|General||Undantag - Födoråd||Fattigvård|
|Undantag - Födoråd
Undantag is used as a noun in two meanings
Early pension scheme
The contract was usually registered at
the district court so genealogy researchers can consult
these archives (domböcker) to find them.
The person / family receiving the board
and lodging were named födorådstagare
or sometimes the more generic term undantagsman
or backstugusittare were used.
Fattigvård (poor relief / public assistance)
(I use the term socken here since this was an undertaking of the secular organization corresponding to the parish)
Every socken had a committee of trusted men
handling relief for the poor. Any person living in the socken
could be eligible for support if he/she did not have the
means or ability to support him/herself. Such a person
was commonly "classified" as fattighjon.
Another term for basically the same condition was husarm
or husfattig. The latter two terms were mainly
used to signify that the person was exempt from taxation.
The church law of 1686 states "(kyrkoherden skall)
tilsee, at the huusarme och Tiggiare i hans sochn, eij
lemnas oförsörgde" = (the vicar) shall see to
that the poor and beggars in his parish are not left
without basic sustenance.
These systems are known since several hundred years and constitute an early form of social security funded by all members of the socken in solidarity. In the last century the systems were taken over by national institutions and government insurance schemes.
The rote is a division within a socken, usually including one or a few farms. The division was used for several purposes, among those for poor relief and soldier recruitment.
A practice for supporting poor and disabled in need of
full support within the socken was used for
several hundred years. Each needy person was assigned to
a rote either by voluntary agreement or by
tossing. The rote was responsible for full support, i.e.
housing and feeding, for that person for the next year.
Within a rote the needy person(s) could be rotated. If
the person could work he / she should do so according to
ability. The "receiving" person was called rotehjon
and he/she was said to "gå på rote".
Since these people did not have a fixed residence they
were listed separately in every volume of husförhörslängd
(clerical surveys), usually at the end of the book.
Heading "Socknens rotehjon" or
simply "Rotehjon". Sometimes they are
registered on the page for the farm where they stayed as
Needy persons, who, for some reason, could not
"gå på rote", a public auction
was arranged and responsibility for supporting the person
was awarded to the LOWEST bidder. This method was often
used regarding orphaned children to provide a longer
lasting relation to the foster family. As with most other
public meetings about socken matters this was held
at kyrkbacken (the open area in front of the
church entrance) after Sunday mass. The payment was made
by the socken in kind (usually grain from
the sockenmagasin) or, in later times, in cash.
This form of support of the poor and needy was used as
a supplement to people who could partially support
themselves. Support was almost always given in kind, i.e.
in basic goods like grain, fire wood, clothing etc. The
grain was collected as a local tax in each harvest season
from all farms to a sockenmagasin (the
"socken barn/storehouse") and distributed from
there by the committee. Farmers in need could also borrow
grain from here for sowing and pay back with a small
interest from their harvest.
People receiving support in this form were often noted in the HFL (clerical survey) as "understödstagare" or "und.st.tag" or similar abbreviation. Sometimes the note reads "Erh. understöd" or "Erh. und" (=receives "understöd"). They were listed in the normal place, i.e. in the village where they lived.
Understöd (support) could also be paid as a
one-time assistance in special situations, e.g. a poor
farmer who lost his only cow but was otherwise able to
Support for the poor by other than the socken
In many socknar where there was a larger industry the sockenstämma often ordered the industry to provide support for their employees who were in need or pension for the retired. This could be arranged in exchange for reduced taxation of the industry.
Government insurance, national social services, personal insurance and pension funds are all creations of the 20th century.
|There will be further articles on the subject coming up. You can influence the content by sending questions / requests to me.|
|Last updated by||F Hae||2005-05-04 11:03||© Fredrik Haeffner, 2001-3|