Walter Fradin trip to Chernigov, Ukraine
May - June 1992

(This report is in Walter Fradin's original journal format)

1910
Hersh Fradin and family 1910 in Berezna, Chernigov Gubernia, Ukraine

Arrival: Wednesday 5-27-1992

Arrived in Kiev on schedule, about 4 p.m. Waited for about 30 minutes for the baggage. All bags arrived. I had approximately 177 pounds of luggage plus carry-on. No porter or carts were available.

There was a Russian tour guide in the customs area and I gave him an American $1.00 to carry the baggage in, and then one more to take the baggage to the custom agent.

I had four bags, which were screened by radar. Three bags had been checked. The checked bags weighed 177 pounds, so I could not begin to schlep them.

While clearing customs, I saw Boris, Bella, son-in-law, Bella’s brother, and an English-speaking cousin. The custom agent asked what I had, and I responded food and clothing.

 

I was cleared. When I saw the Russian family, they overwhelmed me. They took the bags and we went to the awaiting Mercedes Wagonaire. Boris had borrowed it (no charge) from his factory. He said he would give a present to the manager.

I could not find the other couple who were to pick me up, and we were off to Chernigov.

We dropped off Bella’s cousin in Kiev, and continued to Chernigov arriving about 7:30 pm. I was not tired, even though I had lost a night's sleep in London.

On arrival I could not believe the general condition of the house. It is over 100 years old, divided into two units. Another family lived in the attached part. The apartment consists of 2 bedrooms, a large bedroom where daughter Yelena and son-in-law Anatoli live with their baby, and a 2nd room which was theirs. They insisted I take it (12 x 16); this is also the family room.

Fradin
Bella and Boris Fradin 1992 Tchernigov, Ukraine
1992

 

They set up a table and four chairs for dinner. Eight people ate. The others sat on the couch (bed) where the table was set up. The meal consisted of chicken soup (I hate it, but ate it), boiled chicken (I did not eat it), and many delicious vegetables, beautiful cucumbers, tomatoes, radishes, smoked fish, cheese, delicious bread and kielbasa. Had plenty to eat. There was a bottle of Stoly. I had 1/2 ounce. They kept drinking, each having three to five drinks.

The language barrier is impossible. My Yiddish is bad, his is worse, Bella’s none. About 9:30 pm, a cousin of Bella’s came over. He is a Lt. Colonel in the Kazakhstan Air Force, base vice commander, pilot, and he speaks English. A 37-year-old army career man. He has 20 years in. Lovely personality. Without him communications were impossible.

After the guests left, we opened up the bags. They could not believe the goodies.

Now about the bathing and toilet facilities. The toilet is a hole in the floor, no bench. The outhouse is about 30 feet from the house. (I'll enlarge on request.)

The entire bathing and water facility is one single faucet, less strength than the filtered water in my kitchen, probably 1/4 the flow. No hot water. This is the only water in the house. Cooking water is brought in from a hydrant outside the house.

There is no bath facility in the house. As far as I can determine, they go to a public bath, once a week in winter, twice in summer. I washed as best I could, went to the privy and went to bed about 1 a.m. and awoke at 3 a.m.

Went to privy in shoes and bathrobe, temperature outside was about 50. Slept to 7 a.m.

Thursday-May 28

Awakened at 7 a.m. Had Boris try to call U.S.A. Finally got thru 2:30 a.m. N.Y. time. Spoke to Paul, told him I would not try to call again, but I will call again on Saturday. Ate breakfast. Similar to dinner. My choice vegetables, bread, and coffee.

Lt. Col. Arrived, and we went to town with Boris. We took two busses. No charge for senior citizens. No card, I guess I look my age. We went to an historical park re: Peter the Great, and people of Chernigov who stopped the Swedish invasion in 1500-1600s.

Went to small shop, saw black decorated boxes, have to go back tomorrow for better a price. This is a hard currency shop. Went to a "department store", very little to shop for, not American oriented. Saw amber beads, junk. Bought two wood beads 5 rubles (5 cents). Came home and napped for an hour and a half.

Went back to inner city for a concert, violin player and piano, violinist played Tchaikovsky, Brahms, Gluck and other music. Was a rainy night, low attendance.

After the concert I was introduced to the audience as a visiting American. (Chernigov is not on the tourist run), very few Americans come here.

After the concert we went to Lonia's (Leonid the Lt. Col) parents apartment. Had tea and cake.

What a difference, one bath, toilet, two bedrooms and kitchen and living room. It was clean.

The Fradin house is a disaster. There are no closets, no place to store anything.

Bella is very asthmatic. She flipped over the Ventolin. They only want to feed me. I have to fight them off.

It is now midnight in Chernigov, I dread going to the privy, no choice. Here I go. Thank goodness for the baby wipes I took. They use newspaper.

Friday-May 29

Up at 6:45, washed, etc, first one up, went for a walk, little rain, came back to house, Boris was peeling potatoes for breakfast.

We are going to their son Misha's apartment, where I can take a shower.

They showed me a book distributed by the joint distribution committee. It had a picture of Amos Mansdorf, and the Israel tennis center in Ramat Hasharon, wrote a note to Ian Froman about it, small world.

Went to memorial area in Chernigov, for Jews and Ukrainians killed by the Nazi and Ukrainian police (hooligans).

We then went on to a museum. There was an exhibition of primitive people in Chernigov. Many ancient artifacts. Also went to an old church, and saw solid silver doors made from silver idols. They were about 2 1/2 by 7 feet tall, absolutely magnificent.

Met an American in the church taking pictures, Wilton S. Teffit, photographer. He did the Ellis Island book. He is doing a study of the entire Ukraine. I'll call his wife and say he is well.

Friday evening. Went to Misha's apartment in a new city called Slavuti. It is an apartment complex with about 5000 apartments. The money for building it was raised all over the USSR, after Chernobyl, for former residents of Chernobyl.

Misha lives on 5th floor, no elevator, but a lovely apartment by Russian standards. Misha's wife, prepared a beautiful dinner, very gracious lady. There was plenty of vodka. They had a lovely 12-year-old daughter and a 13-year-old son. Had a long conversation with Misha and Leonid, until 1 a.m.

Misha is a refrigerator repairman, very industrious, makes 5000 rubles a month. (about twice the average pay check). His wife makes 2000 a month as a salesgirl, she works 12 hours 7 days, and then is off 7 days. Leonid, the base commander colonel, makes 3000.

Earlier in the day I bought the decorated lacquered boxes, owner is shutting down her shop, can't handle the market economy. When I asked her what her markup was, she answered 20%.

Saturday May 30

Breakfast this morning consisted of lox, bread, salmon caviar, much butter, kielbasai, chicken, coffee, tea, and dessert. Food is expensive by their standards, not by ours. Lox is about $4.00 A pound. Generally food prices are about the same as at home, the obvious difference is the wage scale, average scale about 7c a day. Subsidized foods are ridiculously cheap. Bread is 2 cents for over 2 pounds, milk 2-3 cents a quart. Sour cream 2 cents for about 10 oz. Delicious fresh farmer cheese 2 cents for about 8 oz. Butter in the Ukraine is .26 per kilo, in Moscow $2.50, In Kazakhstan, $1.30. These items are not plentiful in the Ukraine state stores at these prices.

While Misha's complex is impressive and clean, the common areas are not lawn mowed and are unkempt.

Went to many small shops, bought a wool rug $20. A Russian made watch $10. Not much else of interest in the shops.

Came back to Chernigov about 7:30 p.m. By train, trip took about 1/2 hour, train is modest, hard seats equivalent to English second, third class. No smoking in any section.

Had many interesting conversations with Bella’s cousin, the Lt. Colonel, Leonid (Leonard). He is a Ukrainian Jew, married to a Russian Christian. His mother and father live in Chernigov. He came here to visit them with his 12-year-old daughter (very pretty). Most Ukrainians and Russians are WASP types, handsome, but as they age they get heavy. The diet is very rich in fats and sweets. The meals I have eaten are very festive and much too much to eat. The normal breakfast is bread, butter, meat, tea, and fried potatoes. They serve butter like cream cheese. When they butter the bread, there is enough on one slice for four or five slices, perhaps 1/4 inch thick. Lunch is the big meal of the day. Today they served frozen fish, fried and, very tasty. It's from the sea near Vladivostok. It has to take weeks to deliver with their distribution system.

After lunch we went shopping, bought a winding heavy duty waterproof watch, for about $10, bought wooden beads, 10 to 30 cents each, and a woolen carpet for $20.

About my conversations with Leonard: He is the assistant base commander, a fighter pilot and now is doing administrative duties. He is very uncertain as to his present and future. The Russian army and air force has been divided into national armies — Ukraine, Georgia, etc. He is a professional, and comes from the Ukraine. He is now in the Kazakhstan Air Force. He has sworn allegiance to Kazakhstan. He intends to make his home there and retire. There are many problems about who will pay his pension. We spoke about politics. He said 10 years ago he would be afraid to talk to me, the K.G.B. Would be very inquisitive. He told me that the very powerful political officers at the bases, no longer exist. The K.G.B. is gone. He told a joke about the K.G.B. He said their building was the tallest one in Chernigov. From the roof you could see all the way to Siberia. There is a tremendous amount of "oppression" reverse humor. When driving we passed a beat up car, the driver remarked "Russian Mercedes". None of us would have any problem, intellectually; of being with any of the people I met.

A little history about my cousin's background: His father was executed in Berezna with other Jews, and commissars (Babi Yar type of execution) by the Nazi's and hooligan drunks (Boris's words) in 1941. This happened about 100 yards from my grandparents’ house. He was ten years old when the Ukraine as occupied by Nazi's. He, his mother Leah, and our grandmother Echeved walked to Siberia, about 1500 miles. Our grandmother died in Siberia, and he returned to Chernigov in 1943, with his mother. He was orphaned at age 15, and lived alone in this apartment. He was on his own. The war years were a horror, no food and no heat. Just trying to survive. He married about age 23, had two children. Misha is wonderful son, daughter Yelena, married with an infant. While Boris is poor, he is very bright and articulate. He belonged to the Communist party, and quit when a letter came from us (about 1960-63). He was told stop writing to me, or leave the party. His son considers Boris a very brave man because of his stance in leaving the party. I don't quite understand the whole situation, but many fears at that time about the K.G.B. and fears today about a coup. Life today is very uncertain politically. In the move to a market economy, many laws must be changed allowing privatization. There is much fear of success. Will they become targets of jealousy? There is tremendous uncertainty. Laws change on a daily basis, as needs occur, and those making the laws do not have a clue about market economy.

Misha told me he there is a shortage of parts for the refrigerators. He is trying to wheel and deal, not easy. Rubles are not worth much, difficult to deal without bartering. We tend to think "Russia", but each Soviet is independent, and has its own problems and priorities. In the Ukraine free market there is no food shortage, no serious lines, plentiful consumer goods. There are lines in the state stores because goods, when available, are much cheaper there ie: the lines. We judge by our standards, we have 57 varieties of pickles and might want all of them. They might only know about two types, and as long as the 2 types are available they are satisfied.

I would guess Misha's apartment is about 1000 sq. feet. Four people live there. Chairs for dining are small stools (no backs). Eight people had dinner at a small kitchen type table. Their dining room table is about 1/3 the size of our kitchen table. The table is broken down (legs removed for storage). Storage space is at a premium. No closet's, only modular wall units. Private houses are very primitive. Most have outdoor privy's, very usual. Most have no bath facilities, one faucet in the house. Additional water is brought in by bucket from fire hydrant about 30 yards from the house. I have been drinking boiled water, so far, so good.

Boris's house has a market value of about $2000. American, it is very typical, about 100 years old. Boris's wife Bella is very nice, has very bad case of asthma. She flipped when I gave her 12 Ventolin. They ask for nothing. It is very obvious they are pleased with my gifts, but they are not demanding. They only thing Bella asked for was if I would send Ventolin to her when she runs out of the supply I brought. I have never heard anyone wheeze as severely as she does. Very sad.

Their daughter Yelena’s husband (not Jewish) is a medical technician in the army. He is planning a military career. They live with Bella and Boris, no hope at this time for their own apartment. Everyone in this household seems very satisfied with their life. No complaints specifically, only the statement "zayre schvear". The government subsidizes each mother for three years after childbirth, giving the mother time to raise their child. After three years there are free, or very inexpensive child care centers available. I have seen three young mothers (friends). They are all very attentive to their children. The children eat everything. This morning a neighbor of Misha's came in with a one year old tot chewing on a cuke. No problem.

The Jewish situation is very simple, everyone is becoming Christian. Boris's daughter (Yelena) Helen’s baby was christened. They have no recollection of being Jewish, no knowledge of any part of Jewishness. Their only exposure is their passport, which says "Jewish" after race. I thought it would take one or two generations before there were no more Jews, but I am wrong. They are already assimilated. The only surviving Jews are the orthodox. I met two Chasid’s' in Kiev airport. They were going to a small town 120 miles from Kiev where there is a sect of Chassidic Jews (very small) and they are helping them with money and contact from Jerusalem. The non-orthodox are in their third generation. Circumcision has not existed since the 20's. None of the grandchildren are circumcised.

The misinformation is incredible. There is less street crime here than at home in the USA. I walked home at 10:30-11 p.m. And seen many unaccompanied women. When I asked about street crime, they laughed. I don't know about Kiev, but Chernigov is a very small big town. The people are very courteous, and gentle. Everyone says excuse me, please, and thank you.

Food is plentiful, but expensive based upon their salaries. Recreation is non-existent. I don't know about the rest of the USSR, but the Ukraine is not an unpleasant place to live (if you have a bath and toilet and money).

 

May 31

Went to local market with Helen (Yelena. It's like thunderbird flea market, junk section, food stalls, clothing section. Beautiful fresh vegetable and flowers. The rest was junk. Did not see any well-made ethnic clothing. Anything is available, lipstick, makeup, etc, US. prices, but poor quality for price.

Left for Berezna (my fathers birth town) about 10 a.m., 30 Miles away. One town looks like the next, poor small houses. Chickens on the road, very rural.

Boris made contact with a Jewish family named Dropkin, hero of Soviet army, fruit salad on uniform enough for a general. Very active in making war memorials for murdered Jews and Ukraine’s. He is the only Jew in Berezna; at the turn of the century there were over 10,000 Jews.

1927
1927 — Boris Fraidin's parents in the Ukraine

The Germans would round up the Jews, commissars and intellects, and murder them. He was bitter that the Ukraine murderers from Berezna went to the USA, and remained undiscovered.

We met a man who was a neighbor of the Fradin's, pre war, I went to my father’s "house", took pictures. The town is half the size of nothing, a bus station, two or three shops period. It is a farm community, cooperative farm

1939
Fradin family 1939 in Berezna, Chernigov Oblast, Ukraine
1939
1939
1939
1939 Echeved Fradin

Went to the area where the Nazis, and Ukraine’s murdered Jews and Ukrainian locals. Boris' father was among those murdered. My father’s home was within 50 yards of the place of execution.

Went to Anatoli's (Boris' son-in-law) parents' home. He is a member of a collective farm, but has a personal acre with chickens, pigs, cattle, and rabbits. Had fun, put a chicken to sleep. They had never seen it done, and they howled. It was a big rooster and he cooperated!

 

Came home to a dinner party, all children and grandchildren, brother-in-law, Lt. Col. and children. Had two visitors, who are going to USA, very nervous. Many questions. The third visitor wanted to make contact with a congregation in the USA; he wants help with culture and prayer books. I'll talk to Julie Stern.

A long day, it's 12 p.m. And I’m packing to leave for Kiev in the morning.

The differences in the housing I’ve seen are interesting. I was in two nice houses today, one in Berezna, and one at the farm. Both had outdoor privies. In private houses, this is more usual than not. All apartment houses are with facilities.

I find the use of the privy very trying. It's one of the reasons I’m going to Kiev. I will stay with friends of Boris.

 

Boris 1965
1965

The Russians are stupid. If they had let time work with assimilation, they would not have lost their "Jews". I've been told that ethnic origins will disappear from the passports very soon. Legislation is pending. There is no obvious anti-Semitism in the Ukraine at this time. I can understand why. Most Jews have been assimilated. All Fradin grandchildren are Ukrainian orthodox. In a sense they are Jews for Jesus. They acknowledge their background (Jewish), but are in fact Christian. In any case, anti-Semitism is against the law in the Ukraine. What will happen, if there is economic distress. Who knows?

Everyone is giving me presents, vodka, brandy, dolls, much junk, well meaning. I'm sure I was the first American ever, in Berezna. I gave the family money this evening. They almost collapsed. Bella blessed me with the sign of the cross. They have absolutely no conception of Judaism. If they are to remain Jewish in the current atmosphere, it will be as Christian Jews. They practice no Jewish rituals. There is no understanding of Pesach, Purim, Rosh Hashanah, etc. When I asked Bella "what is Rosh Hashanah", she answered happy holidays (freilach). Exact same answer about Yom Kippur, about Pesach she knew it was the exodus, but no knowledge of Seder. Never heard of Purim. She cannot understand why Jewish god allowed all the horror of WWII. Daughter, Yelena didn't know that any of the above existed. She is Christian as is her husband.

I met a Chasid in Kiev and Vienna airports. Name Yaakov Zweig, from Jerusalem, from the world council of Chassidic Breslov. They are working with Jews in a village about 200 km from Kiev. They are here now, two men, to prepare for Rosh Hashanah.

The Jews they are working with are obviously not kosher, as the Chasid’s brought in their own food, about 30 lbs. I assume they will supplement it with vegetables. I don't know how long they will stay, but this is the third time this year they are here. The Chasid was born and educated is Israel (Jerusalem) and spoke excellent English. He laughed when I spoke of Schneerson and the "messiah". He said they, meaning the Lubavitchers, were hoping it was so.

Spoke to woman whose daughter and son are in USA. She's a biologist, MA., He's a businessman. I asked why they emigrated, and was told their son was mistreated in army, because he was Jewish. They didn't want their other children subjected to same treatment. There seems to be anti-Semitism in the army, but it is difficult to distinguish between anti-Semitism and chauvinism. There are ethnic mixtures in the former USSR army, much chauvinism and many bullies pick on the weak ones in the army. Army life is very difficult. Officers look the other way. In local Chernigov neighborhoods, no obvious anti-Semitism.

Spoke again to the man who wants twinning with USA city. The Lubavitchers were there last year for a short time but they have not been back. Their efforts are more involved in Kiev and other major cities. I asked this man the same questions about the holidays. He was very knowledgeable. My impression is that most Jews have lost their Jewish heritage. Some have a yearning for their roots. Obviously there has been little to no practice of the rituals. This particular man was in the minority. He had knowledge of culture and some ritual.

 

Monday June 1

Had breakfast, packed the bags. I thought I would have empty bags, between gifts given to me and what I have bought, I'm running out of room. Left Bella in tears. Boris and daughter are going with me to Kiev, in the company Mercedes.

Arrived at the apartment in Kiev about 2:30. Lovely Ukraine couple and daughter 2 1/2. Yelena and the wife of apartment owner prepared a lovely lunch with various smoked fish, 3 salads, kasha and meat, then coffee and homemade apple cake. Every meal is festive. If I didn't load up on salad, I'd put on 20 lbs. There are no green vegetables served, only salad and potatoes.

After the meal we went to the war memorial, Babi Yar, put up in early 80's, very impressive statue, of liberty type. No mention of Jews being killed, but some Jewish organization put up a footstone engraved in Yiddish. The statue is an exhibit of WW II, tanks and planes. I then returned to apartment. Boris and family left to return to Chernigov.

Many discussions about market economy. They are in for many surprises. They haven't a clue about international trade. They do understand private enterprise as it relates to local conditions. It is very difficult for them to understand competition or commerce on a world level.

One interesting plus, young children 2-5 years old, play together unattended. Mother is in the apartment, children are outdoors alone and safe at play.

Tuesday-June 2

Up at 6 a.m., Took bath, went back to bed until 8 a.m. The eating habits here are a little more normal. Had two slices of bread and cup of coffee, small cup, strong, like French coffee. After eating, Oleg, Igor, and I went into center city, looked at shops, poor quality. Too bad ethnic products aren't better quality. They would do much better.

We went to a restored Ukrainian village, 18th 19th century, very primitive. Grass and straw roofs. The cottage was perhaps 500 sq. Ft.

Came home at 2:30 for lunch. Lunch is the # 1 meal. We had fish borscht with smetana. Farmer cheese and smetana, bread, kasha, meat, full table. Bought a kilo of bananas, cost 250 ($2) rubles, for a kilo. About 5 large bananas. This was 3 1/2 times Igor’s daily pay Oleg had never eaten a banana, Igor once. Reminds me of Israel, imported goods very expensive, local produce within reach.

In Igor’s apartment live 5 adults and 1 infant. Apartment is around 1000 sq. ft. I am sleeping in Igor’s room, he and his wife Slava are sleeping in a friends apt. There are no closets, only modular wall units. The toilet has a broken wooden seat, the tub has hand-held shower, no curtain.

Went to see Bella’s cousin, Tamara. She teaches business English at the Kiev University. She was widowed 3 months ago. Her husband was a Yugoslavian guerilla fighter, had a falling out with Tito after the war, he was imprisoned for 22 years. Their lives were stolen from them. She is Jewish, knows nothing of culture or religious ritual. She says there is minimum anti-Semitism in the Ukraine, at this time. It was severe 15 years ago, American pressure on the Soviets was very helpful in eliminating it. She feels the current reason for emigration is partially economic, and the fear of returning anti-Semitism.

I'm leaving tomorrow, everyone is giving me gifts, souvenir type, I accept graciously.

Gave my host $20 for the 2 day stay, more than satisfied. Asked me to recommend others who might be interested in spending time in the Ukraine. You must think of the dollar in terms of purchasing power. The average paycheck is $20 per month. Prices are the same as in the USA.

Wed June-3-1992

Up at 7:30 a.m., ate, and on our way to Babi Yar. 70,000 People were murdered. Statue very impressive. The plaques make no mention of Jews, only that those killed were Ukrainian.

Went on to a museum center. Saw lovely exhibition of paintings by an untrained woman painter, exceptional flower paintings. Was not able to take photos, could not buy prints or cards, they don't exist.

Saw a Russian mass in the refurbished church. The priests costume was magnificent, gorgeous red silks embroidered with gold and silver. In the court yard a trio was playing classics, ala Aspen, Colorado.

Back in the apartment again, came home by cab. The taxi system is interesting, mostly private cars, you stick out you hand on the street, a car will stop. If he's going near where you're going you hop in. Rates are very cheap, average ride we took was 100 rubles.

On my way to airport, after arrival took 30 minutes to clear emigration, plane was 1 hour late in leaving, evidently very typical.

 

Addendum

On 10/23/92 Beverly Fradin Miller purchased, and gave to Boris Fradin, a house across the street from Boris' present house, a house with indoor bath, toilet, and running water. The Fradin's in Chernigov don't know what hit them. The cost of the house is equal to 25 years of income at current ruble rates.

 

Since I returned from the Ukraine, I have been "found" by 3 new 1st cousins. They emigrated to Israel in 1990, from Siberia and other parts of Russia. Margie and I are going to Israel on Oct. 2nd 1994, and hope to visit with them.

We met with our "new Fradin cousins" from Siberia, in Mina Pjura’s apartment in Naharija. Present were Mariya (Manya Sakhnina), Mina Pjura, and Mina's brother Boris Fradin, and many children and grand children of my cousins present. It was an emotional meeting, and a very exciting afternoon. Food was served in a nonstop procession. The stories are all the same, their life in Russia was "zayre schver" very difficult.

Manya left Chernigov in 1939 arrived in Siberia, and spent the next 51 years there. Famines, anti-Semitism they were happy to leave. The rest of the family also went to Siberia, and at different time spans left and settled in other parts of Russia, remaining there until they emigrated to Israel.

2000
Israel 2000

 

A few days later we went to Haifa and again met Manya and her family. Manya (Maryia) is 82, has a daughter Sophie, a physician who cannot practice in Israel. She would have to go back to medical school, and at age 62, it's to late. 7 People live in their tiny apartment in Haifa. Manya is a lovely lady, we were able to converse fairly well in Yiddish, but Mira was with us to help out with Russian translations. Manya said Harry was very smart to have left the Ukraine. They are having a tough time, they left better housing in Siberia, but they are glad to be in Israel. Hopefully the next generation will be better off. Mina Pjuro's family is doing better. She and her husband work, as does her son. They have a car and a camcorder. Boris Fradin, Mina's brother is over 65 and does not work. The Israeli government gives a pension to all the older people, it's not much, but enough for food and shelter.

In June of 2006 I, and David my son, went to Israel. Boris's son had a party for us. There were approximately 50 Fradin's there. My 1st cousins, and their children and grand children. Perhaps David will do a diary of this visit.

My paternal (Fradin) grandparents, Boris Fradin, (Dov Bear) and Echeved (born 1861) lived in Berezna, in the Ukraine. Owned a food store. I was told they had 16 children of which 6 survived.

Children in USA

Harry Fradin, my father, was born 1889 in Berezna, the Ukraine. He married Minnie Pianka. Children Charlotte, Ann, Walter, and Beverly.

Samuel Fradin, born 1891, married Lena. Children Pauline, Charlotte, Bernard, and Morton (Jerry).

All other children remained in the Ukraine (brothers and sister of Harry).

Simon Fradin, children, Leonid, Lazer, Mariya (Sahkinina). Leonid was a general in the Soviet army. Maryia evacuated from the Ukraine in 1939-40. Lived in Siberia until 1990, when she emigrated to Israel.

Lazer, children, Boris Fradin, and Minna Pjuro. She lived outside of Moscow, emigrated to Israel in 1990.

Leah, mother of Boris, married a cousin Mendel Fradin, remained a Fradin.

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