P O R T   S U L L I V A N ,   T E X A S :   G H O S T   T O W N

By John Martin Brockman
1968 Texas A&M University Master's Thesis

These electronic pages may not be reproduced in any format by other organizations or individuals. Persons or organizations desiring to use this material must obtain the written consent of John Martin Brockman.

Volunteer Jo Ella Snider Parker beautifully typed this chapter for online display.

Even though the Port Sullivan community was across the Brazos River from Robertson County in Milam County, large numbers of its residents were originally from and ended up in Robertson County.  As a result, any information that can be found relating to Port Sullivan and its residents will be placed online at the Robertson County site.  This will (hopefully) include an unpublished manuscript once held by Mrs. Helen Peel of Hearne as well as a handwritten journal written by Bremond's John Coleman Roberts.  If you have information about Port Sullivan that you'd like to share, please contact William Kent Brunette.


Port Sullivan Society 

The town of Sullivan’s Bluff developed much like the other towns along the Brazos River; and, in may ways the town was not unique.  Port Sullivan in the 1850’s and 1860’s saw the birth of several social, religious, and educational institutions.  These institutions began shortly after the town appeared on the bluff and remained there as long as the town did. 

Religious institutions were the first to make an appearance in Port Sullivan.  Baptist and Methodist circuit riding preachers were probably the first to bring religious services to the area around the bluff.  Another group, however, caused the first religious excitement around Port Sullivan.  The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, better known as the Mormon Church, found some interest in their beliefs among the people of Port Sullivan. 

In September 1854, the editor of the Texas State Gazette said he was surprised to learn that a Mormon preacher was active around Sullivan’s Bluff.  He asked for someone to verify this information.[1]  A person in Port Sullivan, signing himself “I. S.” answered the editor of the Austin paper two weeks later.  In printing the letter, the editor of the Gazette commented upon “Mormonism in Milam County,” as follows:

"The following letter introduces us to a new chapter in the history of Mormonism in Texas.  That the whole doctrine originated in a bold and unblushing fraud, and can only be believed in, where the reasoning powers are held in complete abeyance, seems to be no safeguard against its progress.  If our friends at Port Sullivan will aid us in the diffusion of real information, and the constant exposure of error and charlatanry, they will do more to rid themselves of the evil of Mormonism, and to save their friends and neighbors the loss of money, since, the best years of their life, and future bitter regrets and mortification than any other remedy which human ingenuity may devise."[2] 

The letter itself offers insight into the activities of the Mormons in Port Sullivan and into the attitudes of those that were not impressed with the Mormon beliefs.  In addition, the letter is written with a good sense of humor that can only be appreciated by reading the author’s own words:

"Messrs. Editors:  I see by your paper of the 2nd September that you have been informed of a Mormon Elder making converts at this place, and you expressed a wish that some friend would inform you of the correctness of the report.  I must say that your information was correct.  Since then, there has been another here to assist him in his work, which is one day, as they prophesy, to excite the wonder and admiration of all Christendom.  I have heard them preach their doctrine for some three or four weeks, and it is truly astonishing to hear men of common sense get up in this enlightened community and assert such doctrine as they set forth.  They declare that they have the power to heal the sick, open the eyes of the blind, &c., and that their powers have been handed down from on high by an all-wise Providence, who at one broad glance from his throne, sees the fallen and degraded race of man that has been taught a doctrine that will carry his soul down to hell, and offers them the Mormon doctrine as the only true one by which they can be saved.  I suppose that they have made some 20 or 25 converts here, and the Lord only knows how many more they may get, for Mormonism is the only engrossing subject at this place.  Some are baptized nearly every day in the Brazos river, and the Mormons assert that the cat fish are dying below this place very fast on account of it, and these caught alive are unwholesome.  Port Sullivan is a place of deep interest to the community, or ought to be.  If you have any deaf, dumb or blind friends, acquaintances or relatives that is afflicted with any of the above diseases, advise them to come here that they may be cured.  We have none of the above diseases in our town, but we have had scorching fevers, racking pains among our good people, and they have been healed instantaneously, at least so I have heard them get up in the congregation and testify.  Our town is perfectly healthy as far as I have been able to learn, with the exception of a little EPIDEMIC, which it is hoped will soon subside.  I would be somewhat afraid our good Mormon Elder would take this disease, but that I have heard him, as well as others, get up and say that he could not be poisoned or killed, and that he had been close enough to angels to tell the color of their eyes, and could wrestle with them.  But, he was careful not to say that he did, I suppose that he had rather the task might devolve on some other brother, whose physical and spiritual strength was somewhat stronger than his, or he might have met with the misfortune of Jacob of old.  They make broadest assertions as to the prophecies, and to the avowal that Joseph Smith was a prophet.  Many of our good citizens are making arrangements to leave for Salt Lake next Spring; and they are going to sacrifice both friends and property to reach that beautiful climate, where these Mormon Elders assert there is no lying or swearing to be heard, or gambling carried on.  Some of our best citizens have joined them, and several have had revelations, spoke in unknown tongues, seen visions, &c.; so they all testify in public; and they are men and women whose veracity would not be doubted in open court, but I am of the opinion that some of the converts are infatuated beings, and are carried away by the Mormon Elders, who make the boldest assertions and seem inclined to hurl their doctrine down the throats of their auditory.  They assert that when they refuse to baptize any one, that his destiny is sealed, and all the praying and baptizing by any other denomination would be in vain, for they hold the keys of heaven and hell in their hands; they profess to know nothing in themselves, but their bodies being a fit temple for the spirit of God to dwell in, he speaks through them, and they are authorized to preach to all nations and people of the earth, and those that hear this doctrine and are baptized, are to be saved, while those that hear it and do not believe, are to be damned."[3]

A number of Mormons still lived in the Port Sullivan area in the 1860’s.  John C. Roberts recorded in his diary during the summer of 1860, that “some Mormons went up to be prayed for,” during a camp and basket meeting held by the Methodists.  Roberts added that he was glad to see it happen.[4]  It could not be determined by this writer if any of the residents of Port Sullivan actually moved to Utah.  The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints has been unable to find any records concerning the activities of their church in either Robertson or Milam counties.[5] 

The Methodist Episcopal Church had preachers in the area near Sullivan’s Bluff in very early times.  One of the earliest in the area was a preacher by the name of Joseph P. Sneed.  Sneed came to Texas in 1838, after serving Alabama, Mississippi and Louisiana.  In 1840, this young preacher was assigned to Nashville, four miles below Sullivan’s Bluff.[6]  From this date until his death in 1881, Sneed lived and preached in the area near Port Sullivan.  In 1845, he was still in the same district but was listed as “without an appointment.”[7]  A Washington newspaper, in 1852, recorded a marriage in Robertson County which was performed by Rev. Sneed.[8]  In the meeting of the Texas Conference of the Methodist Church in 1855, Joseph P. Sneed was admitted on a trial basis,[9] as if he had been expelled for some reason and was being readmitted on trial.  Later in 1855, Sneed was appointed to the Port Sullivan African Mission.[10]  This was the first appointment ever made by the Methodist Church in Port Sullivan. 

Although assigned to the African Mission, Sneed performed services for the white population in Port Sullivan as well.  On October 17, 1855, he officiated at the marriage ceremony for Miss F. A. Barton, daughter of C. O. Barton, and W. B. Anderson, son of Reuben Anderson.[11]  This marriage united the families of two very wealthy planters of the Brazos bottom. 

The list of appointments of the Texas Conference of the Methodist Church does not show a regular preacher in Port Sullivan until 1861.  Until this time, the only preacher mentioned was Joseph Sneed at the African Mission.  The Methodist, however, had a church in Port Sullivan before 1861.  On March 27, 1856, Augustus W. Sillaven transferred lot number one in block number seventy-three to the Methodist Episcopal Church.[12]  The people of Port Sullivan, perhaps, went to church in a building located on this lot.  John C. Roberts attended church in Port Sullivan on numerous occasions before the town had a regular preacher.  On Saturday, October 30, 1858, Roberts went to church in Port Sullivan and “heard a good Sermon Preached.”  He returned again on Sunday for more of the same.  In 1860, Roberts sent Rev. J. P. Sneed five dollars for preaching in 1859.  Roberts recalled hearing him three times.[13] 

A camp meeting was held in Port Sullivan between July 15 and July 29, 1860, which Roberts described in his diary.  He referred to it as a “Camp and Basket meeting,” and as an examination or speaking.  According to Roberts, there was a lot of barbecue to eat and a number of people were converted.  It was at this meeting that the Mormons were prayed for.  In the end Roberts contributed five dollars for the preaching and remarked that it was “a good time, Praying and Shouting, good news, many converts.”[14] 

The work at the African Mission was important but slow.  In 1856, the mission under the leadership of Sneed, had on its roll some sixty-seven colored members and twelve more colored probables.[15]  The work at the mission was probably aimed at keeping the slaves content as well as saving their souls.  One of the arguments used by slave owners to justify slavery was that the slaves had the opportunity to become Christians and go to heaven; whereas, if left in Africa, slaves after death would “roast in Hell.”[16]  Some of the owners, perhaps, felt they would need slaves in heaven as well as on earth.  The slaves, however, did not seem interested in the mission as Sneed listed only seventy-nine on his roll in 1856.  The residents of Port Sullivan in 1860, owned 280 slaves residing in Milam County, and numerous other slaves that lived across the river in Robertson County.  In fact, Reuben Anderson alone owned more slaves than the total on the mission roll.[17] 

The Methodist Church in Port Sullivan continued to grow during the 1850’s.  In 1861, two preachers were listed as being at Port Sullivan.  J. Carpenter and R. Y. King were listed at the town, although an asterisk by King’s name indicated that he was serving in the army at that time,[18]  the Civil War having broken out some months earlier.  The next year, 1862, L. B. Whipple was appointed to the church in Port Sullivan, while Sneed was again listed in charge of the Port Sullivan Colored Mission.[19]  Washington Hearne supposedly gave “Brother Whipple” one hundred dollars to come from Port Sullivan to his house near Hearne, about six miles east of Port Sullivan in Robertson County, to baptize his wife when he thought she was going to die.[20] 

A college was formed in Port Sullivan in the late 1850’s, as will be discussed later, which came under the supervision of the Methodist Church.  In 1864, J. B. Allen was listed as the president of the college, and T. T. Smothers was also assigned to Port Sullivan.  This year, J. P. Sneed was put in charge of the Colored Mission of Wheelock in Robertson County.[21]  It seems that Sneed was not qualified to hold a regular appointment.  This may have been because he was not a member of the church conference.  Sneed was a trial member in 1855, but was not admitted to the church conference until 1866.[22] 

The membership of the Methodist Church in Port Sullivan was not very large in the year following the Civil War.  Only seventy-five whites were on the church rolls in 1866; no Negroes were members.  The year A. L. P. Green was the minister.[23]  The church at Port Sullivan continued in existence until at least 1874.  By this time, the church membership had so declined that it had to share a preacher with Cameron.[24] 

Not until near the close of the Civil War was the Port Sullivan Baptist Church organized.  The Baptist started late but grew rapidly.  Some eight-six persons signed the charter roll on August 27, 1864.  Rufus C. Burleson, later president of Baylor University at Waco, came to Port Sullivan to lead the opening ceremonies.[25]  Sarah J. Phillips sold block number twenty-two to the Trustees of the Baptist Church on December 30, 1864, for $400 cash.  Even at this price Mrs. Phillips suffered a loss because the same block had been acquired by her husband shortly before his death for some $250 cash and an equal amount in a twelve-month note bearing 10% interest.[26]  It appears that no church was built immediately, for in the year after the purchase of the block, the Baptists obtained permission from the Methodists to hold services in the college chapel.[27]  The Port Sullivan Baptist Church in 1867 shared a preacher with churches at Cameron and Little River in Milam County.  The circuit rider serving these three congregations died in 1867.[28] 

Another church holding services in Port Sullivan was the Episcopal Church.  This church came late on the scene in Port Sullivan, almost too late.  A preacher by the name of John W. Phillips traveled between Cameron and Port Sullivan after being relieved of his duties in Calvert, a new town in Robertson County.  In 1871, Phillips was in Port Sullivan and Maysfield, on the way to Cameron, three days each, and the last day of the week he was in Cameron.  Phillips held missionary services for the Negroes.[29]  

Port Sullivan developed religious institutions much like those in the neighboring towns, except for the Mormon activity in the 1850’s.  The town also had Masonic and educational organizations like the ones found elsewhere in the state at the same time. 

John C. Roberts attended a meeting in Port Sullivan on August 31, 1858, to discuss plans for building an academy in the town.  “A fine arrangement” was agreed upon according to Roberts.[30]  More action was taken in 1859 toward the construction of the school.  F. M. Hall and W. H. White deeded eleven and seven-tenths acres to the Methodist Church South for the use and benefit of the church.  This tract of land was located in the Friar Survey, adjoining the town of Port Sullivan, and became known as the college lot.[31]  Port Sullivan College was built on this land some time in 1859 and early 1860, under the auspices of the Methodist Church in Port Sullivan.  In 1863, an advertisement for the college stated that it was under the care of the Texas Annual Conference,[32] a division of the organization of the Methodist Church in Texas.  Appointments were made by the church to the college in the 1860’s, much on the order that a chaplain is appointed to serve a student body today.  The president of the college was listed as an appointment of the Annual Conference of the Methodist Church in Texas.  An advertisement in 1865, said Rev. L. B. Whipple was in charge of boarding at Port Sullivan College.  Whipple had been serving the people of the town also, since his appointment to Port Sullivan College in 1862.[33]  Thus, the Methodist Church and Port Sullivan worked closely together during the first years of the school’s existence. 

Port Sullivan College was built by August 5, 1860, because on that day John C. Roberts attended a prayer meeting there.  The first teachers at the college were John Cramer and his wife.  In the census of 1860, Cramer listed his occupation as a professor of college.  He was thirty-one years old in 1860, and had been born in New York.[34]  Port Sullivan was the only town in Milam County claiming a college when the census of 1860 was taken.  Port Sullivan College had three teachers and eight pupils according to the census taker in 1860.[35] 

The college from the start was more than just an educational institution.  It was a meeting place for community functions.  Roberts went to prayer meetings there on several occasions, and he sometimes went to other events.  On the night after Christmas, 1860, Roberts attended a party at the “academy,” as he called it.  He described it thusly, “Party at the Academy.  Lots of ladies present and plenty of good things to eat.  Broke up at 1 o’clock at night.”[36] 

Port Sullivan College continued to grow during the 1860’s in spite of the Civil War which distracted many would be students and created more pressing needs.  The Confederate State of Texas incorporated the college on December 16, 1863, W. H. White, J. G. Hanna, C. O. Barton, D. Cole, H. M. Hall, J. C. Livingston, B. Streetman, R. J. Davis, J. Ferguson, H. A. Foster and C. C. Wilcox were named members of the board of trustees.  According to the law, the board had the authority to establish rules and regulations for the college, to buy and sell property, to receive donations, and to regulate their own time of service.  The wartime atmosphere was reflected in the law of incorporation in that the college was authorized to establish a military department, “in which the science of war shall be taught.”  In addition to the military department, the college could have a male and female department, “in which may be taught all branches of education taught at such institutions.”  The school, incorporated in the name of “Port Sullivan Male and Female College,” had the power to employ professors, tutors, and teachers; to confer degrees; and to do anything done in similar institutions.[37]  The law incorporating the school was like the laws incorporating many other schools in Texas at the same time, except Port Sullivan College was not prohibited from teaching the particular doctrine of any religious denomination, and the sale of liquors within three or four miles of the college was not prohibited. 

The first advertisement found by this writer for Port Sullivan College appeared in a Houston paper in August 1863: 

"PORT SULLIVAN COLLEGE - Rev. I. B. Allen, President; Alonzo A. Adey, Professor of Music;  Miss Mary P. Clark and Miss Mary S. Lyne, Teachers;  Mrs. Eloise Allen, Matron.  Fall session begins first day of September, 1863.  Tuition $30, $46, $50, $60; and Music $60 per session.  Boarding at the College for young Ladies, they furnishing their own rooms, $12.50 per month, Payable in provisions or Confederate money at corresponding rates."[38]

The editor of the paper added some compliments to the college at Port Sullivan by saying that the teachers were all of high quality.  Adey, the paper said, was from Houston, and had a good reputation both as a teacher and as a performer.  Port Sullivan was described as “a healthy place, retired from the excitements of the day.”[39]  Later, in 1863, the college advertised for a female teacher.  The school had one hundred pupils in attendance in October 1863, and the situation offered a good opportunity to someone interested in teaching.  “None but those of ability and experience need apply,” cautioned the advertisement.[40] 

The following year, 1863, the spring session of the college started on January 24th.  The cost of tuition was much like that of the year before, except that drawing was added as a new course for an increased cost of twenty dollars.  Board was sixty dollars per session, payable in provisions.  The college now boasted that it was chartered by the Legislature of the State of Texas and that it had an attendance of one hundred and twenty pupils.[41] 

In 1865, as the Civil War drew to a close, Port Sullivan College carried on without interruption.  An announcement appeared in a Houston newspaper stating that Port Sullivan College had started its regular spring session with “an efficient corps of teachers.”  The staff included Professor R. W. McKinney, who taught mathematics and languages; Professor A. A. Adey, in the music department; and Miss M. E. A. Giaze, in charge of the female department.  The school pledged to give each student a “systematic and thorough course of Instruction.”  Each department would have to be mastered before the student was allowed to start in another.  The courses offered by the college were mathematics, geometry, languages, and music.  In addition, the school promised to give particular regard to the “culture of a refined taste and Christian principles (were to be) daily inculcated.”  In commenting on Port Sullivan the editor of the Houston Tri-Weekly Telegraph pointed to the strong music department under the leadership of Adey, the principal of the college.[42] 

For the fall session of 1865, the number of women teachers was increased by three, with the number of professors remaining the same.  The additions to the staff may have been necessary because of increased enrollment due to the end of the Civil War in the Spring of 1865.  The facility was said to be composed of good teachers.  The Tri-Weekly Telegraph stated that the college was located in a fine region of the country, surrounded by a good society.[43] 

A former student of the college, Maggie Duncan, interviewed in 1930, said the college was located on the north side of Port Sullivan, among some trees.  The main building was a two story wooden building with large rooms and a hall that ran through the center of it.  The schoolrooms had large windows and were furnished with nice desks and blackboards.  The rooms for female boarding students and teachers were located in the main building, according to Miss Duncan.  Large fireplaces provided heat for the rooms.  The men students stayed in Steward’s Hall which was located near the main building.  For recreation, “the girls played checkers and mumble peg, and walked and chatted under the shade of the trees.”  The school was patronized by the sons and daughters of wealthy, slave owning planters, and was not limited to members of the Methodist denomination.  Many Baptists attended and their support helped in providing the building.  Another former student, W. S. Allen, described the main college building as being two stories high with large porches and white columns extending the full length of both stories.  The downstairs portion of the building included a chapel which was used by all denominations in town.  The school, according to Allen, had a large number of students during the Civil War, with as many as thirty boarders staying at the college.[44] 

The church and school appears to have split sometime in the late 1860’s or early 1870’s.  The Texas Almanac of 1873, showed Port Sullivan with N. J. Edgerly, Principal, as a private school, but gave separate listing of Methodist schools.[45]  The Texas Methodist Centennial Yearbook, published in 1934, listed twenty-four Methodist schools in Texas and mentioned eight additional towns had previously had church schools.  Port Sullivan College was not mentioned in either list.[46]  Elsewhere in the book, an article stated that a small school at Port Sullivan had been a conference school, but that the school no longer existed. 

Port Sullivan Male and female College was a source of pride to the local community.  It continued to serve the area through the 1860’s and part of the 1870’s.  The Texas Almanac of 1871, described Port Sullivan College as “one of the most pleasantly situated and well conducted institutions of learning in the state.”[47]  The school was more than an institution of learning, it was partly a religious and social institution as well. 

Attempts to organize a Masonic Lodge chapter at Port Sullivan began in the summer of 1855.  Several men in the town signed a petition in June 1855, requesting permission from the Grand Lodge of Texas to establish a chapter in Port Sullivan.  A charter was granted to St. Paul’s Lodge, No. 177, at Port Sullivan on January 21, 1856.  The charter members included B. F. Streetman, William Jones, F. M. Hall, John C. Roberts, J. O. Adams, James M. Stidham, R. W. Hargrove, W. H. White, A. P. Allday, and John L. Winston.[48]  Roberts was a regular attendant of the lodge meetings, which usually took place on Saturday afternoons at 2:00 p.m.; occasionally, the members were treated to supper.  At one meeting, oysters were served.[49]  The Masonic Hall was located above a general merchandise store, said to be the most pretentious building in Port Sullivan.[50]  The lodge, in addition to the meeting hall, purchased on November 29, 1867, five acres of land in the Friar Survey, adjacent to Port Sullivan, from F. M. Hall for one hundred and twenty-five dollars in gold.  It was stipulated in the deed that the land was to be used as a cemetery for the white community of Port Sullivan.[51] 

Thomas J. H. Anderson, a son of Reuben Anderson,. and member of St. Paul’s Lodge, was named Grand Junior Deacon of the Grand Lodge of Texas in 1859.[52]  From this position, Anderson worked his way up to the top position in the Grand Lodge of Texas.  He became Grand Master of Grand Lodge of Texas on June 16, 1871, which office he held for only a few months until his death August 29, 1871, at the age of forty-two.  The Masons erected a monument at Anderson’s grave in Port Sullivan, a broken Ionic column, said to be one of the finest monuments that ever left the city of Galveston.  On one side of the monument were supposedly Anderson’s last words, “Tell my Brethren that I die at my post.”[53] 

Port Sullivan society was not all institutionalized.  A former visitor of the old town, interviewed in 1930, talked about the informal aspects of the social life of the town during the first year of the Civil War. 

"We had parties and square dances and plenty of good food.  We danced to the tune of a fiddle and there was a man to call off the dances.  The refreshments usually consisted of stacked pies, boiled custard, or “sillybud,” as it was called in those days, cakes and meats of every description.  There was no drinking at the dances then.  It was considered a disgrace for a man to call on a lady with liquor on his breath.  I never saw a drunk man until after I was married, although whiskey was kept in demijohns in every house."

"The ladies some times wore as many as eight underskirts.  The dresses were sweeping on the floor and it was fashionable to have a small waist.  We wore our hair long and plaited it and then wound it around our heads.  The men wore whiskers or mustaches."

 "People did not worry about the high price of having company, because they all had a smoke house full of home cured meat and lard, barrels of syrup, kraut, strings of red peppers, bags of sage, and a cellar full of potatoes and pumpkins.  Rail fences were the vogue as well as the old coffee mill nailed to the wall."

"We bought the coffee in the green stage and parched it.  We old folks think that the young people had a better time then than they do now."[54]

A former resident of Port Sullivan recalled that the town boasted of three saloons, which were favorite places for horse trading.  Every deal supposedly began with a drink and closed with one.[55]  Roberts mentioned in his diaries that he purchased brandy on occasions for a friend of his, for either 50 cents or one dollar.[56] 

The dances in town often had music played by a trio of fiddlers, Jared Steel, A. H. Allen, and Joe Foster.  Popular tunes were “Turkey in the Straw,” “Fisher’s Hornpipe,” “Ole Gray Eagle,” “Bonaparte’s Retreat,” “Pop Goes the Weasel,” “Rye Straw,” “Chicken in the Bread Tray,” and “Sally Goodin.”  On more formal occasions tunes such as “The Years Creep Slowly By, Lorena,” “Silver Threads Among the Gold,” and, perhaps some Strauss’ waltzes were called for.[57] 

Other forms of entertainment were attendance at displays of wild animals.  Roberts once paid one dollar to see a Bear Show that came to Port Sullivan.  Roberts also traveled out of town for entertainment purposes.  Electioneering and Court Week at Owensville, the county seat of Robertson County, were often exciting days.  At Boonville, the county seat of Brazos County, Roberts watched horse races and at Piedmont Springs in Grimes County, he rolled ten-pins, similar to bowling today.[58] 

Port Sullivan, to Roberts, was a “Dull place Surtain,” at least the first time he lived there.  He moved to Wheelock for a short time, back to Port Sullivan, over to Owensville, and then back again to Port Sullivan.  Even while living in Port Sullivan, Roberts often traveled to other nearby towns on his mule named Prince.  The area had no banks at this time, and Roberts’ job seems to have been to handle transactions between persons living in different towns.  He paid off notes for persons in Port Sullivan and collected debts due them. 

In his travels about the countryside, Roberts was able to keep up with the latest news, and to know what was going on.  Because of this, he was chosen secretary of the Vigilance Committee established for the purpose of protecting the lives and property of those living in the area just prior to the Civil War.  A Vigilance Committee was needed to keep an eye out for those individuals who might create unrest among the slaves, encouraging them to run away or to rise against their owners. 

[1]     Texas State Gazette, September 2, 1854.
[2]     Ibid,., September 30, 1854.
[3]     Ibid.
[4]     Roberts Diaries, July 19-29, 1860.
[5]     Merrill S. Lofthouse, Assistant Research Supervisor, Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter Day Saints, Salt Lake City, Utah, March 13, 1968, to author.
[6]     Macum Phelan, A History of Early Methodism in Texas, 1817-1866, pp. 117, 125.  Hereafter cited as Phelan, Early Methodism in Texas.
[7]     Lone Star, October 30, 1852.
[8]     Morning Star, February 11, 1845.
[9]     Phelan, Early Methodism in Texas, 378.
[10]   Galveston Weekly News, December 18, 1855.
[11]   Ibid., November 6, 1855.
[12]   Burned Record, Milam County Abstract Co.
[13]   Roberts Diaries, October 30 and 31, 1859; March 17, 1860.
[14]   Ibid., July 14-29, 1860.
[15]   Phelan, Early Methodism in Texas, 426.
[16]   Bailey, The American Pageant, 365-366.
[17]   United States Census Returns, 1860, Schedule No. 2.
[18]   Texas State Gazette, November 30, 1861.
[19]   Ibid., December 2, 1862.
[20]   McCarver, Hearne on the Brazos, 85.
[21]   Tri-Weekly Telegraph (Houston), November 18, 1864.
[22]   Olin E. Nail (ed.), Texas Methodist Centennial Yearbook, 484.
[23]   Phelan, Early Methodism in Texas, 490-491.
[24]   Weekly Examiner and Patron (Waco), November 28, 1874.
[25]   Batte, Milam County, 191.
[26]   Rockdale and Miscellaneous Towns, Milam County Abstract Co.; Deed Records, Milam County, Vol. 14, p. 148.
[27]   Batte, Milam County, 191.
[28]   Z. N. Morrell, Flowers and Fruits in the Wilderness or Forty-Six Years in Texas and Two Winters in Honduras, 284.
[29]   Lawrence L. Brown, The Episcopal Church in Texas, 1838-1874, p. 228.
[30]   Roberts Diaries, August 31, 1858.
[31]   Deed Records, Milam County, Vol. E 4, p. 236.
[32]   Tri-Weekly Telegraph, October 7, 1863.
[33]   Texas State Gazette, December 3, 1862; and Tri-Weekly Telegraph, March 15, 1865.
[34]   United States Census Returns, 1860, Schedule No. 1.
[35]   Ibid., Schedule No. 4.
[36]   Roberts Diaries, December 26, 1860.
[37]   Findlay and Simmons (eds.), Gammel’s Laws of Texas, V, 739.
[38]   Tri-Weekly, Telegraph, August 20, 1863.
[39]   Ibid.
[40]   Ibid., October 7, 1863.
[41]   Ibid., January 8, 1864.
[42]   Ibid., March 15, 1865.
[43]   Ibid., March 15, 1865.
[44]   Rogers, “Time Dims the Brillance,” (9-11).
[45]   Texas Almanac, 1873, p. 155.
[46]   Nail (ed.), Texas Methodist Centennial Yearbook, 210-211.
[47]   Texas Almanac, 1871, p. 97.
[48]   Reports of St. Paul’s Lodge, No. 177, to the Grand Lodge of Texas, 1856-1885, Grand Lodge Library, Waco, Texas.  Hereafter cited as Masonic Reports.
[49]   Roberts Diaries, October 27, 1860.
[50]   Rogers, “Time Dims the Brillance,” (9).
[51]   Deed Records, Milam County, Vol. B 2, p. 82.
[52]   Galveston Weekly News, June 28, 1859.
[53]   Galveston Tri-Weekly News, June 16, 1871, and September 13, 1872; and Galveston Daily News, August 20, 1871.
[54]   Rogers, “Time Dims the Brilliance,” (9).
[55]   Ibid., (3).
[56]   Roberts Diaries, August 24, 1860.
[57]   Parker, Robertson County, 95.
[58]   Roberts Diaries, September 3 and 27, 1858; July 2, 1860; and September 5, 1860.