The Rocks
Plantation in Upper St. Johns Parish
Orangeburg Co. once Berkeley County
South Carolina
   
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A SKETCH
by
(Mrs. A. P. Leise Palmer Gaillard)
August 11, 1942
   
Foreword
     The great Santee-Cooper hydroelectric project has destroyed not only a beautiful country, but a unique mode of life; and many interesting old houses, redolent of a gracious hospitality, a serene charm of living, are only piles of rubbish.
     To preserve the story of one of these and of the people who built it is the object of this sketch. A similar attempt a few years ago "The Story of Springfield Plantation" was welcomed with so much enthusiasm, it is hoped this will be of as much value.    L.P.G.
      This has no pretense to literary merit. It is purely and simply my recollection of a life, that has completely vanished, scribbled down just as things came to mind, for the benefit of this younger generation "bone of our bone, flesh of our flesh".
 
 
3 Black & White
 
 
The Rocks
     This plantation situated on the eastern edge of Orangeburg County,  once a part of Berkeley County, is now owned by J. Rutledge Connor and to save the venerable dwelling house from a watery grave in the muddy waters of the Santee, at great expense, he has moved it about a mile and a half, and established it on a part of Belmont Plantation once the home of David Gaillard, son of Captain Peter who settled the place and built the home “The Rocks.” 
     Three men, Mr. Samuel DuBose, Prof. Frederick Porcher, and Thomas Gaillard, son of Captain Peter Gaillard,  have done much to record the history of Upper St. John’s Parish and from their labors this little sketch has been compiled.  Thomas Gaillard has left some beautiful, executed family charts and a manuscript containing the history of the Huguenots in South Carolina, the Huguenot colony of New Bordeaux near Abbeville, and the history of the Gaillard Family.  Several copies of this manuscript are in existence. Arthur P. Gaillard, great grandson of Captain Peter Gaillard who built "The Rocks" has one and the chart containing the record of the Gaillard's from the immigrant, Peter of Cherneux, Poictou, France down to about 1847. To help the younger generations to bridge this gap to the present time 1942 is my object in this preliminary to the story of "The Rocks.” 
     I have been told that the late Mrs. Samuel Gaillard Stoney of Charleston,  Miss Arabella Mazyck, and others claim to have discovered that our records are all wrong and that our emigrant ancestor is not Peter Gaillard, but Joachim. 
     Referring to grand Uncle Thomas Gaillard's chart, we find under Gaillard caption: Joachim Gaillard, born Montpellier en Languedoc, France, his wife Esther Paparel, two sons: (1) John and (2) Peter. In the list of French and Swiss refugees on Santee River who applied for rights of citizenship 1695.  Joachim Gaillard, the son of Jean Gaillard and Marie Gaillard of Montpellier en Languedoc, France Ester Gaillard wife Joachim Gaillard, the daughter of Andre Paparel and Catherine Paparel, of Bouin en Foret, France  Two sons: (1) John and (2) Peter, (Jean and Pierre) (this list written in French). In this list of inhabitants of Santee, we find: Pierre (Peter) Gaillard, born at Cherneux, Poictou, France, son of  Pierre Gaillard and Jaquette Jolain. 
     Elizabeth LeClair wife of Peter (Pierre) and Clermonde their daughter born in Carolina.  Elizabeth and Martha Melet daughters of Elizabeth LeClair by previous marriage to John Melet, born in New York.
     Uncle Thomas seems to have made extensive research and to have been most careful to make no claims that he could not find proof for.  He says that the above Peter Gaillard and his wife Elizabeth LeClair appear to have been the ancestors of  the Gaillard in South Carolina, Alabama, and Mississippi. This Peter lived on the Santee river or in its vicinity in the year 1695. His children lived in St. James Parish so we may infer he lived and died there.  His son Theodore lived and died on a plantation in Wambaw Swamp about 6 miles south from the Santee river which may have been an estate of inheritance from his father Peter.  The will of this Theodore dated 1781 is now in our possession and the account of settlement of his estate, kept for 16 years by his son Peter, his executor.
      No official records were found of the other children of Peter Gaillard and Elizabeth LeClair except their daughter Clermonde.  Tradition however has given them  four sons: (1) Bartholomew, (2) John, (3) Theodore, and (4) Tacitus.  Information on these sons can found in the manuscript of Uncle Thomas Gaillard, of which we have a copy, down to 1847.  Cousin Alice Palmer (nee Gaillard), daughter of Col. Peter C. Gaillard of Charleston, owns a copy which she carried much farther, it is now in the owned by Miss Anna Sinkler of Eutawville.  Mrs. Samuel G. Stoney of Charleston owns another copy.  Yet another copy made by Miss Rebecca Gaillard, daughter of Samuel Porcher Gaillard, is now owned by Mrs. Paul Kennedy (nee Gaillard) granddaughter of above Samuel Porcher Gaillard of Spartanburg.
     From this point, Theodore Gaillard of Wambaw Plantation, Uncle Thomas proceeds with an assurance that carries authority.  Theodore Gaillard of Wambaw married (1st) Margaret Serre daughter of Noah Serre and Catherine Challion. Noah Serre and C. C. are listed among those who applied for naturalization and their infant daughter Margaret born in South Carolina. Noah Serre was born in Luminie en Brie France, son of Claude Serre and Ester Gilliet his wife. The children of Theodore Gaillard and Margaret Serre were Samuel, Theodore, John, Charles, Elizabeth, Catherine. His second wife was Lydia Peyre daughter of David Peyre and his wife Judith (not known). Their children were Lydia, David, Peter. Much information about all these will be found in the manuscript history of Gaillard family, we will only continue with Peter builder of "The Rocks".  It is recorded that his father Theodore was a man of wealth, acquired by indigo and rice, and possessed of a large estate. As each child attained maturity he was given an independent fortune.
     Peter Gaillard, youngest child of Theodore Gaillard of Wambaw and Lydia Peyre was born in the year 1757 at his father's home in Wambaw Swamp in the parish of St. James, Santee. He married in 1782 Elizabeth Porcher (born in 1760) daughter of Peter Porcher of Peru (born 1726 died 1781) and Elizabeth Cordes.  She died in Pineville 1804 (Elizabeth Porcher Gaillard lived at White Plains Plantation on Murray's Ferry road in St. Stephens Parish. He and Elizabeth had 12 children, eight lived to maturity five son and three daughters.
   
Children of Peter Gaillard and Elizabeth Porcher
     1. Peter married Elizabeth Gourdin.
     2. Elizabeth married John Stoney.
     3. Lydia married Wm. E. Snowden.
     4. James married (1) Harriet Porcher (2) Henrietta
         Ravenel, nee Gourdin.
     5. Thomas married Mariane Palmer.
     6. Catherine married Thomas Porcher.
     7. David married Elizabeth A. Palmer.
     8. Samuel married Henrietta Palmer, Samuel born
         1801 died 1830.
 
     Peter Gaillard's father, Theodore, was always a Tory but after his death Peter joined General Marion and fought with great gallantry, as one of his captains.  We still have a double-barreled gun with a ramrod, given to Captain Peter by his father-in-law Peter Porcher of Peru Plantation.  It was made in London in 1787 and has on it a small brass plate with "Porcher" engraved on it. After the Revolutionary War, there was no longer any bounty on indigo from the British Government.  For several years “freshets” destroyed other crops (for a more detailed account see Uncle Thomas' book).  Captain Peter was in such financial straits he went to Charleston and turned over his property and slaves to his creditors.  Uncle Thomas gives a graphic account of his creditors returning the slaves to him and his purchase of a tract of land in Upper St. John’s, Berkeley, and how it was partly paid for with a Louisiana Lottery ticket. Captain Peter planted the first crop of cotton on "The Rocks" in 1795.  Tacitus Gaillard owned one tract of land of The Rocks, a surveyor and son of Peter the immigrant. Another tract was bought from Margaret Cantey.  It was made up of several different tracts.  The Fludd’s, who at one time owned Black Branch Plantation always spoke of it as The Rocks, no one seems to know why. (Mr. Samuel DuBose in his pamphlet "St. Stephens Parish" speaks in highest praise of Captain Peter Gaillard: how he planted cotton in 1795 and paid for the place with the first crop:- of his neatness and methodical ways of planting and the orderly way in which all work was conducted. He said "some might equal The Rocks but none could excel the place and owner"). As mentioned before Peter Gaillard married Elizabeth Porcher daughter of Peter Porcher of Peru. As a piece of information, the bridge that crosses Santee River near the little town of St. Stephens is built on a part of Peru plantation. Captain Peter not only paid all his debts but settled each of his four older sons on a plantation and gave them slaves. To each of his three daughters he gave a house in Charleston (see Uncle Thomas book) as follows: To his son Peter. Heyden Hill, sometimes called Iron Head. He married Elizabeth Gourdin and after her death Henrietta Gaillard widow of Joseph Somford Barker (see Gaillard Family, Uncle Thomas book). Peter Gaillard and Elizabeth Goudin's children were Eugene who married Camilla Richbourg, Harriet who married Samuel Stoney of Charleston. Elinor who married Thomas Porcher of Mexico plantation son of Samuel and Harriet Porcher. Their son William Mazyck, who never married, inherited Mexico plantation and after the house was burned by Hartwell and his Yankee soldiers returned to Mexico and lived in the overseer house until his death at the age of 90 in 1902. Daddy Pompey and Maum Charlotte, his wife, waited on Uncle Mazyck as long as they lived. Maum Charlotte kept the house and did the cooking.
     To return to the children of Captain Peter Gaillaid :-2. Elizabeth who married John Stoney. It was for her marriage November 27, 1805 that work on the Rocks house was hurried to completion. The tapestry picture of Bo-Peep and her sheep and lover, which hangs on the wall of our living room in an oval gilt frame was her work. A tiny steel engraving of her used to hang on the wall of the parlor at Belvedere:- a rather imposing looking lady. with a quite modern looking hair-do of a mass of curls piled high on the head. She is the ancestress of the Stoneys we all know (see Uncle Thomas book). Sam Stoney, author of Plantations of Carolina Low Country is her great grandson.
     3. Lydia married Wm. E. Snowden. Her daughter Anne was cousin Clermonde. Sinkler's mother. She. Anne Snowden. married Col. Peter Charles Gaillard, son of James Gaillard of Walnut Grove. Lydia is the ancestress of the Snowdens of Blue Hole, etc.
     4. James who was given Walnut Grove plantation or rather was first given Laurel Hill and then an exchange was made with his brother Thomas, He, James, married 1st Harriet Porcher, daughter of Samuel and Harriet Porcher of Mexico plantation. They bore Peter Charles who married Anne Snowden, Samuel Porcher who married first Mary Peyre and second Mary Gaillard: - Cousin Nenna and Lou's father, James, who married his first cousin Elizabeth Ann Gaillard daughter of Samuel  
Gaillard of The Rocks and Henrietta Palmer of Springfield. Arthur Philip who died unmarried. James Gaillard of Walnut Grove's second wife was Henrietta Gourdin who had married Dr. Ravenel and had one daughter Henrietta Ravenel. The children of James and Henrietta Ravenel were Christopher, who married Lydia, daughter of Samuel Gaillard of the Rocks; John who married first Elinor Porcher of Walworth and second Eliza Gaillard of Heydon Hill; Theodore, who married Marion Huger and moved to Alabama (I believe) his family after his death moved to Rome, Ga. I remember one of his daughters Patty being at the Rocks for a visit in the early 90s.
     5. Fifth child of Peter Gaillard and Elizabeth Porcher was Thomas, the much quoted Uncle Thomas of the Gaillard family book and chart. He married Marianne Palmer, daughter of Thomas Palmer of Gravel Hill plantation. His plantation was Laurel Hill. In the late forties, 1845 perhaps, he moved to Alabama. They had numerous children. I remember once Cousin Alice Palmer reading me a letter from his eldest daughter, cousin Nan Spratley. One of his daughters married a Howard (see book).
     6. The child of Peter and Elizabeth was Catherine who married John White and they were St. Clair White's parents. Another daughter married Lucas and was Lewis Lucas' mother (White Hall Plantation).
     7. David who was given Belmont plantation. He married 1st Elizabeth Ann Palmer of Springfield. They had one son, Joseph Peter, who died young. After her death he married Louisa DuBose, sister of Samuel DuBose whose pamphlets are such authority on our family history. I remember dining at Woodlawn plantation with Cousin Ellen Ravenel who was Mr. Samuel DuBose's daughter, and she read me a letter from her Aunt Louisa who was then a very old lady living in Winnsboro, and she wrote 
that she knew she had not long to live and was writing family history to Cousin Ellen that she wanted her to know. Cousin Ellen's mother was a daughter of Anne Palmer and O'Neill Gough Stevens:- this Anne Palmer was the second wife of Peter Gaillard of The Rocks. She was the daughter of John Palmer (my great grandfather) of Richmond plantation and Peter Gaillard was one of the executors of his will.
     8th Child of Peter and Elizabeth Gaillard was Samuel who married Henrietta Palmer of Springfield plantation.  He joined the navy; there is a letter here still to him from his father, telling him of Mr. John C. Calhoun being instrumental in getting him a berth as midshipman on the frigate Constitution. There were some of his letters at The Rocks but his nephew James (Arthur's father) thought best to burn them. I think there are also some of his letters at Numertia. His father Captain Peter wanted him to leave the navy but he would not do so until his father promised to leave him The Rocks. He died at the age of 29, leaving his widow and three daughters;- Elizabeth Ann who married James Gaillard of Walnut Grove, Lydia Catherine who married Christopher Gaillard of Walnut Grove, and Henrietta Samuella who married Henry Stevens and they lived at Northampton plantation which formerly belonged to Gen.Moultrie. James Gaillard came, after his marriage to Elizabeth Ann, to live at The Rocks and he bought from his wife's two sisters their shares in the estate and became its owner. James and Elizabeth Gaillard had 15 children. Several died in infancy. The two eldest were twins;- Harriet and Eliza. The latter died at the age of fifteen in1868. My mother, Margaret Alien Palmer, had taught as governess at The Rocks; and', when I was born in 1866, I was named for her Eliza. She was always called Lieze and I have always been so called. The family bible is here, with all the names in due order. I will only mention those who reached maturity, except Edmund the youngest child who died aged twelve from injuries resulting from a fall from a donkey.
     1. Harriet married Theodore Snowden, and had six children:- first Mary Lee, who married Wm. H. Sinkler and died December 24, 1898. Next James G., who married Laura Baker, and they have three children Barney, James, Jr. , and Virginia. Third, Theodore (Dee) married Amaryllis Jervey, no children. Four, Elizabeth (Bet) married Robert Haig, two children, Mary Lee and Alex. Five, Harriet Porcher, (Hallie) unmarried, lives in Charleston.  Six, Edmund, died quite young.
     2. Julia Cain married Henry Milner Palmer, lived at Poplar Hill. Two children Peter and Eliza died young, Then Henrietta (now dead) married Clarence Gourdin, two children - Wm. Gourdin married Marie Cosby, and Julia married Gregg. Next Mary Louise (dead) married John K. Gourdin, three children ElJule married Everett, Mary married Montgomery, Peter married ___________. Third James (dec'd.) married Annie Seabrook, two daughters. Fourth, Elizabeth, died 1898 unmarried. Fifth  
Harriet Jerman married Wm. H. Sinkler, four children - one daughter Elizabeth (dead), Clermonde married Norman Walsh, son. William Henry married Madeline Champy, two children, H. Claire and Wm. H, 5th - Elias Prioleau. Sixth Henry Milner married Elizabeth Spiers, three children, Peter unmarried, Julia married John Weiking, Mary married Fred Mishoe.
     3. Ida married K. Lewis Simons, Pond Bluff, nine children. One Keating L. married Mary Lee Crutchfield, nee ___________, no children, Houston, Tex.  Two Annie Cleland married Wm. P. Palmer, no children, widow, Eutawville, S.C., Three James Gaillard married Anna Burgess, one child Julia married Parker Talbert, one daughter Frances. Four, Edmund G. married Laura Slocum of Pittsburgh, no children. Five, Sarah L. died in infancy, Six, Edward T. married Marguerite Wilson, even children, Edward married Sarah Hume, Isaac unmarriedo Ida married M. H. Cole. Melvin, unmarried, Keating, James, Emily, adolescents. Seven Gennie married Charles T. Smith, Columbia, two sons Charles T. and K. Lewis. Eight, Joseph Palmer (dec'd.). Nine Julia Palmer, unmarried.
     4. Mary Smith (dec'd. ) unmarried.
     5. Arthur Philip married Leize Palmer, two children, Arthur P., Jr., twice married, Grace McNeill died October 1937, married September 19, 1939 Florence Cobb. Arthur Died at Veterans Hospital, Columbia, September 19, 1940. Margaret Alien, unmarried,
     6. Frances Gendron married Win, Shingler, one son Wm. Gendron born December 12, 1888. She died December 24, 1888. Wm, Gendron Shingler twice married, one daughter, one son.
     7. Henry Stevens married first Henrietta R, Cain, daughter of Joseph Cain and Mary Macbeth of Somerset plantation. She died on the first anniversary of their wedding December 1898. In November 1902 he married Maria Ravenel, daughter of Dr. Rene Ravenel and Isabelle DeVaux of Pooshee plantation. Henry Stevens Gaillard died September 17, 1903 at The Rocks.
     Arthur P. Gaillard. at this time, was Postmaster in Eutawville and living in the summer home owned by his father James Gaillard. After his brother Henry's death, he resigned as postmaster and moved back to The Rocks to be with his father and sister Mary and look after the work of the plantation, where he and his family lived until after his father's (James Gaillard) death, when The Rocks plantation was sold to T. L. Connor and the proceeds with the rest of the estate divided between the six heirs:- Mrs. Theodore Snowden of Charleston, Mrs. H. M. Palmer of Poplar Hill  
plantation, Mrs. K» Lewis Simons of Pond Bluff plantation, Arthur P. Gaillard, Mary S. Gaillard, Wm.  
Gendron Shingler, son of F. Gendron Gaillard and Wm. Shingler.
     After the division of the estate, Arthur Philip Gaillard and his wife Leize Palmer and their two children Arthur Philip, Jr. and Margaret Alien moved to Hagood, Sumter County, S.C., July 1907. In 1911 they moved to Ninety Six, Greenwood County, S.C. and the Hagood place was sold to BoFo Myers who still owns it. T. L. Connor gave The Rocks to his second son J. Rutledge Connor who married Estelle Harrison of Fairfield County, Ridgeway or Winnsboro, I am not quite sure which. They improved The Rocks house, installing electricity and water system, built new front porch and double brick steps and did a great deal to beautify the grounds.
     When the curse of Santee Cooper Authority descended on the land, The Rocks, like many other beautiful old homes was sold to the S.C. Authority but The Rocks house was saved from destruction by Rutledge Connor, at great expense, having it moved about 1 mile and a half or perhaps three quarters to a part of Belmont plantation which he owned. Now the muddy waters of the Santee sweep over what was once the lovely expanse of water at the back of the house which we knew as the 
little pond and the big pond, with a causeway between, which Mrs. Coxe said was as lovely as the far famed Addison's Walk in England, and over the lawn on which so many tilts and tournaments took place, where brave and skillful knights won the right to crown fair maids "Queens of Beauty". Back of the house, down to the edge of the little pond stretched the old garden made by my Aunt Henrietta Palmer, wife of Samuel Gaillard, son of Captain Peter. I remember well when I came there, a bride in 1890 there were still remnants of Aunt Henrietta's garden, two roots of a LaMarque rose which had once covered a summer house just back of the dwelling, a Zephyrina rose near the back steps and a 
Sweet Olive tree on the west of the house, which bloomed in November and was so fragrant the odor was perceptible as you entered the "woods gate" to the lawn nearly half a mile away from the tree. Down on the edge of the pond near the blacksmith shop was a flowering pomegranate. These were all that was left of Aunt Henrietta's garden in my recollection. My mother-in-law, her daughter, I always called Aunt Bet, although she was really my first cousin and I also called her two sisters Aunt:- Aunt Lyd Gaillard of Numertia and Aunt Etta Stevens of Northampton. My father having married late in life, I was much nearer in age to the daughters of these ladies than to them; and I just called them by the names the other girls used. Then too Aunt Bet and Aunt Lyd wrote to me (then a little girl living in Richmond, Va.) occasionally and always signed the letters Aunt. When Arthur and I were married in 1890 and came to The Rocks to live, there were only Uncle James and Aunt Bet, Mary, Henry 
and Gen. (Wm. Gendron Shingler, son of Frances Gendron, youngest daughter of Jas. and Eliz. Gaillard) She died on Christmas Eve twelve days after Gen's birth in 1888, Mary had the entire charge of Gen until he was old enough to be off to school; after that he spent his vacations with his father in Ashburn, Ga. He had married again and had two daughters. Mary took Gen out to visit his father once or twice when he was a little fellow.
     In 1892 we started to build our own house at Lime Spring and, after delays caused by storms, finished it and moved into it in November 1894. In June 1896, Aunt Bet died. She and Uncle James had celebrated their 50th wedding anniversary in 1895. Only three of the big family were now left in the old home; Uncle James, Mary, Henry and Gen. In November 1897 Henry married Henrietta Ravenel Cain, daughter of Jos. P. Cain and Mary Macbeth Cain. So another bride came to The Rocks. Her time there was very brief; on the first anniversary of their wedding, clad in her bridal attire, she was laid to rest in the Rocks Church Yard. On November 1902 Henry married Maria Ravenel, daughter of Dr. Rene Ravenel of Pooshee Plantation, and Isabelle DeVaux of Belle Isle. Their married life was as brief as his first marriage as Henry died September 1903. Uncle James and Mary were 
thus left alone at The Rocks. Gen had gone off to school, someone had to be with them as Uncle James was then over 80 years of age.
     Arthur was then postmaster in Eutawville and we were living in The Rocks summer house. None of the younger members of the family (grandsons I mean) were so situated that they could assume the responsibility at The Rocks, and after consulting with my father and Cousin Henry Palmer, Arthur's brother-in-law, and by their advice, Arthur went back to The Rocks to try to help his father in any way he could. We moved back there in November 1903; Uncle James had practically turned over all the management of plantation work to Henry, but in some wonderful way he seemed to experience a remarkable rejuvenation and took over a great deal of the oversight of work. Every morning his horse 
was saddled and brought to the front steps and she (Daisy) was so well trained she knew just how to stand so he could mount from the steps. He always carried his walking stick which had a crooked handle and he knew just how to make Daisy sidle up to the gate so he could open it with his stick and go through without dismounting. All morning he rode over the place; sometimes with a bag slung over his shoulder carrying salt for his sheep. Often you would look out from porch or window and see him riding up and down the rows in the fields, or galloping across the lawn or along the road. When 
the horn blew for twelve o'clock he would come up to the house. He rarely went out again after dinner, but would take a nap and read The News & Courier and he read a great many books, novels, etc. His extreme deafness made conversation difficult and he read to pass the time away. This was the pattern of his life until he passed away in March 1906.
     Arthur was his father's executor; the will provided a division of all property between the six heirs, four daughters, one son, and one grandchild. Arthur was most anxious to keep The Rocks, but it was an impossibility. When it was put up for auction it brought a price far beyond what he was able to pay. Mr. T. L. Connor bought it and Arthur has always spoken of how considerate of him Mr. Connor had been; that he would not bid until he knew Arthur was through bidding. Mr. Connor gave The Rocks to his second son Rutledge, and so far as I know all the family are glad to have it in his pos- 
session. He did so much to keep in order and improve the place. When the house was being moved, Arthur and I went there several times and watched the men at work. It gave me a most eerie uncanny feeling to see that big house, after weathering the storms and vicissitudes of 136 years, moving, truly not very far at a time, but really intact, a complete unit, moving getting away from the coming inrush of water to a safe place where, who knows how many more years it will shelter a family and extend gracious hospitality? Last Spring we, Arthur and I, had a delightful sample of that hospitality; we spent a day and night with Rutledge and Estelle. It was a queer experience in a way; inside the 
house, was just the same, the same rooms, the same beautifully carved mantels and cornices in the parlor and dining room, the same big front porch where so often Uncle James sat at the head of the steps with his dog beside him. But, outside so different, gone the beautiful ponds, the big front yard with its noble old trees, its beautiful shrubbery, its memories of tilts and tournaments, its lawn where they took place. Memories of picnic dinners, of horses and riders and carriages and autos, of blazing hearths and open windows, of big Christmas dinners when all the family gathered, gone all gone, only a pile of broken brick left and a vast expanse of muddy water; but we, what are left of the family are glad that the old house in its new setting remains in the hands of those that love it and can take 
care. of it. Much has been done to clear the grounds and beautify them, and soon the new grounds will be softened and mellowed to tone in with the old house. Some few cherished relics adorn the grounds, a table made from part of an old saw from the sawmill and of the old C-spring Mexico carriage. Also a part of a water wheel from the old mill. This mill was still in use on my first visit to The Rocks in 1884 and daddy Flanders was the miller. He was the body-servant or in modern terms the "valet" of Samuel Gaillard who inherited The Rocks from his father Captain Peter.
 
Christmas Dinners
 
     When I knew The Rocks, and it was evidently even then a custom of long standing, was the family gathering there on Christmas Day. Sometimes Aunt Bet would have them all come back another day during the holiday week. And when all got together they made a goodly number. Besides The Rocks family, my father and his family from Springfield were always there, Uncle Mazyck Porcher from Mexico was always a guest, Cousin Hadgie Snowden, the eldest daughter; and her five children came from Charleston, usually for the week, Cousin Julia, second daughter; and Cousin Henry Palmer and their six children from Poplar Hill, Cousin Ida, third daughter, 'Mr. Simons and their eight children from Pond Bluff, Arthur and I and our two children, - At first we were living there and afterwards we came from Lime Spring, then often some of the grandchildren would bring a guest, some school friend who was spending the holidays with them. Then, of course, some of the children were babies and had to  
have their nurses. The little children were given their dinner in the pantry, itself a large room. Such a dinner, it seems now like a fairy tale. Long before Christmas day, Aunt Bet had begun preparations. Hogs had been killed and sausages and black puddings had been made, though they were not for dinner, they graced the breakfast table with hominy and buckwheat cakes. Turkeys and chickens, and perhaps a sheep, were killed and hung in the big safes in the meat pantry. Little black Sukey had come in from the negro quarters and stirred cake in the big yellow bowl, sitting behind the big stove in the kitchen, plain pound cakes, black fruit cakes, and dozens of little patty pan fruit cakes. Aunt  
Bet herself or Mary, if Aunt Bet was unable, made pastry for pies and tarts. Most of the dessert was made the day before Christmas, only the Syllabub was left for the very last.
     Christmas morning after breakfast, the dining room was put in order, the dining table stretched to its fullest extent and covered with one of the beautiful Irish damask table cloths, of which there were four. Aunt Bet had gotten Mr. Richard Walker, a Charleston merchant, to buy them for her on one of his trips to Ireland. They were five yards long and two and a half yards wide. The dinner was always the same. At one end of the table, a turkey stuffed with spinach (the housegirl or cook plucked a huge dishpan of spinach and washed it thoroughly, then as much butter as was conveniently spared  
probably a half pound or maybe a little more was put in a big frying pan on the stove, the spinach dumped into it and as many eggs as you could muster stirred into that, and then stirred and stirred until that mass of spinach and egg made a gigantic pile of green scrambled egg, and you stuffed the turkey). At the other end of the table another turkey stuffed with the more usual bread crumbs, egg, etc. At various places along the table were a boiled ham, a large one, a huge roast of mutton, leg and loin, from four to six boiled chicken big ones with a very rich sauce with hard boiled eggs stirred up in it, dishes piled with snowy rice. I asked Mary once how much rice did she have cooked for that dinner, and she said a peck of raw rice, and a negro from the negro quarters cooked it out in the yard in an iron wash pot. In addition there were big pans of macaroni, sweet potatoes, Irish potatoes, creamed artichokes sometimes, glass dishes of whole artichoke pickles, a decanter of whiskey and two or three decanters of wine. 
     Then for dessert; Charlotte Russe, wine jelly and Syllabub, and always four kinds of pie coconut, lemon, mince, and sweet potato. I don't remember whether there was cake or not, perhaps I was just too full to be impressed by it. 
     The young people had been driving hither and yon, perhaps to the village, Eutawville, for mail, perhaps making plans for a tilt and tournament later in the week, or maybe a dance that night and they were ready for a hearty meal, and the older ones weren't far behind their. One year Henry put four mules to the old C-spring carriage from Mexico and piled in all the children it would hold and took them for a ride, so they could tell their children they had ridden in their great-great-grandfather's carriage. And after dinner, the young folks went off riding again or strolled around the pond and the men talked crops and such on the big piazza. The women folk gathered round the blazing logs in the parlor and had their "talk fest" and another Christmas had passed into the halls of Memory.
  
Tilts and Tournaments
 
     Tilts and tournaments were a much famed form of entertainment and amusement. In 1879, a cavalry company was organized with Charles St. George Sinkler (afterwards Brigadier General) as Captain and John Stoney Porcher as 1st Lieutenant, "The Eutaw Light Dragoons". There was always a^friendly rivalry between this company and The Charleston Light Dragoons. They would compete with each other for a trophy, a silver cup. One year the Charleston Company would come to Eutawville and another year the Eutaws would go to Charleston. Whenever one company won the three times in succession it became the property of that company. The Rocks lawn was the place used for the tilts. 
These tilts were a form of cavalry practise. A smooth clear place was chosen for the track about one hundred fifty yards in length. First to be removed was a leather head from a low post on the right side of the track, the post about the height of a man on the ground lying down or just rising, next a post with an arm and drop holding a ring, possibly six feet from the ground and about twenty five yards from the first head. Then at an equal distance on the left side of track a post with a head on it 
about as high as a man standing up (the head attached to the post with a wooden pin about an inch in diameter and showing about two inches to cut). At the same distance but again on the right side a post about a foot higher than the first ring holding post, again holding a ring. Then again at the same distance on the right side a post holding a head about as high as a man kneeling. The contestant on horseback and using his cavalry sabre had to gallop at full speed, cut off the first head, take the first ring with the point of the sabre, cut off head on left, take second ring on sabre, and cut off last head, 
making the whole run in a required number of seconds. Certain positions of the sabre had to be maintained. The contestant was judged on points and prizes were given. It required a high degree of horsemanship and the horse had to be trained as well as the man. 
     A tournament was purely social and gave the young men - chance to display their prowess and pay the young ladies tribute. The same track was used, except that three posts were erected at equal distances apart, each holding a ring. The contestants on horseback and with lance at rest had to run their horses at full gallop and take each ring in turn on the point of the lance in a given number of seconds. There was always a ball or dance that night and the knight making highest score crowned "The Queen of Love and Beauty" at the dance and following in the order of their scores the winners crowned maids of honor to the queen. The last big affair that I remember at The Rocks was a tilt between the Charleston Light Dragoons and the Eutaws in 1892 during Christmas week. Everybody had guests, the Charleston dragoons being entertained overnight and some of them for several days. The tilt was at noon and there was to have been a picnic dinner on the lawn afterward, but a light fall of snow that morning made it too damp to have dinner outdoors, so it was served in the house. Then the parlor had to be cleared and put in order for the dance at night. Quite a number of girls stayed on at The Rocks:- had brought their evening dresses and after having coffee, etc., went upstairs to dress for the ball. Dr. and Mrs. Kollock were among the Charleston guests and we were much interested in her showing the home girls a new "skirt dance" while they were dressing. Henry was Captain of the Eutaws then and Aunt Elizabeth had made great preparations for the picnic supper. All the families of the Eutaws were supposed to contribute to the supper. I don't remember much about the dishes that they sent, but I do remember very vividly the huge bowls of chicken salad we made and the cut glass dishes or rather bowls of Charlotte Russe and wine jelly Aunt Elizabeth brought out, and the piled up plates of little patty-pan fruit cakes and cocoanut tarts. Violins furnished music for the dance. Colonel James Armstrong was an honored guest, an elderly bachelor and a great ladies man. Old and young came to the dances, the older ones looking on and enjoying seeing the young people have a good time.
  
"The Elephant"
 
     One of my earliest memories of The Rocks was a huge mahogany press, nine feet high, five feet wide, and two feet deep which stood between the chimney piece in the dining room and the door that opened into the back hall. It was made in three sections, the lower part divided into two parts, a partition in the. middle, a deep drawer on each side at the top, quite a space below them and then 
a shelf and a space between the shelf and the floor. A top section of two compartments, each v.'ith wo shelves and its own door was held firmly by wooden pins on top of the bottom section. It was topped by c wide cornice. Each of the four section doors had its own lock and key, not interchangeable. Everybody called it "The Elephant", It came from Walnut Grove, the home of Mr. James Galllard, Uncle James father. After his death Walnut Grove was sold, and all furniture, etc., was divided between his. heirs. When Uncle James came home after the division, Aunt Bet asked him what he had drawn. He said, "The big mahogany press for one thing no one wanted it, it was too big, but as it will fit in exactly the same place at The Rocks that it was built to fit in at Walnut Grove, I took it." "Oh!" said Aunt Bet, "We, surely have an elephant on our hands". And 'The Elephant' it remains to this day standing in our hall. I asked Aunt Harriet, Uncle James "Sister" to tell me something about it, 
and she said her father had drawn the plans for it to fit in the above mentioned space at Walnut Grove and had bought $100 worth of mahogany boards and had a Charleston cabinet maker make it. During Hartwells' raid in the War Between the States, a Federal soldier stuck his bayonet under the left hand door and broke off a piece of moulding because the key could not be found immediately. He 
evidently thought valuables were locked up in it. Aunt Harriet said one thing she remembered they took and carried off with them was nine dozen beautiful linen damask napkins.
  
* Items on Building The Rocks House taken from Captain Peter Gaillard's plantation Account Book:
Sept. 1, 1803     Began to make bricks for Rocks House.
May 11, 1803     Began this day to saw cypress and get shingles for Rocks.
May 24, 1803     A large cypress tree split up produced 6500 shingles 21" x 5" x 3/4".
Oct. 12, 1803     Mr. Bowles began to make sashes for Rocks house.
Nov. 16, 1803     Mr. Bowles finished my sashes, 708 lights in 31 days and the work well executed.
Nov. 21, 1803     Mr. Walker, carpenter, began to work at Rocks @ $1. 50/day.
Nov. 26, 1803     Mr. Perry, carpenter, began to work at Rocks .
Feb. 22, 1804     Laid first brick in foundation of Rocks house.
Mar. 13, 1804     Agreed with three white brick layers to work on foundations of house and on 24th finished the work.
April 4, 1804       Began to raise house at Rocks, finished April 7th. 
June 3, 1804       Agreed with Mr. Walker to have my chimney pieces and doors made at North this summer, to be delivered in Charleston in November, The doors to be double worked, two chimney pieces to be done in genteel but plain style and five others being for bedrooms to be very plain viz:- Seven chimney pieces and twenty-three doors the whole to be done in a workmanlike manner. He finding materials and paying freight to Charleston, to be paid the Charleston price, to be valued by workmen of judgement. He has undertaken to make my window shutters in his own time at $ 3,50 for each window 29 windows..
July 9, 1804       Began to lay on second coat of pain on my house
Jan. 20, 1805     Finished drawing shingles, had 23000 heart and 8000 sap. (Arthur remembers when the roof of the Rocks house was renewed in 1870. Not a single rotten shingle was found, only the exposed ends were worn away by acttion of the weather.)
     The house was finished, so they moved in in time for the wedding of the oldest daughter Elizabeth Gaillard to John Stoney of Charleston, November 27, 1805. There was a bill for the two mantle pieces for parlor and dining room, cornices, door-knobs, and other hardware, but it has disappeared.
  
"Will of Captain Peter Gaillard of Rocks Plantation"
 
     "In the name of God, Amen; I Peter Gaillard, Sr., of Charleston, S.C., do make and declare this to be my last will and testament.
     1. I give to my daughter, Elizabeth Stoney, the use of my lot and buildings in Charleston - purchased of Dupre and the use of my lot north of my present dwelling, measuring about 200 feet by 60 feet and after her death to be given to her children equally.
     2. I give to my daughter Lydia Snowden, the use of my lot and buildings in Charleston, purchased of Williamson and the use of that plantation in St. Johns, Berkeley County, purchased of Gourdin called Blue Hole and after her death to go to her children equally. 
     3. I give to my daughter Catherine Porcher the use of my lot and buildings in Charleston purchased of Daniels and after her death to her children equally, the said lot to consist of the original one built on by Daniels and the southern half of two other lots, one bought of said Daniels the other of Mrs. Everingham, making the whole lot of about 200 feet by 60 feet and all of my household and kitchen furniture, plate and groceries.
     4. Having put in possession and given to my sons at different times sundry properties in lands and negroes, I here confirm the same to them respectively and to their heirs and assigns forever.
     5. I give the rest and residue of my estate as follows: - one share each to my sons Peter, James, Thomas, David, and to my daughters Elizabeth, Lydia, Catherine, and one share to the daughters of my deceased son, Samuel, making eight shares in all.
     6. It is my will that every article and thing given in my lifetime or in this will to my daughters be considered as given for their sole use during their respective lives and after their death to go to their children equally and in no case to be liable for the debts of their parents or any future husband. As it may appear from this clause of my will that I entertain unfavorable opinion of my sons-in-law, to do away with such suspicion, I declare that I have entire confidence in them all and that for the purpose of guarding against unforseen misfortunes, I have introduced such a provision in my will.
     7. I nominate my son James and my son-in-law Wm. E. Snowden, executors of this my last will and testament, to whom I give full power to sell any part of my residuary estate that they may think necessary for a division. In witness hereof I set my hand and seal this 13th day of December in year of our Lord 1832."
                                                                                                                    Peter Gaillard, Sr.
In Presence of Thomas I, Green 
George Ingraham & James Fox
 
Beef and Lamb Messes
 
     Like all good old fairy tales, this begins with "Once upon a time", we had no cards and stamps with which to buy meat, incredible as it may seem to this generation. Saturdays brought us each an eighth of beef and Wednesdays a quarter of lamb, and we did not have to produce 13 stamps for every pound, or, as I did last week, pay $3. 25 for a forequarter of lamb. No, indeed, we managed things differently in Upper St. Johns. In the Spring the "young men's fancies might turn to thoughts of love", but, when the lambs had grown sufficiently, the older men's thoughts, no doubt stimulated by their wives housewifely instincts, turned to "The Lamb Mess." Four heads of families agreed to butcher a lamb each week in turn and each to have a quarter, the one who did the butchering to have a hindquarter and those m valued tidbits, the head and liver. A roster was made out so that each person received in regular rotation his portion of the meat, and at the end of the month each family had eaten a whole lamb. As I remember there were two such messes in our community, there may have been more at times. It was a friendly custom for different persons to contribute a lamb and put the resident minister "in the mess", which meant that when the ministers turn came to supply the lamb, whoever was giving the lamb for him butchered it and sent it around to the proper persons. Some always killed nice, big, fat lambs, but, as always happens, some did not. When a poor little blue skinny piece of lamb came, great was the scorn and indignation heaped upon the unfortunate killer. I remember one summer Uncle James was asked to fill in a place on the second mess. Aunt Elizabeth was not enthusiastic about it. but we were a sizeable family and all liked meat. so he agreed to join. Imagine our disappointment, but also amusement, when the first installment appeared or- the Table, a tiny, lean, stringy little shoulder of lamb, not bigger than a man's hand and of course the cook had put it on a biggest platter she could find. 
     Fortunately, not all were like that, often they were fat and tender, and we thought there were few things more succulent and toothsome than a brown well cooked leg and loin of lamb flanked by new potatoes and tender little green peas. The head, liver and tripe properly cleaned and prepared furnished a delicious soup. They were boiled until the meat could be separated from the bones, the bones carefully removed and the meat chopped rather fine and returned to the. liquor in which it was
boiled. Thickened slightly with either Irish potato or a little flour mixed with browning, seasoned with salt and pepper and for a DeLuxe edition a slice or two of lemon, some spice, cloves and allspice, a wine glass of wine and tiny little pates made of brains and floating on top of the soup in the big tureen - for in those halycon days soup was served in a tureen and the hostess ladled it into plates with the big silver ladle:- all this made. a dish fit for a king or a South Carolina planter. The beef mess was organized on the same lines with eight families instead of four. The beef was divided into eight parts; the. hindquarters into leg and loin, the forequarters into rack and brisket. As with the lamb, the killer kept the loin, also the head, liver, tripe and feet. The head made a soup like the lamb, but Uncle James always called it a "soup maigre" and it did not seem to be considered quite as epicurean a dish as the lamb. Of course the tongue was a much valueddish, also the liver. The tripe was considered a great treat by all but myself. Whenever it was our turn to kill, I always sent the tripe to Mary and she had it cooked and gave Arthur a piece to eat. The feet made the much liked calves foot jelly of the old recipe books.  Boiled until all bones could be removed, and only a small amount of liquor remained, carefully skinned to remove all grease, whites of eggs, stick cinnamon. lemon, sugar and wine compounded together and strained through a flannel bag it made a most nourishing and delectable jelly, which shook so much that it was difficult to serve. We always had a roast from the loin, and T-bone steaks and sometimes jerked steaks, which I had never seen anywhere else. They were usually cut from the leg, rubbed with salt and saltpeter an; spread out on a dish and allowed to stand several days.  When we had brisket, we often made corned beef, just dropped the pieces into a tub or keg of pickle made of sugar, salt, saltpeter, pepper and water in which the heat would be preserved for some time. We had no ice, in those days, except in cases of serious illness when it had to be brought from Charleston. Some families had "dry wells" deep pits dug in the yard, and covered over by a small house built over it, with stairs leading down to the bottom. In it meat, milk, and melons were kept cool.
     In early fall a shoat was sometimes killed instead of a lamb, if lambs were running scarce. I remember once Henry was having a little roasting pig killed just for the family and he was called away on some business, leaving "Pearce" one of the lot hands, to finish the butchering. Much to our amusement and amazement. he cut up the pig just as he would have done with a large hog and instead of a brown little pig with an apple in his mouth, there appeared on the table a big platter bearing two little hams, two little shoulders, etc. Our cousin Hattie Cain who was a guest and full".
shared our amusement, and she turned to Uncle James and said, "Oh, Jeems I'll never be quite happy 'till I can have a Pearce and a little pig for him to cut up for me".
     We can only recall these lavish days for the entertainment, perhaps amusement of the younger generations. Perhaps in these rationed days of this awful war they may wish there could be still some such solutions to food problems, perhaps there may be. For us to whom those times bring such vivid memories of so much more than food, so much of gracious, happy, serene living, simple pleasures, safety and security and dear companionship, there comes, in looking back, an inevitable touch of sadness for we know, "the tender grace of a day that is gone can never come back to us". But we look forward to that brave new world that our gallant brave boys ore fighting end loving down their- lives to make for future generations.