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  1918 Flu Epidemic
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1918 Influenza Epidemic
(Obituaries for Individuals Who Died During the Epidemic Can Be Found On Their Tombstone Page)


History of the 1918 Influenza Epidemic
 
The Dallas Morning News
12 September 1918

EPIDEMIC OF SPANISH INFLUENZA IS FEARED
Washington, Sept. 11 - Spanish influenza, the strange prostrating malady which recently ravaged the German army and later spread into France and England with such discomfiting effects on the civil population, has been brought to some of the American Atlantic coast cities, officials here fear, but they are awaiting further investigation and developments before forming definite opinions.
In the opinion of officials, the strang infection has been brought over by persons returning on American transports.  There is little means of combating the disease, except by absolute quarantine and that obviously is impossible at this time because it would require interruption of intercourse between communities as drastic as was resorted to in the dreaded days of yellow fever in the South.
Precautionary measures are considered the best weapons to combat the malady and as the disease is a new one to American physicians, the Government possibly may take the menace in hand by issuing country-wide warnings and general instructions of how to avoid the infection.  If possible, and how best to meet it if it be, contracted.
Spanish influenza, although short-lived and of practically no permanent serious results, is a most distressing ailment which prostrates the sufferer for a few days, during which he suffers the acme of discomfort.
 



The Dallas Morning News
27 September 1918

INFLUENZA SPREADS FROM COAST TO COAST
Surgeon General Blue Says It Has Appeared in Twenty-Six States
29,002 Cases in Camps
Two Hundred and Three New Cases at Camp Logan - Pneumonia Also Becomes More Prevalent.
Washington, Sept. 25 - Spanish influenza has spread over the country so rapidly that officials of the Public Health Service, the War and Navy Departments and the Red Cross conferred today on measures to help the local communities in combating the disease.  Calls for assistance already have been received from several cities, and in one instances - Wilmington, N.C. - the Public Health Service Hospital was opened for treatment of persons suffering witn the disease.
Surgeon General Rupert Blue of the Public Health Service said tonight that latest reports showed that the malady made its appearance in twenty-six States, from the Atlantic to the Pacific.  The disease is epidemic in New England, where it firts made its appearance, and officials in that section are considering drastic steps to curb its spread, including the prevention of public gatherings.
Influenza has appeared on the Pacific Coast, in Washington and California, but is not yet epidemic there.  It also has been reported in Minnesota and Iowa.  East of the Mississippi, however, there are few States where it has not been found.
The disease continued to spread today in army camps, 5,324 new cases being reported to the officers of the Surgeon General of the Army up to noon.  No ne camps were added to the list and it was announced that there are fifteen camps and stations free from influenza.
The total reported from thecamps today was the largest in any one day and brought the total for all camps to 29,002 cases.  The number of pneumonia cases reported among the soldiers since the outbreak of the influenza epidemic Sept. 13 is 2,313, and the number of deaths since that date is 530, with 155 reported today....



MASSACHUSETTS ALARMED AT INCREASING DEATH TOLL
Boston, Mass., Sept. 25 - Alarmed by the rapidly mounting death toll in New England from Spanish influenza, Massachusetts, the center of the epidemic in the East, today began a concerted effort to stamp out the disease.  The executive council is in special session and has set aside a fund of $100,000, and Acting Governor Collidge immediately created the emergency public health committee.
The first step taken by this committee was to call on the American Red Cross at Washington for physicians and nurses to take the places of those who have died or who have been exhausted by their arduous work.  The committee then sent out a State-wide request for the temporary closing of all theaters, motion picture houses and other places of public gathering except churches.  Cancellation of all parades planned for the immediate future was included in the request.
The State health committee tonight recommended that specialists who could temporarily give up their practice should register with the State Health Commission for service against the influenza epidemic.  Warning to proprietors of eating places was also sent out by the committee.
It was estimated today that there were between 50,000 and 75,000 cases of influenza and pneumonia in New England.  There have been more than 1,000 deaths in the New England States in ten days.
There were 187 deaths from influenza and pneumonia in Boston for the twenty-four hours ending at 10 o'clock tonight, a decrease of two from yesterday.  Deaths from the disease in this city since Seept. 14 have totaled 697.


INFLUENZA IN CAMPS DELAYS DRAFT CALLS
General Crowder Cancels Orders for Entrainment of Men Oct. 7-11.
Washington, Sept. 26 - Because of the epidemic of Spanish influenza in army camps, Provost Marshal General Crowder tonight canceled calls for the entrainment between Oct 7 and 11 of 142,000 registrants.
During the twenty-four hours ending at noon today 6,139 new cases of influenza in army camps had been reported to the office of the Surgeon General of the Army.  One hundred and seventy deaths, resulting chiefly from pneumonia following influenza, and 723 new cases of pneumonia also are reported.
Two camps, Kearney, Cal., and Eustice, Va., were added today to the list of those where influenza had made its appearance, leaving only thirteen camps free from the disease.  The total number of cases of influenza in all camps was placed at 35,146, with 3,036 cases of pneumonia.  One out of every four men at Camp Dvons, Mass., has contracted influenza, it was announced and 10 per cent of the cases have developed into pneumonia.


MARCH ORDERS CANCELLATION
In canceling the call for the entrainment of the draft registrants early next month, General Crowder acted upon instructions from General March, chief of Columbia had been assigned quotas and the men were to have gone to practicallyall of the camps in the country.  The men probably will not be entrained until.....


The Dallas Morning News
29 September 1918

SERUM WILL BE USED TO COMBAT INFLUENZA
Spread of Disease continues, 8,830 New Cases Being Reported Yesterday
Washington, Sept. 28 - Vaccination with a recently discovered serum, which from tests just completed at several army camps has been found to be an almost positive preventive of contraction of pneumonia, will be used to combat the epidemic of Spanish influenza, which in the week ending today had made its appearance in every State and in all but a few army camps, causing many deaths.
Use of the vaccine will be widely extended, Congress today having appropriated a million dollars to be used by the public health service in fighting Spanish influenza and other communicable diseases.  The resolution carrying the appropriation, offered in the House by Representative Gillette ofMassachusetts, was adopted by a unanimous vote.



The Dallas Morning News
1 October 1918

EXPECT TO LIFE INFLUENZA QUARANTINE AT EARLY DATE
......"The chief danger of influenza, grip, or la grippe, or anything you want to call it,is the ease with which complications set in," Dr Carnes said.  "Pneumonia is the most frequent sequel to grip, but often mastoiditis and eye trouble follow the disease. It is highly desirable that the people keep up their vigilant watch on symptoms of the disease and keep it from endangering the health of our soldeirs."
Doctors are still urged to report all cases of grip to the city, as well as the discharged patients.  Dr. Carnes is keeping a close record of the prevalence and behavior of the disease and will compile statistical statements of the condition in Dallas during the epidemic scare.  Sixteen cases were reported at the Emergency Hospital yesterday, making a total of thirty-seven cases in the city.  Dr. Carnes announced that the cases are sporadic and do not indicate an infected district in the city. 



The Dallas Morning News
1 October 1918

11 MORE COUNTIES REPORT INFLUENZA
State Health Department Issues a Warning Lest the Disease Spread
(Special to The News)
Austin, Texas, Sept. 30 - The State Health Department today received reports of Spanish influenza from eleven additional counties in Texas, brining the total infected counties up to thirty-one so far officially reported.  All these reports were made voluntarily by county and city health officials, the Texas law not requiring the reporting of influenza cases.
The reports which have been made were in response to letters sent by Dr. W.A. Davis, Secretary of the state Board of Health and State Registrar of vital statistics, to city and county officials.  Dr. Davis today authorized the statement that there are cases in influenza in one-half of the counties in Texas, and that if prompt steps are not taken, the disease will spread in epidemic form over the entire State.  Dr. Davis urges local health officials to make reports to authorities at military cantonments or any influenza infection among drafted men before they are sent to the cantonments, in order that proper observation might be given the men upon their arrival in camp.
The eleven counties which reported Spanish influenza today were: El Paso, Runnels, Sterling, Refugio, Edwards, Wilson, Harris, Wood, Walker and Harrison.
The counties previously reporting are Nolan, Taylor, McCulluch, Brown, Lampasas, Williamson, Travis, Caldwell, Gonzales, Frio, Bosque, Johnson, Kaufman, Van Zandt, Navarro, Montgomoery, Galveston, Orange, Hemphill and Potter.  The number of cases reported by these counties ranges from 1 to 1,000.



HOW TO COMBAT DISEASE
In reponse to inquiries from many section of the State Dr. Davis today issued the following statement, giving suggestions as a method of procedure to combat the spread of the disease:
"Grip or influenza, is not a quarantinable disease under state statutes.  All health officers have been requested to report all cases of grip so that the State authorities may be in position to correct erroneous reports.  Such reports show that the disease has made its appearance in thirty-one counties and that drastic methods must be used if the State is to avoid a repetition of such epidemics as are occurring in the Eastern States.  The legislative bodies of cities and incorporated towns should at once pass local ordinances providing for the notification and modified quarantine of all cases of grip; the proper cleaning and disinfection of all public buildings, street cars and public vehicles; prohibiting the use of common drinking cups and common towels; prohibiting spitting on sidewalks and floors of public buildings, and requiring antiseptics to be placed in all cuspidors, spittoons; medical inspection of public schools and excluding from schools all children with fever and coriza; prohibiting dry sweeping and dry dusting in any public building or schoolroom; prohibiting the dry sweeping of streets or alleys, with such additional ordinances as will abate all dust and smoke nusiances.
"When these and other ordinances as may be necessary are passed, an appropriation should be made so as to employ sufficient police force to enforce them."


The Dallas Morning News
3 October 1918

DENISON IN GRIP OF INFLUENZA
(Special to The News)
Denison, Texas, Oct. 2 - Influenza has spread over Denison very rapidly and it is impossible to estimate the number of cases here now.  Every available doctor is working night and day in an attempt to check the disease.  Several physicians are ill and unable to make calls.  Several cases that developed into pneumonia resulted fatally.
The public schools, all picture shows and pool halls have been closed.  The picture shows and pool halls were closed by their owners in an effort to assist in stamping out the disease.  Local physicians say that with continued fair weather it is believed the disease will be fully checked within a few days.


The Dallas Morning News
6 October 1918

BELIEVE INFLUENZA IS UNDER CONTROL
City Health Department of Opiniono That Quarentine Is Unnecessary
...Though the presence of influenza in the three army posts around Dallas has been strenuously denied by officers of the posts during the last week, it was announced yesterday at the Aviation Repair Depot that there were two cases at the post.  Both are isolate and no new developments have taken place.  Fourteen cases were admitted at Love Field yesterday, according to the Love Field Loop, all patitents being arrivals from other fields.  Captain E.R. Harris of the post hospital states that the disease is well under control and there is no danger of its spread to other men of the command.  It is expected that the quarantine will be lifted some time during the coming week.  The quarantine of the post remains in full effect. A guard has been stationed at the Lemmon avenue pass gate, who accompanies all visitors to the post in an automobile to the hospital, where the party is sprayed with a simple preparation to relieve colds and sore throat.  The new students officers arriving at the post are quarantined for fifteen days.  Though admitting the presence of only twenty cases of influenza, eighty men from Camp Dick are confied at St. Paul Sanitarium with colds and grip.  Major Vernon K. Earthman, camp surgeon, who has been active in the fight against the epidemic, is confined to his home with a serious attack of the malady. He was reported as improving yesterday.  Lieutenant Hine, post Adjutant, said yesterday that the situation had not been found acute enough for a quarantine.

PREVENTION MEASURES GIVEN
A memorandum was issued yesterday morning at Camp Dick by Lieutenant Colonel B.K. Yount, commanding officer, quoting the rules received from the Surgeon General for avoiding influenza.  They are:
Avoid needless crowding - influenza is a crowd disease.
Smother your coughs and sneezes - others do not want the germs which you would throw away.
Your nose, not your mouth, was made to breathe through, get the habit.
Remember the three C's - a clean mouth, clean skin, and clean clothes.
Try to keep coll when you walk and warm when you ride and sleep.
Open the windows - always at home at night; at the office, when practicable, but do not sit in a draft.
Food will win the war if you give it a chance - help by choosing and chewing your food well.
Your fate may be in your own hands - wash your hands before eating.
Don't let the waste products of digestion accumulate - drink a glass or two of water on getting up.
Don't use a napkin, towel, spoon, fork, glass or cup which has been used by another person and not washed.
Avoid tight shoes, tight clothes, tight gloves - seek to make nature your ally, not your prisoner.
When the air is pure breathe all of it you can, breathe deeply.
Avoid the common use of common drinking cups.


The Dallas Morning News
8 October 1918

INFLUENZA MASKS SENT TO DALLAS ARMY CAMPS
Five hundred women of the auxiliaries of the Dallas County Chapter of the American Red Cross filled a rush order for influenza masks yesterday and during the day turned out 7,000 of the masks.  Of these, 500 were sent to the hospital at Camp Dick and 500 to the hospital at Love Field, to be used in case of an epidemic of emergency.  The remained of the order, which was received from Miss Katherine Burlingame, director of production for the Southwestern Division of the Red Cross, will be kept on hand by the Dallas chapter for emergency use.  The masks are four-ply guase, 6x9 inches and are fastened over the nose as air filters.  Before being put into use a drop of an anti-influenza solution is placed on the masks.
The Dallas chapter received a rush order for 500 bath robes for use in infeluza cases in hospitals.  The woman's work department will set to work today to fill the order and will probably have all the bath robes ready for use by tonight, it was said at headquarters  yesterday.
The Dallas chapter yesterday received pamphlets prepared by the United States Public Health Service dealing with the treatment of Spanish influenza and handed over 10,000 of them to the Board of Education for distribution among the school children of the city.
Headquarters of the American Red Cross in Washington have issued a warning to relatives of men in army hospitals with influenza to stay away from cantonment cities.  An extract from the bulletin published by the Red Cross says:
There can be no guarantee that a person who leaves home and friends can receive even a reasonable care in a cantonment town which is already overcrowded and which may in turn have an epidemic fall upon it.  Keep in your own community.



The Dallas Morning News
5 October 1918

INFLUENZA SPEADING OVER WIDE TERRITORY
12,975 New Cases At Camps and Epidemics in Many Cities Reported
Washington, Oct. 4 - Spanish influenza continues its reapid spread both among the civilian population and in army camps.  Reports today to the Public Health Service shoed the disease had become epidemic in many more cities, while 12,975 new cases were reported among soldiers training in this country.
Besides that part of the New England distrct already reported, the disease now has reached epidemic proportions in New Jersye and also in parts of Pennsylvania, Maine, Delaware, Virginia and Alabama.
There was no record to show the penumonia and death rates among the civilians, but in army camps pneumonia cases nearly doubled, being 1,854 today against 930 yesterday.  Deaths in army camps, however, decreased, being 331, compared with 390 the day before.  The total number of influenza cases in the camps now is 127,975, pneumonia cases 10,429 and deaths 2,869.
...Telegrams have been sent to all State Health Officers to the effect that emergency medical and nursing aid will be supplied only by requests addressed to the Surgeon General of the Public Health Service by State Health Officers.  This action, it was explained, was in the interest of systematic and intelligent handling of the campaign against the disease.
Public Health Service officials emphasized today the best way to combat the diseas is to prhibit public gatherings.  In Washington today churches were asked not to hold religious services until the disease is stamped out, while all dance halls and army hostess houses were ordered closed.
As a part of its campaign the Public Health Service has sent to State and Municipal Health Officers over the country suggestions to the individuals as to how best to avoid the disease.  As the head of the Treasury Department, of which the Public Health Service is a Bureau, Secretary McAdoo in a statement tonight asked newpaper editors to give publicity to the suggestions.


The Dallas Morning News
6 October 1918

DEATHS
COX - Denison, Texas, Oct. 5 - James L. Cox, a locomotive fireman on the Katy, died at his home, 330 West Chestnut street, at 3 o'clock this afternoon of influenza.  Funeral services had not been announced at a late hour.

KILCREASE - Denison, Texas, Oct. 5 - O.A. Kilcrease, a prescription clerk employed at the Reynolds drug store, died at the Denison Hospital at 9 o'clock this morning from effects of pneumonia.  The deceased came to Denison one year ago from Bowie, where he is well know.
Surviving are his wife and two children and realtives at Bowie.  The body will be shipped to Bowie Sunday morning for interment.

BALDWIN - Denison, Texas, Oct. 5 - Charlie Baldwin, aged 44 years, died at his home, 522 West Heron street, at 3:15 o'clock this morning after a short illness of influenza. 
The deceased was a locomotive engineer of the Katy and had been a resident of Denison for the last twenty years. He was a prominent Mason and member of the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers, as well as the Christian Church.
The deceased is survived by a wife and four daughters and five sisters.  Funeral services will be conducted from the First Christian Church at 4:30 Sunday afternoon.



The Dallas Morning News
9 October 1918

SEVEN DIE AT SHERMAN AS RESULT OF INFLUENZA
(Special to The News)
Sherman, Texas, Oct. 8 - There were seven deaths in Sherman last night and today from pneumonia following influenza.  Three were people brought here for treatment and four were residents of Sherman.  They were Charles S. Wood, Madill, Ok.; Mark Brandi, Coalgate, Ok.; Charles Swinford, Madill, Ok.; and Paul Pitt, Mrs. Edith Southerland, Claude E. Parsley and Mrs. Lillie Shelburne, all of this city.


The Dallas Morning News
10 October 1918
BELIEVES OPEN AIR IS INFLUENZA PREVENTIVE
That open-air recreation is a preventive of influenza is the opinion of W.H. Atwell.  Webster Atwell, his son, is in the Students' Army Training Corps of Williams COllege in Massachusetts, near where the first outbreak of the epidemic occurred in this country.  Even now influenza prevails extensively near the college and many schools are closed.  Williams COllege, however, with its 560 students, has not yet experienced a case of influenza.
"My son writes me that the only reason he can ascribe for the freedom of the school from the epidemic is that the 560 boys are kept out in the open practically all of the time," Mr. Atwell said.  "I had written to him complaining that he was now having to drill on Sundays, and he showed that the open air was evidently the cause for the health of the school.
"This leads me to believe that we of Dallas should spend every moment we possibly can out in the clean fall breezes and sunshine.  If we can not golf, hunt, fish, farm or ride in automobiles, we should at least walk to our work, dig in our gardens and spend every possible moment in the open air.  And on the same principle our homes and business houses should be well ventilated."


The Dallas Morning News
12 October 1918

INFLUENZA SITUATION IN DENISON SHOWS IMPROVEMENT
(Special to The News)
Denison, Texas, Oct. 11 - The Spanish influenza epidemic that has been prevailing over Denison during the last two weeks is rapidly improving.  Denison was one of the first cities in Texas to suffer this disease and there have been about sixty deaths from the result of this disease during the last two weeks.  It was estimated that there were 2,000 cases here at one time.  But, few new cases were reported today, while many who are ill are improving rapidly.  Only two deaths occurred here today, one being from pneumonia.

INFLUENZA CRIPPLING TELEPHONE SERVICE
H.C. Bramley, district manager of the Southwestern Telegraph and Telephone Company, announced yesterday that telephone service is being badly crippled on account of sickness.  He estimates that 16 per cent of their working force is detained at home on account of colds and influenza.  In spite of this fact he claims patrons are using the telephones more than ordinarily, consequently the service is not up to normal.

INFLUENZA Epidemic Shows No Abatement
In Army camps Pneumonia Cases Show Increase Over Preceding Day
Washington, Oct. 11 - The epidemic of Spanish influenza which has reached practically every section of the country continue today with no signs of abatement.  Detailed reports as to its spread among the civilian population were not available at the Public Health Service Bureau tonight, but officials said nothing had been received to indicate that the malady had even reached its peak.
New cases of influenza in army camps showed a slight declining in the twenty-four hours ending at noon today, but pneumonia cases increased over yesterday.  Influenza cases reported to the Surgeon General of the army numbered 12,024, pneumonia cases 2,824 and deaths 892.  Yesterday's reports, shows 12,321 new cases of influenza, 2, 797 new cases of pneumonia and 889 deaths.
The total number of influenza cases at camps since the beginning of the epidemic has reached 223,000, pneumonia cases 27,907 and deaths 8,335.
Rapid spread of the epidemic was reported from Camp Travis, Texas, with 1,117 new cases; at Camp Dodge, Iowa, with1,066, and at Camp MacArthur, Texas, with 653, Camp Funston, Kan., reported more than 500 new cases.
Pneumonia showed the greatest increase today at Camp Dodge, with 329 new cases; Camp Taylor with 206; and Camp Funston 192.

MEXICAN PATIENTS MOVED TO INFLUENZA HOSPITAL
(Special to The News)
Fort Worth, Texas, Oct. 11 - Mexicans suffering from influenza were removed this afternoon from their homes to the emergency hospital provided for them by the city on lower Calhoun street.  They will be attended at the hospital by an assistant city physician and several nurses.
As a whole the influenza situation is said to be somewhat improved although a number of deaths of citizens from pneumonia have been reported during the last twenty-four hours.
The mail service of the Eleventh Division, with headquarters at Fort Worth, is said to have been affected by the influenza, as a number of railway clerks are ill and it is difficult to find substitutes.
Since Oct. 1 only 410 cases of influenza among civilians have been officially reported to the authorities.  Thirty-six cases of pneumonia have been reported.  The total of deaths reported from penumonia and influenza has been seventeen.

INFLUENZA EPIDEMIC
(Special to The News)
Sherman, Texas, Oct. 11 - A circus which was to have exhibited in Sherman, Oct. 16, has been otified that it will not be permitted to show here on account of the prevalence of Spanish influenza.
Gainesville, Texas, Oct. 11 - Five nurses were from here today to Denison to assist in the epidemic of influenza.  The Red Cross is mobilizing local nurses here.  About forty cases of influenza are reported in Gainesville, with so far only one death.


The Dallas Morning News
13 October 1918

KEEP AWAY FROM CROWDS IF YOU WANT TO STAY CLEAR OF INFLUENZA
In response to a request for definite advice concerning Spanish influenza, Surgeon General Rupert Blue of the United States Public Health Service has authorized the following statement:
The disease now spreading over this county is highly catching and may invade your community and attack you and your family unless you are very careful.
Influenza is a crowd disease.  Therefore keep out of crowds as much as possible.
Influenza probably spreads mostly by inhaling some of the tiny droplets of germ-laden mucous sprayed into the air when ignorant or careless persons sneeze or cough without using a handkershief.  Therfore cover up each cough and sneeze.
Influenza is probably spread also by the filthy habit of spittin on sidewalks, street cars and other public places.  Therefore do not spit on the floor or sidewalk.
Influenza is probably spread also by the use of common drinking cups and the use of common towels in public places.  Therefor shun the common drinking cup and the roller towel in public places.
If you feel sick and believe you have Spanish influenza, go to bed and send for the doctor.  This is important.  Don't get up too soon; you heart feels tired as your legs and needs rest.
In all health matters follow your doctor's advice, and opey the regulations of your local and State Health Officers.
All that has been said about about Spanish influenza is true also of colds, bronchitis, pneumonia and tuberculosis.  Do your part to keep them away.

Three Deaths in Sherman
(Special to The News)
Sherman, Texas, Oct. 12 - There were three deaths in Sherman in the last twelve hours, two being due to influenza.  Mrs. Bloxie Elizabeth McGinnis, 21 years of age, died Friday evening, leaving a husband, and Lynette Louise, 14-year-old daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Ben H. Moore, died Friday evening.  Velma, 5-year-old daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Harris, died at 12:30 o'cloc this afternoon with diphteria.
A message was received this afternoon from Camp Travis announcing the death of Earl Webster, son of Mrs. Etta Webster of Wichita Falls and a nephew of G.O. Hunter of the Sherman Democrat.  The body will probably be brought to Whitesboro, this county, for burial.

INFLUENZA EPIDEMIC
(Special to The News)
Whitewright, Texas, Oct. 12 - The Spanish influenza has this community in its grasp.  It is estimated that there are more than 200 cases in and near town.  Nine cases of pneumonia, four resulting fatally, have been reported.



The Dallas Morning News
14 October 1918

INFLUENZA EPIDEMIC
Sherman, Texas, Oct. 13 - Physicians state that the Spanish influenza sitatuion in Sherman is greatly improved.  Practically no new cases developed today and there has been only one death from the disease in the last twelve hours, and that was Mrs. J.S. Patterson.  She is survived by her husband and two small children



The Dallas Morning News
15 October 1918

LAUNDRYMEN HEAR ADVICE ON INFLUENZA TREATMENT
Members of the National Laundrymen's Association, in convention at Chicago last week, were given a brief discussion of Spanish influenza, its causes, its prevention and its cure, by the City Health Officer of Chicago, who delivered the address of welcome instead of Mayor Thompson, according to Otto Herold, who attende the convention.
"When your feet get cold, that's the first sign of influenza," the physician said.  "IF this symptom appears, go to bed in a well-ventilated room, keep your feet warm and your head well outside the cover and cool.  Forget patent medicines; take castor oil, and usually this treatment will effect a cure without the aid of a doctor."
Mr. Harold said that the War Industries Board has prescribed strict regulations for the laundrying industry.  Conservation of paper and of labor, fuel and machinery fixtures are the chief ends desired.


Dallas Morning News
17 October 1918

INFLUENZA IN ARMY CAMPS ON DECREASE
Epidemic Among Civilian Population, However, On Increase, Reports Show
Washington, Oct. 16 - While Spanish influenza continues to spread among the civilian population generally, a continued decrease in number of new cases at army camps today led army medical officials to believe that the peak of the epidemic among the soldiers had been passed.  Secretary Baker in announcing the good reports said they indicated that measures taken by the Surgeon General's office has brought the disease under definite control.  New cases of influenza among the troops reported during the twenty-four hours ending at noon today totaled 5,668 against 6,498 yesterday, and again more than twice that number only a few days ago.  Pneumonia cases today aggregated 1,895 compared with 1,916 the day before, and deaths were 710, a decrease of 179.  Influenza cases reported from all camps since the beginning of the epidemic now total 262,186; pneumonia cases 39,276; and deaths, 12,340.
Although reports generally today to the Public Health Service showed influenza spreading in most parts of the country, improvement was noted in some States, among them Tennessee.
It is estimated that there are now at least 200,000 cases of the disease in Virginia.  Epidemics continued to be reported in may parts of Arkansas, while new cases reported from practically all sections of Louisiana, Oklahoma and other States.
Deaths in Washington in the twenty-four-hour period ending at 9 o'clock tonight numbered 87, a decrease of one from yesterday.  New cases of influenza and pneumonia fell off sharply today, the number reported being 932 in comparison with 1,483 yesterday.
There were 6,122 deaths from Spanish influenza in thirty cities the week ending Oct. 12.  In the same period there were 4,409 deaths from pneumonia.
These figures, announced today by the Bureau of the Census, do not include army camps.
The heaviest toll from influenza was 1,697 in Philadelphia.
The New York total was 979, Boston 850 and Chicago 571.

INFLUENZA EPIDEMIC
(Special to The News)
Sherman, Texas, Oct. 16 - Ninety-eight new cases of influenza have developed in Sherman in the last twenty-four hours, up to noon today, an increase of about fifteen over the previous twenty-four hours.  No deaths were reported in that time, however.



Dallas Morning News
18 October 1918

77 New Cases At Sherman
(Special to The News)
Sherman, Texas, Oct. 17 - Seventy-seven new cases of Spanish influenza and two deaths from pneumonia were reported here in the last twenty-four hours.
William Nicket, 35 years of age, died at 2 o'clock this morning.  He is survived by his wife and a 5-year-old daughter and a brother, Philip Nickel Jr. of Highland, Cal.
Riley Dennis, 19 years of age, a candy-maker, died at 9:30 o'clock this morning.  His wife, Mrs. Rita Dennis, and his parents survive him.



Dallas Morning News
19 October 1918

INFLUENZA EPIDEMIC
(Special to The News)
Sherman, Texas, Oct. 18 - There was a decrease in the number of influenza cases here in the last twenty-four hours, although there were several deaths from influenza and pneumonia.  Amont the deaths are:
Mrs. Ada B. Martin, 30 years of age, wife of M.W. Martin of Durant, Ok., who died here Thursday night;
Louis Shelton, 25 years of age, who died at 1 o'clock this afternoon, survived by his parents, Mr. and Mrs. M.L. Shelton, his wife and a small son;
Dr. H.C. Worley, a retired physician, 63 years of age and single, who died at 6 o'clock this morning;
Mrs. Mary E. Matthews,w idow of the late Benjamin R. Matthews, who died at 7 o'clock Thursday evening;
John W. McGinness, 45 years of age, restaurant proprietor, single, who died shortly after midnight this morning;
Rolfe G. Bowman, aged 39, manager of the Central Cafe, who died at noon today, leaving a wife and two sons; his parents and three brothers.


Dallas Morning News
20 October 1918

DENISON PRACTICALLY FREE OF SPANISH INFLUENZA
(Special to The News)
Denison, Texas, Oct. 19 - Denison was among the first cities in the State to suffer from the influenza epidemic, and is about the first city to clear itself of this disease.  The epidemic broke out here three weeks ago and at one time there were about 3,000 cases under physicians' care.  Out-of-town doctors were rushed to the city, together with nurses, and after a hard battle the city has finally been cleared of all but a few cases, and they are reported on the raod to recovery.  Only two new cases have been reported in the last two days, while only one death has occurred in two days from pneumonia that developed from influenza.  All churches in the city will be opened tomorrow, and on Monday the public schools, that were closed for three weeks, will open.  Picture shows and other places of amusement were allowed to open this week, as it is believed all danger of a further epidemic has passed.

INFLUENZA MAY KILL HALF MILLION PEOPLE
Health Commissioner Duke of Oklahoma Anxious That Danger Be Realized
(Special to The News)

Oklahoma City, Ok., Oct. 19 - Half a million deaths will be the toll of influenza in the United States unless a material check is made on the epidemic that is now covering the country, especially serious in the cities and towns, was the prediction of Dr. J.W. Duke, State Health Commissioner, here today.
The Health Commissioner, was seriouly anxious that the people appreciate conditions as they are, but he was afraid they did not.  He was of the opinion that such an epidemic as now prevails would run its course in sixty days and that it had about thirty days yet.  Under such conditions precautions against spread of the disease could not be too strict, Dr. Duke said.
He declared that health conditions were serious enough to warrant the closing of all stores, as well as theaters, churches and other places.  The germ is spready by personal contact, said the Health Commissioner.  The influenza germ, he said, which caused the fist sickness, accompanied by fever, was not particularly harmful.  Another germ, however, causing a form of blood poisoning, traveling closely with the first, attacked the victim, resulting in pneumonia and death. In no case, the Commissioner said, should one having the influenza and seemingly convalescent leave his bed or the house, for this is when the fatal germ takes hold.
Reports received today show nearly 34,000 cases over the State.  Twenty-two deaths had occurred in Oklahoma City since yesterday.  Local authorities believed today that the epidemic was slackening somewhat here.  A house to house health canvas will be made immediately and houses will be placarded in which there are victims of the disease, though no quarantine will likely be established.



Dallas Morning News
23 October 1918

Influenza Epidemic
Sherman, Texas, Oct. 22 - The ban on public meetings as a result of the influenza epidemic here will be raised Saturday, when picture shows will be allowed to operate after three weeks of idleness.  It was announced by the war council at noon.  Churches will open Sunday and the public schools Monday.  The situation continues to improve greatly.


Dallas Morning News
24 October 1918

INFLUENZA IS DECREASING, HEALTH REPORTS INDICATE
(Special to The News)
Fort Worth, Texas, Oct. 23 - According to health authorities the Spanish influenza situation continues to improve in spite of the rainy weather.  Only twenty-seven new cases of both influenza and pneumonia were reported today for the twenty-four hour period ending Tuesday at midnight, and only eight deaths fron pneumonia were reported.  This is considerable drop from the number reported for the preceding twenty-four hour period.

250 Cases of Influenza at Buckner Orphans' Home
The influenza situation at Buckner Orphans' Home was reported to be much improved last night.  Although fifty more children contracted the disease, making 250 in all, there was no cases of pneumonia among the children and all of them were said to be doing exceptionally well.  The two nursees who have pneumonia were very  much improved.
Numbers of night gowns were sent out yesterday from the women's societies of the Baptist Churches of the city.  The diet of the sick children is being carefully planned and the physician's directions are being carried out in every particular.  School has been closed for the duration of the epidemic and the teachers are doing the nursing, assisted by most of the girls who have not yet taken the disease.
So far there is not a single case in the nursery where the children under 5 years are kept under strict quarantine.  Children between the ages of 8 and 14 years seem to be most susceptible to the disease.



Dallas Morning News
27 October 1918

INFLUENZA EPIDEMIC
(Special to The News)
Sherman, Texas, Oct. 26 - Picture shows and pool halls opened here today after being closed three weeks on account of the influenza epidemic.  Churches will hold services tomorrow and schools will reopen Monday.  Only fourteen new cases of influenza developed today.



Dallas Morning News
30 October 1918

REPORTS INFLUENZA SERIOUS AT DENISON
Dr. A.M. Gantt, who was called to Denison Sunday to give medical assistance in influenza cases in that city, returned home last night.
"There are at least 2,000 cases in Denison," said Dr. Gant.  "I never saw so many sick people in my life.  I visited home where there were from one to seven afflicted in one family.  When I reached Denison Sunday evening, I was called before I could get my baggage to a room in the hotel.  I did not get to bed until 3 o'clock in the morning.  Sixteen victims were buried Sunday and seven more Monday."



Dallas Morning News
1 November 1918

INFLUENZA EPIDEMIC
(Special to The News)
Sherman, Texas, Oct. 31 - It is announced that Sherman public schools will hold classes on Saturdays until the three weeks' time lost on account of the influenza epidemic is made up.  Only six new cases were reported in the last twenty-four hours.



Dallas Morning News
5 November 1918

SIXTY DIED FROM INFLUENZA IN STATE INSANE ASYLUM
(Special to The News)
Austin, Texas, Nov. 4 - The influenza epidemic which raged in the State Insane Asylum in this city, after taking a toll of sixty lives, has abated and conditions are back to normal, according to Dr. John Preston, superintendent of the institution.  Fifteen hundred of the inmates of the institution were stricken with the disease.


Dallas Morning News
8 November 1918

INFLUENZA EPIDEMIC HAS REACHED RESIDENTS OF ALASKA
Nome, Alaska, Nov. 7 - Nome has been stricken with influenza.  About three hundred white residents today were reported suffering and Eskimos in nearby villages were said to be dying by scores.  The weather has been below zero for several days.



Dallas Morning News
15 November 1918

INFLUENZA AGAIN REPORTED IN SOME PARTS OF TEXAS
(Special to The News)
Austin, Texas, Nov. 14 - Reports received at the State Health Department indicate that influenza is again on the increase in some parts of the State.  The total number of cased reported to the department up to date is 151,086.
Influenza has also reappeared at Camp Mabry, near Austin, where is located the school of automobile mechanics.  About twenty cases are reported, all being men who recently arrived at the school.  The disease is said to be in mild form.



Dallas Morning News
17 November 1918

WAS AMERICA ADEQUATELY PROTECTED FROM INVASION OF THE SPANISH INFLUENZA
There is a growing conviction that the sudden invasion of the United States by that European epidemic known as Spanish influenza, and the speed with which it has spread throughout the country,a re due to the laxity with which the port authorities along the Atlantic seaboard have carried out their duties.  This carelessness would have been inexcusable at any time; and it is doubly so just now, when the activities of the country should be organized for dealing promptly with every possiple emergency, says the Scientific American.
If ever there was a period when the quarantine laws for guarding the prots of the United States against the entrance of disease should have been enforced with redoubled viligance it was during the summer and autumn of the present year, when it was know thata highly infectious and fatal diseas was sweeping through Europe like a scourge of the Middle Ages.
In view of the imminence and deadly character of the disease, we had every reason to expect that the Federal authorities would set a double guard at our ports of entry, and instruct our quarantine officials to take every possible preventive measure against the landing, not merely of influenza patients, but of every passenger who had been exposed during the ocean voyage to infection.
Nor can any carelessness be excused on the ground that influenza has never been classed with the deadly diseases, such as yellow fever or the bubonic plague.  While such an excuse might be valid for the layman, it can not be allowed in the case of the expert professional men, whose duty it is to enforce the quarantine laws of the country.  For they know full well that this was no ordinary epidemic of influenza or grip.  The medical records of Europe were available; and the most cursory reading of the data that has appeared in the medical journals (to go no farther than that), should have revealed to these men that here was a disease the exclusion of which from America called for the most exacting and rigid enforcement of the quarantine laws.
The obvious thing to have done, when the first ship with influenza patients on board cast anchor at a quarantine station, was to isolate that ship, with every soul on board, until the slightest possibility of carrying infection ashore had been removed.  The rigid precautions that would be taken, if an arriving ship had yellow fever patients aboard, shoudl surely have been taken in the case of this deadly scourge.
But what are the facts?  Incredible as it may seem, influenza cases by the score and, for all we know, by the hundred, were taken ashore and placed in the general wards of the hospitals.  Fellow-passengers of the patients, who must inevitably have been exposed to infection, and must many of them have been carryin gthe disease, were allowed to go their several ways throughout the land.
Was ever official fatuity stretched to greater lengths than this?
When once the ship's company had scattered, whether to spread the infection among fellow-patients in a general hospital, or among the unsuspecting and unwarned citizens, in home, office, passenger car, or theater, the mischief was done. But even when the plague burst forth in all its widespread malignity, both New York and the country at large seemed slow to awaken to the enormity of the peril.  Only here and there did the authorities act with swift and effective measures, closing schools, theaters and public meeting places, in the effort to prevent the further spread of the disease.
It is certainly a disconcerting fact that, at the very time when the country has organized itself, through Red Cross and other famous organizations, to fight disease and prevent suffering, we should be smitten with a visitation which is causing more casulaties and deaths in the homeland than are occuring among our troops in the great world war.



Dallas Morning News
21 November 1918

BEFORE or AFTER INFLUENZA
By Lee Herbert Smith, M.D.
These minute germs enter the body thru n ose, throat and lungs, and the first symptoms develope in from two to four days.  It is important to practise personal cleanliness - a clean skin, mouth and nose, clean bowels.  Avoid the person who coughs and sneezes.  Sleep well, eat well, paly well.  Drink plenty of water, hot or cold lemonade.  Then keep the bowels active.  Every other day take castor oil, or a purgative made of Mayapple, leaves of aloe, jalap, and rolled into a tiny, sugar-coated pill, sold by druggist as Dr. Pierce's Pleasant Pellets.
In the attack of influenza nature's effort to remove the poisons from the body often results in inflammation of the kidneys, and so it is well to help nature's effort by inducing perspiration, with hot lemonade and not mustard foot-baths, and hot water bottles.  Obtain of your druggist a kidney and backache remedy; known as "Anuric" (anti-uric) tablets.  These help flush the bladder, kidneys, and the intestines, and act as an antiseptic, and if taken either before, or during the attack lessen the pain and the danger to the kidnesy.  When the attack is over and it leaves you in a weakened, pale, anemic condition, it would be well to obtain an iron tonic at the drug store.  A good one is "Irontic" Tablets, or if you prefer an herbal tonic, a good one is Dr. Pierce's Golden Medical Discovery, made from wild roots and barks of forest trees, and without alcohol.
For those past middle life, for those easily recognized symptoms of inflammation, as backache, scalding "water," or if uric acid in the blood has caused rhumatism, "rusty" joints, stiffness, get Anuric at the drug store, or send Dr. Pierce, Invalids' Hotel and Surgical Institute, Buffalo, N.Y., 10 cents for trial package of Anuric, which you will find many times more potent than lithia and eliminates uric acid as hot tea melts sugar.  A short trial will convince you.



Dallas Morning News
30 November 1918

INFLUENZA AMONG AFRICAN MONKEYS
An epidemic of influenza is ravaging the coast of West Africa.  In Sierra Leone the deaths are said to average 1,000 a week.  It is reported that the malady has spread to the interior and has attacked chimpanzees and monkeys, which are dying in numbers of the diseases.  A dispatch from Kingston, Jamaica, states that influenza is epidemic in the West Indies and is causing many deaths.  Chili is also reported to be in the throes of an influenza epidemic.  It is said that in some places near Santiago the deaths number three out of every ten cases.



The Dallas Morning News
14 April 1919

ENGLAND IS JUST OVER THIRD EPIDEMIC OF "FLU"
The third wave of the influenza epidemic has now ended, says the Lond Times of March 14, 1919. The deaths from the disease recorded for the ninety-six great towns of England and Wales last week numbered, 3,218, compared with 3,889 the previous week.  In London the death numbered 597, as against 808.  What is more, it has ended to date.  The mysterious periodicity which the mysterious disease seems to have established for itself has been maintained.
This periodicity is roughly twelve weeks.  The first wave began in July and died down about the end of August - a two months' course.  Twelve weeks after the beginning of the first wave - at the beginning of October - the second wave began to flow.  This wave was spent by the middle of December.  Again, twelve weeks after the beginning of the second wave, i.e. in January, the third wave appeared.  It had begun to spend itself in the first days of March.
If this periodicity is continued we may look for a fourth wave, beginning some time in April and ending about the first week in June.  This however, is mere speculation; there is no sort of evidence to justify any such anticipation.  But it becomes evident that we are dealing with a type of infection which is not well understood.
Meanwhile the evidence that the causative organism of the epidemic is the filter-passing germ described by the late Major Graeme Gibson and also by captain Wilson accumulates.  It is a very strong body of evidence, and to a great extent satisfies the requirements of proof laid down by Koch.  That is to say, the germ can be recovered from patients affected by the disease; it can be cultivated outside the body; it can, when inoculated into animals, reporduce the phenomena of the disease, and it can be recovered again from the inoculated animals, and again grown.
It is just the failure to understand the necessity of prrof of this sort which has led so many observers to describe "germs of influenza" in these last weeks.  This is, perhaps, especially true of the much-debated Pfeiffer's Sacillus, which was originally discovered in the '80s, and has been discussed a hundred times since.  The bacillus iso ne of the many which are very commonly present in the human nasopharynx.  (Other bacilli very frequently found in healthy throats and noses are the pneumonia bacillus, the streptococcus and the staphylococcus.)  This by no means establishes the Pfeiffer bacillus as the cause of a disease.  Were such an argument admitted, there would be no limit to the number of things which might be suspected in the same connection, e.g. baldness, soft corns - all of which occur frequently in persons suffering from influenza.  We should be back again in the Dark Ages.

NEW VACCINE POSSIBLE
We do not think that it has been established of the Pfeiffer bacillus or of any other bacillus or coccus, except the one mentioned above, that it will produce influenza, when inoculated into animals or that it can be recovered from these animals after infection.
In the absence of proof of this kind, the statement that the bacillus is present in the throats of all influenza patients does not carry us much father.  It is, in all probability.  So are other bacilli.  Admittedly these "residents" may and do afflict severe illness once the resistance which normaly holds them at bay is broken down.  It is exceedingly improbable that they themselves are the agents which initiate the attack.
This is the reason why vaccination against influenza is not generally advised.  You can not vaccinate against a disease the exact cause of which is in doubt (though now that Major Graeme Gibson's discovery has been announced, a vaccine of a new kind may possibly be available soon).  The best use that can be made of vaccination at present is to inoculate against the "residents," the germs which lie constantly in wait for their host, and visit pneumonia and blood-poisoning upon him when he is weak.  And there are, as has been pointed out before in these columns, objections even to this course.
Many announcements of "cures" of the disease have been made.  The public should realize that probably upward of 80 per cent of all cases of uncomplicated influenza in this epidemic have got well by themselves - when pneumonia has supervened it has, of course, been a different story.  It is easy to see that an individual treating a limited number of cases in some particular way, by some particular serum or drug, might easily have recoveries in 100 per cent of his patients.  He would ascribe this good result to his drug or serum.  In point of fact, his patients would have recovered in any case.
Rigid control of every new method is essential before it can be accepted; otherwise vast disappointment must result.  That means pitting a large number of treated cases against an qual number of untreated cases or cases treated by other methods.  Only then can conclusions worth talking about be drawn.  bacteriologist and others who publish statements of results without having sufficiently controlled their work do no good service to science or to humanity.
A standardized vaccine is now available against the pneumonia, complications, and the first authentic statistics are hopeful - no more.  Sera (a serum differs from a vaccine.  It is an antidote; a vaccine is a "hair of the tail of the dog that bit you," or is likely to bite you) of all sorts have been tried during the penumonia attacks.  Good and bad results are spoken of, but perhaps on the whole the good outweigh the bad, especially as regards antidiphteria serum, which does seem to exercise some beneficial effect in early cases.


The Dallas Morning News
10 May 1919

INFLUENZA AND EPILEPSY
The epileptic has always shown considerable natural immunity to infections of certain kinds, and his wound often show a surprising readiness to heal.  It will therefore be of interest to note how he reacts to grip, and Maillard and Brume of the Bicetre, Paris, have reported the interrelations of the twin maladies in La Presse Medicale.  The pandemic passed over the hospital region in two waves, in June and October, respectively.  The first fact established was the severity of the course of the grip in the epileptics, while the second was the verification of the old observation that severe infections diminish the number of seizures.  Third, the first wave of grip immunized the victim against the ravages of the second wave.

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