|Early Registration before
is the land registry started in 1540. It lists the owner
of every taxable piece of land for taxation purpose, unfortunately
mostly only by first name. The family is not registered but the size of
the farm is registered here for the first time.
from hjonelag (=family)
and längd (= list, register). These were created when needed but
with long intervals. They usually list only the owner by first name. The
family is not registered but sometimes the number of persons in the family
and servants are specified. More below under mantalslängd.
= taxation registers. Created when extraordinary taxation was
needed, e.g. the two Älvsborgs
Lösen. Contents are similar to hjonelängd.
Some church registers / diaries
In some parishes various diary-like books were kept recording
births, marriages and deaths. These are usually available along with the
other church books.
has since late 17th century had a rather unique system for registration of
the population. The church laws of 1686, valid from 1688, ordered that all
priest should conduct yearly examinations of "all" inhabitants
regarding their knowledge of Christian faith and ability to read and
understand read passages - a procedure called husförhör.
The results were recorded in large books named husförhörslängd
each covering a period of 5-10 years. Those books included all persons and
were continuously updated whenever some important event occurred for a
person such as births, marriages, deaths, vaccination, movements, work
permits, legal events, illnesses or handicaps. Therefore these books
contain a wealth of information about every person from birth to death and
are of course (one of) the most important sources for Swedish genealogy.
Check these guides on how to find and read
A process called mantalsskrivning
(man = man, tal = number, tally, skrivning
=writing) was implemented early to regulated by a law of 1894. The register is
called a mantalslängd (längd = list,
register). The responsibility is then transferred to every
head of household or apartment building owner. The
registration reflects the home address and personal
situation as of Nov 15.
From about 1630 until 1938 separate registers were created to enable
collection of a tax per person (healthy adults except those who were
exempt) mantalspenning. The procedures were regulated by law in
great detail and fines imposed on negligence or giving incorrect info.
Most of these registers are preserved in the Swedish archives. A
project at SVAR is in progress 2004-2005 to scan all those for the years
1642-1820. They will be available on line by subscription.
New law about mantalsskrifning and skatteskrifning
(Population and tax registration)
New law about mantalsskrifning and skatteskrifning.
A short summary:
All persons should be registered. Registration period: mid-Nov to Dec each
year but it was performed in one day in each place by a special government
official. The priest, länsman / stadsfiscal, fjärdingsman,
sexmän or rotemästare should be present..
Public servants were recorded at the place of service, except those
working outside Sweden who were registered in St Nicolai parish in
Stockholm. Seamen were registered in the home port of the ship except if
they own real estate in which case they are registered on the estate.
Students were registered in their home parish - not at the
school/university. People in hospitals and prisons were registered in the
last registered place.
The church books must be updated before the registration day. Non-state
church societies hand in lists of their members. Transfer certificates in
the last year must be delivered to the parish office before Nov 9. Changes
between registration day and year's end were reported by the parish priest
before Jan 15 the next year. All land owners and employers hand in lists
of all household members / employees.
Registered info (as applicable): Name, birth date, occupation, reduced
work capacity due to illness or disability, real estate owned, rent
collected (from whom and amount), ship cargo capacity, engine, personnel.
Each farm (hemman) or factory, shop etc is registered separately,
incl reg-nbr in jordaboken. Information could be given in writing
on a special form or verbally.
The complete document was handed to the parish priest who should compare
all info to that in the church books and, on the first Sunday in March
next year, call a allmän sockenstämma (open parish meeting) where
the info should be checked and approved.
(SFS No 45 1861-07-21) (I have the full text)
New law about mantalsskrifning and skatteskrifning
From 1888 the presence at husförhör
was no longer mandatory and its importance is soon reduced.
The associated registration of all inhabitants is gradually replaced
by the mantalsskrivning process
In Stockholm this was from 1878
performed by the organization named rotemannainstitutionen. The need
for this came from the industrialization and the increasing
"mobility" of the population.
The city was divided in 16 rotar (rote = area), eventually
expanded to 35. A roteman was responsible for registration in each rote.
Each building / city block had its own mantalsbok.
The system was abolished in 1926.
Many of those registers have been transcribed and published
on CD:s along with a lot of other material from the period.
When you find the note "u.m." in
the notes column in a HFL this means utom mantal i.e. the person
was not recorded in the mantalslängd and therefore exempt from