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/revised 26 Feb 2009
Centimes Due Markings
Rules and Postal History Background
Already at fhe founding of the Universal Postal Union (UPU) in 1874 the problem with underpaid foreign mail was dealt with. It was decided that unpaid or insufficiently paid letters should be marked with a "T" and from 1 April 1879 the amount missing in centimes should also be indicated in black. Later more and more countries started tu use handstamps to indicate the amount. Also combined handstamps with both the "T" and the amount missing came into use.  From 1. october 1907 the rules were changed. From now on the amount to be charged instead of the amount missing should be indicated. The amount to be charged was normally double the amount missing. However for domestic items remailed abroad it was often only the difference between the domestic and the foreign rate. According to a decicion on the Vienna UPU congress in 1964 the rules were changed again on Jan 1 1966, and the centimes markings were no longer used. Instead two figures should be indicated; the amount to be charged and the foreign single rate letter fee, both in domestic currency.
The so far earliest known Swedish centimes due handstamp is from 28 August 1897. It only consists of the figures 12½ indicating that a letter to France is 10 öre=12½ ctm shortpaid. The so far earliest known combined handstamp is the T 6 1/4 from 1906.
For better understanding of the markings one have to know rates of exchange used to convert öre to centimes. They are as follows. The exact dates for the changes (except for 1907, 1922, 1925 and 1965) are not completly known. The day are when they first occured as printed changes to the rate books. The offices of exchenge may have got information earlier.


From
(in brackets Earliest Known Usage)
To
(in brackets Latest Known Usage)
1 ctm=öre 10 öre=ctm Each 5 öre missing 
gives normally following amount marked*
(EKU 28 Aug 1897) 30 Sept 1907
(LKU 25 Sep 1907)
0.8 12.5 6.25 c
1 Oct 1907
(EKU 29 Nov 1907)
30 Sept 1922
(LKU 28 Sep 1922)
0.8 12.5 12.5 c
1 Oct 1922
(EKU 3 Oct 1922)
30 Sept 1925
(LKU 24 Aug 1925)
0.6 16 2/3 16 2/3
1 Oct 1925
(EKU 4 Nov 1925)
ca. 1936
(LKU 5 Nov 1936)
1 10 10 c
ca 1936
(EKU 21 Nov 1936 with manuscript,
4 Dec 1936 with handstamp)
7 July 1940
(LKU 8 May 1940)
1.2 8 1/3 8 1/3 c
8 July 1940
(EKU 24 Aug 1940)
29 Dec 1946
(LKU 27 Aug 1946)
1.4 7 1/7 7 1/7 c
30 Dec 1946
(EKU 11 Apr 1947)
19 Jan 1950
(LKU 11 Jan 1950)
1.2 8 1/3 8 1/3 c
20 Jan 1950
(EKU 4 May 1950)
31 Dec 1965
(LKU 30 Dec 1965)
1.7 5 15/17(5.882) ca 5.9 or 6 c**

On 1. July 1921 a minimum due amount of 30 ctm was introduced, it was reduced 1 October 1925 to 10 ctm and 1 January 1935 to 5 ctm. On remailed items there were normally no minimum amount.
*) for items remailed abroad after Sept 30 1907 the amount normally is only half of the indicated.
**) both levels used, thence both markings 17.6 c and 18 c are known.
These rules were not used for mail under 500 grammes to Denmark and Norway and during the later part of the period to Finland and Iceland.