representative of the ruler; administrator
Vastbecker -pastry baker
Verbrecher( in) -criminal
Vere -ferryman
Verfasser( in) -author
Verheiler -animal castrator
Verkaeufer( in)-sales clerk
Verleiher, Verleyher -investor
Verler -hog merchant
Vermieter( in) -renter; landlord/ lady
Vermittler -marriage broker; matchmaker
Verschiedene -deceased person
Versorgungsempfaenger -pensioner, welfare recipient
Versteigerer -auctioneer
Verwalter -administrator
Verwandte -relative
Verweser -administrator; vicar
Verzimmerer -timberer in a mine
Veterinaer (arzt), Veterinaerarzt) -veterinarian
Vetinkmaker -wagonmaker
Viehhaendler, -cattle dealer
Viehhirt( e) -cowherd
Viehknecht -cattle herdsman
Viertelbauer -farmer of a 1/ 4 sized farm
Visitator -church census taker
Viztum -deputy of the ruler
Vizebuergermeister -deputy mayor
Vocker -wholesaler
Voerradesmann -guardian
Vogler -bird catcher; fowler
Vogt -bailiff; sheriff; constable; representative of the ruler
Volksheer -militia
Vollbauer, -erbe, -maier, spaenner-farmer on a full-sized farm
Vribunde -free farmer
Vucker -wholesaler

V W Y
Waagemeister -weighmaster Wachsspinner -wax-spinner
Waechter, Wachtgaenger -watchman; security guard
Wachtmeister -police patrolman; cavalry sergeant
Wachtsoldat -(mil) guard
Waechter -watchman; security guard
Waegner -wagonbuilder; cartwright
Waemstler -offal dealer
Waerter( in) -caretaker
Waescher( in) -launderer
Waffenfabrikant -armorer
Waffenschmi( e) d -shieldmaker; armorer
Wagenknecht -wagonhand
Wagenmeister -master wagon builder; master cartwright;
(mil.) wagonmaster
Wagenpfleger -auto mechanic
Waggonmacher -car maker
Wagler, Wagener, Waegner -wagonbuilder; cartwright
Wagnermeister -master wagon builder; master cartwright
Wahrsfrau -nurse; caretaker
Wahrsmann -caretaker
Waidner -dyer
Waise( r) -orphan
Waisenpfleger( in) -guardian; caretaker of orphans
Waldbewohner -forest inhabitant
Waldgrebe -overseer of wood in a forest
Waldhaeuer-woodcutter
Waldhornist -hunting horn player
Waldhueter -forest guard
Waldschlaeger -woodcutter
Waldschuetze-forest guard
Walker -person who softens cloth; fuller
Waemstler -offal dealer
Wanderbursch( e), Wanderer -journeyman; traveler
Wandersmann -journeyman
Wandmacher -cloth weaver
Wandschneider -clothmaker
Wannenkraemer, -kramer -peddler
Wantsnider -clothmaker
Wardein -mint inspector
Waerter( in) -caretaker
Wartfrau -midwife
Waschmagd -washerwoman
Waescher( in) -launderer
Wasenmeister -skinner; renderer
Wassermueller -water-mill operator
Wasserzieher -water carrier to the public baths
Watmanger -cloth merchant
Wattmann -cloth wholesaler
Waydjaeger -hunter
Weber -weaver
Wechsler -money-changer; money lender
Wegewarter -road watchman
Wegmacher -road repairman
Wegmeister -road supervisor
Wehener -wagonbuilder; cartwright
Wehenmutter, Wehfrau -midwife
Wehmutter -midwife
Wehrmann -soldier
Wehrmeister -forester
Weibel -sergeant; court usher
Weid( e) mann -hunter
Weinbauer, -berger -vinedresser
Weinbleicher -wine bleacher (adulterator)
Weiner, Weinert -wagonbuilder; cartwright
Weinfuehrer-proprietor of a wine inn
Weingaertner-vinedresser
Weingeber -innkeeper
Weinhaendler -wine merchant
Weinherr-wine wholesaler
Weinreber -vine dresser
Weinschen( c) k( er) -proprietor of a wine tavern; wine waiter
Weinsticher -wine tester
Weinvisierer -wine inspector
Weinzapf -proprietor of a wine tavern
Weinzi( e) rl -vine dresser
Weisemutter -midwife
Weissbinder -copper; whitewasher
Weissdreher -ceramic worker
Weissgerber -tanner of fine leather
Weldeme( i) ster -policeman
Wendkraemer, -kramer -cloth merchant
Wenster -butcher
Werghaendler -flax dealer
Werkfuehrer, Werkmeister -factory foreman; Administrator
Wetschenmacher -bagmaker
Wetteherr -administrator of a guild
Wetzer -grinder; polisher
Weyner -wagonmaker; coach builder
Wildbrethaendler -venison dealer
Wilddieb, Wilderer -game poacher
Wildenhirt( e) -horse groom
Wildfoerster -forest ranger
Wildhirt -horse herder
Wildheger -gamekeeper
Wildheuer -grass cutter
Wildner -game hunter
Wildwerker -furrier
Windmueller -windmill operator
Wingertsmann -vintner
Winkler -merchant
Winzer -vine dresser
Wirker -worker; laborer
Wirt( h)( in) -innkeeper; landlord/ lady
Wirtschaefterin, -schafterin, -housekeeper
Wissler -painter
Witmenger -wood merchant
Wittgrefe -overseer of wood in a forest
Wittib -widow
Wittiber, Wittler, Wittling, Wittmann -widower
Wit( t) we( r) -widow( er)
Wobber -wool weaver
Wochenpflegerin -obstetric nurse
Wohlhueter -foremen of woodcutters
Wollbereiter -wool preparer
Wolldeckenmacher -wool blanket maker
Wollenweber -woolweaver
Wollhaendler -wool dealer
Wollner -wool carder
Wollschlaeger -wool cleaner
Wollspinner -wool spinner
Wooler -wool carder
Wucherer -money-lender; usurer
Wuellenweber -wool weaver
Wuellner -maker of woolen clothes
Wuergengel -plague epidemic
Wuerth -innkeeper
Wuellenweber -woolweaver
Wuellner -maker of woolen clothes
Wundarzt -surgeon
Wurmfieber -diarrhea; typhoid fever
Wurster, Wurstmacher -sausage-maker
Wuert( h) -innkeeper
Wurzkreamer, -kramer, -kraemer, Wurzler, Wurzmann,
Wurzmenger -herb merchant
Wyrt -innkeeper

W
Y Z Yngwuenner -tax collector
Y Z A
Zacher, Zacherweber -weaver Zahlmeister -paymaster
Zahnaerzt( in) -dentist
Zahnbrecher -dentist, male
Zainer -basket weaver
Zajemacher -wool weaver
Zapfenwirt( h) -proprietor of a beer tavern
Zauberer -sorcerer
Zauer -clothmaker
Zechner -groom
Zeichnenlehrer( in) -drawing teacher
Zeichemmeister -weights and measures official
Zeichner( in) -graphic artist; drafter
Zeidelmann, Zeidler -beekeeper
Zeiner -basket weaver
Zeitungshaendler -newspaper dealer
Zeitungsfrau, -junge -newspaper carrier
Zeitungsverleger -newspaper publisher
Zeller -hermit monk; farmer of a large farm
Zeltknecht -tent-hand
Zementi( e) rer -cement worker
Zengener -tongsmith
Zensor -church censor
Zerenner -iron founder; smelter; blacksmith
Zeukraemer, -kramer, -kr„ mer -cloth merchant
Zeugmacher -clothmaker
Zeugschmi( e) d -toolsmith
Zeugwahrter -cloth inspector
Ziechner -linemaker
Ziegelagent -brick dealer
Ziegelarbeiter, -brenner -brickmaker; tilemaker
Ziegeldecker -roofer
Ziegeleibesitzer -owner of a brickyard
Zieg( e) ler -brickmaker
Ziegenmenger -goat trader
Ziegerer -cheesemaker
Zielke -cabbage farmer
Zigeuner( in) -gypsy
Zimberman( n), Zimmermann -carpenter
Zimmerer -carpenter Zimmergesell( e) -apprentice carpenter
Zimmerhauer -lumberjack
Zimmerknecht -apprentice carpenter
Zimmerling -carpenter
Zimmermaedchen -domestic servant, female
Zimmermaler -interior painter
Zimmermeister -master carpenter
Zinkenist -bugler
Zinsbauer -farmer who pays tithes
Zinsherr -lessor; landlord
Zinswucherer -userer
Zirkelschmi( e) d -compass-maker
Zitzweber -cotton weaver
ZM -abbr. for Zimmermann (carpenter)
Zmurde -Slavic servant
Zoeller -customs official
Zoellner -toll collector
Zoewerer -weaver
Zofe -chambermaid
Zollbeamte -customs official
Zolleinnehmer( in) -toll collector; collector of customs duty
Zoeller -customs official , toll collector
Zollfahnder -customs inspector
Zollinspektor -customs inspector
Zollmeister -customs officer
Zommacher -beltmaker
Zoewere -weaver
Zuechner -linenweaver
Zuechter -breeder
Zuechtiger -hangman
Zuckerbaecker -pastry baker
Zuckerimporteur -sugar importer
Zuckersieder -sugar maker
Zuechner -linenweaver
Zuechter -breeder
Zeuchtiger -hangman
Zugeherin, Zugehfrau -cleaning woman
Zueglin -trainee
Zunftbuerger citizen and guild member
Zunftmeister -chief warden of a guild; master of a guild
Zunftpfleger -warden of a guild
Zwillinge -twins
Zwirner, Zwirnmacher -threadmaker
Zwischendeckspassagier -steerage passenger

Contributed by Brigitte Gastel Lloyd

Navigation Panel

A - B - C - E - F - I - J - K - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - Y - Z