Texas Population Data
Frontier Times Vol.1 1923
"The following story is full of interest and historic value. It came to our attention as a reprint, credited to that very versatile and yet unknown writer, "Selected.'' We congratulate him on his enterprise and commend the story to a reading and pasting in a scrap book. . . . .
The first census record for the State of Texas was the enumeration of 1850, the Republic having been accepted as a State in 1845, at which time its total population was 212,592, or more than one square mile for each person enumerated. The city of New York that year had a few more than 50,000.
When Texas was admitted as a State in 1845, it claimed considerable territory not now within its confines. In 1850 it sold to the Federal Government for $10,000,000 all claimed outlying area which reduced it to the size as shown by present-day maps. The enumeration of 1850 (the first day) was by no means complete. The country was thinly settled and the Government facilities of seventy-three years ago were not as complete nor as carefully employed as today. Only twenty-three cities and their population were separately listed in the first census. They were Austin, 629; Bonham, 211; Castroville (Medina county), 366; Comaltown, 286; Corpus Christi, 533; Crockett, 156; Eagle Pass, (then in Bexar county) 383; Fredericksburg, 754; Galveston, 4,177; Hortontown (Comal county), 139; Houston, 2,396; Indiannola, 379; Lavaca, 315; Marshall, 1,180; McKinney, 192; Nacogdoches, 468; New Braunfels, 1,298; Palestine, 212; Richmond, 323; Rusk, 355; San Antonio, 3,488; Victoria, 806; and Zodiac (Gillespie county) 160.
Only eleven counties were listed, the largest being Harrison, with a population of 11,822, of whom 6,213 were slaves.
Only 15,034 of the people in 1850 were white. There were 397 free negroes and 58,161 slaves. The population given for cities and towns include persons of all classes. Galveston had 678 slaves, Houston, 527; Marshall, 421 and San Antonio, 220.
Of the white population throughout the State 84,869 were male and 69,165 females. The persons of foreign birth were shown to be 17,620 of which 4,459 were Mexicans, 8,191 Germans, 1,403 Irish and 1,002 English. The greatest proportion of the native population came from Tennessee, Virginia, Georgia, North Carolina, Alabama, Mississippi and Kentucky.
The State had only two members of Congress. The northern, or first district, embraced all the territory of a line running from a short distance above the Southwestern corner of Oklahoma, in a semicircle, including Tarrant and Dallas Counties, and down the Trinity to the coast some distance west of Galveston. The second district reached from the upper Panhandle to Brownsville and including everything west of E1 Paso. The first members were David S. Kaufman, of Sabinetown and Timothy Pillsbury, of Brazoria. Mr. Kaufman died January 31, 1851, and was succeeded by Volney E. Howard, of San Antonio.
The enumeration revealed there were only two schools listed as colleges, with seven teachers and 105 pupils. The public schools numbered 349, with 360 teachers and 7,946 pupils. and the annual income of the schools was $44,088. There were 10,583 persons, including free negroes who could not read and write. Under the classification of professions, 701 persons were listed as "blacksmiths and whitesmiths," 1,361 carpenters, 22,054 farmers, 107 boatmen, 8 fishermen, 44 hat and cap manufactures, 155 innkeepers, 152 "rangers," and 11 sail makers.