Sources

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Home Up GGM was an Indian Proofs

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There are so many great books out there on how to cite sources in genealogy that it would be impossible for me to provide a review of each one.  My personal favorite though is Cite Your Sources by Richard Lackey.

Many genealogists use the methods they learned in writing classes such as MLA style or APA style.  Some folks use parenthetical citations while others prefer footnotes.  Some include all of their sources and source notes in their research notes while others only record them in source notes.  For many, the method depends more upon the software that they use than any other consideration -- my Legacy Family Tree software provides the tools for inputting citation information and then prints them as footnotes.

Some genealogists maintain that "Genealogy without sources is mythology."  I disagree with this idea to a great extent since a fact remains a fact whether you can prove it or not.  Further, all recorded genealogy has a source, the question is really "how reliable is the source of this information?"

Reliability is generally determined by two factors: how close is the person making the statement to the subject and how near in time was the statement made?  When I speak of when and where my father was born I am fairly close to the subject (my father) but am rather removed from the time (21 years before I was born myself).  Then as a source of information about my fathers birth, I am not as reliable a source as say his mother since she was present at the time and directly involved.

Death certificates provide for a bit of reliable and unreliable information at the same time.  The doctor who signed the certificate is aware of when, why, and where someone died and that information is fairly reliable.  Some of the other information though is often questionable.  A family member under great stress provides the information about the names of parents and place of birth of the deceased.  How many of your cousins know the full names and place of birth of the parents of your grandmother?  In this day and age, many folks don't know the full names and place of birth of their grandparents let alone their great-grandparents.  For that reason, information on a death certificate that is removed in both place and time must be considered as not as reliable as information obtained closer in time.  This information is though a great source of clues to help locate a primary source document.

Similarly, a marriage certificate is a reasonably accurate source of information about the specific events of a marriage (such as marriage date, bride and groom, location...) but is not as reliable a source about some other information such as names of parents and even home of record.  My marriage certificate says I am "from Concord NC" when in fact I was born in Maryland and was married in Sylva NC and lived in Gaffney SC at the time.  I can only imagine the frustration of my genealogy minded great-grandchildren one day when they try to find my birth record in the two Carolinas.

This is especially true with parents who have names which are frequently truncated to a nick-name -- Billy and Bill for William comes to mind here.  There have been in times past many instances of nick-name usage that has fallen from common use today.  In years past it was common for Margaret to be called Peggy, Mary Ann  might have been referred to as Molly, we still use Bill and Billy for William as well as Bob and Bobby for Robert.  And don't forget Jack for John... Consider too those names which have been anglicized or even spelled differently across generations.  Smyth, Smythe, Smith are probably the same name.  

Also remember that, while it is true that all people with the same surname are not necessarily related (with some few exceptions in truly unique names) -- that doesn't mean that they are not in fact related.  It is not uncommon in many small communities for second and third cousins to marry -- do you know all of your third cousins?

Whatever method you use, it is imperative that you record your sources.  The more detail you provide in your source data, the more useful it becomes.  Recording a source as "birth certificate" is far less useful later than "birth certificate of Jane Smith.  Recorded in Book 328, Page 116 Cleveland County NC Register of Deeds.  A copy is in the files of Joan Smith..."  Similarly, recording a citation as "tombstone" is not as useful as "tombstone of John Major at Saint Luke's Parish Church Cemetery in Charleston SC which reads 'John Major - born 5 July 1801 died 6 May 1898 - 1st SC Mtd. Cav. CSA'.  a photo is in the files of Joan Smith.  

It sometimes helps to think of your sources on a scale of 1-5 with 1 being the highest reliability.  A source with a surety of 1 or 2 (highest) might be "dad said that he lived in Charleston South Carolina when he was 15-18 years old..."  In this case we are talking about "dad" and "dad" is the respondent (closeness to subject" and he is reporting on an event that he participated at the time (closeness to time) and he was certainly old enough at 15 years old to know the name of the town he lived in.  It is more than a little reasonable to assume this is an accurate statement.  The name of a mother and child (not father), the date, and place of birth found on a birth certificate recorded at the time of birth is a level 1 surety too.  The name of the father is a 3 surety at best because it is being reported by the mother (removed in both time and place by at least 9 months).

Another example of a 3 (middle) surety might be the names of parents reported on a marriage certificate.  This information is removed in time, place, and person since the grooms parents don't complete the form but the groom does.  It can still be assumed to be reasonably accurate but it is not uncommon for the bride or groom to list here adopted parents or step parents...

An example of a surety of 5 (low) would be those unsubstantiated family traditions.  At least until such time as you are able to proof them -- if ever.  The "Great Grandma was an Indian..." or "Great Grandfather's brother was at Bull Run..." stories are such surety until you either prove or disprove the issue.

"Sources" which are information provided undocumented by another researcher or family are as easily recorded as research notes.  "Joan Smith (Joan@someplace.com) said that...."  These are incredibly valuable notes later when you can't remember where you got that information!  Several such notes in my records have provided the missing link that has led to discovery of important family history records.  You'd be amazed at how important "Jane Smith (Jane@Somewhere.com) said that her mother always told her that Grandpa Jones owned a little grocery down on west 3rd street..." becomes as you are trying to put together the days of Grandpa Jones life.  These are the items that many genealogists refer to as unproven or undocumented family tradition.  That these issues have not yet been proven by reference sources does not make them false!  If there is a family tradition that Gradpa Smith's brother died in the Civil War at Manassas then this tradition needs to be recorded -- albeit with the caveat that the information is yet unproven.  Without recording of that tradition, there is no reason to go looking for the proofs.  Probably the single most common unproven family tradition is the one which implies "Great Grandmother was an Indian..."  

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last edited on Tuesday, July 30, 2002
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