SweGGate StarGuide ®
The aim for this page is to give information you do not easily find
Words found in common, modern Swe-Eng dictionaries are not included. It currently contains about 300 words, special dictionaries not included. When looking for names of objects try the Estate Inventories dictionary too
There are several links to other dictionaries and glossaries here.
Read about the Swedish Language here.
|Abbreviations||Titles||Bruk - Iron industry||Medical||Legal system|
|Geogr. names||Relations||Estate Inventories||ENCYCLOPAEDIA|
Use Ctrl-F in your browser to search for words but try different spellings. Letters å, ä and ö are sorted after z in the alphabet. Not all possible combinations of words are listed. Try to guess the parts and search for each part.
|abiit||A||[Lat.] = moved out.|
|absolutio, abs.||S||[Lat.] = given pardon for sins. Also absolv|
|afskedad, avskedad, afsked., afsk.||A||Retired, (dismissed) from a job (often a soldier).|
|aln||O||[plur alnar] Old measurement based on the distance from
the elbow to the long finger tip. = 59,4 centimetres.
1 aln = 2 fot = 4 kvarter = 24 verktum. 3 alnar = 1 famn (fathom).
|annexförsamling||A||Smaller parish that administratively belongs to another parish. The "main" parish is then named moderförsamling, often abridged moder. Read more about divisions.|
|antecessor||O||[Lat] = predecessor|
|arb.||A||short for arbetare = worker, labourer|
|arbetare||A||job title: worker, labourer. Can have many prefixes specifying the kind of work. Usually the prefix and "arbetare" are joined by a possessive "s", like jordbruksarbetare (jordbruk-s-arbetare =farm worker), fabriksarbetare (fabrik-s-arbetare =factory worker). arbete = work, arbet-are = worker (male), arbet-erska (female), e.g. fabrik-s-arbet-erska|
|-arp||A||common ending of farm and village names. Derived from torp: q.v.|
|artilleri||A||[mil] = artillery|
|arvsskifte||A||event and documentation of distribution of inheritance >more>|
|avrad||O||= leasing fee, the fee paid by a tenant farmer yearly to the land owner.|
|backstuga||A||Small house, originally partly below ground in a slope, later all above ground in a slope. Usually a quite small house, located on ofri grund = land owned by the village commonly - not by a single owner.|
|backstu(gu)sittare||O||A person living in a cottage (not necessarily a backstuga ! ), located on someone else's land (like the torp) but without farming the land (different from torp). They were not employed by the land owner (like the statare) but earned their way through temporary jobs. Often used derog. since those were often poor people without a steady income. cf. torpare, hemmansägare.|
|bandland||O||A measure of land defined as the area that produced one band = kärve = sheaf. = 1 tunnland / 400 = 12,69 sq meters = 144 sq feet. Used only in province of Dalarna. More|
|bardskärare||O||from Ger bartscherer = barber. Early term for fältskär.|
|barnbördshus||M||Today usually only "BB". Maternity hospital. See förlossningsanstalt.|
|bataljon||A||= battalion (military unit, ca 1000 men)|
|befallningsman||O||(n) supervisor on a farm/estate. cf. rättare|
|begravningskapell||A||A special form of kapell - a small building for funerals, often located in graveyards. cf. kapell|
|beskedlig, beskedelig||A||An old adjective with many meanings in Swedish, mostly
like good-natured, kind, mild.
In the 16th-19th centuries used as a title (i.e. used before the name) for borgare (city-people), bönder (farmers), drängar / pigor (servants) with the meaning honourable, of good standing etc. It was not used for the "higher ranks" in society such as priests and nobility. Originally used as a sign of high esteem but over time somewhat "devaluated".
You will often find this title in death records until late 1800's.
cf. danneman, redlig.
|besman||A||old tool for measuring weight. A bar with fixed counterweight and moving pivot handle. cf. pyndare. Read more.|
|blodsband, blodsförvantskap||A||Blood relation. blodsförvantskap is the old form. Also named konsanguinitet (as Eng. consanguinity derived from Lat con = with and sanguis = blood.) Expression reflects the old misapprehension of blood as carrier of heritage. See legal dictionary for specific definitions.|
|blodstörtning||A||[med] catastrophic bleeding, usually internal. Commonly used for profuse bleeding from lungs (tuberculosis), stomach (bleeding ulcer) or during birth (placental bleeding).|
|-bo, -bol||O||= home, dwelling, especially one given as part of pay, often church officials. Also -bord. E.g. biskopsbord = home of bishop, präst(e)bol = parsonage, klockarebol = home of the klockare. cf. boställe.|
|bok||A||= book. längd is equivalent in composed words like dopbok = doplängd.|
|bonde||A||= farmer. Derived from boende
= living on, dwelling (verb). Originally used only about a
farmer who owned the land he farmed but today denoting any
farmer irrespective of land ownership. The more formal,
modern title is lantbrukare.
Another common title for a land-owning farmer was egare / ägare = owner. cf. åbo and brukare.
|-bord||O||commonly = table, desk. e.g. matbord = dinner
table, skrivbord = (writing) desk.
In old language also same as -bol.
|boställe||O||= place of residence, from bo = (v) live, reside and ställe = place. This word is often used for the place where a soldier lived so if you find a farm named "bostället" this is almost always the soldier's home. cf. soldattorp.|
|bouppteckning||A||the event and documentation of making an inventory of a deceased person's goods... see legal dict >>|
|brandstod||O||Early type of fire insurance. According to a law of 1734 anyone who lost house, domestic animals, grain or animal food had the right to help ("brandstod") from the häradsrätt (county court). The insurance was financed by fees paid by all farm owners.|
|brudoffer, brudpenningar||O||Fee, paid to the priest, for the wedding ceremony.|
|brukare||A||lit = user. In older times often used as a title for a farmer who did not own the land he farmed. cf. åbo and bonde.|
|bruksförsamling||A||Parish mainly covering the area and people of a bruk (factory). Read more about divisions.|
|brottfällig||O||= epileptisk. Suffers from epileptic fits.|
|bräcklig||A||fragile, often referring to weak health (in old age)|
|brännerist||O||job title, worker in a bränneri = alcohol distillery.|
|bukrev, bukref, magrev||O||[med] colic, see med. dict|
|bygdehjon||O||poor person (hjon), supported by the socken. cf. rotehjon.|
|båtsman||O||navy soldier, soldier aboard a ship.
Recruited in specific regions, mainly in the provinces
close to the coast.
This is NOT = boatswain in English, which is a trained sailor occupation whereas båtsman is a regular soldier.
|bödel||O||= hang-man and torturer with lower status than a skarprättare (q.v.)|
|cantor||A||(Lat. for singer) = klockare. Also spelled kantor.|
|caplan||O||(pronounce kapl'an) or cappellan. See kaplan.|
|centner||O||Old weight measure = 100 skålpund = 42.5 kg.|
|comminister||A||[Lat] see komminister|
|communion||A||[Lat] = nattvard = Holy Communion|
|copul||O||Lat copul = tie, connection, copulare = join. In old church books = marriage.|
|dagkarl, dagakarl||O||see title dict.|
|dagsverke||O||lit. "one day's work". In old times a common way of paying the rent for a farm (tenant farmer) or any debt.|
|daler||O||an old Swedish currency. cf. Riksdaler|
|danneman||O||honourable man. Used to address the members of the group bönder
(farmers) in the old parliament (4 groups: adel, präster, borgare,
bönder) - e.g."Redelige och beskedelige dannemän !".
Also used as a title for honourable men of the lower social classes, usually farmers. Sometimes used in the meaning head-of-household / married man and always in an appreciative manner, a distinction from "the common man".
Documented at least from 16th century. cf. beskedlig, redlig.
|dannekvinna||O||honourable woman, cf. danneman above.|
|derstädes, därstädes||O||= that place, from der (där) = there and städes
(old) = place.
cf. sammastädes. and loco
|diarré||O||[med] [from Greek] diarrhoea (of any
origin). Earlier also spelled diarrhé, diarrhee.
Similar words: durchlopp, utsot, rödsot
|distinktionskorpral||O||military rank before 1915. Then renamed furir See underbefäl.|
|dominica||A||(Lat.) = Sunday.|
|domkyrka||A||cathedral = the church in the stiftsstad (diocese main city).|
|domkyrkoförsamling||A||cathedral parish = the parish with the domkyrka (cathedral). Abbrev: dkfg|
|dragon||O||originally a foot soldier equipped with a horse for
transportation but usually fighting on foot. The name is derived from the
type of short musket (an old type of rifle) they used, named dragoon.
cf. husar = cavalry soldier fighting on horse back using lance, sword etc.
|dragonrusthållare||A||[mil] = a rusthållare providing a dragon soldier. Also dragonhållare.|
|dragontorp||A||[mil] = a torp provided for a dragon soldier. cf soldattorp.|
|drittel||O||Old measure for butter. Origin German drittel = one third. One heldrittel (full measure) = 50,8 kg|
|dräng||O||Literally = farm hand Commonly abridged "dr". In church records also used in the meaning hemmason. = unmarried man. cf. pig. = piga (female)|
|durchlopp, durklopp||O||[med] [from German durchlauf =
"run through"] diarrhoea (of any origin).
Similar words: diarré, utsot, rödsot
|dödbok, död- och begravningsbok||O||Register of deaths and burials. Kept by parish priests since late 1600. Notes name, age, address, time of death and funeral. Cause of death from 1749. The last part "bok" may be replaced by "längd", same meaning. >more>|
|egare||A||= owner. Modern spelling ägare. Common title for a farmer owning the land he farmed. cf. bonde and åbo or brukare|
|ejusdem||L||Latin meaning "of the same kind". also ejusdem generis. Example: ".. on the 12th ejusdem" = "on the 12th of the same month as previously mentioned". Similar to Swedish " den 12:e dennes.." = On the 12th of this (current) month .|
|enka||O||Old spelling of modern änka = widow. Widower = enkling (old) and änkling (modern). Abbrev: e, enk or enkl|
|enrolleringsbåtsman, enrolleringskarl||O||navy sailor in a company recruited through the enrolleringsverk >more>|
|Enrolleringsverket||O||Systems for recruitment of navy sailors >more>|
|fallandesjuka, fallandesot||O||[med] convulsive disease, usually epilepsy - see med dict.|
|famn||O||Old length measure = fathom, the distance between your fingertips holding your arms wide open. = 1.78 metres. 1 famn = 3 alnar.|
|fanjunkare||O||military rank. See underofficer|
|fardag, flyttedag, flyttningsdag||O||or inflyttningsdag / utflyttningsdag
="travelling day". flytta = (v) move. There were 2 days
per year defined by law as the standard travelling days and most
employment contracts used these days.
For arrende (land lease) usually March 14 (or next weekday if Sunday).
For apartment contracts usually April 1 or Oct 1.
For employment: Oct 24 (regulated by the law "legostadga" 1833-1926)
|fastebrev||O||= land deed before 1875 >more>|
|fastighetsskatt||A||(fastighet -s- skatt) = estate tax.|
|fattighjon||O||Poor person, pauper. fattig = poor, cf. hjon|
|fattighus||O||Poor house, shelter for the pauper. fattig = (a) poor.|
|fiskal||A||[from Lat fiscus = basket, referring to the
caesar's private cash, later the exchequer] = the state as owner of rights
and obligations regarding property. Used in several titles for government
officials dealing with state income. Part of the word konfiskering (=
Also a title of a gov't official in old times. See legal dictionary.
|fjärding||O||Old measure literally meaning one fourth. Used with that
meaning in many combined words being 1/4 of several different items or
Specifically a measure of volume. For wet goods it was 1/4 tunna (barrel) = 31.4 litres, for dry goods it was 1/8 tunna = 18.32 litres. (please note that a wet and a dry tunna are not the same measure - hence 1/8 is not 1/2 of 1/4)
|fjärdingsväg||O||Old measure of distance = 1/4 of an old Swedish mil = 36 000 fot / 4 = 9 000 fot = 2 672 meters. Usually the distance between two milstenar (milestones). NOTE: Old Swedish fot is not the same as an English foot. cf. fjärding.|
|fjärdingsman||O||Subordinate assistant to the police authority, like a local policeman. Read more.|
|flickare||O||Used in some job titles like kittelflickare, skoflickare.|
|fogde||O||(n) Title used since about 1290 by several different officials representing the king or powerful estate owners in the feudal society, like supervisors, bailiffs. After 1634 (when the feudal society was finally reorganized) used in different combinations for various government officials or employees of mansions. cf. gårdsfogde, kronofogde|
|fornsvensk||A||= ancient Swedish. Combined word of "forn"
(from "forna" = in days passed, usually > 100
years ago) and "svensk" = Swedish. The combined
word usually refers to a period > 1 000 years ago). cf. expression "i forna dagar" = in days gone by.
Also used in combinations like "forndansk" = ancient Danish, "fornnorsk" = ancient Norwegian, "fornnordisk" = ancient Nordic.
cf. fornsvenska = ancient Swedish language.
|fosterbarn||A||foster child / foster children (same in singular and plural in Swedish)|
|A||foster son, foster daughter respectively.|
|fot||A||Measurement, literally =foot but differs
from Brit/US foot. Swedish fot = 29,69 cm (British
= 30,48 cm)
1 aln = 2 fot = 4 kvarter = 24 verktum
|fotjägare||O||A jägare type of infantry soldier. cf. hästjägare.|
|frejd||O||Old legal term but also used in daily speech. Refers to social status as far as respect and social standing is concerned. To have "god frejd" = to enjoy public trust - to be a trustworthy person - of good standing. "dålig frejd" (bad) is the opposite. Used as a column title in many HFL:s|
|frälse||O||= freedom (from). See special guide|
|frälsebonde||O||A farmer using some kind of frälsejord. He could be either åbo or landbo depending on legal status. The rent (ränta) was paid to the land owner, not to the state. See special guide|
|frälsehemman||O||A hemman enjoying the frälse (tax exempt) status. See special guide|
|frälsejord||O||Land exempt from taxation. Term not used
after 1903 tax reform.
The prefix frälse is used in several words referring to this land form. See further in special guide
|furir||O||military rank. See underbefäl.|
|fånggevaldiger||O||A constable in charge of transport of prisoners. cf. gevaldiger.|
|fältjägare||O||A jägare type of infantry soldier. cf. hästjägare.|
|fältskär||O||= barber. They had their own skrå, i.e. were included in the guild. Training: F-lärling, F-gesäll, F-mästare. In war the barber was often the only "medic" and performed amputations, opening infected wounds and other minor surgery. One bardskärare / fältskär in each fänika. In 1861 replaced by the formally trained fältskär, whose training and occupation were abandoned in 1896 and replaced by doctors. F in the military units see here.|
|fältväbel||O||[from Ger feldwebel] a position in an army company = the senior (counting service years) underofficer (non-commissioned officer). The title was changed to fanjunkare in 1833. (Note that fanjunkare is also a rank - not necessarily in the position named fanjunkare)|
|fänrik, fändrik||O||military rank = second lieutenant. See officer|
|färgare||A||occupation dyer = colouring yarn, skin etc. (def form färgaren, plural färgare).|
|födelsebok, födelse- och dopbok, dopbok||O||Register of births. Kept by parish priests since 1688. Notes name of child, time of birth and christening, parents names and address, age of mother. Before abt 1740 only christening notes. The last part "bok" may be replaced by "längd" with unchanged meaning. >more>|
|födoråd||O||Se article here|
|fögderi||A||The geographical area of jurisdiction for a kronofogde, häradsskrivare or kronolänsman.|
|förare||A||Generally = vehicle driver (car, plane, train etc).
OLD: (17th-20th century) military rank / position, assistant to a fänrik.
|förlossningsanstalt||O||= barnbördshus (mod). Used before mid 1900. Maternity hospital. Kept their own birth record books until 1947.|
förlovad signifies a "state" of being engaged to marry and cannot refer to a person.
On the other hand the word trolovad is identical for both the "state" and a person having that status, as in English (being) betrothed and (the) betrothed. Trolovad is an older word for betroth and the difference is also a legal one since the "trolovning" (the betrothal) is registered by the church or the district court whereas a "förlovning" is a private agreement between two parties - and sometimes their parents ... :-)
|förmyndare||A||legal guardian. Re guardian for women see legal issues.|
|förs.||A||abbrev. for församling(en). cf. loco.|
|församling||A||parish, either a geogr. area or a virtual congregation (e.g. a prison or a regiment). = Parish (cf. Divisions) Ref|
|förste högbåtsman||O||military rank in the navy, cf. rustmästare in the army. See underbefäl.|
|förvaltare||O||1 military rank. See underofficer.
2 short for bruksförvaltare director (top rank) of a bruk (iron industry)
|försvarslös||O||Literally means "defenceless" and is today used only in that sense. Until 1885 it was used as a legal term meaning "utan laga försvar" =lacking income or other means of supporting him/herself. According to that law such a person was obliged to seek employment as a "tjänstehjon" or else be punished as lösdrivare.|
|garvare, garfvare||A||profession = tanner. >>more>>|
|gesäll||A||= journeyman. >>Craftsmen's Training>>|
|gevaldiger||O||Loan from the German "Gewaltiger = profoss". The word was in use until 1850 in Swedish, after that the word poliskonstapel or simply polis is used. In English this would be a police constable. cf. profoss|
|gikt||A||gout and several similar diseases. see medical dictionary.|
|godsägare||O||owner of a gods = larger real estate, mansion.|
|gratialist||O||= pensioner = receiver of pension, commonly from the state or the army. Gratial = pension. From new Latin gratiale = by grace.|
|grenadjär||O||[mil] Originally a soldier selected for bravery and skills using handgrenades. Later about all soldiers in a few elite units using grenadjärer in the unit name. Also grenadör.|
|gränsinspektor||O||(n) job title. Supervisor at tullverket (customs dep't)
patrolling a national border. Originally went on horse - hence "ridare"
(rider), gräns = border. After 1923 named gränsuppsyningsman.
Finland: Gränsinspektör -> Gränsfiskal -> Tullvaktmästare
|gränsridare||O||(n) job title. Employee at tullverket (customs dep't) patrolling a national border. Originally went on horse - hence "ridare" (rider), gräns = border. After 1923 named gränsuppsyningsman.|
|gårdsfogde||O||(n) fogde (bailiff) on a gård (farm)|
|gäldstuga||O||Debtor's prison. gäld = debt, stuga = small dwelling house.|
|gästgivare||O||(old spelling gästgifvare). Inn-keeper|
|gästgiveri||(old spelling gästgifveri). Inn.|
|hage||A||small, fenced, grazing land. Common in rural place names. Def. form hagen.|
|handelsföreståndare||O||= store manager.|
|hava, hafva||O||the verb have in old spelling: haver / hafver / haffuer = has (present tense singular), hava / hafva/ haffua = have (infinitive or present tense plural)|
|hemförlova, hemförlofva||A||lit "send home". relieve of duty, temp. or permanently discharge from service.|
|hemkall||A||Group name for those parts of compensation to a soldier / båtsman that were paid "in kind", e.g. grain, hay, firewood, right to grazing land...|
|hemmadotter||O||= unmarried daughter living at home. In church records used for "not previously married". See here|
|hemman||A||Farm estate where the buildings and the land have the same owner and large enough to be taxed by mantal.|
|hemmansägare||A||Farm owner. >more>|
|hjon||O||original meaning is a
family member or spouse.
Later meaning a servant in combinations like tjänstehjon and legohjon. Often used as fattighjon. also inhyse(s)hjon, rotehjon.
|hjonelag||O||old word for marriage or family. cf. hjon above|
|hjärtslag||O||[med] paralysis of the heart, stopping of the heart (any cause).|
|hjärtsprång, hjertsprång||O||[med] (also hjärtesprång, hjertesprång)
has several meanings:
1 unspecified heart disease, especially convulsive (17th, 18th century)
2 convulsive disease in children (even when not caused by heart disease)
3 tachycardia = rapid heart frequency (18th, 19th century)
The herb Leonurus cardiaca Lin (hjärtstilla in Swedish) has its name since it was used to treat "hjärtsprång".
|hospital||O||Originally an institution for care for the sick or elderly. From the 18th century and into the 20th century also used to denote a psychiatric /mental hospital.|
|huius||A||(Lat.) = in this month.|
|hult||A||1: Small forest, grove, also thick
forest, sometimes wooded hill.
Common in names of villages and farms for obvious reasons, e.g. Lammhult, Misterhult, especially in southern Sweden (Götaland region) More here
2: Sailing term in combinations like ställhult, rundhult meaning different gadgets made of wood.
|husar||O||[mil] = a hussar (soldier). A kind of mounted cavalry soldier using lighter equipment than regular cavalry, lätt kavalleri (light cavalry). Modelled after Hungarian cavalry, hence the "rib" decorations on the uniform jacket and the special way of wearing the jacket over one shoulder.|
|husarmslängd||O||List of people considered husfattiga in the socken (parish).|
|husfattig||O||= som knappast har det nödvändiga för
livets uppehälle, dock utan att gå omkring och tigga l.
vara intagen i försörjningsinrättning o. d (SAOB). OBS
inte nödvändigtvis = utan bostad. Begrepp bl a använt i
taxeringslängder fr 1600- o 1700-talen som befriande fr skatt.
A person who does not have means for basic sustenance but is "better off" than beggars and people living in a poor-house. The term is often used in the taxation registers in the 17th and 18th centuries as a reason for exemption from tax.
|husförhör||O||Hearing (examination) of
catechism and literacy, done yearly by the parish
priest, in every houshold in the parish. Read more here
Graded "marks: often noted: hjelplig(t) (passable), försvarlig (good), vel (or väl) försvarlig (quite good)
|husförhörslängd, HFL||O||Clerical Survey Records. Read more here >>>|
|husman||O||Several meanings, depending on context:
1 house OWNER
2 head of household w/o ref to ownership
3 a lodger. Often used about poor persons who lived with others but not in the poor-house. cf. inhyses
|håll och styng||O||Old descriptive term for pneumonia or pleurisy. see med. dict.|
|härad||A||Jurisdictional district for a lower court (BrE petty court). One härad is usually composed of a few up to 25-30 socknar.|
|häradsdomare||A||Honorary title for the oldest nämndeman in a district court. >more>|
|häradshövding||A||Chairman of district court, the only member with a law degree. >more>|
|häradsrätt||O||local district court.|
|hästjägare||O||A jägare type soldier on horse. cf. fotjägare.|
|högbåtsman||O||military rank in the navy, cf. överfurir in the army. See underbefäl.|
|ib idem||A||(Latin) = the same place (as mentioned before). Abbrev: ibm or idm|
|Indelningsverket||O||Systems for recruitment of soldiers >more>|
|infanteri||A||[mil] = infantry|
|infra||A||[Lat] = below|
|inhyses||O||A person living in someone else's house (without ref to paying rent or not). cf. farming people|
|inhyse(s)hjon||O||A (poor) person living in someone else's house. without paying rent. Sometimes ordered by the local community council (sockenstämma) to care for poor people. cf. inhyses, fattighjon and rotehjon|
|intag, intaget||A||In common Swedish the word means inlet - like a water inlet. It is however frequently used in an old meaning in several dialects denoting a fenced and cultivated piece of land in the outskirts of a village. "Intaget" (definite form) is a common farm name in e.g. Värmland.|
|jordebok||O||Land taxation registry. Used 1541-1908. Records all estates with type, tax and military obligations. Preserved in archives but few are filmed or transcribed.|
|jungfru||A||general title for unmarried woman - read more !
Also the smallest old wet volume measure = 1/32 kanna = 0.082 litres (roughly a small glass of wine)
|jägare||O||[mil] An infantry soldier specially trained for fighting
in forests, moving behind enemy lines or reconnaissance, usually operating
in small groups.
Also = hunter.
|kallbrand||O||[med] gangrene. cf. rötfeber.|
|kamrer, kamrerare||A||(n) (kamrerare is old spelling, before mid 20th century).
From Lat camerarius from camera here = treasure room.
Title for a senior employee in a government institution or company responsible for cash accounting or financial book-keeping. In modern times usually the supervisor of the corresponding department. In modern banking the kamrer is usually a branch manager or chief of department.
|kanna||O||Old measure - see tunna|
|kantor||A||singer, leading the singing of hymns in church. Employed by the church, often combined with position as organist (organ player) and klockare.|
|kapell||A||Small church building, usually without bell tower. cf. Begravningskapell|
|kapellförsamling||A||Smaller parish that does not have a church but only a kapell. Read more about divisions.|
|kaplan||A||(from Latin: capellanus from capella = chapel), kapell in Swedish). In older times priest in a kapellförsamling or annexförsamling. Also used with the same meaning as komminister. Kaplan was used into 19th century but today only for priests engaged by private societies = föreningskaplan = chaplain or by Royal Orders = ordenskaplan|
|kappe||O||Old measure - see tunna|
|kapten||O||military rank = captain. See officer|
|karduansmakare||O||tanner, making a special leather originally from Cordoba, Spain. From Latin corduanus = "from Cordoba". makare = maker.|
|katekes||A||[katetje:'s]. M Luther's book "Lilla Katekesen" (catechism).|
|katekism(i)längd||O||Same as husförhörslängd. (Refers to catechism, the subject of the examination at husförhör)|
|katekumen||O||(middle age Latin, catechumenus,
orig. Greek) = catechumen. A person preparing (studying)
for confirmation. Modern Swedish: konfirmand.
Used in HFL as page title for konfirmandlängd
|kavalleri||A||[mil] = cavalry|
|kittelflickare||O||Job title for a craftsman repairing metal pots and pans. >>Titles dict.>>|
|klockare||A||Title for an employee of the church in a
parish. Originally his duties included taking care of the church and its
inventory and to ring the church bells,
hence the name klockare (klocka = bell). In the
17th century (church law of 1786) the duty to teach
children was added (mostly using "Lilla
Katekesen" (=Postilla) by M Luther as reader) and with the
creation of folkskola (literally "people's
school or school for the people" = compulsory school
from the age of 7 (no later than 9) by a law of 1842 the
klockare often became the school teacher as well. This law
stated that every parish and town should have a school and
all children should attend, as from 1878 a total of 6 years
Other tasks that were often combined with the klockare position were those of organist (organ player) and kantor. As duties for the klockare expanded often a separate kyrkovaktare was employed for the care of the church and inventory.
The post was disbanded in 1947. Today the bell ringing is electrical and the music is performed by a kantor. School teaching was taken over by specially trained teachers already in the middle-late 1800 as the teacher training caught up with the need for trained teachers.
|knekt||O||Old term for soldier, probably of same origin as Eng knight. As formal title replaced by soldat from the 17th century but the word is still used colloquially.|
|komminister||A||(Latin: "co - minister") = assistant priest|
|kommun||M||Commune, Municipality, local government area. (from French commune = common)|
|kommunalstämma||M||Meeting of the elected representatives in the local government in a kommun. Created when the kommun organization was implemented in 1862. Replaced the previous sockenstämma but dealing only with non-religious issues. Later named kommunalfullmäktige. More here.|
|kompani||A||[mil] = company (military unit, ca 135 men) OR from Fr compagnie = company (business)|
|konfirmand||A||(relig) person preparing for / undergoing confirmation.|
|konfirmand-längd||A||Church register of persons who have been confirmed.|
|konstapel||O||1 military rank in the artillery. cf. korpral
in the army. See underbefäl.
2 a police constable.
|konstförvant||O||also konstförvandt, literally "brother in art", old title for sättare (type-setter) or tryckare (printer /the person/) >more>|
|konventikel||O||old term for a religious meeting with few participants as opposed to the state church meetings. cf. konventikelplakatet.|
|korpral, corporal (old)||O||military rank = corporal. See underbefäl.|
|kov||O||shortness of breath, cough, sometimes about TBC.|
|kove, kôve||O||[west Värmland dialect] small room beside the kitchen, usually under the stairs to 2nd floor.|
|krank||O||[German krank(heit)]. [n] illness, [adj] sick.|
|kronofogde||A||Local government official in the legal system. >more>|
|kronohemman||O||A hemman owned by the state. Commonly used by an åbo. See special guide|
|kronojord||O||State owned land. Term not used after 1903 tax reform. See special guide|
|kronotorp||O||A specific form of torp built on state owned land. See special guide|
|kräfta||O||[med] cancer, malignant tumour.|
|kulplan||O||(naval military term) A wooden plate / box for storing cannon balls next to a cannon on board ships-of-war.|
|kulring||O||(naval military term) A round, wooden plate with a grove around the edge for storing cannon balls next to a cannon on board ships-of-war. Has been used as a surname by båtsman (navy soldier)|
|kungsgård||O||(n) An estate owned by the king / state. Used as residence for king's representatives|
|kungsladugård||O||(n) A farm estate owned by the king / state.|
|kvarter||O||[stress on the first syllable] Old measurement, literally 1/4. For length = 2 fot = 1/2 aln.|
|kvarter||A||[stress on the last syllable] City block.|
|kvintin||O||old weight measurement = 1 / 128 skålpund.|
|kyrka||A||[def: kyrkan, pl kyrkor] = church, both the
institution and the building. Many spelling variations over time:
kirka, kyrkio, kyrkia, kiyrkia, kyrcka, kyrckia, kiirka, kiörka, kiörcka,
|kyrkoherde||A||vicar / rector. Abbrev: kh or khde. Head of a pastorat.|
|kyrkoplikt||O||a form of punishment by the church, penitence. 2 forms:
1 enskild k. = private, only the priest and the offender
2 offentlig / uppenbar k. = public when the offender had to stand in view of others during the Sunday Mass.
cf. spöstraff, stockstraff
|kyrkostämma||M||Meeting of elected representatives of the governing board (kyrkoråd) in a parish. Created when the kommun organization was implemented in 1862. Replaced the previous sockenstämma but dealing only with non-religious issues. More here|
|kyrkoråd||M||The governing board in a parish, created in 1817. Was the executive body for the sockenstämma responsible for supervising church attendance, Christian and moral way of life. From 1828 also supervising local health care and selecting persons for certain church positions. Changed tasks with the local government reorganization in 1862 when sockenstämma was replaced by kommunalstämma and kyrkostämma retaining only church responsibilities.|
|kyrktagning||O||Religious ritual for all women after
giving birth. Before this was performed the woman was
considered "unclean" and not allowed to enter the
church. The ceremony was performed 6 weeks after the birth
of a boy, 12 weeks if it was a girl. This time was
shortened in 1866 to 4 weeks but before the
christening. Originally performed at the church entrance (vapenhuset)
but later at the altar. The times and relation to
christening date has varied greatly in different parishes.
The ritual was abandoned at the beginning of the 20th
century but in some places used until the 1940's. The event
was noted in the church records in many parishes.
Commonly abridged: ktg. Also named "kyrkogång", abridged "kg"
|kyrk(o)vakt||A||Also named kyrkovaktare or kyrkvaktmästare. The janitor, care-taker in a church. Literal meaning: guard. Often this position was held by retired soldiers since the duties included guarding the valuables of the church from theft.|
|kyrkvärd||O||(alternate spelling kyrkovärd). church warden. Performs certain layman religious duties in the church. Do not confuse with kyrkvakt or kyrkvaktmästare who is the janitor, care-taker.|
|käring||A||orig. käresta = "dearest" used about a
wife. Today often used or perceived as derogatory. This is
based on a confusion with "kärring" which is
derogatory. Be careful about the pronunciation ! (käring w
long "ä", kärring with short "ä").
In old times also meaning a holder like a holder for a töresticka - a lyskäring or for a kettle above the open fire - a spis-käring (spis = open fireplace, later also stove)
|laga försvar||O||The legal term laga försvar refers to a privilege for employees in noble homes - effectively an exempt from being drafted for military service and from being regarded as lösdrivare. >more>|
|lagfart(sbevis)||M||= land deed from 1875 >more>|
|landbo||O||Farm user. legal term, stating certain rights. >>>|
|landshövding||M||Modern times administrative chief in a county. Appointed by the government. At his side there is the länsstyrelse (county administration).|
|landsfiskal||M||Local government official similar to a public prosecutor (AmE district attorney). >more>|
|landsförsamling||A||landsförsamling = rural parish. Used for surroundings of cities where the city itself is its own parish (= a stadsförsamling). (cf. Divisions).(abbreviations)|
|landsfogde||A||Government official in a county with several duties - see legal dictionary>>|
|landtbrukare||O||old spelling of modern title lantbrukare = farmer. Literal meaning: user of land. More common in older days and colloquially today: bonde. The term does not imply any form of ownership - only the occupation.|
|ledamot||A||member, e.g. council or board member|
|likstol, likstod||O||Fee, paid to the priest, for burial.|
|likstånd||O||(n) Housing a corpse until burial.|
|likståndspenningar||O||Fee, paid to the church, for housing a corpse until burial.|
|lispund||O||old measure of weight = 20 skålpund = 8.5 kilos.
Officially abandoned in 1855 but used several decades after that.
The prefix lis is derived from liviskt = from Livland. cf. skålpund.
|livgarde||A||[mil] = life guard (regiment). Prefix liv- used in the name of a regiment or other military unit denotes belonging to the (royal) household units.|
|livregemente||A||[mil] = household regiment|
|loco, in loco||A||(Lat.) = in the same place. Often used in "Place of birth" column in HFL - then means either same parish or sometimes same village.|
|lod||O||old weight measurement. = 1 / 32 skålpund
viktualievikt = 13.3 g. medicinalvikt = 1/2 uns = 14,9 g
precious metals = 1/16 of 1 lödig mark = 13,9 g (gold), 13.17 g (silver)
Several other meanings like a (counter)weight
|luffare||A||vagrant, see legal dictionary>>.|
|lycka||O||The modern use of this word is happiness,
good fortune (nouns).
In old times it was used to name a small farm field or meadow, always fenced off, often surrounded by forest. The word is derived from old word lyckt meaning locked (in this case referring to the fence around the field).
The old word still appears in names of farms and places, e.g. Gruvlyckan, Gunnarslycka.
|lyskäring||O||a light holder. A vertical wooden or metal stick with a forked holder where you can wedge a töresticka. It came in two main models - a tall floor stand, 2-4 feet high, and a short table-stand. cf. käring.|
|lysning||A||= banns. A procedure of announcing two persons intending to marry. It was requested by the couple to be in the home parish of the bride-to-be. The parish priest announces their intention to the congregation after the sermon in the Sunday Mass on three consecutive Sundays. The purpose is to give everyone an opportunity to announce any facts or conditions that could prevent the marriage (see marriage impediments). The procedure is recorded in the parish records (lysnings- och vigselbok)|
|lysnings- och vigselbok||O||Same as vigselbok.but it contains notes on banns as well as marriages. Banns were noted only in the home parish of the bride. The last part, "bok", may be replaced by "längd". >more>|
|lägra||O||(v) have sex with|
|längd||A||a list or register. Also = length.|
|länsman||A||A title. The use has changed over time - see legal dictionary>>|
|lärling||A||= apprentice. >>Craftsmen's Training>>|
|läst||O||a defined cartload measure of charcoal. >more>|
|löjtnant||O||military rank = lieutenant. See officer|
|-lösa||A||Common ending in place names. Assumed to mean äng (meadow). Most common in Götaland (southern 1/3 of Sweden). Example: Mellösa.|
|lösdrivare||O||= vagrant, vagabond. female = lösdriverska. >more>|
|lösdrivarlagen||O||a law about vagrants. Vagrancy could render as much as 4 years hard labour. >more>|
|lösdräng||O||a dräng without long term employment, often - but not necessarily - a lösdrivare|
|lönskaläge||O||= adultery, sexual relation between unmarried persons. cf. lägra. Legal term but used in common language. Was illegal in older times until 1865. Usually punished by fines by the courts and by the church. - see legal dictionary>>|
|major||O||military rank = major. See officer|
|mantal||O||A measure of farm land. >>>|
|mantalslängd||A||Census records book|
|markegångstaxa||O||Official price list for goods and services. Used to convert between payment in kind and payment in money.|
|mejeri||A||1 Modern meaning (20th century) is a dairy =
production plant for dairy products. The trained persons have the title mejerist
(male), mejerska (female), title used at lest since 1863. Workers
without the higher education are called mejeriarbetare. The chief
is a mejeriföreståndare (a position - not an education)
2 Original meaning was a dairy farm, which was run by a supervisor (Swe: förvaltare) and belonged to a larger farm / estate. It is derived from North German meierie, in turn from Latin major = larger. In later times this meaning used only when referring to foreign countries. In old times these farms were called mejerihemman in Swedish.
|mejerist||A||Title for the trained male personnel at a mejeri.|
|mejerska||A||Title for the trained female personnel at a mejeri.|
|mil||A||Length measurement. OLD Swe mil was 18000 aln = 10 689 metres. Today a mil = 10 kilometres = 10 000 metres. Read more.|
|milsten||A||"milestone" counting old Swedish mil, not Eng miles. Read more.|
|moder, mod., modr.||A||= mother.|
|moderförsamling||A||The "main" parish having one or more annexförsamlingar or kapellförsamlingar administratively connected to it. Read more about divisions.|
|moderpassion||O||Old word for "hysteri" = hysteric fits and other conditions - see med. dict.|
|morgongåva||A||In the last abt 100 years a traditional gift from groom
to bride on the morning after the wedding - often an expensive piece of jewellery.
In earlier days when the widow did not inherit her husband it was a legally binding promise that she would inherit the specified value from his estate in case they had no children as heirs. Read more here.
|männingsregemente||O||Special regiments created for the wars (abt 1700-1718) led by king Karl XII (1682-1718), composed of soldiers recruited beside the regular quota of one soldier per "rote". They were called "tre-", "fyr-" or "fem-" -männingsregementen depending of how many rotar (3, 4 or 5) joined to provide for one extra soldier.|
|mästare||A||= master. Many composite words. >>Craftsmen's Training>>|
|nockbänsel||O||(naval military term) The thin rope used to tie the sail to the yardarm on a square-rigged ship. Has been used as a surname by båtsman (navy soldier)|
|nämndeman||A||1 Lay member of a court OR
2 Members of different boards in the local governments. >more>
|obiit||O||[Lat.] "He / She died". cf. English "obituary" which has the same origin.|
|officer||O||Group of military ranks including 2 subgroups:
1 Company level: fänrik (second lieutenant), löjtnant (lieutenant) and kapten (captain) (ryttmästare in the cavalry).
2 Regimental level: major (major), överstelöjtnant (lieutenant colonel) and överste (colonel)
|ofgammal, offgammal||O||very old, ancient|
|ordningsman||A||from ordning = order (keep things/people in order)
and man = man. A person assigned to supervise / keep order of
things or people. Used in many different contexts.
When found in church records (like HFL:s) it usually refers to a man assigned by the church or the socken to supervise the general order in the parish, especially on moral issues. I don't think they had any extensive authority and were not part of the police force.
|-orp||A||common ending of farm and village names. Derived from torp: q.v.|
|oxel||O|| a tumor in
general on a human or animal body, see med.
Do not confuse with the tree "oxel" = (Latin) Sorbes Suecica of the family Rosaceae (rose plants) which has no connection to the medical term (as far as I know).
|oäkta||O||(about child) "illegitimate", born out of wedlock. Abbrev.: o.ä.|
|passion||O||(Lat passion, adj patient). suffering, sickness. Plur: passioner. see med. dict.|
|pastorat||A||A church district. Similar to Eng benefice. Usually composed of a few parishes. Also named prästagäll. Headed by a kyrkoherde. See article about religious divisions.|
|piga||O||literally = (servant) maid but most often used in the meaning hemmadotter. Commonly abridged "Pig" or "P:"|
|plikt||O||1 (old) = penalty. plikta / pligta =
(v) be punished or pay fine.
2 = (n) duty, obligation. göra sin plikt = do one's duty
|possessionat||O||lit. "owner" (cf. Eng. posession) commonly used in the meaning owner of (larger) real estate, = godsägare|
|Postilla, Huspostilla||O||Another name for the book "Lilla Katekesen" by M Luther|
|proband||A||= the person tested. From Latin pro
bandus, gerund of probare = to test.
In genealogy used to denote the "starting" person in a family tree.
|profoss||O||see legal dictionary>>|
|prosteri||O||same as kontrakt (a church division) since it was headed by a prost. See article about religious divisions.|
|provisor||O||(Latin providere = provide) Title for a certified pharmacist (leg apotekare) who works in a pharmacy (apotek) owned by another pharmacist.|
|prästagäll||O||Old name for a pastorat.|
|pyndare||A||old tool for measuring weight. A bar with moving counterweight and fixed pivot handle. cf. besman. Read more.|
|redlig, redelig||O||(a) honourable. cf. beskedlig and danneman. (documented at least from 16th century)|
|rev||O||(n) Old length measurement = 10 stänger = 29.7 metres.|
|riksdaler||O||Old Swedish currency. Existed in many different forms over time, like Rdr B:co = Riksdaler Banco, Rdr smt = Riksdaler silvermynt. See special sites about old Swedish currency|
|rote||A||The word has many different meanings in various contexts.
In genealogy we usually find it with this meaning:
Area (small district) assigned for different purposes. Usually included one or a few farms. Examples: soldatrote, husförshörsrote, skolrote. Read more.
|rotehjon||O||poor person (hjon) cared for by the rote|
|-rud, -ryd, -red||A||Very common suffix in farm and village names. Derived from rödja, rydja = break / clear new land. Spelling differs in different parts of Sweden|
|-rup||A||common suffix in farm and village names. Derived from torp: q.v.|
|rusthållare||O||Person providing one cavalry man to the army.|
|rustmästare||O||military rank. See underbefäl.|
|ryttare||A||[mil] = horseman, cavalry soldier(s).|
|ryttmästare||O||military rank in the cavalry, cf. kapten in the army. See officer|
|rådhusrätt||O||Local town court, corresponding to häradsrätt in the countryside.|
|ränta||O||(lit) = rent. Often used to denote the tax paid based on ownership of land.|
|rättare||O||Title used in several ways:
On a farm estate: supervisor of all farm work, farm foreman. Often took part in the work himself. If he did not work but only supervised he had the title befallningsman or (gårds)fogde = bailiff. His superior was a inspektor
On bruk and in factories: Supervisor of labourers.
In the judicial system: then referring to the word rätt = right, justice cf. skarprättare = executioner.
|rödsot||O||[med, obsolete] bloody diarrhoea, dysentery see med.
Similar words: diarré, durchlopp, utsot.
|röta, rötfeber||O||[med] rot, putrid fever, gangrene. cf. kallbrand|
|salig, sal.||O||= blessed, departed, dead. Some phrases: salig i åminnelse = in blessed memory. salig far = dear departed father|
|sammastädes||O||= same place, from samma = same and städes
(old) = place.
also as dersammastädes where der = there (sort of superfluous but still used).
A similar word is därstädes = derstedes = that place
|silver, silfver||A||= silver (silfver is old spelling until early 20th c.)|
|sitta på undantag||O||Living on an undantag allotment. Read more >>|
|sjelf||O||old spelling for modern själv = self (himself / herself)|
|sjuklig||A||sickly, prone to disease|
|skate||O||a) top of a tree or tree branch.
b) part of land area projecting like a peninsula into another area. Often used about part of a socken that projects into another county.
|skatt||A||1 (general) treasure. 2 tax|
|skattebonde||O||A farmer owning a skattehemman. Read more >>|
|skattebrev||O||Legal document confirming a skatteköp.|
|skattehemman||O||A hemman on land defined as skattejord. Term not used after the 1903 tax reform. Read more >>|
|skattejord||O||Privately owned land subject to state taxation. Term not used after 1903 tax reform. The prefix skatte is used in several words referring to this land form, e.g. skattebonde, skattehemman. Read more >>|
|skatteköp||O||A buy of land from the state regulated by special law. When a person buys land defined as kronojord this land is transferred from kronojord to skattejord, i.e. the owner becomes liable to tax for the land ownership. Only the åbo has this legal right to buy the land he uses. The buy is confirmed by a document called skattebrev. This became a legal form of buy in 1719 and became of great importance to farmers. This possibility was disallowed in 1919. cf. land types|
|skatteman||O||1 (middle ages) tax collector
2 (later) owner of land for which tax is paid (skattejord)
|skeppund||O||Old weight measure for goods transported onboard ships (skepp = ship). In general = 20 lispund = about 170 kilograms. Officially abandoned in 1855. For use about stångjärn (iron bars) see BRUK dictionary|
|skiljobrev, skiljobref||O||= legal document confirming a divorce. Read more in legal section.|
|skilsmässa||A||= divorce. See rules in legal section.|
|skoflickare||O||Job title for a shoemaker, or more precise a shoe repairman. cf. flickare|
|skogsbestånd||A||stand of trees, ett skogsbestånd refers to the forest part of an estate. skogsbeståndet is the definite form. Often used as heading before a detailed description of the forests.|
|skvaltkvarn||A||a water-mill powered by a horizontal water wheel. Used in Nordic countries since early middle ages (< 1000). Later replaced by mills with vertical water wheels or windmills.|
|skyldskap||O||old word for släktskap = (family) relationship, kinship.|
|skålpund||O||old weight measurement for dry goods. (skål
= bowl, pund = pound, the English measure)
= 4 fjärding = 32 lod = 128 kvintin = 100 ort = 425.076 g
100 skålpund = 1 centner.
The skål prefix denoted that this weight could be measured on a common hand-held scale with bowls. cf. lispund (= 20 skålpund).
The numbering system for linen yarn is based on the number of skeins of 300 yards on one skålpund.
|skäl||O||Many meanings depending on context (some
old, some still in use)
1 (n) reason
2 separation, division, sth splitting up (e.g. vägskäl = road junction)
3 Old volume measure for grain and flour, used only in upper Norrland region. Exact size varies over time and place but is 1 / 8 tunna = ca 20 litres.
|skälsland||O||Old area measure, used only in upper Norrland region. The area of farm land which needs one skäl of seed. >>read more>>|
|skäppa||O||Old measure - see tunna|
|skärslipare||O||Title / profession. Knife and scissors grinder. >>read more>>|
|slag||O||[med] medical diagnosis with several meanings but always in connection with a sudden and severe medical crisis. Usually specified like hjärtslag (heart stop), slaganfall ((cerebral) stroke).|
|slottsförsamling||A||= parish for a castle, usually including the castle owner's family and all staff, sometimes also a narrow surrounding area. Used mostly for castes in cities. (cf. Divisions).|
|snesland||O||Old measurement for farm land. More|
|socken||A||A geographical area from which people used the same church. Derived from old Nordic word sokna (verb = to assemble). Defines an area of local government. Division was done before the middle ages. There is usually a församling with same name, referring to the same area. Often translated to parish but strictly speaking the word socken refers to the worldly organization only. When referring to church matters the word församling is more correct. (cf. Divisions) Ref|
|sockenbok||A||Book about one or a few specified parishes. Usually describes its history and often the farms and people as read from parish records, legal documents, parish reports, family histories etc. Always very valuable to genealogists !|
|sockengäld||O||Payments from the socken to the parish priest.|
|sockemagasin||O||Storehouse owned by the socken for grain used as a buffer in case of bad crops and for providing for the poor.|
|sockenstuga||A||the house where public meetings were held in a socken, e.g.the sockenstämma. Often also served as a schoolhouse.|
|sockenstämma||O||Local community council meeting. Worldly, not religious, meeting. Replaced in 1862 by kommunalstämma and kyrkostämma.|
|O||Minutes from a local community council meeting sockenstämma. Sometimes a useful source for confirmation or new leads but less available than parish records.|
|soldattorp||O||A specific form of torp used by a soldier (in the old system indelningsverket), usually owned by the rote. cf. boställe.|
|spann||O||Old measure, plural = spän or spänner - see tunna|
|spiskäring||O||a metal holder for the kettle in an open fireplace. Could be a swinging arm fixed to the wall or a tripod. cf. käring.|
|spöstraff||O||punishment by whipping|
|stadsfiskal||O||same as landsfiskal but in cities.|
|stadsförsamling||A||stadsförsamling = city parish. Usually the surrounding rural area is its own parish (= a landsförsamling). (cf. Divisions). (abbreviations)|
|statare||O||a farm labourer employed by the land owner. Read more in Farming people|
|statdräng||O||A dräng who is a "statare" i.e. paid according to the "statare" system = (partly) in kind instead of in money cf. Farming people - statare|
|stattorpare||O||A statare who also farmed a torp (both statare and torpare). cf. Farming people|
|stenpassion||A||from "sten" = stone and "passion" =suffering. Illness related to stone(s). see med. dict.|
|stift||A||diocese. cf. Articles on divisions.|
|stiftsstad||A||diocese main city.|
|stig||A||1 in general = path (in a forest)
2 OLD = a measure for charcoal. >more>
3 (capitalized) "Stig" = a male given name.
|stockstraff||O||punishment being locked in stocken, a holding device with 2 bars locked together fixing the offender's hand and/or legs.|
|stom (stommen)||O||A farm belonging to or providing support for the parish priest. Definite form: stommen. Common name, usually only one in each parish. The name is still used but the meaning is lost to most people.|
|strypsjuka||O||[med] literally "strangulation disease" usually diphtheria.|
|stum, dumb||A||dumb (cannot speak)|
|stuteri||A||(n) Horse breeding facility.|
|stycke||O||old word for artillery gun / cannon. cf. styckjunkare and styckebruk. In modern language = a piece (of anything).|
|styckjunkare||O||artillery officer's rank corresponding to fanjunkare in the other troops (cf. Theme military ranks). Abolished in 1972.|
|ståndrätt||O||a war-time court. >more>|
|stång||A||1 (n) in general = a bar or
2 In old times also a length measurement = 10 Swedish fot = 2.97 metres. 10 stänger (plural form) = 1 rev.
3 (n) upper part of a ship's mast.
|stångjärn||A||(n) defined iron bar. See BRUK dictionary|
|städsla||O||(v) old word for (to) employ (a worker, maid etc). städslad = employed|
|supra||A||[Lat] = above|
|suscepti||O||(from Latin suscipere = assume
(as in responsibility)). Used in birth / christening
records to denote the godparents / godfather / -mother,
i.e. the people who pledge to assume responsibility for the
child should the parents fail or become unable to do so.
suscepti (plural), susceptor (sing, male), suscepta (sing,
e.g. "susc Karl Nilsson o.h.h. Sara Anddr" = Godparents Karl Nilsson and his wife Sara Andersdotter
|taxeringsvärde, Tax-v||A||taxation value (for real estate)|
|tegelslagare||O||worker in a tegelbruk or tegelslageri (baked brick factory). The verb is to slå tegel. The master craftsman here is named tegelmästare.|
|tegelmästare||O||Master craftsman in a tegelbruk or tegelslageri (baked brick factory). cf. tegelslagare|
|testis, testes||A||(Lat.) testis = witness, plural testes. Use in baptizm records.|
|tjänstehjon||O||servant. Used both in rural and urban areas. Often derog. cf. hjon.|
|torp||A||Small house on land owned by someone else. Eng: (sim) cottage. See >>land types|
|-torp||A||common ending of farm and village names. Derived from torp indicating that the origin has been a torp.|
|torpare||O||special type of farmer >more>|
|torpardotter||O||Daughter of a torpare|
|torparson||O||Son of a torpare|
|torpinventering||M||Listing and description of old cottages (torp) in an area (usually a village or socken). Made and published by local heritage societies. Generally a very good source of information about the houses, sometimes also the inhabitants. Sold by the local society and local archives.|
|trånsjuka||O||[med] In older times: any illness
that caused significant weight loss.
In later times: Seldom used but then often poetic meaning "serious longing for a loved one".
|tullnär||O||Old title for a custom's officer. Modern title is tulltjänsteman or coll. "tullare"|
|tum||A||Measurement. Full name is verktum.
Word derived from tumme = thumb. Corresponds to
Brit inch but differs in length.
Swedish verktum = 24,74 mm. (English inch = 25,4 mm)
There was also another tum called decimaltum = 1 / 10 fot = 29,69 cm. Not widely used and soon replaced by the modern decimal system with meter as the basic length unit.
1 aln = 2 fot = 4 kvarter = 24 verktum
|tun||O||(from old Nordic language) = fenced area, farm/village place. Same origin as English town.. Often used as suffix in names of larger villages or towns but then often spelled tuna as in Eskilstuna, Sigtuna|
|tunna||O||Old measures of volume, several
variations. The word means a barrel.
For wet goods: 125.62 liters, divided into 4 fjärdingar = 8 åttingar = 48 kannor.
Mainly used for beer, butter, flour (!), tar and fish.
For dry goods: a) spannmålstunna =146.35 liters, divided into 2 spän = 6 skäppor = 32 kappar = 56 kannor (all those are different kinds of containers) used for grain (seeds). 1 kappe = 4,58 liters
b) koltunna (coal barrel) = 63 kannor
|tunnland||A||A measure of land defined as the area for which one barrel (tunna) of barley was enough for sowing. = 56 000 sq feet = 4 936 sq meters (about 70 by 70 meters). In province Dalarna one tunnland was 5 077,2 sq meters divided into 40 snesland each divided into 10 bandland. One bandland was the area that gave one band = kärve = sheaf. More|
|tvet, tveten||O||"tvet" is a "separated piece of land" i.e. a larger farm has been divided into smaller ones, a process called avstyckning or avsöndring. We have had several government regulated rearrangements of farm land in Sweden in the past few hundred years in addition to the naturally occurring when dividing heritage. "tveten" is the definite form. The word is often used as a farm name and there are probably hundreds of farms named "Tveten" in Sweden.|
|tvinsot||O||[med] [from förtvina = "wither"] any illness that caused significant weight loss. see med. dict. cf. trånsjuka.|
|töresticka||O||a sap-rich, thin splinter, a few inches long, used for lighting. It was made from old stumps of pine tree which is rich in sap. It burns slowly but gives a weak light and produces soot and smoke.|
|undantag(et)||O||Allotment from farm, usually prepared for old people. Read more >>|
= non-commissioned officer. Group included all ranks below the group underofficer: vicekorpral, korpral (konstapel in the artillery), furir (distinktionskorpral before 1915), överfurir (högbåtsman in the navy) and rustmästare (förste högbåtsman in the navy)
|underofficer||O||= warrant officer. Group included these ranks: sergeant, (underofficer av 2:a graden in the navy), fanjunkare (styckjunkare in the artillery and anti-aircraft defence, flaggunderofficer in the navy) and förvaltare. Group dissolved in 1972|
|utsot||O||[med] diarrhoea of any origin. Similar words: diarré, durchlopp, rödsot.|
|Wadstena KrigsmanshusCassa||O||abbrev: Wadst: Krigsm: Cassa. The organisation in Vadstena which paid the pensions to all retired military personnel.|
|vagabond||O||= vagrant. cf. luffare|
|vapenhus||A||church entrance, vestibule, between the outer and inner doors. vapen = weapons, hus = house - i.e. the place where weapons were left before entering the church hall|
|vattusot||O||[med] abnormal accumulation of fluids in the body, like in the abdomen (Lat: ascites).|
|vicekorpral||O||lowest military rank. See underbefäl.|
|vigselbok, vigsellängd||O||Register of marriages. cf. lysnings- och vigselbok|
|vinpenning||O||Fee, requested by the priest from the parishioners in case the vinsäd did not cover expenses.|
|vinsäd||O||[vin = wine, säd = grain] Yearly tax, paid in grain by every farmer to the church, to cover expenses for communion wine and maintenance of buildings and inventories.|
|vådeligen||O||violently, usually as a cause of death meaning dead by some accident.|
|väbel||A||(German: vebel or feldvebel). A lower-rank officer ("underofficer") >more>|
|värk||A||see medical dict.|
|å||O||1: (old and legal) = på = on. 2: stream|
|åbo||O||Legal farm user. >more>|
|åborätt||O||A legal right to use a farm owned by someone else. See åbo|
|ålderdomssvaghet||A||literally "weakness from old age". Often used as cause of death where no obvious disease was observed or recognized.|
|äktenskapsförord||A||premarital contract = prenuptial agreement|
|överfurir||O||military rank. See underbefäl.|
|överste||O||military rank = colonel. See officer|
|överstelöjtnant||O||military rank = lieutenant colonel. See officer|
note i brackets like this [p:staat] is
pronunciation for English speakers.
In the "T' = Time column: O = Old times, M = Moderns language, A = All times
Explanation by F Haeffner unless otherwise stated. Mail me your contribution or request.
|Last updated by||F Hae||2005-10-27 08:35||© Fredrik Haeffner, 2001-4|