UNITED STATES CENSUS RECORDS
CENSUS YEAR INFORMATION PROVIDED
1790 Residence; name of head of family; # of free white males 16 yrs up; free white males under 16; # free white females; # slaves; # other persons.
1800 Residence; name of head of family; # of free white males and females under 10, 10-16, 16-26, 26-45, 45 up; all other free white persons except Indians not taxed; # slaves.
1810 Same as 1800.
1820 Residence; name of head of family; # free males & females, same age categories as 1810; foreigners not naturalized; male & female slaves & free colored persons under 14, 14-26, 26-45, 45 up; all other free persons except Indians not taxed; number of persons (including slaves) engaged in agriculture, commerce, and manufacture.
1830 Residence; name of head of family; # of free white males & females in 5 yr age groups to 20, 10 yr age groups to 100, over 100 yrs; # slaves & free colored persons in six broad age groups; # deaf & dumb under 14, 14-24, 25 up; # blind; foreigners not naturalized.
1840 Residence; name of head of family; # free white males & females in same age groups as 1830; # slaves & free colored persons in six broad age groups; # deaf and dumb; # blind; # persons employed in each of seven classes of occupations; # in school; # white persons over 20 illiterate; # pensioners for Revolutionary or military service.
1850 Residence; names of all household members; ages; sex; color (white, black or mulatto); profession, occupation, or trade for each male person over 15; value of real estate owned; place of birth; whether married within the yr; whether attended school within the yr; whether illiterate over 20; whether deaf & dumb, blind, insane or idiotic; whether a pauper or convict. Supplemental schedules for slaves listing slave's age, sex, color (B or M), fugitive from the state, # manumitted, deaf, dumb or idiotic.
1860 Same as 1850 plus value of personal property. Supplemental slave schedule adds # of slave houses.
1870 Same as 1860 plus whether parents were foreign born; month of birth if born within the yr; month of marriage if married within the yr; male citizens 21 and over, # of such persons denied the right to vote for other than rebellion.
1880 Same as 1870 minus citizen info plus street address; relationship to head of family; whether person sick or temporarily disabled, if so what condition; whether maimed, crippled or bedridden; place of birth of father and mother.
1890 Same as 1880
1900 Residence with street address; relationship to head of family; color or race (white, black, Chinese, Japanese, Indian); birth month & year; age; marital status; # yrs married; # children of wife; # children living; place of birth; parents' place of birth; citizenship; yr of immigration & # yrs in U.S.; citizenship status; occupation; can read, write & speak English; ownership of Home or Farm. Separate schedules for institutions, military establishments, and Indian reservations.
1910 Same as 1900 plus mother tongue of person and parents; whether out of work during the year; school attendance; whether a survivor of Union or Confederate Army or Navy.
1920 Residence with street address; name; relationship to head of family; sex; race; age as of Jan 1, 1920; marital status; if foreign born, yr of immigration, whether naturalized, and yr of naturalization; school attendance; literacy; birthplace of person & parents; mother tongue; ability to speak English; occupation, industry, and class of worker; home owned or rented, if owned whether free or mortgaged.



For more info on the census', see U.S. bureau of the Census, or U.S. Census Records, or Finding Treasures in the U.S. Census.

Additionally, all census' have been indexed. 1790 - 1860 are in book form by the state. 1870 has an ideal index, which is one index by name for the entire United States. 1880 & 1900 has a soundex, for which you will need a soundex guide. 1910 has miracode, for which you will need a miracode guide. Unfortunately, only a few states are indexed in miracode for 1910. 1920 also has a soundex.

For information on the soundex, see Using the Census Soundex or What is the Soundex?