At various times the area that is now known as Jim Hogg County was under the jurisdiction of Brooks, Duval, Starr, Zapata, Live Oak, and Hidalgo counties. When Duval County was organized in 1875 it included what is now Jim Hogg, Jim Wells, and Brooks counties. Part of the area was included in Brooks County when it was formed in 1911, but in 1913, in an effort to free themselves from the political dominance of Edward C. Lasater, D. D. David, Reuben Holbein, Oscar Thompson, and A. C. Jones requested from the state legislature that a county separate from Brooks County be formed. D. W. Glasscock, in his first term as a state representative, sponsored legislation establishing Jim Hogg County, in order for his constituents "to get out from under the domination of the Mexican vote at the other end of the county." Advocates of the new county argued that they were too far removed from Falfurrias, the county seat of Brooks County, a separation that made it difficult for them and their neighbors to do business.
Consequently, Jim Hogg County was formed out of Duval and Brooks counties; land from Duval County was included so that the town of Hebbronville, with its railroad station, could be in the new county. Jim Hogg County was organized and established that same year, and elections for county officials were held in July. At that time the school system was organized, and construction of a county courthouse was started.