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Bukovina - an eastern European territory consisting of a segment of the northeastern Carpathian Mountains and the adjoining plain, divided in modern times (after 1947) between Romania and the Soviet Union. Settled by both Ukrainians (Ruthenians) and Romanians (Moldavians), the region became an integral part of the principality of Moldavia in the 14th century. Suceava, in the south of the territory, was the capital of Moldavia from the late 14th to the mid-16th century.

Bukovina acquired its own name and identity only in 1775, when it was ceded to Austria by the Turks, who then controlled Moldavia. Austria, which regarded Bukovina as a strategic link between Transylvania and Galicia, administered it first as a part of Galicia (1786-1849) and then as a duchy and a separate crown land. Austria also developed Bukovina's chief city, Chernovtsy (also called Czernowitz, or Cernauti; now Chernivtsi, Ukraine), into an important educational and commercial centre. The Austrians kept a balance between the various ethnic groups in Bukovina; the population was almost solidly Ukrainian in the north and Romanian in the south, while in the towns there were also a number of Germans and Poles, many of them Jews. When Romania achieved independence in 1878, it sought unification with Bukovina. It did so because Bukovina was not only the historical cradle of the Moldavian principality but also the repository of the finest examples of Romanian art and architecture, having unique painted monastic churches of the 15th and 16th centuries. Romania occupied Bukovina when Austria-Hungary collapsed in 1918. Although local Ukrainians had tried to incorporate their districts in northern Bukovina into the Western Ukrainian National Republic, Romania gained control of the whole province (Treaty of Saint-Germain; 1919) and pursued a Rumanization policy there. In June 1940 the Soviet Union occupied the northern part of Bukovina, but Romania temporarily regained this territory as Germany's ally after the latter had invaded the U.S.S.R. in 1941. Soviet troops retook the northern districts in 1944. Northern Bukovina became part of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic under the peace treaty of 1947; the ancient Moldavian capital Suceava and the surrounding area, including the most famous of the monasteries, became part of the Romanian People's Republic.

Russian BESSARABIYA, Romanian BASARABIA, Turkish BESARABYA, region in eastern Europe that passed successively, from the 15th to 20th century, to Moldavia, the Ottoman Empire, Russia, Romania, the Soviet Union, and Ukraine and Moldova. It is bounded by the Prut River on the west, the Dniester River on the north and east, the Black Sea on the southeast, and the Chilia arm of the Danube River delta on the south.

Although the early history of Bessarabia is obscure, it is known that Greek colonies were founded along its Black Sea coast (7th century BC) and that it was probably included in the kingdom of Dacia (2nd century AD). The Slavs began to enter the area in the 6th century, but their settlement was interrupted by invasions of other peoples from the east (ending with the Mongol invasion in the 13th century).
At the end of the 14th century the southern portion of the region became part of Walachia (the name Bessarabia probably is derived from the Walachian dynasty Basarab); and in the 15th century the entire province was incorporated into the principality of Moldavia. Shortly thereafter the Turks invaded and captured Akkerman and Chilia (1484) and annexed the southern portion of Bessarabia, dividing it into two sancaks (districts) of the Ottoman Empire. The remainder of Bessarabia fell under Turkish domination when Moldavia submitted to the Turks in the 16th century. The region remained under Turkish control until the 19th century.

Then Russia, whose interest in the area had developed during the 18th century (it had occupied the region five times between 1711 and 1812), acquired Bessarabia and half of Moldavia (Treaty of Bucharest, 1812). The name Bessarabia was applied to the entire region. Russia retained control of the region until World War I (with the exception of a strip of southern Bessarabia, which was in Moldavia's possession from 1856 to 1878). During the beginning of the 19th century, Russia granted Bessarabia autonomy (1818-28) and allowed it a Moldavian governor and archbishop. But by the end of the century, Russification in both the civil and ecclesiastical administrations was the dominant policy.
A nationalist movement developed in Bessarabia after the Russian Revolution of 1905; and, in November 1917 (after the Russian revolutions of 1917), a council (sfatul tarei) was established. It declared Bessarabia's independence on Jan. 24, 1918, and voted to unite with Romania in December. The Treaty of Paris (Oct. 28, 1920) confirmed this union, but the Soviet Union never recognized Romania's right to the province. After the German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact was signed (Aug. 23, 1939), the Soviet Union demanded (June 26, 1940) that Romania cede Bessarabia and the northern portion of Bukovina. The Romanian government complied; Soviet troops entered the region on June 28. In August 1940 Moldavia, or the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic, was created out of the central districts of Bessarabia and a strip of Ukrainian territory on the other side of the Dniester River. Kishinyov (now Chisinau) became Moldavia's capital. The northern region of Bessarabia (Khotin) and the coastal plain from the Danube to the Dniester were incorporated into Ukraine, or the Ukrainian S.S.R. During World War II, Romanians occupied Bessarabia and temporarily reorganized it as part of Romania. The Soviet Union seized it in 1944, and the territorial arrangements of 1940 were reestablished. Bessarabia remained divided after Ukraine and Moldavia (now Moldova) declared independence in 1991.

Bessarabia contains much of archaeological interest, including mounds and barrows of early epochs, remains of a wall built by the Roman emperor Trajan, some traces of Greek and Roman towns, and some forts along the Dniester built by the Genoese in the 14th century. Bessarabia is a favoured area for agriculture, chiefly for cereals, fruit, and wine.

Dnipro River - Ukrainian Dnipro, Russian DNEPR, Belorussian Dnepro, river of Europe, the fourth longest (1,367 miles [2,200 km]) after the Volga, Danube, and Ural rivers. The Dnieper rises on the southern slopes of the Valdai Hills west of Moscow in Smolensk oblast (province), western Russia, and flows in a generally southern direction through Belarus and Ukraine and then into the Dnieper estuary of the Black Sea.

The river's course can be divided roughly into three parts: the swampy upper Dnieper (800 miles [1,300 km] long) located as far downstream as Kyiv, where about four-fifths of the Dnieper River basin's annual runoff forms; the forest-steppe region of the middle Dnieper (340 miles [550 km] long); and the semiarid Black Sea Lowland region of the lower Dnieper (200 miles [320 km] long). The major tributaries in its drainage basin of 195,000 square miles (505,000 square km) are the Desna, Sozh, Berezina, Vorskla, Teteriv, and Pripet rivers. The climate of the Dnieper basin is continental, and annual precipitation ranges from 30 to 32 inches (760 to 810 mm) in the north to about 18 inches (460 mm) in the south. More than 300 hydroelectric plants operate in the Dnieper basin, supplying water to the Donets Basin and Kryvyy Rih industrial regions and, for irrigation, to the arid lands of southern Ukraine and Crimea. Several huge dams harness the flow of the Dnieper itself; the Kremenchuk, Kakhovka, and Dnieper are among the major hydroelectric power stations on the river. The mean annual runoff of the river is 13 cubic miles (54 cubic km), but there is considerable yearly variation. The water of the Dnieper is low in minerals; it carries annually an average of 8.6 million tons (7.8 million metric tons) of dissolved matter to the sea. More than 60 species of fish are found in the Dnieper, including pike, carp, roach, goldfish, whitefish, catfish, perch, and herring. The construction of dams and reservoirs has deepened the river and facilitated navigation for about 1,042 miles (1,677 km) during the 10 months of the year when it is not frozen. The principal cargoes are coal, ore, building materials, and other bulk freight. The chief ports on the Dnieper are Dorogobuzh and Smolensk (Russia), Orsha (Belarus), and Kyiv and Kherson (Ukraine).

Dnister River - Ukrainian Dnister, Russian DNESTR, Romanian NISTRUL, Moldovan NISTRU, Turkish TURLA, river of southwestern Ukraine and of Moldova, rising on the north side of the Carpathian Mountains and flowing south and east for 840 miles (1,352 km) to the Black Sea near Odessa. It is the second longest river in Ukraine and the main water artery of Moldova.
The Dniester and its tributaries drain a long, narrow basin that is about 28,000 square miles (72,000 square km) in area but is nowhere more than about 60-70 miles (100-110 km) wide. The river's basin is bounded on the north by the Volyn-Podilsk Upland and on the south of the river's upper course by the Carpathian Mountains. Farther to the south are hilly plains and the Bessarabian Upland, and at the southeasternmost end of the basin is the Black Sea Lowland. The estuary of the Dniester is formed by the incursion of the sea into the lower Dniester River valley, forming a shallow basin that is separated from the sea by a narrow strip of land. The Dniester has many tributaries, only 15 of which are more than 60 miles (95 km) long. They include the Stryy, Zolota Lypa, Strypa, Seret, Zbruch, Smotrych, Ushytsya, Murafa, Raut, Bāc, and Botna.

The climate of the river basin is humid, with warm summers. Annual precipitation varies from 40 to 50 inches (1,000 to 1,250 mm) in the Carpathians down to 20 inches (510 mm) near the Black Sea. A large proportion of the land of the basin is under cultivation.

The Dniester frequently floods, causing extensive damage to settled areas. The water level in its middle course varies by 25-35 feet (7.5-10.5 m) at different times of the year because of melting snow and rainfall in the upper part of its basin. The river's average discharge is about 10,000 cubic feet (300 cubic m) per second, but it has been known to reach 250,000 cubic feet (7,100 cubic m) per second or more at times of flood. Freezing usually occurs at the end of December or the beginning of January and lasts about two months; although in some years there is no icebound period.
Although the basin of the Dniester is densely populated, there are no large towns along the river itself. Lviv and Ternopil (Ukraine), Chisinau (Moldova), and other urban centres lie above the main valley on tributaries.

The Dniester is navigable for about 750 miles (1,200 km) from its mouth; shipping lines run from Soroca to Dubasari (both in Moldova) and from Dubasari to the sea. Navigation is made difficult on the lower reaches by shallow water and sandbars. The river is used extensively for carrying logs, which are brought together at the mouths of the Carpathian tributaries and rafted downstream. Fishing is of little importance except near the coast. In the lower reaches and in the Dubasari Reservoir there are fish hatcheries for sturgeon, whitefish, pike perch, and carp.

Dnipropetrovsk, formerly (UNTIL 1926) YEKATERINOSLAV, OR EKATERINOSLAV, city and administrative centre, Dnipropetrovsk oblast (province), south-central Ukraine. It lies along the Dnieper River, near its confluence with the Samara. The river has been considerably widened by the construction of a dam about 50 miles (80 km) downstream. Founded in 1783 as Yekaterinoslav on the river's north bank, the settlement was moved to its present site on the south bank in 1786. The community was known as Novorossiysk from 1796 to 1802, when its old name was restored and it became a provincial centre. Despite the bridging of the Dnieper in 1796 and the growth of trade in the early 19th century, Yekaterinoslav remained small until industrialization began in the 1880s, when railways were built to Odessa, the Donets Basin, and Moscow. In 1926 the Soviets renamed it Dnepropetrovsk.

Dnipropetrovsk has developed into one of the largest industrial cities of Ukraine. With iron ore from Kryvyy Rih, manganese from Nikopol, coal from the Donets Basin, and electric power from the cascade of hydroelectric plants on the Dnieper, a huge iron and steel industry has grown up in the city; and castings, plates, sheets, rails, tubes, and wire are produced. Large engineering industries make electric locomotives, agricultural machinery, mining and metallurgical equipment, presses, and other heavy machinery, as well as light-industrial machinery and radio equipment. Coke-based chemicals, tires, plastics, paint, clothing, footwear, foodstuffs, and other materials are also produced. Dnipropetrovsk has a university and teaching institutes of mining, agriculture, chemical technology, metallurgy, medicine, and railway and constructional engineering. Cultural amenities include several theatres and a philharmonic hall. Newer suburbs have spread to the north bank. The neighbouring suburbs of Igren and Pridneprovsk were annexed in the 1970s. Pop. (1991 est.) 1,189,300.

Donetsk also spelled DONECK, formerly (UNTIL 1924) YUZOVKA, or (1924-61) Stalino, city and administrative centre of Donetsk oblast (province), southeastern Ukraine, on the headwaters of the Kalmius River. In 1872 an ironworks was founded there by a Welshman, John Hughes (from whom the town's pre-Revolutionary name Yuzovka was derived), to produce iron rails for the growing Russian rail network. Later steel rails were made. The plant used coal from the immediate vicinity, and both coal mining and steel making developed rapidly. By 1914 there were 4 metallurgical plants, 10 coalpits, and a population of about 50,000. After the October Revolution (1917), Yuzovka was renamed Stalino and, in 1961, Donetsk. Heavy destruction in World War II led to postwar modernization and an increase in the scale of industry. Subsequent growth has been rapid and sustained. There are now more than 40 coalpits within the town limits. A major integrated coking, iron-smelting, and steel-making plant makes modern Donetsk one of the largest metallurgical centres of Ukraine. Coke by-products are the basis of a chemical industry producing plastics. There are several heavy-engineering works, which produce, in the main, mining equipment. Refrigerators are manufactured, and there are other light industries.
The necessity of avoiding areas subject to subsidence caused by mining has led to a patchy development of the densely built-up residential and factory areas and open spaces over the extensive area of the town's administrative limits (162 square miles [420 square km]). The principal street, from the railway station to the steelworks, is 5.5 miles (9 km) long, with the main shops, hotels, and administrative buildings. There are a university; polytechnic, medical and trade institutes; and more than 30 scientific research establishments, including a branch of the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. Cultural amenities include several theatres and a philharmonic hall. Pop. (1993 est.) 1,121,000.

Polish Galicja, German GALIZIEN, Ukrainian HALYCHYNA, historic region of eastern Europe that was a part of Poland before Austria annexed it in 1772; in the 20th century it was restored to Poland but was later divided between Poland and the Soviet Union.

During the Middle Ages, eastern Galicia, situated between Hungary, Poland, and the western principalities of Kyiv and Volhynia, was coveted by its neighbours for its fertile soil and its important commercial connections. Incorporated into Kievan Rus by Vladimir I (Grand Prince Vladimir) in 981, eastern Galicia (also called Red Ruthenia, or Red Rus), being the country around Halicz (Galich, or Galych) on the upper Dniester, east of the Zbruch confluent and west of the headwaters of the San River, became an independent principality in 1087; during the next century it developed into a rich and powerful principality. In 1199 Prince Roman of Volhynia, invited by the Galician boyars (noblemen), ascended the throne in Halicz and united under his power both Volhynia (or Lodomeria) and Galicia in 1200. Under his rule and that of his son Daniel (reigned 1238-64), the united principality defeated both Polish and Hungarian attempts at conquest and asserted itself as a major state in eastern Europe. The principality was weakened, however, by internal struggles between the princes and boyars, who often held the real power in the principality, and, though Daniel was crowned king of Galicia by a papal legate in 1253, he was also compelled to recognize the suzerainty of the Mongol khan, who had conquered the former an territory in 1237-41.

Galicia, however, did not become an integral part of the Mongol empire as did other lands of Rus, and in 1323, when Roman's dynasty died out, a Polish prince, Boleslaw Jerzy of Mazovia, was elected by the boyars to rule Galicia. After his death (1340), the Polish king Casimir III the Great annexed Galicia to his lands (1349). Under Polish rule Galicia was settled by Polish gentry, who became the dominant social class, and Galician boyars soon were compelled to accept the Polish language as well as Polish legal and social institutions and Roman Catholicism.

When Poland was first partitioned in 1772, eastern Galicia, together with the territory to the west, between the San and the Vistula, was attached to Austria; and in 1795 further lands, both west and east of the Vistula, passed also to Austria. From 1786 to 1849 Austria administered the territory of Bukovina as part of Galicia. After the adjustments of 1815 (Congress of Vienna), Austria's Polish possessions were called the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria; and the 1815 Republic of Cracow was added to them in 1846. In 1848-49 Austria abolished serfdom in Galicia and after 1867 allowed the region a large degree of administrative autonomy. During the late 19th century, however, the Ukrainian population, which constituted the majority of the inhabitants of eastern Galicia, objected to the increasing domination of the Polish population and developed a strong Ukrainian nationalist movement.

All Galicia became a part of Poland after World War I and postwar controversy. When World War II began, the Soviet Union united eastern Galicia to the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. Following the war, eastern Galicia remained a part of the U.S.S.R. (after 1991, part of Ukraine), while western, Polish-settled Galicia was attached to Poland.

Kharkiv - Russian KHARKOV, also spelled CHAR'KOV, city and administrative centre of Kharkiv oblast (province), northeastern Ukraine. It lies at the confluence of the Uda, Lopan, and Kharkiv rivers. It was founded about 1655 as a military stronghold to protect Russia's southern borderlands; part of the old kremlin wall survives. The centre of a region of fertile soils and rapid colonization in the 18th century, it quickly developed important trade and handicraft manufactures and became a seat of provincial government in 1732. Its nodal position was enhanced in the later 19th century by the opening of the adjacent Donets Basin coalfield, first reached by rail from Kharkiv in 1869. At that period Kharkiv's own industries, especially engineering, grew rapidly. After the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the establishment of the Ukrainian S.S.R. in 1917, Kharkiv was made its first capital but lost this function to Kyiv in 1934. In World War II this key junction was bitterly contested and changed hands several times, with very heavy destruction.

Today Kharkiv retains its role as a communications centre: it is the largest rail junction of Ukraine, with eight trunk lines converging on it and three main-line stations. Kharkiv is also a node on the trunk highway system of Ukraine and Russia, with highways to Moscow, to Kyiv and western Ukraine, to Zaporizhzhya and the Crimea, and to Rostov-na-Donu and the Caucasus. It also has a major airport. It is the second largest city in Ukraine and is the centre of a metropolitan area comprising about 20 satellite towns. The industrial structure of Kharkiv is headed by engineering. The city's wide range of products includes diesel locomotives, machine tools, mining machinery, tractors and other agricultural machinery, bicycles, generators, steam turbines, and many electrical items. There are also light industries producing foodstuffs and other consumer goods. Much of the power for industry and heating in the city derives from natural gas.

The great destruction of World War II made it possible for contemporary Kharkiv to be rebuilt as a city of broad streets, large apartment blocks, imposing, often ponderous administrative and office buildings, and large industrial plants. Among survivals of the past are the 17th-century Pokrovsky Cathedral, the 19th-century Patriarchal Cathedral, and the belltower commemorating the victory over Napoleon I in 1812.

Kharkiv is one of the most important cultural and educational centres of Ukraine. Its university was founded in 1805. There are numerous other institutions of higher education, including polytechnic, medical, agricultural, and various engineering establishments. In addition, the city has a number of scientific-research institutions, a park of physical culture, and a botanical garden. Kharkiv has a philharmonic hall, several theatres (the oldest of which dates from 1780), a planetarium, and a number of museums. Its subway system was opened in 1975. Pop. (1996 est.) 1,555,000.

KYIV, Russian KIYEV, chief city and capital of Ukraine, and capital of Kyiv oblast (province). It is located along the Dnieper River just below its confluence with the Desna and 591 miles (952 km) from its mouth in the Black Sea.

Kyiv was founded in the 8th century. By the late 9th century its princes had established their suzerainty over several other East Slavic principalities and had founded the important state called Kyiv an Rus. Throughout the history of Kyiv an Rus, the city was engaged in ceaseless warfare against the Khazars, Pechenegs, and other nomadic peoples of the steppes. In the late 12th century its power declined in the face of constant nomad attacks and warfare with other Slavic princes, and in 1240 the city was completely destroyed by the Tatars of the Golden Horde under Batu, the grandson of Genghis Khan. Thereafter the town passed to the control of Lithuania, of Poland, and then of the Cossacks. In 1793 it was incorporated into Russia, and in 1917 the Ukrainian S.S.R. was formed, with Kyiv becoming its capital in 1934. Large sections of the city's central area were destroyed during World War II, but after the war the city was repopulated and fully restored, regaining its position as a major industrial and cultural centre. Kyiv remained the capital of Ukraine when the latter became independent in 1991.

Kyiv originally occupied the high and steep right (west) bank of the Dnieper, but since World War II rapid growth has extended the city onto the wide, low, flat floodplain on the left bank. The city has moderately cold winters, with snow cover usually from mid-November to the end of March, and warm summers.

As the capital of Ukraine, Kyiv has major administrative functions, and its ministries employ a considerable number of workers. It is also an important industrial centre, producing a wide range of goods. Engineering industries--including the manufacturing of complex machinery, precision tools, and instruments--are of primary importance. The chemical, consumer-goods, food-processing, lumber-milling, and publishing industries are also significant.

The focus of the contemporary city remains its ancient Upper Town, crowning the high bluff above the Dnieper. Its central area, although for the most part of postwar construction, contains most of Kyiv's surviving historical and architectural monuments. The 11th-century Cathedral of St. Sophia, one of the most beautiful examples of Russo-Byzantine ecclesiastical architecture, and the striking 18th-century Baroque Church of St. Andrew are both now state museums. Other surviving relics include the ruins of the 11th-century Golden Gate, the 18th-century Zaborovskyy Gate, and the 19th-century five-domed Desyatynna Church, built on the site of a church founded by St. Vladimir in the 10th century. The axis of the centre of the city is the tree-lined Kreshchatyk, the main shopping street. Many of the city's museums and theatres are located within and adjacent to the former Old Town.

To the north of the Old Town is the former Jewish and trading quarter, Podil, containing the river port, and to the Old Town's south and along the top of the riverbank is the Percherskyy district. This area contains many administrative buildings. At the southern end of the district is the 11th-century Kyevo-Pecherska Lavra (Monastery of the Caves), where the monk Nestor wrote the earliest surviving Russian chronicle. Beneath the monastery, a system of catacombs stores the mummified bodies of monks and saints, including that of Nestor. Surrounding these central districts and extending to the west bank of the Dnieper are suburbs of factories and residential neighbourhoods.

The most important centre for research and education in Ukraine, Kyiv is the home of a number of universities, colleges, and research institutions, notably the Kyiv T.G. Shevchenko State University (1834) and the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. Russian and Ukrainian drama can be seen at the Shevchenko Theatre of Opera and Ballet, the 12,000-seat Palace of Sport, and open-air theatres. The city has several museums. Musical concerts are given regularly at the Tchaikovsky Conservatory.

Kyiv is served by a good transportation network. Trunk railways and all-weather roads link Kyiv to Moscow, Kharkiv and the Donets Basin, southern and western Ukraine, and Poland. Within Kyiv itself there is efficient subway, rail, and bus service. The Dnieper River is navigable about nine months of the year, and Kyiv's Boryspil airport operates flights to other Ukrainian cities and to cities in Europe, Asia, and North America. Area city, 300 square miles (707 square km). Pop. (1993 est.) 2,646,000.

L'VIV - Russian LVOV, POLISH LWÓW, German LEMBERG, city and administrative centre of Lviv oblast (province), Ukraine, on the Roztochchya Upland. Founded in the mid-13th century by Prince Daniel Romanovich of Galicia, Lviv has historically been the chief centre of Galicia, a region now divided between Ukraine and Poland. Its position controlling east-west routes and passes across the Carpathians has given it a stormy history. Polish control was established in 1349. The town was seized by the Cossacks in 1648 and the Swedes in 1704. It was given to Austria on the first partition of Poland in 1772 and occupied by Russia in 1914-15. The government of a short-lived western Ukrainian republic arose in Lviv in late 1918, but the Poles drove Ukrainian troops out of the city and regained control. Lviv was seized by the Soviet Union in 1939 and, after German occupation, annexed by the Soviets in 1945.

Modern Lviv retains its nodal position, with nine railways converging on the city. As a result, industrial development has been considerable: engineering products manufactured in the city include buses, agricultural machinery, loading machinery, bicycles, and television sets; there is also a wide range of consumer goods and foodstuffs industries.

Lviv is also a major publishing and cultural centre, especially of Ukrainian culture, which flourished there in tsarist times when it was suppressed in Russian Ukraine. The university, which was founded in 1661 and named for the Ukrainian poet and journalist Ivan Franko under the Soviet regime, is one of the institutions of higher education and research in the city. Pop. (1993 est.) 810,000.

Ivano-Frankivsk, Russian IVANO-FRANKOVSK, formerly (UNTIL 1962) STANISLAWÓW, or Stanislav, city and administrative centre of Ivano-Frankivsk oblast (province), western Ukraine. It lies along the Bystritsa River just above its confluence with the Dniester River. Founded in 1661 as the Polish town of Stanislawów, it occupied an important position on the northern approach to the Yablonitsky Pass over the Carpathians. From 1772 to 1919 it was held by Austria; in 1945 it was ceded to the Soviet Union and named Stanislav; and in 1962 it was given its present name. The modern city has light-engineering, timber-working, furniture-making, and food-processing industries. There are medical and teacher-training institutes and schools for training in the oil and gas industries. Pop. (1993 est.) 234,000.

Odessa, a seaport and administrative centre of Odessa oblast (province), southwestern Ukraine. It stands on a shallow indentation of the Black Sea coast at a point approximately 19 miles (31 km) north of the Dniester River estuary and about 275 miles (443 km) south of Kyiv. Although a settlement existed on the site in ancient times, the history of the modern city began in the 14th century when the Tatar fortress of Khadzhibey was established there; it later passed to Lithuania-Poland and in 1764 to Turkey. The fortress was stormed by the Russians in 1789 and ceded to Russia in 1791. A new fortress was built in 1792-93, and in 1794 a naval base and commercial quay were added. In 1795 the new port was named Odessa for the ancient Greek colony of Odessos, the site of which was believed to be in the vicinity.

During the 19th century Odessa's growth was rapid, especially after the coming of railways in 1866. Odessa became the third city of Russia and the country's second most important port, after St. Petersburg; grain was its principal export. The city was one of the chief centres of the Russian Revolution of 1905 and was the scene of the mutiny on the warship Potemkin; Sergey Eisenstein's classic film Potemkin was made there in 1925. Odessa suffered heavy damage in World War II during its prolonged and unsuccessful defense against German and Romanian forces.

The city remains a major port, the largest in Ukraine, with well-equipped docks and ship-repair yards. After 1857 a new outport was built at Ilichevsk, 12 miles (20 km) to the south. Odessa is the base of a fishing fleet. The city's rail communications are good to all parts of Ukraine, Moldova, and Romania. Odessa is also a large industrial centre, with a wide range of engineering industries, including the production of machine tools, cranes, and plows. The chemical industry makes fertilizers, paints, dyes, and other materials. Odessa also has an oil refinery, a large jute mill, and a number of consumer goods and food-processing factories. Most factories lie north of the port along the waterfront, with newer plants on the western outskirts.

Odessa is also an important cultural and educational centre. It has a university, founded in 1865, and numerous other institutions of higher education. Its many research establishments are headed by the Filatov Institute of Eye Diseases. There are a number of museums and theatres, including the opera house and ballet theatre, dating from 1809. The seashore south of the harbour is a popular resort area, with numerous sanatoriums and holiday camps. Pop. (1991 est.) 1,100,700.

Ternopil, Russian TERNOPOL, formerly TARNOPOL, city and administrative centre of Ternopil oblast (province), western Ukraine. It lies along the upper Seret River, 70 miles (115 km) east of Lviv. Although its date of foundation is unknown, the first known reference to Ternopil occurs in 1524, when as a Polish town it was sacked by the Tatars. Taken by Austria in 1772 and returned to Poland in 1920, Ternopil was annexed by the U.S.S.R. in 1939. World War II inflicted exceptionally heavy damage on the city. Modern Ternopil is an important railway junction and has light engineering, food-processing, and consumer-goods industries. Although most of the city is new, the 16th-century Nativity and 18th-century Dominican churches survive. A medical institute is also located there. Pop. (1993 est.) 229,000.

Uzhhorod, Russian UZHGOROD, also spelled UZGOROD, Hungarian UNGVĮR, city and administrative centre of Zakarpattya oblast (province), western Ukraine. It is situated along the Uzh River just east of the Slovakian border. It was first mentioned in 903, and its position has long given it trading and military significance. Formerly in Austria-Hungary, it passed to Czechoslovakia in 1919, to Hungary in 1938, back to Czechoslovakia in 1945, and to the Soviet Union in the same year.
Uzhhorod's industries include the manufacture of machine tools, furniture, veneer, and margarine. It also has a university, founded in 1945. Pop. (1993 est.) 126,000.

Zhytomyr, Russian ZHITOMIR, city and administrative centre of Zhytomyr oblast (province), western Ukraine. It lies along the Teteriv River where it runs between high, rocky banks. Zhytomyr is believed to date from the 9th century, but the first record is from 1240, when it was sacked by the Tatars.

For long a major trade focus and a seat of provincial government, Zhytomyr today is an important junction where the main rail and road routes westward from Kyiv are crossed by north-south routes. Its light industries chiefly process wood for furniture and flax for linen. Synthetic fibres are a recent extension of the city's textile industry. Musical instruments, notably accordions, are a specialty. Zhytomyr has agricultural and teacher-training institutes. Pop. (1991 est.) 298,000.