genealogy of the tribe using Grant as a cornerstone and now a million people
who think they are Cherokee claim that they are descended from “Mary Grant,
of the Long Hair Clan”. Tampering with the Mary Grant legend is unpopular
business, but a reconstruction of the evidence is helpful.
From Dobson’s Scots in the Carolinas:
Ludovic Grant. Jacobite soldier captured after the Seige of Preston, Lancashire.
Transported from Liverpool to South Carolina on the Susannah, master Thos.
Bromhall, on 7 May 1716.
Ludovic Grant was an Indian trader and agent of South Carolina Governor
James Glen. Grant’s reports from the Cherokee Nation were held in high
Historical Press, 1983):
The expedition of Colonel George Chicken into the Cherokee Nation in the
summer of 1725 preceded the “fixed” traders at Great Tellico and at the Middle
Towns. From him we know Grant was not there:
Colonel George Chicken -
Friday the 23d day of July 1725
Got away from Nocoochee abt 6 of the Clock in the Morning and abt Six at Night we passed by Tamautley in the Upper Settlements and came to Elejoy being abt two Miles further where we lay all Night having Traviled this day thirty five Miles a road which is almost Impossible to Travile in and were Obliged to walk Several Miles of the way.
Munday the 2nd Day of August 1725
The head men of the following Towns being mett together at Tunisee I had the talk Interpreted to them.
Tunissee . Terriquo . Tallassee Towns on this side
Suittico . Coosaw . . . . . . . the hills
Eljoy . Tamantle . . . . . . . Towns on the other
Cheeowee . Conustee . . . . . . side the hills
Towns wanting in the Upper Settlements:
Iwasee and Little Terriquo
When Sir Alexander Cuming visited the Cherokee in 1730 to secure their allegiance to the British crown, Ludovic Grant was one of the guides. Cuming went to Keowee then up the Keowee path to Niquassi (near present-day Franklin, North Carolina) where they were met by a delegation from the Middle towns and the Overhills. Ludovic Grant was a witness to the document of
fidelity and friendship foisted on the amused Cherokee by the daring Cuming.
Ludovick Grant –
Sir Alexander had resided sometime in Carolina, and intending to return to England, he was desirous first to see the Cherokee country. I resided then in the town of great Telliguo in that nation, And my buisness calling me to Charlestown I had got the length of Keowee which is about 150 Miles from where I live and I there met Sir Alexander just arrived from Carolina. He acquainted me and some of the other Traders who were going down that he had no Errand but to see the Country And that he would continue there but a few days requesting us to return with him, and accompany him which accordingly we aggreed to do. We dined that day all together at the house of Joseph Baker Trader in Keowee and at dinner some of the Traders mentioned that these Indians were not then in the best Disposition. At night Wee went to the Town house where all the Indians men & women met every night when They were not out hunting even the Headmen go there to partake of the diversion. After we had continued some time there Sir Alexander made a speech, to the head men of the Town, Which I remember perfectly well having had occasion to hear him repeat the same Speech in every Town we went through. Viz. that he was one of the Great King Georges Children but was not sent either by the Great King or any of his Governors – that he was no public person and only came for his own private Satisfaction to see their Country, And that he would Drink the King’s health hopeing that all persons would pledge him which he accordingly did upon his knee desiring us to follow his Example and Wee Desired the Indians to do so. Upon which Sir Alexander said it was easy to make them all good Subjects, but I must not omit a Circumstance pretty Extraordinary. Sir Alexander carried with him into the Town house his Gun, his Cutlass and a pair of pistols, and one of the Traders telling him that the Indians never came there armed, and did not like that any should. He answered with a Wild look, that his intention was if any of the Indians refused the King's health to take a brand out of the fire that Burns in the middle of the room and set fire to the house. That he would guard the door himself and put to death every one that endeavoured to make their Escape that they might all have been consumed to ashes. This strange speech which I and
the other Traders heard him make, did not give some of them who were to have been of the party a very favorable opinion of him, so they concluded it would be saffer for them to stay and leave him and me to pursue our Journey which accordingly we did the next morning. [i]
Sir Alexander Cuming –
March 30. Sir Alexander left William Cooper at great Telliquo to take
Care of his lame Horse, and took only Ludovick Grant along with him to great Tannassy: This Town is pleasantly situated on a Branch of the Mississippie, and is 16 Miles from great Telliquo; the Path was said to be lined with Enemies, but neither Mr. Grant nor Sir Alexander met with any Accident. Here Sir Alexander met with Mr. Wiggan, the complete Linguist, saw fifteen Enemies Scalps brought in by the Tannassy Warriors, made a Friend of the King of Tannassy, made him do Homage to King George II. on his Knee, returned the same Night to great Tellliquo, was particularly distinguished in the Town-House by Moytoy, where the Indians sung Songs, danced, and stroaked his Head and Body over with Eagles Tails; after this, a Consultation was held with Moytoy and Jacob the Conjurer, who determined to present him with the Crown of Tannassy.
never did. [Dictionary of American Biography II 591-592: “At a great congress of the tribe, at
Nequasse, Motoy of Tellico, an Anglo-phile chief, was crowned ‘emperor’ of the Cherokee.” In fact
as noted above, they did not meet until Cuming went to Tellico in the Overhills. Moytoy was suspected in
Charleston of pro-French leanings and, after Cuming took seven chiefs to London, Moytoy ordered attacks
on English settlers on the Savannah River.]
[Dictionary of National Biography V 295]
Cuming’s account of his meeting with Moytoy and the other chiefs was that he,
Cuming, “was made lawgiver, commander, leader, and chief of the Cherokee
Nation, and witness of the power of God, at a general meeting at Nequisee in the
[Dictionary of National Biography V 294]
Ludovic Grant –
From Telliguo we rode over to Tannassee, and afterwards returned by Neguasae Where several Traders met us and a good many Indians. Sir Alexander had been informed of all the Ceremonies that were used in making a head beloved man, of which there are a great many in this nation. They are called Ouka and as we translate that word King, so we call the Cap he wears upon that occasion his Crown, it resembles a wig and is made of Possum’s hair Dyed Red or Yellow, Sir Alexander was very desirous to see one of them, and there being none at that Town One was sent for to some other Town, He Expressed Great Satisfaction at Seeing of it, and he told the Indians that he would carry it to England and give it to the Great King George. . .
[SC History & Genealogy Mag X (1909) p.56-57]
Sir Alexander Cuming –
Sir Alexander made the Witnesses sign to the Substance of what they saw and heard, in order to preserve the Memory thereof, after Words are forgot. The Witnesses were Sir Alexander Cuming, Eleazar Wiggan, Ludovick Grant, Samuel Brown, William Cooper, Agnus Mackferson, David Dowie, Francis Beaver [James Francis Beamer], Lachlan Mackbain, George Hunter, George Chicken, and Joseph Cooper [halfbreed son of William Cooper], Interpreter, besides the Indians.
April 5. Sir Alexander went from Nequassee to Nooulfkah, with only William Cooper and George Hunter, leaving George Chicken to follow after. Here Sir Alexander received Roots of all Kinds, which were ever held among the Indians as the greatest Secrets. From hence he went to Chattoogay, and lay at the house of Joseph Cooper’s Mother.
Ludovic Grant –
He again repeated what he had said at Keowee and the other Towns. That he was one of King George’s Children and came to see their Country, that he was soon going over the Great Water and if any of them would go with him to see England he would carry them. . . . I know all the people that went over to England well, I know they had no Commission of authority from the Nation to give away any of their land, and I know they had no power or right in themselves to do it. I was present when they returned from England and when the presents they brought over with them were distributed and heard them make their report of all that they had seen but I never heard one word about their Surrendering their Country on the Contrary They brought with them a written paper or Parchment which I have seen and read the title of which is Articles proposed or proposals made by the Lords of Trade to the Cherokees, and there is the answer of the Cherokees to these proposals. . . .[ii]
spent most of the rest of his life in hospital confinement or in jail. His last plan
to gain an audience was to resettle all the Jews into Cherokee territory to form
an agricultural paradise. [Dictionary of National Biography V, 295]
[SC Commons Journal of 18 Jul 1740, 17 Dec 1740]
In the 1740’s Grant was asked to take some men to Great Tellico to arrest
Christian Priber, who was setting up an independent state among the Cherokee
with himself as governor. (When it was reported to the authorities in South
Carolina, it was made to appear that Priber was setting up a kingdom and had
declared himself king and the Cherokee his subjects. This was a slight stretch.
Grant could not take Priber into custody because the Cherokee would not let
him. Grant did, however, tell the Cherokee he would throw Priber into the fire
if he did not shut up.
Ludovick Grant -
One Pryber who Called himself a German but was certainly an Agent for the
French. He went up from Amelia Township to the Cherokee Nation, and lived in the Town of Telliquo, and being a great Scholar he soon made himself master of their Tongue, and by his insinuating manner Indeavoured to gain their hearts, he trimmed
his hair in the Indian manner & painted as they did, going generally, almost naked,
except a shirt & Flap, he told these people that they had been strangely deluded, that
they had been tricked out of a great part of their Land by the English, That for the
future they should make no concessions to them of any kind but should profess an
equal regard for bothe the French and the English, and should trade with both upon the same footing, which would be their greatest security for they would then be courted & carressed & receive presents from both.
I sometime after went up into the Townhouse with a Resolution to try what could be done, but I found that he was well apprized of my design and laughed at me, desiring
me to try it, in so insolent a manner that I could hardly bear with it, and I told him although I knew the Indians would not permit me to Carry him down to be hanged, Yet they would not find fault I hoped if I should throw him into the Fire, which I certainly would do if he gave me any further Provocation. [SC Commons Journal ]
John P. Brown, the great historian of the Cherokee, in his Old Frontiers (p.53)
gives the impression that Grant lived at Chota in Tennessee in 1754. If Grant
was there, however, it was to report on the supposed trading by Virginians.
Grant’s letters in 1754 and 1755 show his “address” was still Tomatly:
30 April 1752 from “Tomatly”
22 July 1754 from “Tomatly Town”
23 March 1755 from “Tomatly Town”
24 March 1755 from “Tomatly”
27 March 1755 from “Tomatly”
29 April 1755 from “Kewohee” (on his way to Charleston)
20 August 1755 from “Estertoe” (on his way back from Charleston)
1 January 1756 from “Tomatly”
12 February 1756 from “Keowhee” (on his way to Charleston)
When trouble broke out in Keowee in April 1751, James Maxwell rode into
North Carolina to see if the trouble was spreading. He rode to Ioree (Ayoree),
then to Little Hiwassee. “The twenty fifth I came to Tomahtly to Mr. Grants and staid there all Night.” [SC Commons Journal of 13 May 1751.]
In the August 1751 act which reorganized the Indian trade, Cornelius
Daugherty and Ludovic Grant were recognized as the traders of record for the
Valley Towns. “Cotocanahut, Nayowee, Tomattly, Cheewohee” were next to
Grant’s name. (Note that Chilhowee was Abraham’s town and played a
later role in Emory family history.)
This is all to re-establish the evidence that Ludovic Grant’s daughters were
were born at Great Tellico (Tennessee) but the children of his daughters were born at Tomatly (in what is now North Carolina).
Grant again made an enforcement trip with Cornelius Daugherty and their men
to Tellico in 1756 to arrest L’Antignac and French John there and bring them to justice, but the French agents got away (with the help of Cherokee friends).
[GA Upper House, XVI, January 1757, 147-150; Sc Ind Docs (3) 1754-1765]
(One of the friends was Old Hop, chief at Chota (Tennessee) who defied
Governor Glen’s demand to deliver French John (or his scalp) to the governor.)
[SC Indian Docs (3) 411, 412]. Old Hop is not Standing Turkey (Kana-ga-toga) and is confused by later writers with Oconostota. (Standing Turkey was Old Hop’s son.)
[SC Indian Docs (3) 141, 142 – both Old Hop and Standing Turkey are referred to as different men, though Old Hop’s name in his youth was Standing Turkey. SC Indian Docs (2) 1750-1754 ].
Corane the Raven of Toxowa Co-ra-ne = Raven in lower dialect
Col la neh = Raven in upper dialect
Canacaugh the Great Conjuror of Keowee Oconee-Ka-Ta (grandfather of Warhatchy?)
Ka ni ga ta = Standing Turkey
Sinnawa the Hawk’s Head – warrior of Toxowa unknown
Nelle Wagalche of Toxowa unknown
Yohoma of Keowee unknown
Canasaita of Keowee Oconee-Sa-Ya-di (Oconostota?)
Yorhalche of Toxowa Warhatchy or Wauhatchee from Keowee
Owasta the head beloved man of Toxowa Outtacitee = head man, father of Warhatchy
Raymond Demere British captain
James McKay British or militia captain
White Outerbridge British or militia captain, of Charleston (Saint Philip’s)
James Glen Thomas Glen? James Glen = Governor of South Carolina
Thomas ---- Thomas Glen?
James Francis a militia captain at Ninety Six, not well liked but had
business with Thomas Nightingale
Ludwick Grant a friend of Gov James Glen and James Beamer
James Beamer a leading trader of the Lower Towns, a friend of Thomas
Nightingale, Gov. James Glen and Ludovic Grant
John Elliot a trader in the Lower Towns, not liked by Little Carpenter
or by Ludovic Grant. Was killed by Cherokee Feb 1760.
form of the name in 1752: Caneecatee, and there was a Conotatche of
Tugaloo. [SC Indian Docs II,76] Kahyun could be dialectic for Bullfrog and with
the second word (dialectic for green?) mean Springfrog? Or it could be a
variant of Long (Hair?).
[SC Indian Docs (2), 119, 237, 304-306; (3) 244-5, 260, 305, 351].
i. Susannah Catherine Grant b.c. 1727 Great Tellico,
Cherokee Nation (Tennessee) d.bef. 1770
m. 1743 Robert Emory (d.1790).
Her daughter Susannah (b.1744) was the mother of Bushyhead
ii. Mary Grant b.c. 1729 Great Tellico, Cherokee Nation (Tennessee) d.bef. 1766
m. 1743 William Emory (d.1770)
Her daughter Susannah (b.1750) was the mother of Richard
Fields. Her oldest child was Will Emory (b.1744 d.1788).
Starr does not show Will Emory (b.1744) or Robert Emory and he only shows one Susannah. But he shows the mother of Bushyhead (Susannah) to be the
third daughter of William Emory (d.1770). Given that Ludovic Grant entered
the Cherokee Nation in 1726 and the Emorys entered in 1743, Will Emory (b.1744) is listed as a warrior in 1761, and Bushyhead was born no later than 1760, Starr’s construction becomes an impossibility. The order of the three daughters of William Emory (d.1770) is accepted as: Mary, Elizabeth, Susannah. (Starr even says this order is reliable. Birth dates of their children support this order as well.)
Catherine is a better guess than Susannah as the name for the first daughter
because several researchers feel Ludovic Grant’s parents were named John and Katherine. Ka-Ti appears among Bushyhead descendants. And there is an unidentified Catherine Emory buried 22 October 1769 at Saint Philip’s close to Thomas Nightingale (buried 4 November 1769, followed two weeks later by a Mary Emory who was John Emory’s second wife.
The “Susannah Catherine” construction is interesting because that was the name
of Major Ridge’s mother, and she was b.c.1740-1755.
[Encyclopedia of Native American Biography, 321]
For further discussion, see John Stuart, Bushyhead and the others referred to above.