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Cardiganshire snippets .. [1]

 

Ceredigion generally

Corn Riots in Wales, 1793-1801
see Glamorgan

CGN Mariners on Cardiff 1871 census

Tivyside ploughing match in 1906

Aber-porth

Aberystwyth

Brongwyn

Cardigan

Cellan

Dihewyd

Gwnnws

Lampeter

Llanbadarn fawr

Llanddewi Aber-Arth

Llanddewibrefi

Llandyfriog

Llandysul

Llanfihangel-y-Creuddyn

Llanfihangel Genau'r-Glyn

Llangwyryfon

Llanilar

Llanllwchaearn

Llannarth

Llanrhystud

Llanwenog

Lledrod

Nantcwnlle/Llangeitho

Tregaron

Troed-yr-Aur

Ysbyty Ystwyth

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Nantcwnlle/Llangeitho

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For more online information about the parish of Nantcwnlle  see Genuki and Llangeitho see Genuki


Daniel Rowland [1713-1790]

Daniel Rowland was born in Nantcwnlle parish, the son of the Rector of that parish and of Llangeitho. He is believed to have been educated at Hereford Grammar School. He was ordained in 1735 and had the curacies of Llangeitho and Nantcwnlle where his brother was now rector. Later he held curacies at Ystrad Ffin and Llanddewibrefi.

Daniel Rowland was deeply influenced by two men in particular, Phylip Pugh of Llwynpiod , a Nonconformist minister , and Gruffydd Jones of Llanddowror. Rowland's sermons had tremendous power, people were terrified out of their careless way of living. He did moderate his style to great effect, but his preaching out of his parish and in unconsecrated places was strongly disapproved of by the Church establishment  and Rowland remained a curate all his life, first under his brother and then his own son.

He met up with Hywel Harris in 1737 and the two decided to join forces and broaden their sphere of activity, becoming the main leaders of the Methodist Revival in its early years. Rowland became in charge of the "Societies" in Carmarthenshire and part of Cardiganshire with Williams Pantycelyn to assist him. Rowland was made Vice-Moderator of the Association in 1743 under Whitefield and subsequently Chairman.

During the unfortunate rift in Welsh Methodism Rowland tried to fill Harris's place as leader of the movement but lacked the latter's gift for organising. Excluded from the Established Church because of his enthusiasm , he built a chapel near his old Church and carried on his work there until his death in 1790. A statue has been erected in his memory in the cemetery of the New Church, Llangeitho, where he was buried.

Llangeitho became a sort of Mecca for the whole of Wales on Communion Sunday which shows what tremendous influence Daniel Rowland  had exercised through his preaching.   

Based on Famous Welshmen Welsh Dept of Board of Education, 1944. Gareth Hicks  2 May 2000 D/G]                                                                                                                                                                                 

Tregaron

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For more online information about the parish of Tregaron   see Genuki


Henry Richard [1812-1888]

Born in Tregaron, the son of the Rev Ebeneser Richard. He was educated at Llangeitho and at the Highbury Independent College  in London.  He was minister at Marlborough Congregational Church, London from 1835 to 1850 and for the rest of his life was prominent in his activities as "Apostle of Peace" and "Member for Wales". There is a monument to him at Tregaron.

He was appointed secretary of the Peace Society in 1848 an exciting year in the history of Europe. He took a prominent part in the Peace Conferences  which were held in Brussels, Paris, Frankfort and other places in 1848-50. He was a close friend of Cobden and Bright and it was he who edited the Peace Society's magazine, Herald of Peace.

Neither did he lose interest in Welsh matters, he protested against the Blue Books in 1847 and in his letters to the English press [ which were published in 1866 under the title "Letters on.....the condition of Wales"] he had been the means of interpreting Welsh life to the English people. He was elected Member of Parliament for Merthyr Tydfil in 1868 and remained  so until his death. His main interests were the Land Question, Religion and the State, Education and Peace. He protested to Parliament against the oppression of Cardiganshire landowners who evicted their tenants from their farms because of their political and religious beliefs. He is remembered today as the "Apostle of Peace" but also as one of represented to Parliament the new spirit which arose in Wales towards the middle of the C19.

Based on Famous Welshmen Welsh Dept of Board of Education, 1944. Gareth Hicks  16.6.2000 D/G]                                                                                                                                                                                   


Justices of the peace and Vestry accounts

The examination of parish accounts was another duty undertaken by justices of the peace.

A  report of the inspection of vestry acounts in Tregaron in 1816 mentions  'Evan Jones overseer of the poor for the

several Townships Argod and Ystrad, Croes Berwin and Blaen Caron........by one Maurice Evans Clerk to one of his

Majesty's Justices of the peace for the county of Cardigan ...."

[MS Tregaron Vestry Minutes 3 June 1816]

[Based on an article  by Alun Eirug Davies in Ceredigion , the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society ; Vol V1/1 1968 .Gareth ]


Medical relief for  paupers

In rural districts the medical man was generally paid by the case , an example from the Tregaron vestry minutes;

"........the overseer should go to Mr David Rowlands Surgeon and to have his terms or to what sums he will require for using his means to cure Wm Roberts."

[MS Tregaron Vestry Minutes 13 Sept 1833]

And sometimes the doctor's salary depended on whether he was successful in curing the patient, as in this example ;

"....to give the sum of three Guineas to Mr Jones , Doctor for the Curing of Mary Davies pauper, if the sd Mr Jones will Cure the sd Mary Davies for so much Money, if not, there will be nothing due to him."

[MS Tregaron Vestry Minutes 7 June 1791]

[ Based on an article  by Alun Eirug Davies in Ceredigion , the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society ; Vol V1/1 1968  .Gareth  Hicks 1 Aug 2000 D] 

Lledrod

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For more online information about the parish of Lledrod see Genuki


Evan Evans

Evan Evans was the foremost Welsh classical scholar of the C18, he was brought up  in Lledrod and educated locally progressing to Oxford University. He took Holy Orders but remained a curate all his life mainly because of his intense interest in early Welsh poetry, a pastime frowned upon by the Anglican Church in Wales. He was among the first to draw attention to the richness of this early poetry, he was also a poet himself and was known as Iean Brydydd Hir [ Ieuan the Long Poet].

[Based on "A Helping Hand "by W J Jones 1996. Gareth Hicks]                                                                                                                                                                                        

Llandyfriog

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For more online information about the parish of Llandyfriog see Genuki


First printing press

The first lawful printing press in Wales was set up in Atpar in CGN, near Newcastle Emlyn in 1718 by Isaac Carter. His first publication was a pamphlet on the evils of tobacco. Its message fell on deaf ears and many people thought that inhaling tobacco fumes was an excellent cure for chest complaints like bronchitis. Tobacco was also smoked in clay pipes during the C19 cholera  epidemic in the belief that it offered protection against the disease.

[ Based on "A Helping Hand "by W J Jones 1996. Gareth Hicks 3 May 2000 D]     

                                                         

Ceredigion generally

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For more online information about the county of Ceredigion [Cardiganshire] see Genuki


Barker, a craftsman

Many years ago the barker was an important craftsman in Wales with about 2 dozen working in Ceredigion alone c 1890. The barker maintained a close contact with the tanneries of which there were nine in the county at this time.  The barkers stripped the oaks of their bark so that they could obtain the tannin [or barking fluid] from them, a long complicated process. Animal hide would be soaked in tannin for up to 3 years and passers-by would be very aware of this process as they could smell a tannery from a distance. Because of this tanneries were not popular too near to villages.

[Based on "A Helping Hand "by W J Jones 1996. Gareth Hicks  15.5.2000 D] 


Absentee landlords

The traveller, B H Malkin, was as much impressed by the number of country mansions he saw in north Cardiganshire as he was by those in the Llandeilo area. But with this difference, that many who owned the former did not live in them. He added that there were landlords in the districts referred to who, between them received 25,000 every year from rentals " without ever seeing the spot from whence they derived their wealth". This, he maintained, drained the resources of the countryside and thus impoverished the community.

[Based on the Story of Carmarthenshire by A.G Pryse Jones 1972. Gareth Hicks 25.5.2000 D] 


Seasonal movement  from Cardiganshire to Glamorgan

A large number of  seasonal and 'casual workers' worked along side skilled miners and ironworkers in Glamorgan.

One example ;

"There are many" said a south Wales ironmaster in 1837, " who come from Cardiganshire to the ironworks for five or seven months in the winter season, live economically here and take home 15 or 20 to their families which pays the rent of their farm, and purchases for them clothing and a few luxuries. "

[Quoted from an article by G S Kenrick cited by A H John in The Industrial Development of South Wales, 1750-1850.UWP, 1950 Gareth 4 Feb 2001 G/D]       


Black beasts of banking

Apart from the Black Ox Bank in Carmarthenshire there was also a Black Sheep  Bank in Cardiganshire. It's official name was the Aberystwyth and Tregaron Bank. Established in 1810 by John Evans of Llanbadarn Fawr it collapsed in  1814. It was known as the Black Sheep Bank because its 1 note had one black sheep on it, its 2 note two black sheep and its 10 shillings note a black Iamb.

If you go to this URL   http://www.bangor.ac.uk/~afs047/tirwe/hanes/porpapur.htm  You can see a picture of one of its notes which is preserved in the archives  of Bangor University.

[Alwyn 10 Sept 2001 G]

Responding to a reply dated 10/09/2001 that Gareth mistakenly wrote:

<But perhaps you mean the Black Ox Bank of Llandovery ? [Or Banc yr Eidon Du ]. It was set up in the King's Head, Llandovery in 1799 by one David Jones. His idea was to avoid the risky carrying of gold by Welsh drovers to and fro to London by using his notes instead. The Black Ox featured on its bank notes and was considered to be a symbol of wealth and prosperity by Cardigan and Carmarthenshire farmers in the C17 & C18. In the banking crisis of 1825 its notes were preferred locally over those of the Bank of England.                                                                                                   

Llangwyryfon

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For more online information about Llangwyryfon   parish see Genuki


Drovers

As the demand for "long distance" drovers began to decrease, they were often required to assist with moving livestock from farms and collecting centres to local fairs and markets, but sometimes to and from places  many miles from their home parishes.

In the early C20, one such was Dafydd Isaac of Trefenter [ Llangwyryfon ] in Cardiganshire who often did the 90 mile journey from Machynlleth to Brecon fair with 300-400 sheep. As a youth he had been employed as a farm servant to supplement the income from his parents' small farm and was eventually , through his droving, able to become the successful occupier of a lowland farm.

 [Based on The Welsh Cattle Drovers by Richard Colyer . Gareth Hicks]   

Gwnnws

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For more online information about Gwnnws  parish see Genuki


Esgair Mwyn lead mine 

An " Estemat for smelten of Lead Haer in angelise"  c 1770 [written in a scrawled hand and endorsed "found" by the archivist] contains an "account" relating to ore from the Esgir Mwyn mine in Cardiganshire[which is in Gwnnws parish].[Plasnewydd MSS]. Transcribing the document had its difficulties !

Whilst the spelling of place names  is  quite confusing it is clear that a comparison of costs is being made between sending lead ore from Esgair Mwyn , via Aberystwyth to Bagillt on the Dee Estuary and smelting at Gadlys ; and sending ore for smelting at Moel-y-don on the Menai Strait. There is also mention of "freight to Dowpool "which was probably a creek on the river Dee near Chester.

The calculation favoured the Moel-y-don option as the cost of transportation was lower.Why the this was being evaluated is not known for certainty but it is of interest [ and not unconnected with the North Wales places mentioned] that concern was being expressed about the viability and cost of shipping in the estuary of the river Dee near the Bagillt and Gadlys sites [ protests had been registered by the London Lead Co since 1734], and perhaps an alternative site for smelting was being considered.

The mines of Esgair Mwyn belonged to Lord Powys and were discovered in 1751. Esgair Mwyn itself was a rich mine , the ore commanding a price as high as 12 a ton. In the early days of its existence the ores were taken to Aberystwyth for smelting. It seems to have seen its best days by the year 1815.

[Based on  "Accounting, Costing and Cost Estimation[Welsh Industry 1700-1830]" by Haydn Jones 1985, Gareth Hicks 13 July 2000 D ] 


Woollen/textile industry

Textile factories were established in north Cardiganshire to meet the needs of the lead miners, there was one such factory at Pontrhydfendigaid [ enumerated 1875,1895]

[Based on  an article by J. Geraint Jenkins. in Ceredigion; the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society , Vol VI/1, 1968  Gareth Hicks 31 July 2000 D]                                                                                                                                                             

Brongwyn

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For more online information about Brongwyn parish see Genuki


Vestry meetings 1750-1834

"the Princypal inhabitants....in a vestry" and " the  Inhabitants of the Parish...........occupiers of land............" constituted two vestries in the parish of Brongwyn in 1811 and 1828 respectively.

[NLW MS. Brongwyn Vestry Minutes, 20 March 1811 and 29 October 1828]

[ Based on an article  by Alun Eirug Davies in Ceredigion , the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society ; Vol V1/1 1968  .Gareth ]

Llannarth

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For more online information about Llannarth parish see Genuki 


Vestry meetings 1750-1834

Towards the end of the C18 some parish vestries would try to limit the number of persons attending each meeting.

At Llannarth in 1791 it was decided by the inhabitants present at the meeting " that all concerns and Matter belonging the Parish of Llannarth " were " to be managed and governed entirely by five Substantial persons herein named...". About 3 months later the order was reversed and it was decided that the affairs of the Parish were " to be managed by the whole Body of the Parishioners assembled at vestries regularly called according to ancient custom."

[NLW MS.Llannarth Vestry Minutes 20 Jan 1791 and 12 April 1791]

[ Based on an article  by Alun Eirug Davies in Ceredigion , the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society ; Vol V1/1 1968  .Gareth ]


Poorhouses

These poorhouses were not workhouses as such, although there is some evidence to suggest that vestries expected work from the occupiers. Llannarth vestry in 1790 agreed to build a poorhouse for the parish near Mydroilyn, where the poor were to be 'admitted and maintained, and properly employed.'

[ Based on an article  by Alun Eirug Davies in Ceredigion , the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society ; Vol V1/1 1968  .Gareth ]


Medical relief for paupers

Sometimes the doctor's salary depended on whether he was successful in curing the patient, as in this example ;

"....agreed upon by the Inhabitants then present to pay a sum not exceeding four Guineas to John Griffith Dr, for the cure of Elinor Thomas, and if she will not be cured he is not to be paid excepting two Guineas for his trouble"

[NLW, MS, Llanarth Vestry Minutes, Sept 1790]

Parish vestries were often enlightened in their attitude towards the sick and would often provide money for recuperation purposes;

"......to Daniel Williams to assist him to take his wife to the Wells in hope tp recover her health the sum of 1-1s.

[NLW, MS, Llanarth Vestry Minutes, 5 July 1779]

[ Based on an article  by Alun Eirug Davies in Ceredigion , the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society ; Vol V1/1 1968  .Gareth ]


Pauper apprentices

Older children were placed with farmers , tradesmen, craftsmen, or artisans as apprentices, for example;

"....agreed upon by and between the Inhabitants of Llanarth, and William David Shoemaker now living at Nantygollen in this Parish That the Parishioners do hereby settle David Thomas as an Apprentice to the sd William David to be instructed in the art and mystery of making and mending Shoes and wooden shoes for the space of two years beginning at or upon the 24th of June 1768. The Parishioners are to pay the Sum of Two Pounds and Six Shillings to the sd William David to be paid Quarterly the first of year. The sd William David to give and allow the sd David Thomas proper and sufficient meat, Drink, and washing during the sd Term."

[NLW, MS, Llanarth Vestry Minutes, 24 June 1768]

[ Based on an article  by Alun Eirug Davies in Ceredigion , the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society ; Vol V1/1 1968  .Gareth ]

Cardigan

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For more online information about Cardigan parish see Genuki


Cardigan tradesmen c 1830

An indication of the importance of industry in Cardiganshire life can be gained from a reading of Trade Directories e.g Pigot's Directory. The 1830 edition notes the existence of the following craftsmen in Cardigan itself;

3 Bakers ; 13 Boot Makers ; 2 Coopers ; 2 Hat makers ; 3 Rope makers ; 5 Dressmakers and Milliners ; 2 Straw Hat Makers ; 1 Anchor Smith ; 2 Weavers ; 4 Blacksmiths ; 2 Cabinet Makers ; 3 Curriers ; 3 Lime Burners ; 3 Saddlers ; 2 Shipbuilders ; 6 Tailors ; 1 Whitesmith ; 1 Corn Miller ; 2 Black Makers ; 7 Carpenters ; 4 Glaziers ; 5 Maltsters ; 2 Printers ; 3 Sail Makers ; 2 Tanners ; 1 Tin Smith ; 1 Stone Mason.

[Based on  an article by J. Geraint Jenkins. in Ceredigion; the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society , Vol VI/1, 1968  Gareth]


A national newspaper arrives in Cardigan

In June 1883, the great London newspaper called "Daily Chronicle" [64 columns for one penny] made its first appearance in the town. It was considered a wonderful penny-worth.

[From 'A History of Cardigan , the Locality and its People '[Those were the Days]. Edited and published by The Cardigan & Tivy-Side Advertiser from source material supplied by Donald Davies. Vol 1, Ist edition 1991.Gareth 12 Nov 2000]


Population of Cardigan town

The population of the town in 1861 was 2706 inhabitants and by the turn of the century had exceeded the 3000 mark.

The influx came from the surrounding countryside- mainly apprentices coming into Cardigan to learn a trade and many of them settling down in the borough afterwards.

[From 'A History of Cardigan , the Locality and its People '[Those were the Days]. Edited and published by The Cardigan & Tivy-Side Advertiser from source material supplied by Donald Davies. Vol 1, Ist edition 1991.Gareth ]


Pigs and dairy  exports

According to Slater's Directory of 1852, William Thomas, the Carrier, left the Kings arms in High Street every Saturday, fully loaded with pigs and dairy produce for Merthyr Tydfil, to help feed the great iron town.

There were also pig sales at Nant-y-moch weekly, and the animals were shipped to industrial ports such as Swansea, Cardiff, Newport and Llanelli.All the best dairy produce was mostly exported by dealers, to markets where they obtained good prices for the commodities.

The butter and cheese purchased by the locals was of a very poor standard..............this cheese was named by the locals as 'Caws India Rubber' [India Rubber Cheese].

[From 'A History of Cardigan , the Locality and its People '[Those were the Days]. Edited and published by The Cardigan & Tivy-Side Advertiser from source material supplied by Donald Davies. Vol 1, Ist edition 1991.Gareth ]


Culm

A tremendous amount of culm was produced in Cardigan from the middle of the C18 until the middle part of the C20.

Culm, or cwlwm as it is known locally, is hardly ever heard of today, but in that period its was the main fuel of 90% of the properties of the town.

What is culm ? you may ask ! Culm is coal dust [ preferably anthracite dust] mixed with clay and water. The result was a black sticky fuel which burnt with a blue flame and generated considerable heat.

For years sailing ships from Cardigan, Aberporth, St Dogmaels and Llangrannog sailed regularly to Hook, Saundersfoot, Nolton Llanelli and Swansea to collect the anthracite dust. The customers could either buy the dust from the coal and culm merchants, and make their own culm, or purchase it ready mixed from the merchant. The trade was so good that Cardigan alone could boast 28 Coal and Culm merchants, who lived in the Quay St area of the town.

These culm mixers were known in Cardigan by using their christian names and adding the word "cwlwm" [culm] after it, e.g Wil Cwlwm, Marged Ann Cwlwm, Elen Cwlwm etc.

Swansea culm was regarded as the best , and it was also the dearest to purchase. The cheapest was Hook culm, which had a tendency to burn more quickly.

For a description of how the culm was actually made, see the book.

[From 'A History of Cardigan , the Locality and its People '[Those were the Days]. Edited and published by The Cardigan & Tivy-Side Advertiser from source material supplied by Donald Davies. Vol 1, Ist edition 1991.Gareth 12 Nov D/G]


Emigration-- a brief summary of the West Wales background reasons 

The late C18 and early C19 saw an exodus of Welsh landworkers to the Americas.

What drove these settlers to leave their homeland?

The two main reasons were persecution and poverty. Persecution for religious beliefs or by tyrannical landlords. Poverty was to a degree always with them as harvests were unpredictable and prices unstable.

By 1815 trouble had arisen in the farming communities of West Wales as a result of the Napoleonic Wars, inflation was rife and farmers who had borrowed were in dire straits.Added to this misery,  the land was overfarmed and the soil exhausted by poor crop management. Many tenant farmers were forced to quit their holdings, it was said that in 1816 there were 60 farms unoccupied in the parish of St Mary's, Cardigan. Added to poor harvests there was  unemployment caused by returning soldiers and laid off farm workers.

The poor were surviving on barley meal and water, and nettles, and begging was rampant.The County Gaol at Cardigan was full of debtors, the magistrates were expecting trouble. There was sporadic rioting when the militia was called , and the local gentry feared revolution was in the air.

The population of the country had increased dramatically between 1800 and 1821 and at the same time more land had been enclosed. In Cardiganshire alone 10,000 acres of common land was taken and it caused great bitterness as well as hardship as many lost traditional grazing rights.

That then was the picture in West Wales in the early part of the C19.

[Based on 'A History of Cardigan , the Locality and its People '[Those were the Days]. Edited and published by The Cardigan & Tivy-Side Advertiser from source material supplied by Donald Davies. Vol 1, Ist edition 1991.Gareth 14 Nov 2000 D]

 

Aberystwyth

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For more online information about Aberystwyth see Genuki


House of correction.

About the middle of the C18 there was an attempt to establish a house of correction at Aberystwyth in order to serve the upper part of the county. ' Lord Viscount Lisburne, Thomas Powell, Richard Lloyds, Thomas Lloyd and Erasmus Saunders Esquires or any Two of them' were ordered by the Quarter Sessions in 1751 ' to Look out for a Convenient Place near the Town of Aberystwyth'.

In 1759, two justices, the Reverend Mr Powell and Thomas Lloyd were set the task of finding a suitable house inside the town. A temporary building situated in Darkgate Street was obtained and Richard Morgan John was appointed Master at a salary of 30s. a year.

In 1784 the 'Keeper of the Shire Goal at the Town of Aberystwyth' was a woman, but she was soon replaced by Edward Nightingale, 'yeoman ' of Aberystwyth. The justices in Quarter Session were not satisfied with the existing house and they constantly urged the Town Court Leet to find a more suitable site. In 1789 a piece of ground on the common ' extending in breadth from south to west along part of the Town wall, 51 yards and from thence, extending in length to the north east 60 yards...was appropriated.' The objects of the new house were clearly defined by the justices in Quarter Sessions the following year;

"Whereas it is represented to this Court That it is highly necessary to build a House of Correction in the Town of Aberystwyth in this County for the purpose of punishing keeping, Correcting , and setting to work, Rogues, Vagabonds, or stirdy beggars, and other Idle and disorderly persons travelling along, residing in, or resorting to this County..."

But by the year 1824, the justices expressed the opinion that there would be no further use for the house in the town owing to the proposed extension of the county gaol and house of correction at Cardigan. They suggested the house at Aberystwyth should be converted into a 'lock-up house only'.

[ Based on an article  by Alun Eirug Davies in Ceredigion , the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society ; Vol V1/1 1968  . Gareth ]


Treatment of inmates/prisoners

Little evidence survives to indicate how poor prisoners were treated in these houses of correction. That they were forced to work is evident from the following extract;

".....the Treasurer of this County pay..........unto Pierce Evans Esquire one of His Majesty's Justices of the peace...the sum of five pounds to buy hemp to be manufactured by the prisoners confined in the House of Correction at Aberystwith ....and that the same be returned by the Keeper of the said House of Correction in a Manufactured State to be disposed of for the benefit and in aid of the fund for the Support and Maintenance of the Prisoners Confined in the said House of Correction."

[ Based on an article  by Alun Eirug Davies in Ceredigion , the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society ; Vol V1/1 1968  .Gareth ] 


Medical relief for paupers

The sick paupers of Aberystwyth and neighbourhood were slightly more fortunate for they had the benefit  of the services provided by a local dispensary . It was founded in 1821 by rich benefactors including Dame Winifred Bonsall. Subscriptions were sought from local gentry and Colonel Powell MP of Nanteos, and Pryse Pryse Esquire MP., of Gogerddan  were prominent subscribers. Overseers of the poor of Aberystwyth and neighbouring parishes were invited to become subscribers on payment of two guineas.

The aim of the Institution was to relieve the sick poor. In 1838 it became the Aberystwyth Infirmary and Cardiganshire General Hospital.

[George Eyre Evans "Aberystwyth and its Court Leet" 1902, and D I Evans "Hospital Services in Aberystwyth before 1948"

[ Based on an article  by Alun Eirug Davies in Ceredigion , the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society ; Vol V1/1 1968  .Gareth ] 


Aberystwyth Workhouse c 1884

Also see the suberb Llangynfelyn site for details under the following headings relating to the Aberystwyth Workhouse in 1884 ;

  • Dietary allowance, Aberystwyth Workhouse, 1884
  • Recipes, Aberystwyth Workhouse, 1884

Apprenticeship

The book contains a copy of an Apprenticeship Indenture dated 30 Sept 1793 and parts of this are shown below ;

 " An Indenture Apprenticing Richard Rees, A Poor Boy Chargeable To The Town Of Aberystwyth, To John Roberts Of Clarach."

"This Indenture made  the Thirtieth Day of  September the year of our Lord One Thousand Seven Hundred and Ninety three Between Pierce Evans Gentleman, John Edward Jones Gentleman, Chapel Wardens ; and Thomas Collins and John Watkins Overseers of the Poor of the Town and Libertiy of Aberystwith on the one part : and John Robert of the Township of Clarach in the Parish of Llanbadarnfawr ...for the other part .......................................................witnesseth that..................Do put place and Bind Richard Rees a poor Boy chargeable to the said Town and Liberties of Aberystwith to be an Apprentice with him the said John Robert for the space of seven  years .................By and during all which Time and Term he the said Richard Rees .....shall his said master well and faithfully serve in all such lawful business.........according to his power wit and ability and Honestly and obediently in all things behave himself toward his Master........and....  towards the rest of the Family of ...John Roberts.

............that  the said John Roberts shall the said Richard Rees teach and instruct in the best manner he can or may teach instruct and inform or Cause to be instructed or informed in the occupation of a Farmer.

........and that the said John Roberts shall Also allow and find unto the said Apprentice sufficient meet and Drink apparel washing and Lodging and all other things needfull  or meet for an Apprentice during the Term aforesaid.

The said Chapel Wardens and Overseers of the Poor paying the said John Robert the sum of One pound and Ten shillings  for and towards the first years Cloathing ..........................."

[The Indenture is signed and witnessed by and for the parties mentioned apart from Richard Rees. And two Justices of the Peace "assent to the Binding of the above namd Richard Rees to the above mentioned John Roberts".]

[NLW MS Manuscripts and Documents relating to the Parish Church of St Michael and All Angels, Aberystwyth.]

[ Based on an article  by Alun Eirug Davies in Ceredigion , the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society ; Vol V1/1 1968  .Gareth ] 


Aberystwyth tradesmen c 1830

An indication of the importance of industry in Cardiganshire life can be gained from a reading of Trade Directories e.g Pigot's Directory. The 1830 edition notes the existence of the following craftsmen in Aberystwyth itself;

8 Bakers ; 2 Tin Smiths ; 11 Carpenters and Joiners ; 2 Hat Makers ; 4 Lime Burners ; 8 Dress Makers and Milliners ; 1 Rope Maker ; 3 Shipwrights ; 4 Tanners ; 7 Tailors ; 1 Sail Maker ; 1 Cooper ; 20 Boot makers ; 5 Cabinet Makers ; 3 Curriers ; 8 Stone Masons ; 6 Maltsters ; 2 Corn Millers ; 4 Saddlers ; 2 Skinners ; 2 Straw Hat Makers ; 3 Wheelwrights ; 1 Brewer ; 1 Nail Maker.

[Based on  an article by J. Geraint Jenkins. in Ceredigion; the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society , Vol VI/1, 1968  Gareth]


Fishing industry

Salted herrings were an important item of  export in the Middle Ages and Aberystwyth in particular was an important fishing port. In 1206 it was said in Brut y Tywysogion that there were great quantities of fish at Aberystwyth ; " y roddes Duw amylder o bryscawt yn Aber Ystwyth yn gymeint ac nabu y Kyfryw Kynno hynny."  

The fishermen of Aberystwyth were expected to hand over a proportion of their catch of herrings to the lord of the manor and ' an extant Court Roll of the Borough of Aberystwyth in 1302 gives an interesting glimpse of local fishery conditions." It seems that in that year ' there were between twenty and thirty cases connected with the fishery. Some of the delinquents persisted in selling their herring on the sands below high water mark in order to escape paying market tolls; others would seem to have taken part in the herring industry without obtaining properly accredited licences for their fishing boats. Heavy fines were sometimes imposed, and led to heated altercations between the mayor and the fishermen.' [C Matheson, "Wales and the Sea Fisheries", 1929].

Until the end of the C18 Aberystwyth reigned supreme as a centre of the fishing industry.  

" What it is chiefly resorted for, and contributes to its Wealth " said one C18 writer, " is its Fishing Trade for Cod, Whitings, but principally Herrings....The Herring Fishery here is in most so exceedingly abundant that a thousand barrels have been taken in one night.....In addition to herrings, they have such an abundance of Cod, Pollack Whiting, Common Whiting, Ray and other fish that they set but little value upon them.  Bottlenoses and porpoises sometimes run on shore in shoals and blue sharks are frequently caught upon the coast, from all which they make considerable quantities of Oil." [Herman Moll, "A New Description of England and Wales", 1724].

The Aberystwyth herring industry declined in the late C18 , "for the herring industry flourished here about thirty years since", said Wyndham,"but that fish is now a stranger to the coast ". [H P Wyndham " Tour through Monmouthshire and Wales in 1774 and 1777", 1781].

In 1884, a contemporary writer gives some detail of the fishing industry in Cardiganshire.[D C Davies, "The Fisheries of Wales" , Liverpool National Eisteddfod Transactions, 1884] ;
The Aberystwyth Fishery too had revived in the mid C19, and the town was "the most considerable fishing station in Cardigan Bay. Many trawlers came here from a distance, chiefly from Fleetwood, Liverpool and Hoylake; and from fifteen to twenty of their boats may often be seen at one time anchored opposite the Marine Terrace."
The boats were from 30 to 40 tons each, with " the beams of the tracks from 25 feet to 45 feet long, and the usual mesh from 2 to 3 1/2 inches." In 1884 about 300 persons were engaged in fishing in Aberystwyth. They were mainly concerned with catching turbot, brill, mackerel, soles, herring, cod, ray, mullet, with salmon off the mouths of the rivers.

[Based on  an article by J. Geraint Jenkins. in Ceredigion; the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society , Vol VI/1, 1968  Gareth]


Aberystwyth Military

Someone  asked for information and guidance on tracing the history of Army Regiments based in Aberystwyth from 1890 to 1900. He was interested in confirming that the Royal Artillery were stationed in Aberystwyth in this period, where would they have been barracked and whether this still exists today.

I note from W J Lewis, 'Born on a Perilous Rock: Aberystwyth Past and Present', Cambrian News (Aberystwyth) Ltd, third edition, 1980, p. 213-7, that there were two military bodies in Aberystwyth history.

First, the Cardiganshire Militia (which seems to go back to the Middle Ages) and second, the Volunteers. The latter were first formed in 1860 as 'Cardiganshire Volunteer Rifle Corps'. In 1901 they were reformed as the Cardiganshire Artillery Volunteers and redesignated the Cardiganshire Royal Garrison Artillery Volunteers the following year. In 1908 they were transferred into the new Territorial Force and known as the Cardiganshire Battery, 2nd Welsh Brigade, Royal Field Artillery.

As the Volunteers there were two companies, one in Tal-y-bont and the other in Aberystwyth. The Aberystwyth company drilled on the Sand Marsh and moved north as that was built over. The Town Hall served as their armoury. Their shooting range was at Craiglais (bottom of Constitution Hill) and maneouvres were held on the beach.

In 1904 the new Drill Hall in Glyndwr Road, off Park Avenue was opened. That remained their HQ at the outbreak of the Great War.

Some possibly relevant photos?

There is a photo in Aberystwyth and North Ceredigion in Old Photographs' (Dyfed Cultural Services Dept. 1992, p. 119) of Bow Street Camp, 1910, and the caption notes that hundreds of soldiers from Cheshire and Yorkshire came to the area in 1910-13 for training purposes. There is a similar photo on page 8 of '251 Views of Aberystwyth', (Jenkins of 23 Great Darkgate Street, circa 1912) simply captioned 'Territorial Camp, Bow Street, near Aberystwyth'. One presumes that the Volunteers may or may not have been part of the camp! The only other possibly relevant photo of the Territorials I know of is in Hefin Llwyd's 'Un Ennyd Fer: Bywyd a Gwaith E O Jones 1873-1915, ffotograffydd cynnar' (Cymdeithas Papur Pawb, Tal-y-Bont, 1980). Jones, an early photographer, took a nice photo with many soldiers in sufficient proximity to be recognisable, which is on page 40 of that volume, captioned 'Y Fyddin Diriogaethol yng Nghae'r ddol, Tre'r ddol yn Awst 1910.' No names provided. The shot appears to be just north of the village.

[David Rowlands 2 Jan 2002 CGN]

Dihewyd

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For more online information about Dihewyd see Genuki


Poorhouses

Relief by means of the poorhouse was practiced in several Cardiganshire parishes.

Dihewyd vestry in 1784 decided ' to build a house in the church yard wall, for the poor; of 8 yds in length, and twelve feet wide' with the proviso that 'whoseoever that will not carry stones  must, in lieu of it, pay 8d each.'

Presumably the same house was later to be lengthened..........'same should be contracted by John Evans of Bruinbach'.

[Quoted by George Eyre Evans in Cardiganshire;Aberystwyth, 1903]

[ Based on an article  by Alun Eirug Davies in Ceredigion , the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society ; Vol V1/1 1968  .Gareth ]    

Llanfihangel-y-Creuddyn

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Unemployed paupers "on the parish"

Paupers were often sent round the parish to work for their board and lodging in return for clothing provided by the vestry, but they did not earn money. These two examples from the Llanfihangel-y-Creuddyn vestry minutes are quoted by George Eyre Evans in Cardiganshire,1903.

".. Ann Clayton is bound to go from house to house , according to their regular rent rolls, first she is bound to begin with Edwd. Evans , at Gollnewydd, and the Parish and Overseer is to find her now, one pair of wooden shoes, and 2 flanen shirts for her now at her beginnings for the future, and she is bound make the shirts  for herself without costs."

"Agreed on behalf of John and Thomas Gwilym, paupers : in the first place the Overseer of the poor is to provide them with a new flannen shirt apiece. Also it was settled that every inhabitant assessed from two to three pounds is to keep and maintain John or Thomas Gwilym separately in meat, drink and lodging for the space of one whole day and night; and that all assessed six pounds are to maintain one of them two days and two nights; such as are assessed nine pounds, three days and three nights,  and so on in proportion. Wherever the sd paupers happen to be on Tuesday in any week , they are to have their shirts washed, Heads Combed, etc."

[Llanfihangel-y-Creuddyn Vestry Minutes]

[ Based on an article  by Alun Eirug Davies in Ceredigion , the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society ; Vol V1/1 1968  .Gareth ]


Woollen/textile industry

Textile factories were established in north Cardiganshire to meet the needs of the lead miners, there was one such factory at Devil's Bridge [ c 1840-1934].

[Based on  an article by J. Geraint Jenkins. in Ceredigion; the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society , Vol VI/1, 1968  Gareth] 

Llanwenog

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Pauper apprentices

While the master received a premium at regular intervals and gave the apprentice sufficient meat, drink and washing, the parish normally provided money for clothing. In the book is an extract from the Llanwenog Vestry and Overseers Accounts which relates to an apprentice called David Thomas Edward . Apart from regular cash payments to him of amounts such as 1s.6d to 3s.0d there are entries which relate to items such as ;

'warden's journey to Llandyssyl to enquire the Taylor for to take the apprentice of the Parish; and , Warden's journey to Tygwyn in Llanllwni Parish seeking for Taylor to make Cloathes for the Parish apprentice ; and, also Journey for warden to send the said apprentice down to Llandyssyl to his present master to Teach the Trade.'

[NLW. MS. Llanwenog Vestry Minutes and Overseers accounts 1807-1808]

[ Based on an article  by Alun Eirug Davies in Ceredigion , the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society ; Vol V1/1 1968  .Gareth ]    

Llanfihangel Genau'r-Glyn

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Local craftsmen

Every rural community had its compliment of craftsmen, Bow Street in 1851 for example had;

4 Tailors ; 1 Cord Winder ; 5 Blacksmiths ; 5 Masons ; 5 Shoemakers ; 2 Weavers ; 1 Cooper ; 2 Carpenters; and 1 Joiner. In addition there were 7 craft apprentices and 39 concerned with lead-mining. There were also 3 female dress-makers and one quilt maker

[G J Lewis " The Demographic Structure of a Welsh Rural Village"; Ceredigion V.]

Another example, among the members of the Ivorites Lodge of Castell Gwallter, Llanfihangel Genau'r Glyn, between 1841 and 1872 the following occupations were represented;

Boot Makers ; Lead Miners ; Weavers ; Saddlers ; Carpenters ; Masons ; Blacksmiths ; Sawyers ; Tanners ; Tailors ; Millers ; Quarrymen ; Coopers ; Hatters ; Curriers ; and Spinners .

[Owens,B G. " Gwir Iforiaid Castell Gwallter" . Ceredigion, III]

[Based on  an article by J. Geraint Jenkins. in Ceredigion; the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society , Vol VI/1, 1968  Gareth 23 Aug 2000 D]

Troed-yr-Aur

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Local craftsmen

In the south of the county in 1890, the village of Rhydlewis had the following craftsmen;

9 Carpenters ; 1 Tanner ; 6 Boot Makers ; 1 Stone Mason ; 2 Millers ; 1 Blacksmith ; 1 Currier ; 3 Clog makers ; 8 Weavers ; 1 Baker ; 1 Basket Maker ; 2 Saddlers ; 5 Tailors ; 1 Pin Maker.

[Based on oral evidence]

[Based on  an article by J. Geraint Jenkins. in Ceredigion; the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society , Vol VI/1, 1968  Gareth]

Llanllwchaearn

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Corn milling

Corn milling, concerned with processing grain for making bread etc. This was one of the most widespread of all the rural industries of Cardiganshire and a water driven mill was to be found on the banks of most streams.

Felin Bontbren on the banks of the River Soden in the parish of Llanllwchaearn is typical of the small corn mills that once dotted the Cardiganshire landscape. Like most other Cardiganshire mills, it is a stone built, hip-roofed building on three floors  with a lower building containing a kiln for corn drying attached. The all-iron over shot water wheel was made by S F Kelly of Cardigan. It has  now been moved and re-erected at the Museum of Welsh Life at St Fagans, Cardiff.

[Based on  an article by J. Geraint Jenkins. in Ceredigion; the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society , Vol VI/1, 1968  Gareth 2 Aug 2000 D]

Cellan

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For more online information about Cellan see Genuki


Blacksmiths

For as long as the horse remained the main motive power on farms and the equipment of the farmer remained simple the blacksmith was essential to every locality. Not only was he concerned with shoeing horses but he was also responsible for making and repairing a wide range of agricultural and domestic equipment.

For example the account book of John Williams, Cellan, between 1856 and 1869 has the following items;

  • 'Make a shoe--0s.8d.
  • Mend handle Byddegorddi--0s.3.d
  • Make new pitchfork--1s.4d
  • Dressing plough--4s.0d
  • Binding 4 wheels--4s.6d
  • Make new atchet--3s.6d

An indication of his working week may be obtained from the following extracts for a period in April/May 1883 from John Williams's day books [Museum of Welsh Life-accessions]. only a few of the costs have been included for illustration, the other entries do have them in the article;

  • David Davies, Blaencwm--making shaft irons and tailboard irons,  [ cost 3s.8d] , 5 1/2 of iron
  • William Davies, Llwyngwyn--4 new horse shoe, 8 of hog rings
  • David Davies--dressing whipple tree
  • David James--iron 2 shoe
  • John Evans, Glanbran--child 1 shoe and nails [ cost 2d]
  • David Davies, Pistillinon--binding wheelbarrow wheel and make 2 rods
  • W Davies, Ty'nycae--4 new horse shoes
  • David Morgan, Tymawr--Wife new shoes [cost 8d]
  • W Davies , Pontfaen--nailing 4 shoes
  • Mrs Davies, Beiliau--mend tea kettle hook [ cost 1s]
  • John Evans, Contractor--21 lb stapples at 2d per lb
  • Daniel Williams Mill--iron 2 shoes
  • Thomas Davies, Lodge--self and 2 children's shoes
  • David Davies, Rhiweisaf--self new shoes
  • John Davies, Llwynowen--1 pair horn shoes [cost 2s.3d]
  • Morgan Jones, Lanlas--nailing one shoe
  • William Davies, Llwyn Evan--nailing one shoe
  • Jacob Jones--self new shoes [ cost 1s.4d]
  • Mary Hughes, Glanteify--1 shoe and nails
  • Mrs Davies, Beiliau--shoe
  • Mary Jones, Pantypistyll--new grate fender [cost 1s.]
  • Evan Davies, Blaenwaun--2 new horse shoe and nailing
  • Mrs Jones Tanygroes--nailing 2 shoes
  • John Owen, Sychant--hind craddle chain
  • Thomas Jones, Llanfair Mill--3 gate hinges[ cost 1s.4d.]
  • John Davies, Penlan--mend pickas
  • Wm Davies, Llwyn Evan--mend horn back strap links[ cost 3d.]
  • Mrs Davies, Beiliau--mend share and coulter
  • Joseph Jones, Llwynfedw--making new slate hammer
  • Isaac Jones,Penllain--make new grindstone handle [cost 1d.]
  • David Davies, Penpompren--1 shoe
  • Mr Davies, Pistillinon--stalion nailing 2 shoe.

[Based on  an article by J. Geraint Jenkins. in Ceredigion; the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society , Vol VI/1, 1968  Gareth Hicks 31 July 2000 D]

Llanddewi Aber-Arth

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For more online information about Llanddewi Aber-Arth see Genuki


See also an index of personal and ships' names appearing in the the article; Aberaeron : The Community and Seafaring 1800-1900 By David Lewis Jones .Published in the Ceredigion, Journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society Vol VI/2 1969


Blacksmiths in Aberaeron

Blacksmiths like other craftsmen were concerned with supplying a distinctly local market and the tools and implements that they manufactured were well suited to the local needs of soil, vegetation, and topography.

The well known Aberaeron billhook was originally designed and manufactured at the Aberaeron forge. It was well suited to the heavy thorn growth of Cardiganshire hedges.Still being made in the Midlands edge tool manufacturer in the mid C20.

The Aberaeron shovel too, with its long, curved handle and triangular blade  was well suited to the needs of a hilly country. It is still made [ C20] in Cardiganshire at Cwrtnewydd.

[Based on  an article by J. Geraint Jenkins. in Ceredigion; the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society , Vol VI/1, 1968  Gareth Hicks  5 August 2000 D]  


Fishing

The Aberystwyth herring industry declined in the late C18 but off-shore herring fishing flourished in the other coastal settlements of Cardiganshire throughout the C19.

Aberaeron, for example, had a " lucrative herring fishery in which about thirty boats, with seven men to each, are engaged."

[Based on  an article by J. Geraint Jenkins. in Ceredigion; the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society , Vol VI/1, 1968  Gareth Hicks ]


New church roof ?

The vestry book of Llanddewi Aberarth records that in 1776 the vestrymen imported 2000 slates through the port of Aberaeron.

[Based on Aberaeron : the Community and Seafaring, 1800-1900. By David Lewis Jones. Ceredigion, Journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society Vol VI/2 1969. Gareth]


Mariners born in Aberaeron

Mariners born in Aberayron and serving on the ship " Ulster" between July 1877 and September 1879.

  • WILLIAMS Evan Age 42, Mate
  • DAVIES David Age 21, 2nd Mate
  • JONES Daniel Age 40, Steward ( died at sea April 7th 1877 )
  • LEWIS Owen Age 19, A.B.
  • DAVIES Jenkin Age 19, A.B.
  • JONES John Age 19, A.B.
  • JONES Thomas Age 19, A.B.
  • RICHARDS David Age 23, A.B.
  • JONES John Peter Age 17, O.S.
  • WILLIAMS John Age 18, O.S.
  • EVANS William Age 38, Master ( Birthplace given as Aberayron/ Newquay )

[Brian Forder  CGN 22 Oct 2001]

Ysbyty Ystwyth

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Woollen/textile industry

Textile factories were established in north Cardiganshire to meet the needs of the lead miners, as at Pontrhydygroes, Gwarfelin [c 1860-1923]

[Based on  an article by J. Geraint Jenkins. in Ceredigion; the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society , Vol VI/1, 1968  Gareth Hicks ]

Aber-porth

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For more online information about Aber-porth see Genuki


Fishing

The Aberystwyth herring industry declined in the late C18 but off-shore herring fishing flourished in the other coastal settlements of Cardiganshire throughout the C19.

At Aberporth " the herring fishery on the bay gives occupation to a great number of hands and imparts during the season an appearance of activity and bustle to Aberporth and its vicinity, but the fishing for turbot , cod and mackerel is scarcely worth pursuing." Aberporth in the C19 was famous for its 'sgadan'.

[Based on  an article by J. Geraint Jenkins. in Ceredigion; the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society , Vol VI/1, 1968  Gareth ]

A Tivyside ploughing match in 1906

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The following appeared in the Tivyside Advertiser in February 1906, referring to one of my families in the area: THOMAS, Pantyrodyn. I have only just read the text which appeared beneath an obituary for my great grandfather David MORRIS, Cadwgan - which I had originally ordered from Cardigan Record Office! It beautifully captures something of the local atmosphere of the time. I hope some listers will find family members or farms mentioned!

Here's the text:

Ploughing Match - A ploughing match, one of the most successful held in this part of South Cardiganshire during recent years, took place on Tuesday February 20th, on a field belonging to and kindly lent by Mrs. Thomas, Pantyrodyn, Beulah. Counting the double furrows, no less than 29 ploughs entered the field, and in some of the classes (the champion class especially) the competition was very keen. In this class the judges had some difficulty in coming to a decision as to who were the winners. The judges spoke in high praise of the ploughing in the champion class that day, and it was an honour to Wales that the competitors had performed their work so well. The weather turned out to be everything that could be wished for. The field was an excellent one for the purpose. By noon hundreds of spectators visited the match, and more interest than usual was taken in the champion class, as may former prize-winners had entered.

The following were awarded the prizes:-

  • Double furrow plough - 1 & 2, divided between Jones, Llain, Newcastle Emlyn, and Sam Davies, Bronwion.
  • Junior class, under 18 - 1. E. Jones, Fynnonfair, Troedyraur; 2, Fred Leech, Penbwliaid; 3, T. Bowen, Aberarthen-fach; 4, D. Williams, Trefaesfawr; 5, D. Adams, Blaenant.
  • Second general class - 1, J. Jones, Penfedw; 2 & 3, divided between J. Davies, Aberdulais, and J. Jones, Werngadno.
  • First general class - 1, Ben O. Davies, Alltycorde; 2, J. James Pengelliisaf; 3, J. Williams Blaenpistyll; 4, T. Davies, Blaensylltyn; 5, D. Crompton, Cilfallen.
  • Champion class 1 & 2, divided between David Owen, Penlan, Tyllwyd, and J. Evans Pwllfine, Talgarreg; 3, S. O. James Tyhen, Beulah; 4, J. Rees, Penbeilibach; 5 & 6, divided between Ben Evans Lletty'rgaib, Cilrhedyn, and Sam Jones Tyrhos, Rhydlewis.
  • Special prizes - Lamp given by Messrs. Thomas & Evans Newcastle Emlyn for the best back in the field - J. Evans, Pwllfine; silver medal given by Mr. A. P. Davies, watchmaker, Newcastle Emlyn, for the best back in the first general class - B. O. Davies Alltycorde; razor given by Mr. J. E. James Newcastle Emlyn, for the best ridge in the junior class - E. Jones, Fynnon fair; best opener in the junior class, prize a pair of riding girths, given by Mr. J. Jones sadler, Newcastle Emlyn - E. Jones Fynnonfair..... (the text I have ends here, though the article continued)

[David Pike   D 13 Dec 2001]

Mariners from Cardiganshire found on the 1871 Cardiff census

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This list is not complete in any sense . It is a list of mariners or those in maritime trades showing Cardiganshire roots  that has been extracted from an index being compiled by Phil Roderick for the Cardiff 1871 census which is being transcribed by Jennie Newman and Lynn John. At this date [Oct 2001] only some 5000 of the c 50,000 entries for Cardiff have been  so transcribed.

  • EVANS THOMAS SO 13 APPRENTICE SHIP CARPENTER NEWQUAY CARDIGANSHIRE
  • LEWIS DAVID HD M 52 DOCK GATE MAN ST. DOGMAELS CARDIGANSHIRE
  • WILLIAMS OWEN HD M 60 DOCK GATE MAN CARDIGANSHIRE
  • HOWELLS WILLIAM HD M 34 DOCK GATE MAN CARDIGANSHIRE
  • EVANS THOMAS HD M 46 DOCK MAN CARDIGANSHIRE
  • REES THOMAS HD M 39 DOCK MAN CARDIGANSHIRE
  • WILLIAMS THOMAS HD M 55 HOBBLING PILOT CARDIGANSHIRE
  • WILLIAMS DAVID HD M 28 LICENSED PILOT CARDIGANSHIRE
  • HIGGINS JOHN LG M 47 MARINER CARDIGANSHIRE
  • EVANS WILLIAM HD M 46 MARINER CARDIGANSHIRE
  • JAMES DAVID SO U 23 MARINER CARDIGANSHIRE
  • JONES JOHN HD M 38 MARINER ABERAYRON CARDIGANSHIRE
  • EVANS DAVID HD M 54 MARINER CARDIGANSHIRE
  • DAVIS MORGAN HD M 32 MARINER CARDIGANSHIRE
  • LLOYD JOHN HD M 55 MARINER CARDIGANSHIRE
  • HOWELLS BREY(?) VR M 25 MARINER CARDIGANSHIRE
  • EVANS THOMAS HD M 43 MARINER CARDIGANSHIRE
  • ROBERTS DAVID LG U 22 MARINER CARDIGANSHIRE
  • EVANS EVAN BO U 17 MARINER CARDIGANSHIRE
  • EVANS THOMAS BO M 42 MARINER CARDIGANSHIRE
  • HARPER JOHN HD M 42 MARINER CARDIGANSHIRE
  • JAMES (?) JOHN LG M 45 MAS. MARINER OUT OF WORK CARDIGANSHIRE
  • THOMAS THOMAS O. LG U 22 MATE LLANGRANOG CARDIGANSHIRE
  • WILLIAMS WILLIAM LG M 35 MATE CARDIGANSHIRE
  • JULIAN DAVID HD M 51 PILOT CARDIGANSHIRE
  • BOWEN JOHN HD M 57 PILOT CARDIGANSHIRE
  • NICHOLAS EVAN HD M 60 RETIRED SHIP'S MASTER NEWQUAY CARDIGANSHIRE
  • EVANS WILLIAM M 31 RIGGER CARDIGANSHIRE
  • EVANS THOMAS HD M 60 RUNNER (CAPTAIN SHIP) CARDIGANSHIRE
  • THOMAS WILLIAM LG U 21 SAIL MAKER NEWQUAY CARDIGANSHIRE
  • THOMAS THOMAS SO U 21 SAIL MAKER CARDIGANSHIRE
  • EVANS JOHN LG U 22 SAIL MAKER ABERAYRON CARDIGANSHIRE
  • JAMES JAMES HD M 30 SAIL MAKER NEWQUAY CARDIGANSHIRE
  • EDWARDS THOMAS BO U 24 SAIL MAKER CARDIGANSHIRE
  • THOMAS JOHN LG U 22 SAILMAKER ABERAYRON CARDIGANSHIRE
  • EDWARDS JAMES HD M 30 SAILMAKER NEWQUAY CARDIGANSHIRE
  • EVANS DAVID HD M 30 SAILOR CARDIGANSHIRE
  • DAVIS JOHN LG U 19 SEAMAN CARDIGANSHIRE
  • BOWEN DAVID BO U 30 SEAMAN CDGN. CARDIGANSHIRE
  • JONES JAMES F. LG U 26 SEAMAN LLANGRANOG CARDIGANSHIRE
  • HUGHES JAMES BO U 38 SEAMAN CARDIGANSHIRE
  • JAMES SAMUEL HD M 55 SHIP BROKER CARDIGANSHIRE
  • THOMAS JOHN HD M 54 SHIP BROKER CARDIGANSHIRE
  • THOMAS THOMAS FA M 49 SHIP CARPENTER NEWQUAY CARDIGANSHIRE
  • THOMAS GRIFFITH LG U 46 SHIP CARPENTER NEWQUAY CARDIGANSHIRE
  • EVANS WATKIN LG M 35 SHIP CARPENTER NEWQUAY CARDIGANSHIRE
  • EVANS DAVID BO M 50 SHIP CARPENTER NEWQUAY CARDIGANSHIRE
  • JONES JOHN D. HD M 34 SHIP CHANDLERS SHOP CARDIGANSHIRE
  • JONES JOHN LG M 29 SHIP MASTER PORTHMADOC CARDIGANSHIRE
  • DAVIES THOMAS LG M 29 SHIP MASTER CARDIGANSHIRE
  • EVANS THOMAS LG M 32 SHIP MASTER CARDIGANSHIRE
  • LEWIS LEWIS HD M 43 SHIPWRIGHT CARDIGANSHIRE
  • JAMES DAVID HD M 38 STEAM BOAT MASTER CARDIGANSHIRE

[Phil Roderick   24 Oct 2001]

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