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Older Occupation Meanings

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Here are some meanings for some of the occupations found in the 1860 census:

ALLEY KEEPER - owns an establishment that has nine or ten-pin games or billiard tables
BOOK KEEPER - looked after the accounts for businesses
BRAKEMAN / BRAKESMAN - operated the winch at the pit head or operated the braking mechanism on trains and trams
CLERK - clergyman or cleric
COOPER or CUPER - One who makes or repairs vessels made of staves & hoops, such as casks, barrels, tubs, etc
DRAYMAN - One who drives a long strong cart without fixed sides for carrying heavy loads
GIN WRIGHT - Builds cotton gins
JOURNEYMAN / JORMAN - one who served his apprenticeship and mastered his craft; properly, one who no longer is bound to serve for years but is hired day to day
MASON - stonecutter
MASTER - one of three grades of skill recognised by the Guild of Crafts
OSTLER - cares for horses, stableman, groom, repairer or railway engines
PEDDLER - Whiskey salesman
PLUMER - made or sold plumes, ornamental feathers
SADDLER - one who made saddles, harnesses, horse collars, bridles
SAWYER - saws timber to boards
STEWARD - manager of property, purveyor of supplies or someone who attended passengers on conveyance
TANNER - leather maker
TEAMSTER - One who drives a team for hauling
TINNER - tin miner, tinsmith
WAGONER - wagon or cart driver
WASHMAN - tin coater
WHEELWRIGHT / WRIGHT - maker or repairer of wagon wheels

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