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The Gate City Herald - 1960
Contributed by Don Lane

The Gate City Herald
Thursday, January 7, 1960

The Flannery Families
By Claude Mac Quillen

(Note: Parts I and II must have been published in 1959)

PART III

     The Flannerys are among the most Gaelic of the Gales, or as Irish as they come.  A Fourth of July orator speaking in glowing terms of the Anglo-Saxon, would not be complimenting the racial strain of the members of this family.  Of course, the Fannerys, and others of Irish strain, through social inheritance, have greatly benefited by the Anglo-Saxon tradition and qualities as manifested through forms of government, which has been their genius through the course of history.  Be it said, however, that the Nordics in their invasion of Rome , took little, if anything, in the nature of government with them.  They accepted, without question, the system of government found there.  And the invasion of both England and Rome took place in the fifth century.

     Ireland did not receive Roman culture, because the Romans did not invade that country.  General Agricola invaded Scotland , and contemplated a similar move against Ireland , but never put the thought into action.  The Romans never occupied Scotland for long.  They did occupy England , however, for about three hundred years.  Ireland had a culture of its own.  The Gales received their alphabet from Phoenicia, which did not come through the medium of Greece and Rome, according to Edmund Spencer, Author of the Faerie Queen; the learned Doctor Samuel Johnson, author of the first dictionary; William Camden, an able English historian; all claim that the Irish had letters long before the English did.  Furthermore, they claim that even the Saxons received their letter from the Irish.  And the venerable Bede, who wrote an Ecclesiastical History of the English Nation, makes a similar claim for the Irish.  Note, that all these are English authorities.  There are numerous Irish and Scotch historians who prove the same.

     To be classed as of Celtic-Gaelic origin, is, indeed, and honor.  This race, not so much as a nation, but as individuals in many nations have made rich contributions through the cultural stream, like literature, painting, sculpturing, and music.  Ireland , however, is a Gaelic Nation State, the last one in existence.  The Irish are among the most musical of any race of people.  It was they, not the Greeks, who invented the harp.  And the harp is displayed in their flag and over the entrance to their embassies.  And before me as I write is a stout volume which says: “1000 Years of Irish Poetry,”  Edited by Kathleen Hoagland.  And Virgil, the author of the Aeneid, was of Celtic origin.  This writer knows that for centuries Virgil has been classed as a Roman, but he was born in Cisalpine Gaul, and reared there, which Province received the Roman franchise from Caesar.  Ossian, a bard and here of the third century A.D., whose poetry was all the rage in the leading salons of Paris, when Thomas Jefferson, and Benjamin Franklin were our ambassadors to France; was a Gael; and Oliver Goldsmith, long listed as English, was Irish, the author of The Deserted Village, which was dear Auburn, “the fairest of the plain,” located in Ireland, made desolate by “Princes and Lords, whom a breath can make as a breath has made.”

     After knowing these things, there is little wonder that the Flannerys, descended from the same race, have produced painters, poets, sculptures, and even industrial wizards.  The blood stream, as well as race mind of the Gael, plus the tradition, history, culture and civilization of Ireland have inspired many a gifted soul to create works of art; it has been so in the case of the Flannerys.  They have produced painters and sculptures of national recognition; for example, Vaughn Flannery, a modern painter of recognized merit has been represented by exhibits in the Carnegie Museum , of Pittsburg , Pa. ; Phillips Memorial Gallery , Washington , D. C.; the Whitney Gallery , and the Kraushaar Gallery, New York City.

     In the field of sculpturing, the Flannerys are even more renown, in the person of Lot Flannery, who was born in Limerick , Ireland , in 1836, the son of Lot and Mary Corbett Flannery.  This artist came to the U. S. while still a youth and settled in Washington, D. C.  Here he began his life’s work, for which he had already made ample preparation, based upon a rich talent.  He resided in various cities of the U. S. , at different periods of his life, among them have been New Orleans , La. , Saint Louis , Mo. , and New York City .  A number of years were spent in traveling abroad, mainly in Europe , but all during this time, Washington City remained his permanent residence.

     Lot Flannery’s first outstanding achievement in the world of art, was a statue of the martyred President, Abraham Lincoln, which is said to be one of the best, and the first by any artist.  It was executed in 1868, less than three years after the death of that great soul.  It stands today in front of the old court house, on Indiana Ave. , opposite the new municipal building.  His other works include a statue of the “Little Giant,” Stephen A. Douglas, Lincoln ’s able opponent in the Illinois Senatorial race of 1858.  This one is in Saint Louis , Mo. ; a marble bust of Major General John A. Logan; and a symbolic figure, “Grief,” placed by the U. S. Government in the Congressional Cemetery, in memory of the victims of the Arsenal explosion during the War Between the States; a bust of Benjamin Franklin in the Government Printing Office, also Washington City.  One regrets that so gifted an artist was never married.  He died here in Washington D. C., December 19, 1922 .

     There is a long list of ***** bearing the name of Flannery to be seen in the files of the Library of Congress, too numerous to list here.  A few, however are given below:

     Margaret Flannery, of the Aniline Film Corporation, Development Department.  She is noted for her work in P. V. P.  Such an alphabetical scheme means nothing to most people.  Only skilled technicians in that field could decipher it.  It reminds this writer of the time he was in college having a course of study in the subject of Money and Banking, in which the main text was written by Dr. Irving Fisher, of Yale University .  The alphabet was scattered through with a lavish hand.  One formula is recalled quite vividly, namely, Q multiplied by V equals P.  Q represents the quantity of money, V. the velocity of circulation, and P, the resulting prosperity.  Now P. V. P. means Polyvinylpyrrolidone, preparation properties and applications in the blood field, and in other branches of medicine.

     Regina Flannery, has made signal contribution in the subject of Analysis of Coastal Algonquin Culture; also the Gros Ventres of Montanan, published by Catholic University Press, Washington, D. C.; anthropological Series numbers 15 and 16.

     Phyllis Clare Flannery, “See America First,” a farce satire, Poughkeepsie , New York , The experimental Theater, Vassar College .

     Mrs. Maude Flannery, 1894, Late Bridegroom, London, Hutchinson and Company, Ltd. 1932.

     Elizabeth Flannery, The Foaling Barn, illustrated by Vaughn Flannery.

     George Flannery, Handbook of Political References, Campaign of 1888, Rochester , New York .

     James John Flannery, The Graduated Circle, a description analysis, and evaluation of a quantitive map symbol, Ann Arbor , Mich. Water Pollution, control, development of State and National Policy.

     Thomas Flannery, The Story of the Mohawk and Hudson Railroad, -- Albany-Schenectady, August 9th, 1831 ; the pioneer unit of the New York Central.

     Matthew Flannery, The New Orleans City Council, 1805, A Directory and a Census taken by the same under the authorization of the City Council of the Crescent City .

       Another in this series of articles on the Flannery family will appear next week.

 

The Gate City Herald
Thursday, January 14, 1960

The Flannery Families
By Claude Mac Quillen

Part IV

     There have been two wizards in the field of Industry in this country, namely, two brothers, Joseph Michael, and James Joseph Flannery.  James Joseph was born at Holidays Cove, West Virginia , Jan. 18, 1954 ; his brother Joseph Michael Flannery, was born in Pittsburg , Pa. , July 18, 1867.  They were the sons of Michael and Elinor Kirwin Flannery, natives of Ireland .

     The rise of these brothers has been phenomenal.  A Horatio Alger book was never so interesting as their lives.  At first, they went into the undertaking business, in Pittsburg , moved later to Braddock , Pa. , where they become acquainted with some of the U. S. Steel officials, who became their friends.  This was about 1890.  At once they realized that a great opportunity lay in the iron and steel industry.  Out of the undertaking business they went immediately, and then decided to secure the rights for a hard steel to be used in fabricating unbreakable bolts.  Off to Europe they went in search for a formula containing the proper ingredients for making hard steel.  In the meantime, they had accumulated a nest egg of $30,000 with which to start the business.  At the University of Sheffield, England, they became acquainted with Professor Arnold, who had discovered experimentally that small quantities of vanadium, an almost unknown metal then, when added to steel produced a product of unusual hardness, and of a lasting cutting edge.  After learning this, their next problem was to learn where to obtain this valuable element know as vanadium.  They learned that it could be obtained in the Andes Mountains of South America, in the State of Peru, where a small mine was then in operation.  Joseph Flannery made the trip to Peru , where he succeeded in purchasing this mine for $20,000.  The ore was deposited in the form of Vanadium sulphide, which made a problem for the Flannery Brothers, who found difficulty in reducing it to a basic metal, since its metallurgical process had not been developed to a commercial scale.  Up until 1919, the field of metallurgy was a fallow one to this writer.  At that time, while trying to do some History graduate work at the University of Birmingham , he met a fellow soldier who had escaped disability, and was quite enthusiastic on the subject of Metallurgy, which he was going to make his life’s work.  Some knowledge of this was learned from him.

     After the Flannery Brothers got the Vanadium sulphide on a paying basis, commercially, they encountered an even more difficult problem, namely, selling the idea to the steel companies, especially the U. S. Steel.  Some of its officials possessed the bovine will hard to change.  It is never easy to convince leaders who cling to the status quo.  The Flannerys finally, however, convinced the officials of the U. S. Steel that their product was of value as an alloy, and in 1906 the American Vanadium Co. was organized, with Joseph Flannery as Vice President, and the company at once obtained an order of five thousand tons of Vanadium to be used for the hinges of the huge gates of the Panama Canal locks.  The results of this order proved decisive in the struggle for the recognition of the merits of this metal.  Following son thereafter, the automobile industry, after Henry Ford’s example in the use of it, adopted Vanadium steel as a must, in order to secure greater tensile strength, with less weight in automotive parts.  Joseph continued as V.P. and Director of Sales of the American Vanadium Co. until his death in 1920.  And of course his brother, James Joseph was right in with him in helping to make a success out of the enterprise.  The element of chromium was added to their formula in the manufacture of their valuable product.  Soon, the prosperity of the Flannery Brothers became an assured fact.  And be it said that the demand for vanadium during World War I was enormous, for nearly all armament and high-powered projectiles, used by the allied nations were made of vanadium steel, and for airplane parts, it was considered indispensable.  One account says that the British Government was as much enthused over the contribution made by the Flannery Brothers to win the war as the United States, thus bringing about a degree of good will and peace between the British and the sons of Old Erin.  In 1920, The American Vanadium Company was sold to Charles M. Schwab, President of Bethlehem Steel, and J. Leonard Replogle, for $4,000,000.  This occurred only after the death of Joseph Michael, one of the brothers in 1920.  A parting word with respect to the unbreakable steel bolts, manufactured by the Flannery Bolt Company, they had the satisfaction of supplying from their factory practically all the bolts with which the fire boxes of nearly all locomotives built in the U. S. were equipped.

       Mr. Quillen continues the story of these and other Flannery families next week.

 

The Gate City Herald
Thursday, January 21, 1960

The Flannery Families
By Claude Mac Quillen

Part V

     The Flannery Brothers did not confine themselves to this field of endeavor, which was successful beyond ordinary dreams, but in 1909, in an effort to find a cure for cancer, with which their sister was afflicted, they turned to the production of radium.  Of course radium had already been discovered more than a decade before the Flannery Bros. Organized the Standard Chemical Company, in which they produced the first radium in America , in 1913.  Pierre and Marie Curie of France , first discovered it in 1898.  This rare metallic chemical element, found in very small amounts in pitchblende and other uranium minerals, say the dictionaries, “undergoes spontaneous atomic disintegration through several stages, finally forming an isotope of lead.”  One account says the Flannerys, after fourteen months of experimenting, and intensive labor, with Colorado and Utah carnotite ore, obtained the first American radium.  This product, too, was in great demand during World War I.  The Council of National Defense, desired radium for the making of luminous gun sights and watch dials for airplane instruments, and for the medical profession.  The Standard Chemical Company, owned and operated by the Flannery Bros, produced sixty percent (lacking one tenth) of the radium used by the U. S. Army and Navy.  The British Government standardized the company’s product for all military needs; and the technical department of the French Army pronounced their products the best obtainable.  So you can see from these accounts the Flannerys had no small part in winning World War I.  At the time of Joseph Flannery’s death, The Standard Chemical Company had manufactured 55 grams of radium, with a monetary value of $7,000,000.  Shortly before his death he made a gift of radium to the New York State prison at Sing Sing, for experimental purposes to be used in the cure of cancer, tubercular glands and rheumatic conditions, so states the biographical sketch.  In 1914, he appeared before the Committee of the U. S. Senate, and offered to present to the Government his firm’s secret process for the extraction of radium from carnotite ore, provided the Government used the process solely for humane purposes.

     Such has been the partial life story of two brothers of the Gaelic strain, born in the U. S. , whose parents came from Ireland .  The whole story is too extensive for a paper of this nature; but be it said that the writer has enjoyed doing this article as much as anything ever written.  To give a form of finish to their lives, be further stated that they both married well and had families, members of whom are making success.

     There is still another Flannery to whom the writer wishes to call the attention of his readers, prior to mentioning the progenitors of the Scott County line, namely, John Flannery, who was born November 24th, 1835, in the village of Nenagh, County Tipperary, Ireland, the son of John and Hannah Hogan Flannery.  It was the famine of 1846, and revolutionary tendencies of the middle nineteenth century which caused the elder Flannery to migrate to the U. S.  The father, however, had a homesick longing to return to his native land, and died on the ship returning him there.  The son however, remained in the U. S. , settling down permanently in the city of Savannah , Ga. , in 1854.  Being fond of military and martial affairs, he joined a noted military organization known as the “Irish Jasper Greens”, and at the outbreak of The War Between the States, went into the Confederate States Army as a Second Lieutenant, but was promoted to Captain October 1862, he served throughout the war, returning to Savannah in 1865.  At the age of 30 he resumed his interrupted business, and in a country which had been plowed and riven by war, he made progress in business and became a leader in that important port city of the South.  He became a partner in the L. J. Guilmartin & Co., a cotton commission firm, which after some years was dissolved and reorganized under the title of the John Flannery Company.  Later, he admitted into his firm a number of young men who had served him long and faithfully.  This firm or corporation for years was one of the most important cotton houses in Savannah .  Mr. Flannery retired from the business in 1906, but remained active in civic affairs.  He was the organizer and director for 25 years of the Citizens and Southern Bank, one of the strongest of the South’s financial institutions.  He was president of the Cotton Exchange; organizer of the Savannah Hotel Co.  He established a fund of $50,000, later increased to $100,000, the interest of which was to aid Catholic Enterprises in Georgia .  Not intending to omit anything of importance which truth calls for relating, this scribe desires to say that the Flannery Brothers of the Steel and Radium business, were also Catholics.

       Next week Mr. Quillen begins tracing the Flannerys into the Scott County area.

 

The Gate City Herald
Thursday, January 28, 1960

The Flannery Families
By Claude Mac Quillen

Part VI

     In the Calendar of Virginia State Papers of 1795, one finds a memorial of the inhabitants of Russell County to His Excellency, the Governor, Robert Brooke, and the Honorable Privy Council, dated March 11th, of that year.  The said memorial petitions for the resumption of services of the State Militia to protect the settlers against Indian depredations on the frontier.  Among the signers of this important paper were two Flannerys, John and James, presumably, brothers and the assumption is that they were the first emigrants of the Flannerys in Virginia .  They came over from Ireland , as has been indicated by this writer.  Many of the early settlers of Southwest Virginia , came out of North Caroling, as the Census Books amply show.  The Flannerys of Virginia appear not to have followed the Old North State pattern, but seem to have come directly to the Old Dominion.  The holiday rush, bustle and change have prevented me from determining this fact beyond any doubt.  One cannot afford to be dogmatic, however, in this matter, as on any other historic subject, for the last word in this field hasn’t yet been uttered, nor will it be in the next generation, and the next, because there is no finality to vital things.  It is very apparent, however, that John and James Flannery of Russell County are the progenitors of the Scott County line.

     Russell County was organized in the year 1787, and had been a part of Washington County , which was formed eleven years earlier.  Scott County

which was taken out of Russell and Washington, was organized in 1814, and named, of course, for General Winfield Scott, a native of Petersburg , Virginia .

     Beginning with the census of 1830, continuing through ’40 and ’50, one finds many Flannerys listed as natives of Scott County .  Among them are such names as Elisha Flannery, who was 76 years old in 1850.  He may have been the brother or son of either John or James Flannery of Russell, who were certainly of voting age when they signed the petition to Governor Brooke, for protection against the Indians.  This writer did not follow up the subject to learn definitely if aid was given or not.  Brooke was a leader who should have given aid because his early experience of having been a prisoner or Lord Howe, the British Admiral, and brother of the army general Howe, should have taught Governor Brooke, while yet a young graduate from the University of Edinburgh, Scotland, that help is always in order for those being oppressed.

     To resume the Elisha Flannery phase of the subject, will say that his wife’s first name was Tabitha, and age is given as 75, in 1850.  Maiden name not listed.  Joel Flannery is listed in the 1850 census from Scott, as being 60 years of age; wife’s first name was Polly, no maiden name given.  Tillman Flannery is also listed in the 1850 census, as 25 years of age.  One is inclined without any more specific information to conclude that these are the same line as John and James Flannery of Russell.  Any information from any of the old citizens of Scott will be most welcome.

     This paper, like many other similar family productions, is not intended to give a family tree, but only to touch on the high spots of a very important Irish family that had members to come to the New World .  Like Walt Whitman, without his genius, this writer, scatters specimens, with no intention of finishing them.  Yes, I could very well complete the record right down to date, with sufficient time, and nothing else to do.  However, if no more is done than to awaken interest in a clan which has contributed much to the progress of these United States , this work will not have been done in vain.  It is hoped that some of the Flannerys will take up here and make a study of this important subject, thereby greatly enriching Scott County History.

     One concluding picture of this subject the writer wishes to give before leaving the subject, namely, the great influence of music on the soul of man.  It was this writer’s good fortune to hear good music in his boyhood, and for this he still has a feeling of gratitude to the Flannerys.  Uncle Wade Flannery, the uncle of Mr. Robert Pendleton, used to come to our home periodically, bringing his fiddle with him, and he and his nephew, Robert Pendleton, would play together for several hours, until the wee small hours of the morning, and among the recipients of that good music, was a small boy, who then never dreamed he would have this golden opportunity to acknowledge the good derived there from.  As some one has wisely said, maybe it was the Greek philosopher, Plato, who said music has the charm and power to soothe the savage breast; at leas, harmony and healing can more readily come flowing into the soul through its vibrations.  Carlyle, in one of his essays on Jean Paul Richter, quotes Jean Paul on music: “Thou speakest of things, which in all my endless life I have not found, nor shall I find”.

       Names of many of the Scott County Flanary families will be mentioned in the concluding article of this series to appear next week.

 

The Gate City Herald
Thursday, February 4, 1970

The Flannery Families
By Claude Mac Quillen

PART VII

     Greetings, to the Flannery Clan, in Old Scott, and everywhere, from one who has greatly enjoyed doing these articles.  Before concluding this article, however, a few other things should be emphasized, the industry of the Flannerys, for example, known best by this writer from Ira Flannery, whose love for work was noted by me early in life.  He was a very good farmer, and always had the best looking mules in the county.  This was before the time of tractors, and other modern machinery.  He used to cultivate the Pendleton-Brickey islands, near home.  We arose early in those days, but Ira got up earlier, and sometimes would be plowing before we finished breakfast.  Like the honey bees, whose passion for work is greater than their fear of death, Ira Flannery, to, had a passion for work, which reminds one of an old Latin phrase, that characterizes the monks of the Middle Ages, Laborare est Orare, which translated means: Work is worship, and who knows a better way to serve God?

     Another Flannery of our Clinch River Valley, who greatly impressed this young boy, was William Flannery, Wood, Virginia, whom we frequently referred to as “Uncle Bill”, who worked as hard as any other member of the clan, always had time for courtesy, and was the very soul of hospitality.  He nearly always took a crowd home with him for dinner after the services at Riverview Church , and my! The sumptuous meals hey did serve at his home!  His wife was a Gray, as this writer now recalls, a descendant of an old distinguished English family.  Their generosity was never excelled by any land baron, English or Irish.  Uncle Bill himself, owned enough land to put him in that said to his credit, never caused him to neglect the interest of fellow-man.  Brusqueness, the Flannerys are noted for, but underneath a rough appearing surface, there always beats a kind heart, personally, this writher has never known a Flannery to deceive anyone.  One may not find any preachers among them, but many an honest layman, who has been and always will be, ready to come to the aid of his fellow men in need.  When I was a boy at he Fore, W. W. Flannery, was one our leading merchants.  The other two were Mr. John M. Harris, and Frank Davidson.  Win, as the people called him, was soft spoken, thoughtful, and kind to everyone; satisfied to make a reasonable profit, as were the others, no businessman profiteered in our village, Fort Blackmore , where occasionally, prominent people visited.  Daniel Boone camped around there in the early 1770’s.  General George Rogers Clark, who won the great Northwestern Territory for the Colony of Virginia, was a visitor at the fort in the year 1776, on his return to the Colonial Capital at Williamsburg .  And Francis Asbury, the first Bishop of the Methodist Church in the new world, was at Fort Blackmore in 1790.  And don’t forget, our village was on the Fincastle Turnpike, later known as the Wilderness Road , which many a pioneer traveled to the dark and bloody ground, known as Kentucky , the daughter of Virginia , so history tells us.

     There is in the record of the census a long list of Flannerys, whom I would like to write class, but his holdings, be it something about, but these articles have already lengthened far beyond the original intention of its writer, hence they must be brought to a close.  One other I must refer to prior to concluding this paper, namely, Monroe Flannery, a brother of Ira’s.  He was tall, straight as any Irish chieftain, talked little, but his words were always flavored with the with and humor of his race.  In my boyhood, he was called Roe.  It is my understanding that he still walks with a springy step.  Roe, I am the one you knew as a barefoot boy who lived on the Robert Pendleton farm, hoeing corn in the river bottom, going in swimming as often as I could get the chance.  Here’s wishing a happy and prosperous New Year to all the Flannerys everywhere.

End

     This concludes this series of articles by Mr. Quillen.  Back copies are available to those who missed previous issues.

The Gate City Herald
Friday, June 17, 1960

Colonial Expansion, Westward
Some Historic Highlights with Respect to the Hammond Families
By Claude Mac Q

Part 1

     The migratory instinct of the race finds expression in the various movements of mankind.  The Greeks and Romans were vitally interested in this important subject.  Both nations planed colonies in many parts of the then known world.  The Greeks had settlements in Asia Minor , as well as along the Mediterranean coast.  Some of these colonies were called Magna Grecia, the name given by the Romans to the Greek cities in Southern Italy .  And the Romans had whole provinces in Gaul and Britain , as well as in North Africa and Asia .

     A cursory glance at this subject would lead one to believe that most writers have looked upon this matter as a westward movement.  Even the good Bishop of Cloyne, George Barkeley, wrote a poem leaves the impression that colonial expansion was a westward movement.

“Westward the course of empire takes its way,

The four first acts already past;

A fifth shall close the drama with the day –

Time’s noblest offspring is the last.”

     Military conquest and colonial expansion, with their consequent exploitations have not always been toward the west;  many times the movement of emigrants has been eastward, even southward, like in India , Africa and Australia .

     In ancient times, Alexander the Great, with a vast army of well equipped soldiers, using the phalanx as line of order in battle array, invaded Babylon , Persia , and even crossed the Indus in far off India .  To this day one may find settled in Nepal the celebrated race of Hunzas, which tradition claims are the descendants of Alexander’s warriors.

     This whole migratory movement, as viewed in modern times, might well come under the heading “Expansion of Europe” which was he title of a course of study taken by this writer while he was doing graduate work at Columbia University in New York City, a generation past.  The Good Grey Poet, Walt Whitman, extols a phase of the movement in a poem entitled:

PIONEERS!  O PIONEERS!

“We detachments steady throwing,

Down the edges, through the passes, up the mountain steep.

Conquering, holding, daring, venturing as we go, the unknown way,

Pioneers!  O, Pioneers!

“All the pulses of he world, falling in, they beat for us,

with the western movement beat;

Holding single or together, steady moving to the front,

All for us,

Pioneers!  O Pioneers!

     It is with a high degree of satisfaction that one can record the older families of Southwest Virginia as being in this classification.  For example, John Wallen of Wallen’s Creek, Lee County , settling there in 1760, even before the county was organized.  Thomas Rogers lived in the region of Blackwater, same county, 1765, when driven out by Indians; Felty Hoover and his two sons John and Abraham, settled on Blackwater at the Flatlick, a north branch of Clinch River , in 1777.  Titus and John Benton, presumably brothers, were killed in Rye Cove in 1777.  Charles Carter had settled there two years prior to this date (1775).  James Peery settled in the region of the source of Clinch River in 1772; in the same year, Francis Fugate settled on Big Moccasin Creek.  Francis Cooper settled there in the year 1770.  And just about this time, according to the Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, the Big Moccasin section was vacated on account of the perils of the Indians, and remained so for a year or longer.  It has been rather well authenticated that in 1771, there was not a white family on the Northwest side of Clinch Mountain for a distance of ten miles.  Henry Dougherty made a settlement on Laurel Fork of Holston River before the Declaration of Independence was signed at Philadelphia in 1776; in fact the Dougherty settlement was as early as 1773.

     In 1769 John Smyth and John Morgan, and a large party settled on Moccasin Creek.  Daniel Smyth and Josiah Gamble, succeeded Doak as agent of Thomas Walker for the Wolfe Hill tract.  Daniel Smyth was the school teacher of the community, and was probably the progenitor of the Smyths in the Midway-Nickelsville areas.  One of the best doctors of Scott County was a Doctor Smyth, who was quite active in calling on the sick when this writer was a boy there.  It is remembered that he was a tall, handsome man.

     Patrick Porter came to Scott County in 1770, and about the same time Jacob Young settled there, too.  John and Nancy Tate came into this region about the same time.  Mangus Tate appears to have been the first of the name in this country, as far as we have been able to ascertain, to settle in the Southland.  The name is regarded as typically English, but Mangus came not from England , but from the Orkney Islands , of North Scotland , and landed at Philadelphia , Pa. , May 20th, 1696 , eventually locating in Frederick County , Virginia , part of which is now Jefferson County , West Virginia .

     We shall here list some other early settlers in the Southwest Virginia section of the Old Dominion, among whom are William McGhee settled in Turkey Cove of Powell’s Valley, Lee County , in 1771; Peter Cloud and Thomas Lovelady had already been living there.  In the same year Valentine Harmon improved some land on the headwaters of Clinch River in the present bounds of Tazwell County .  William McFee settled on Sinking Creek of New River in the year 1774.  In the same year Andrew Cowan settled on the North Fork of Clinch River, then called “Stim’s Creek”.  In 1775 William Fitzgerald (Fitzgerel), a very famous old Irish name.  About fifteen members of this noble family were made martyrs by the English, as testified to by their names in the old prison Tower of London .  This Bill Fitzgerald cultivated corn at Martin’s Station in Powell’s Valley, Lee County , and made some improvement at Cumberland Gap , on a creek called Station Creek.  Any Fitzgerald would have an eye for Cumberland Gap land, because this clan controlled five hundred thousand acres of the best land of central Ireland , which was confiscated by the British.

     These settlers were having their difficulties in the New World , which illustrates that life is a struggle although it is a gift, and this world is a beautiful place in which to live it; for it means good and can be enriched by great deeds in behalf of mankind, therefore:

“Doubt not, fear not, work on, and wait;

As sure as dawn shall conquer dark,

So love will triumph over hate,

And spring will bring again the lark.”

     (In the next article of this series the writer will begin the tracing of the Hammonds families.)

 

The Gate City Herald
Friday, June 24, 1960

Colonial Expansion, Westward
Some Historic Highlights with Respect to the Hammond Families
By Claude Mac Q

PART II

     As late as the close of the American Revolutionary War in 1781, the Indians were still a menace, or if you wish to see it from the viewpoint of the Red Man, as reflected by Sam Houston, who carried two wounds inflicted at Tohopeka, in the Talapoosa River in Alabama , 1813, always contended that the White man was the aggressor.  There are many instances to show this, among which would be the Battle of Point Pleasant, 1774, fought near the confluence of the Great Kanawha and the Ohio Rivers .  Many of the ancestors of the old families of Virginia , West Virginia , Kentucky and Tennessee , were killed in this battle; one Hugh Gullion comes to my mind as being a casualty.  He had settled on Walker ’s Creek, of the Wolfe Hill tract; and no doubt has descendents in and around Marion , Smyth County , Virginia .  One of the Seviers was killed in that battle, several of them took part in the fighting.  John Campbell, in 1768, on his way to the Holston country, overtook a group of travelers, who informed him that they were on their way to settle on the Wolfe Hill tract, owned by Thomas Walker, an early explorer of the region, and to whom a grant was made.  Constables were appointed in the region of the New River as early as 1763.  In that year Michael Hoofacre or Huffacre settled in Rich Valley , and six years later, the whole section or vast area embracing the headwaters of the New River , Clinch, Holston and Powell Rivers , was erected into a separate county.  A line was rum between Augusta and Botetourt, as far as the Western waters, which, generally speaking, meant the Pacific Ocean .  Of course, the new county was named for Lord Botetourt, a Lieutenant Governor of Virginia of  Colonial Virginia, whose actual surname was Norborne Berkeley, whose statue, anything but impressive, stands in front of the Sir Christopher Wren Building , William and Mary College , Williamsburg , Va.

     In the enumeration of the list of early emigrants coming to Southwest Virginia , many necessarily, have been omitted because of lack of time and space.  They may be included in another paper.  They are the people who came near the closing of the eighteenth century and the first part of the nineteenth.  Some of these would be David Cox, Isaac Greer, the Moores , the Flannerys, the Pendletons, the Johnsons, the Taylors , Brickeys, Hills and the Darnells, and many others, too numerous to mention now.

     One more which we must not omit, which will constitute the main theme of these articles, is the Hammonds tribe, clan, or families.  This writer has been amazed at the amount of history made by the Hammonds .  Much of their history was made in England prior to their arrival in the colonies.  It even goes back to the continent of the ninth, tenth, eleventh century.  The earliest part shall not be dealt with here.  We begin with them in their relationship to William the Conqueror.  They are definitely found in Normandy , France , in the 11th century, where already, they had made history, prior to the movements known as the Crusades, and during the Crusades.  One reference to the Hammonds clan says that they are Danish instead of Celtic in origin.  Another on says they are Holland-Dutch.  One can be sure that they dwelt in Normandy , France , and made history there.  They trace to two kinsmen of William the Conqueror who successfully invaded England September 28, 1066; sixteen days later was fought the Battle of Hastings or Senlac, where William won the victory over the Saxon King Harold.  The Hammonds were well represented there that day.  These young warriors were descended from the younger son of Rollo, the first Duke of Normandy, while William was descended from the eldest son.

     The eldest of the two Hammonds to enter England with William, was Robert Fitzhamor, the seventh Count or Earl of Coneile in Normandy , was a mighty man of valor, “one of the most illustrious of all the valiant knights to accompany the Conqueror.”  Yes, in the eleventh century, the name was spelled as above and even recorded in the Jamestown history as “Hamor”, in 1624.  In the meantime, the “Fitz” had been dropped.  It is only a prefix like “Mac”, “De”, “Van”, “Von”, meaning son of.  The Stuarts of Scotland came over from France to Scotland with the name “FitzAllen”; later one of them by the name of Walter, frequently referred to as Walter the Steward, because of his appointment to the position of High Steward of the king’s household by King Robert Bruce, whose daughter, Marjory, he married in 1315 and took the occupation as a surname.  Henceforth, the name has been Stewart or Stuart.

     In the Doomsday Book, which contains a record of a **** census, one finds the name of Hammonds spelled variously: Haimo, Haimardus, Haiming, and Haimers, Haimors.  Such names were in Kent , Wilts, Dorset , Cheshire , Surry, Buckinghamshire , Sussex and Norfolk .

     Afer William the Conqueror became King of England, he saw to it that his warriors wre amply rewarded for their services.  Among the very first ot these were the Hammondses.  Sir Robert Fitzhamor or Hamor, became Lord Cardiff in Wales , and Earl of Glouchester, and was made a free Prince of Wales by King Rufus or William Rufus, the son of the Conqueror.  This Robert Hamor, styled Robert the Great, “by the Grace of God, Prince of Glamorgan, Earl of Coneile, etc.”  He was also made the Commanding General of the Army against the French.

     In addition to all of the military and political honors, he had many Church connections.  Members of this family became prominently identified with the Church as Bishops and Abbots, etc.

END PART II

(Another in this series continuing the history of the Hammonds and related families will appear next week.)

The Gate City Herald
Friday, July 1, 1960

Colonial Expansion, Westward
Some Historic Highlights with Respect to the Hammond Families
By C. Mac Q

PART III

     The oldest direct line of the Hammondses in England (by now the name Fitzhamor had changed to this form of spelling) are those who settled at Saint Albans Court, County Kent, where this branch of the family has been located since the reign of King Henry VIII.  At this time, John Hammond was the tenant to the Abbot and Convent of Saint Albans.  His son Thomas Hammond, purchased the manor in the year 1551; and married (1st) Anne, the daughter of Robert Haddle or Haddel; married the second time, the daughter of Edward Monnis of Waldeshire, by whom he had then children.  Tow of his grandsons, Robert and Francis were successful in a distinguished army career.  Them served under command of Sir Walter Raleigh, and accompanied him on some of his most daring expeditions, which may have included his attempted colonization in the present boundary of N. C., although a failure, did result in the naming of Virginia; his campaign against the Spaniards at Cadiz; and his sensational victory at Fayal, in the Azores; and certainly to Guiana, South America, 1595, and 1617.  One can not be sure, without more extensive research that the Hammond soldier-sailors were with Raleigh on all of his voyages.  However, it is a rather safe assumption that they were.  Raleigh was always reluctant to release good men from his services.  It is definitely known that they accompanied him to Guiana , and won great praise from him.

     Raleigh is such an outstanding historical leader; it appears apropos to sketch him briefly.  No doubt all of our readers know of him, and many know much of him.  Raleigh was born in Devonshire , England , 1552; had several half brothers, by the name of Gilbert, most famous of who was Sir Humphrey Gilbert, several years older than Raleigh , who aided the younger brother’s knowledge; experience and inspiration.  “In 1583, Sir Humphrey Gilbert foundered at sea.  The writer first learned this statement at Fort Blackmore , Virginia , while a youth studying history there under the wise and kindly guidance of Professor John Cox.  Gilbert, like many other explorers of that time, was in search of a Northwest passage , but after an unsuccessful attempt, during his return voyage home he took passage in one of his smaller vessels, the Squirrel, which went down in a story.  Be said to his credit, he was reading the Bible, and called out some sailors near him, “That God is as near to us on sea as on land”.

     Raleigh was no standardized variety, but a real individual in his own right.  He spent several years on the continent, mainly in France , as a soldier, serving in the cause of Protestantism with the Huguenots.  There he learned many lessons in the military school of experience, some good, some not so good, which he used later.  He was poet, explorer, and historian, and gained favors at the Court of Queen Elizabeth by his with and somewhat handsome face.  He rose to the trusted position of Captain of the Guard to the Queen.  All went well until later, he seduced Elizabeth Throckmorton, one of the most attractive of Elizabeth ’s ladies in waiting on her Majesty; it so greatly enraged the queen that she both of them imprisoned in the Tower.  Be it to Raleigh ’s credit, however, he married the lady, by whom he had two sons, Walter Junior, and Carew.  Of course, after a brief spell of discipline, the prisoners were released.  Raleigh had a second imprisonment in the Tower, put there this time by the authority of King James I, after he had him convicted of treason, a charge in the light of present day evidence and court procedure, would be questionable.  Of course, then, Raleigh was unfortunate in having the most brilliant lawyer of the Realm to prosecute him, Sir Edward Coke, who genealogically speaking, belongs in the category of the Cocke-Cox clan.  Even the King’s ardor for execution cooled after the trial and conviction.  On is here reminded of the recent criticism of the British press, relative to our own slowness in curt procedure and administrative execution with respect to the Chessman case.  Evidently, the British Editors, have become hazy regarding their own legal history.  It was they who set up example in the Raleigh case, in the first quarter of the seventeenth century.  That celebrated prisoner was kept in the Tower for twelve years prior to execution.  They did, however, grant him some privileges.  For example, they permitted his wife to live with him; provided him with pleasurable means of relaxation, such as to allow him to experiment, chemically, in a little improvised laboratory.  As the most vindictive of his keepers reported to the King: “He hath converted a hen-house into a still-house, where he doth spend his time all the day in his distillations”.  There, he perfected a cordial which went by his name, and which the Queen sent for during Prince Henry’s last illness.  The Prince had been Raleigh ’s good friend through out the period of their acquaintance.  The former died in 1612.  He would have succeeded to the throne as King instead of his brother Charles had he lived till the decease of his father.  Would that he had!  For Henry was of a different stripe to either of the other two.  He was as unlike his father as it is possible for a son to be.  He learned the Tailor’s trade, and had many friends among the Guild members.

     The means by which Raleigh was kept in prison so long was a reprieve, not a pardon, by King James.  He was able in his prison chamber to write his History of the World, “a noble book; worthy of the man and of the days in which he had gloriously lived”, full of poetry and high philosophy”, says the Historians’ History of the World.

     To have served with Water Raleigh, as Robert and Francis Hammonds did, both of whom attained to the rank of Colonel, and accompanied that intrepid explorer to Guiana , gave color and distinction to their career.  They both won high praise from that gallant leader.

     Since it is the aim of this writer to measure out the truth telatively, as accurately as possible, be it stated here that all of Raleigh ’s military career was not gallant and above criticism.  In Smerick , Ireland , in 1580, he was instrumental in having 600 surrendered soldiers executed; they laid down their arms with the understanding that their live would be spared.  No, they were not all Irish in their cause of freedom.  It was a dark blot on Raleigh ’s character, and probably was the event which marked the beginning of his decline.

     (Another in this series is to appear next week.)

 

The Gate City Herald
Friday, July 8, 1960

Colonial Expansion, Westward
Some Historic Highlights with Respect to the Hammond Families
By C. Mac Q.

Part IV

     The Hammonds brothers, like Raleigh , were great sailors as well as soldiers, and helped to repel attempted invasions of England .  The most threatening of them all during the sixteenth century, was the supposed invincible Spanish Armada, a fleet of 131 ships, some the largest that ever sailed the sea, a fleet carrying 7,000 sailors, plus 17,000 of the bravest troops in the Spanish Army, but success did not crown this vast preparation.

     One is reluctant to drop Raleigh , although enough may have already been written to bore our good readers.  However, it is tempting to write a little more, even at the risk of boredom.  Remember that it was men like the Hammonds brothers who made Raleigh famous.  There have been many lords of the sea, but none more colorful, perhaps, than Raleigh of Devonshire.  Probably Francis Drake, Magellan, and Sir John Hawkins should be excepted.  It comes to our mind that the first sea lord was King Minos of Crete , about 3500 B.C.  This has been based on a Greek legend, which was not understood until the year 1900, when Sir Arthur Evans opened up the mound of Knossos , in Crete , and found there the ruins of the Palace of Snossos of great magnificence.

     Drake, Hawkins, and Raleigh captured many a galleon that sailed the Spanish main (the Gulf Stream route), laden with silver and gold from South America .  The Spaniards took it by force from the Incas of Peru and the Aztecs of Mexico.  No wonder the hazard was great in keeping it.  Montezuma, the last Aztec emperor of Mexico , (1502-1520), tried to buy off the Spaniards by having his warriors fill a house full of gold, mainly ornaments, but to no avail.  They took the wealth and the great Chieftain’s life also that is, his physical body.  Spain , the great world power of the sixteenth century, paid dearly for such injustice.  The Cosmic law always sees to that, for no governmental scheming or political practices can thwart it.  Those who live by the Ten Commandments know this, and those who do not, learn it.  And in turn, England had to learn this law, too.  It is still taking lessons!  No longer is there a British Empire, for the past quarter of a century, vast colonial holdings have been gradually slipping out of its hands; the biggest and greatest of these has been India, won by Mahatma Gandhi and his loyal followers by the use of Ahimsa (non-violence) and Satyagraha (spirit power, “holding to truth”).  It does look like nations could learn to do right and have peaceful relations, one with another.  They will eventually, why not now?

     Now, back to the history of the Hammonds tribe.  It is a bit puzzling why these preachments come into these articles.  The writer can assure the reader that there is no preconceived effort to put them there.  The style used is an easy one; in fact, it enters into the very texture of the content.  It was Voltaire who said that the style which has the least resistance is the best.  I can promise you that my head is never scratched to wonder what shall be written.  One does hesitate occasionally, to discriminate to decide what should have priority.

     John Hammonds (1542-1589) is certainly one of the real pioneers of the clan.  He not only attained to prominence but achieved real success, for one to have lived so brief a span of life; born before the middle of the sixteenth century, he died the year Henry IV was crowned king of France .  People in the sixteenth century didn’t live to be old then like they do now; even their leaders were not noted for longevity.  One is reminded of what a clan chieftain in Ireland said about this during the middle of the sixteenth century.  He said that it was very unusual for one of them to grow old and die in bed.

     John Hammond was educated at Trinity College , Cambridge University , where he became a Fellow in 1561, and was soon granted an LLB degree.  This was three years after Queen Elizabeth was crowned Queen of England.  In the year 1564, she visited Cambridge University , and John Hammonds addressed her in Latin, with a very graceful oration in that old tongue.

 It was on August 9th of that year.  In 1569, John Hammond was created LLD, and admitted a member of the College of Civilians .  In 1573 he was appointed a Commissary to the Dean and Chapter of Saint Paul’s, London .  Commissary is a French word and perhaps had its origin in the army, as an officer of rank whose duty was to supply food and clothing to the soldiers, just like the American quartermaster, in a similar capacity.  The meaning the average citizen gets of the word commissary is a place where food and clothing are sold.  The word could be commissar and be just as correct.

     Saint Paul ’s London calls up a pleasurable picture in the mind of the writer, because it was there on Easter Sunday 1919, that so many pigeons were seen at the entrance of that great Cathedral; and the services within were in the highest and best tradition.  I believe Bishop Inge officiated.

     John Hammond was made a Master of Chancery in 1574; and Chancellor of the Diocese of London, in 1575.  In 1580, the same year Walter Raleigh was in Ireland , John Hammond was sent on a mission to the Island of Guernsey , in the English Channel , to investigate charges brought against the Governor, Sir Thomas Leighton, the results of which were not revealed.  From 1572 onwards John Hammond was an active member of the Ecclesiastical Court of High Commission.

(Part V to appear in next issue.)

The Gate City Herald

Friday, July 8, 1960

 

Colonial Expansion, Westward
Some Historic Highlights with Respect to the Hammond Families

By C. Mac Q.

 

Part IV

 

     The Hammonds brothers, like Raleigh , were great sailors as well as soldiers, and helped to repel attempted invasions of England .  The most threatening of them all during the sixteenth century, was the supposed invincible Spanish Armada, a fleet of 131 ships, some the largest that ever sailed the sea, a fleet carrying 7,000 sailors, plus 17,000 of the bravest troops in the Spanish Army, but success did not crown this vast preparation.

     One is reluctant to drop Raleigh , although enough may have already been written to bore our good readers.  However, it is tempting to write a little more, even at the risk of boredom.  Remember that it was men like the Hammonds brothers who made Raleigh famous.  There have been many lords of the sea, but none more colorful, perhaps, than Raleigh of Devonshire.  Probably Francis Drake, Magellan, and Sir John Hawkins should be excepted.  It comes to our mind that the first sea lord was King Minos of Crete , about 3500 B.C.  This has been based on a Greek legend, which was not understood until the year 1900, when Sir Arthur Evans opened up the mound of Knossos , in Crete , and found there the ruins of the Palace of Snossos of great magnificence.

     Drake, Hawkins, and Raleigh captured many a galleon that sailed the Spanish main (the Gulf Stream route), laden with silver and gold from South America .  The Spaniards took it by force from the Incas of Peru and the Aztecs of Mexico.  No wonder the hazard was great in keeping it.  Montezuma, the last Aztec emperor of Mexico , (1502-1520), tried to buy off the Spaniards by having his warriors fill a house full of gold, mainly ornaments, but to no avail.  They took the wealth and the great Chieftain’s life also that is, his physical body.  Spain , the great world power of the sixteenth century, paid dearly for such injustice.  The Cosmic law always sees to that, for no governmental scheming or political practices can thwart it.  Those who live by the Ten Commandments know this, and those who do not, learn it.  And in turn, England had to learn this law, too.  It is still taking lessons!  No longer is there a British Empire, for the past quarter of a century, vast colonial holdings have been gradually slipping out of its hands; the biggest and greatest of these has been India, won by Mahatma Gandhi and his loyal followers by the use of Ahimsa (non-violence) and Satyagraha (spirit power, “holding to truth”).  It does look like nations could learn to do right and have peaceful relations, one with another.  They will eventually, why not now?

     Now, back to the history of the Hammonds tribe.  It is a bit puzzling why these preachments come into these articles.  The writer can assure the reader that there is no preconceived effort to put them there.  The style used is an easy one; in fact, it enters into the very texture of the content.  It was Voltaire who said that the style which has the least resistance is the best.  I can promise you that my head is never scratched to wonder what shall be written.  One does hesitate occasionally, to discriminate to decide what should have priority.

     John Hammonds (1542-1589) is certainly one of the real pioneers of the clan.  He not only attained to prominence but achieved real success, for one to have lived so brief a span of life; born before the middle of the sixteenth century, he died the year Henry IV was crowned king of France .  People in the sixteenth century didn’t live to be old then like they do now; even their leaders were not noted for longevity.  One is reminded of what a clan chieftain in Ireland said about this during the middle of the sixteenth century.  He said that it was very unusual for one of them to grow old and die in bed.

     John Hammond was educated at Trinity College , Cambridge University , where he became a Fellow in 1561, and was soon granted an LLB degree.  This was three years after Queen Elizabeth was crowned Queen of England.  In the year 1564, she visited Cambridge University , and John Hammonds addressed her in Latin, with a very graceful oration in that old tongue.

 It was on August 9th of that year.  In 1569, John Hammond was created LLD, and admitted a member of the College of Civilians .  In 1573 he was appointed a Commissary to the Dean and Chapter of Saint Paul’s, London .  Commissary is a French word and perhaps had its origin in the army, as an officer of rank whose duty was to supply food and clothing to the soldiers, just like the American quartermaster, in a similar capacity.  The meaning the average citizen gets of the word commissary is a place where food and clothing are sold.  The word could be commissar and be just as correct.

     Saint Paul ’s London calls up a pleasurable picture in the mind of the writer, because it was there on Easter Sunday 1919, that so many pigeons were seen at the entrance of that great Cathedral; and the services within were in the highest and best tradition.  I believe Bishop Inge officiated.

     John Hammond was made a Master of Chancery in 1574; and Chancellor of the Diocese of London, in 1575.  In 1580, the same year Walter Raleigh was in Ireland , John Hammond was sent on a mission to the Island of Guernsey , in the English Channel , to investigate charges brought against the Governor, Sir Thomas Leighton, the results of which were not revealed.  From 1572 onwards John Hammond was an active member of the Ecclesiastical Court of High Commission.

 

(Part V to appear in next issue.)

 

The Gate City Herald
Friday, July 15, 1960

Colonial Expansion, Westward
Some Historic Highlights with Respect to the Hammond Family
By C. Mac Q

PART V

     The John Hammond mentioned last week had a son named for him, born in London, who was also educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated the 30th of August, the year Queen Elizabeth died, he was incorporated and MD.  In the present we of the U. S. refer to this subject as licensing.  It appears that his medical degree was given at Oxford , and he was elected a Fellow of the College of Physicians on May 13th 1608 , the year after the London Co. made the first English settlement at Jamestown .  He was Court Physician to King James I, and attended his oldest son, Henry, during his last illness.  Henry, the Prince of Wales was not only held in high esteem at court, but a favorite with the common people as well.  John Hammond, M.D., was an able physician, as attested by the rank of his patients.  His signature is attached to the original record of the post mortem of Prince Henry, Record Office, in London .

     John Hammonds Senior’s son, Henry, became a very noted minister of the gospel.  Henry, the Prince of Wales, was his god-father.  Henry Hammond was educated at Eton , one of England ’s famous prep schools, and at Magdalene College , Oxford .  He was remarkable for two things, namely, his excellent scholarship and Christian living.  He matriculated at Oxford at the tender age of thirteen, and was very proficient in Latin, Greek, and Hebrew.  In December, 1622, he graduated with a B. A. degree; received him M. A. in 1625, and D. D. in 1639.  He so impressed the Earl of Leicester, Queen Elizabeth’s first favorite at Court, when he first heard him, that he was given the post or charge of Pennhurst, County Kent.  While at Pennhurst he directed the education of his nephew, William, afterwards the well-known Sir William Temple, whose mother was Hammond ’s sister.  The Temple family continued to have high churchmen at Canterbury Cathedral for all the generations down to World War II in 1644.  His Practical Catechism was published anonymously, and its success was so phenomenal as to be almost unbelievable.  The book first drew the attention of King Charles I, who said that Henry Hammond was the most natural orator he ever heard, which of course, was only one of the gifts of the spirit of that truly gifted man.  His Practical Catechism was instantaneous success, and one of King Charles’ last acts at Carisbroke Castle , Isle of Wight , was to send a copy of it by Sir Thomas Herbert, to his son, the Duke of Gloucester.

     Such things are more readily understood when one looks closely into the life of Henry Hammond, the Chaplain of King Charles First.  Henry Hammond spent much time in prayer, which was the real secret of his remarkable success.  This great and good man, with the prestige of royalty on his side, and the Holy Spirit within him, was deprived of his office and put into prison by the Parliamentary party along with Samuel Fell, the Dean of Christ Church, Oxford , and a man named Sheldon.

     Henry Hammond was a handsome man, so further states the history pertaining to him.  His picture, or rather, painted portrait, hanging in the Hall of Magdalene College at Oxford , shows a man of a fine figure, “a quick eye, and a countenance which combined winsomeness with dignity”.

     His Catechism, together with Annotation of the New Testament, constitutes the bulk of his writings.  The latter gives him the claim and credit of having been the father of English Biblical Criticism.

     From what has been written the reader can readily see that the Hammondses stood high in Court circles; one of them a physician to King James I and another one Chaplain to King Charles II; and still another one was a lieutenant in Oliver Cromwell’s New Model Army.  This one was Thomas Hammond, also a son of Doctor John Hammond, the physician.  This Lt. General Thomas Hammond is sometimes confused with Colonel Robert Hammond, or more correctly, the other way around.  This Thomas Hammond was the uncle of Robert, the grandson of John, the M.D.  Also this Thomas Hammond was one of the Judges of King Charles I, and attended regularly during his trial, but did not sign the death warrant of the account says.  He died three years after the King’s execution “and was one of twenty regicides excepted from the act of indemnity.”

     There is another Hammond, around whom history flowed as real as the liquid Thames River , only most of it was made on the Isle of Wight .  We refer here to Colonel Robert Hammond, the son of the above Thomas, or perhaps a nephew.  There are two accounts of this relationship, conflicting in their statements.  Anyway, Robert was the grandson of the Medical Doctor John Hammond.  And the introductory statements pertaining to his historical relationship to King Charles the First, leaves the impression that he was always most loyal to that king.

     This is a long story and complicated; one simply cannot relate it briefly and do justice to the subject.  To quote: “And it was to this Colonel Robert Hammond, that King Charles I fled for protection when driven from his throne . . . . Colonel Robert being loyal to his King gave him shelter beneath his roof, which act cost him his office”.  These quotations embody a partial truth:  therefore, intellectual honesty calls for relating the whole story, and if our readers will only manifest patience it shall here be given.

     It is true, in the beginning of their relationship, Colonel Robert Hammond was a protector to Kin Charles I, but later on he found himself the Monarch’s jailor (Gaoler, the English version), with responsibility to the Parliament, to whose members he made reports.  As a matter of fact, the very inception of the plans of their relationship started off in the shadow of suspicion.  Charles wondered if he could trust Robert to protect him at Carisbroke Castle , although his uncle was his Chaplain, and the means of introducing Robert to the King at Hampton Court .  The King’s stock was ever on the decline after the decisive Battle of Naseby; and the four bills which had been recently submitted to Charles by Parliament had been rejected.  Such was the state o affairs to further augment the strained relations existing between the Governor of Isle of Wight and the sovereign head of the British Empire .  An to be sure, Parliament was slowly closing the net around Charles, thereby reducing his already limited freedom of movement.

     (Part VI to appear next week)

 

The Gate City Herald
Friday, July 22, 1960

Colonial Expansion, Westward
Some Historic Highlights with Respect to the Hammond Families
By C. Mac Q

PART VI

     Colonel Robert Hammond had been in the army a number of years prior to becoming the Governor of Isle of Wight.  His appointment to that post was not given by the King, but was made by Thomas Fairfax, Commander in Chief, who commissioned Colonel Robert Hammond to be the Governor of that island, on condition that the House of Lords pass an ordinance of approval, or something of he sort, confirming the appointment.  An ordinance was passed Sept. 6th, 1647, (Lord’s Journal, IX421); In this confused state of affairs it had become questionable as to whom the Governor was responsible, the army or the Parliament, which later proved an issue of considerable importance, especially since it was the purpose of the House of Commons to get full control of the royal prisoner, King Charles First.

     The main reason why Robert Hammond resigned from the army to accept the appointment as Governor of Isle of Wight, was due to the fact that the former was breaking faith with the king, and failed in its promises, “and that he would have nothing to do with such perfidious actions”.

     It is true, his immediate loyalty was to the army, which constituted one line of the triangle, the Army, Parliament, and the King.  But it is necessary to remember that the Hammond clan had a long and historic tradition of loyalty to the Kings of England from the time of William the Conqueror, and to break this tradition was no easy matter.  Besides, the sovereignty of the Parliament had not yet been established; it was only in the process of becoming so.  The battle of Naseby , fought June 14th, 1645 , was decisive, in that it broke the military power of Charles.  There, he not only lost heavily in army equipment and supplies, such as 12 brass cannons, 2 mortars, 8,000 stand of small arms, and 40 barrels of powder, much baggage, 5,000 prisoners, and most highly prized of all was the King’s cabinet of private papers, which were later used against him to devastating effect.  The private letters were read in public in London and other principal cities of the realm to break the loyalty of Charles’ subjects, which was soon accomplished.  They showed the connivance of the King with the Irish rebels, and the Queen’s effort to solicit the aide of the Duke of Lorraine, in France .  They manifested clearly the effort of the king to bring in foreigners to fight his subjects.  Another thing, they turned public opinion in the direction of parliament and tended to crystallize a movement known as the Levellers.  It was they whom Charles feared the most, and caused him to flee from Hampton Court Nov. 11, 1647, to seek refuge at Carisbroke Castle on Isle of Wight, under the protection of Colonel Robert Hammond.  After a long and strenuous ride through a dark and stormy night, the King and his retinue reached Sutton Place , where they were met by Governor Hammond who escorted them on to Carisbroke, where Charles took up his abode for a whole year, not as a guest, however, but as a royal prisoner.

     One of the first official acts of Colonel Hammond after the king arrived at Carisbroke Castle was to notify Parliament of the entry of his royal prisoner.  Cromwell was very much concerned about the safety of Charles, hence the deep interest as to his whereabouts.

     At first, all went well between the King and the Governor of Isle of Wight.  Charles imposed faith in him, and the noble soul of Robert Hammond responded to that faith.  After a time the restless soul of the king grew irksome at the confinement imposed on him, and he became very restive and resentful because the Governor would not freely admit any and all callers, wishing to have an audience with him.  “Rumor spread of angry scenes between Robert Hammond and the King (Clarendon State Papers, Vol. 11, Appendix P XL IIV) A report went abroad of a scuffle between Charles and the Governor”, whose position by now had become almost unbearable.  “It was even narrated that blows were exchanged, but not to the extent that the Colonel hurt the King”.

     So far as this writer knows, the above case of a commoner and a king scuffling, and exchanging blows, is the only one on record in modern history; and by modern history, we mean since Columbus discovered America .  Matters reached such an impasse that Robert Hammond asked more than once, to be relieved of his Post as Governor.  We use the word “Post” here advisedly, because it still appeared to him that he was serving under the command of the Army instead of Parliament.  In the melee and confusion , it seems apparent the Charles had forgotten the original reason for his coming to Carisbroke, in the first instance, which was to get away from the Levellers, a group working to abolish all social inequalities.  He fled Hampton Court because they had threatened his life.  He appears to have forgotten this, after being a short while in the castle on Isle of Wight .

     Parliament, whose primary interest was to get control of the king, drew up a new set of instructions for Governor Hammond to follow, ordering him to set guard over Charles for securing the king’s person from violence, and preventing him from departing the said Isle without the direction of both house.  ( Nov. 16th, 1647 , Lord’s Journal IX, 527).

     In the meanwhile, a breach between the Parliament and the Army involved Robert Hammond in new problems.  Of course, this was not the first problem he ever met in the Army career, for he had experienced major ones before this, on involving a duel between him and Major Grey, which was fought in the streets of Gloucester , where Grey was killed.  For this offense, Robert Hammond was tried before a Court Martial, and unanimously acquitted November 20th, 1644 , on the grounds of self defense.  (Biblio-theca Glouchestrensis PP 100-109)  (Commons Journal Vol. 111 P 712).

     Just prior to the sharp difference between the Parliament and the Army, an attempt was mad by two of the King’s attendants, Osborne and Eowcett, to speed Charles away from Carisbroke and Isle of Wight .  A plot was hatching to enable the king to make a full and complete get away.  The two men in question, were arrested.  Of course, they had an excuse for such a bold attempt.  They claimed that Colonel Hammond’s second in command, Major Rolph, had plotted against the king’s life, and that Hammond was aware of it.  This the Governor indignantly denied, and demanded to be cleared of Osborne’s charge or removed from office (Old Parliamentary History XVII, 191-156-294).

     By the late autumn of 1648, the breach between the army and Parliament, involved Robert Cromwell, (and of course we mean here Oliver Cromwell; there have been other Cromwells who figured in English history, most conspicuous of whom was Thomas Cromwell, Earl of Essex, English statesman, who advised King Henry VIII to proclaim himself the head of the English Church;) and his Parliamentary General, Henry Ireton, son-in-law, wrote to Governor Hammond of Isle of Wight, addressing him: “Dear Robin: but forcibly stating that his obedience was due to the Army instead of to the Parliament, “and that he should take their side in the struggle” (BirvchPP 95-113) (Cromwell Letter XXXV).  And to reinforce this view Robert Hammond received a letter from Thomas Fairfax, Third Baron, Commander-in-Chief of Cromwell’s New Model Army, asking him to come to St. Albans , and informing him that a Colonel Ewer had been sent to guard the king.  Presently, he reported to Craisbroke to take over that duty.

     Being a good soldier, Robert Hammond, at once, realized his responsibility lay with the Army, and felt bound to obey the command of his superior officer.  At the same time, he seemed to sense the whole affair to be a scheme to get control of the king, and to take him away from Isle of Wight , which it was.  In the meantime, the House of Lord’s commanded Hammond not to leave his Post as Governor, but he had already started on his way, and when he tried to return he was put under arrest, until the king had been taken to Hurst Castle on the mainland, where he remained until Colonel Thomas Harrison guarded him on his way to London for his trial.

     (More to follow next week.)

 

The Gate City Herald
Friday, July 29, 1960

Colonial Expansion, Westward
Some Historical Highlights with Respect to the Hammond Family
By C. Mac Q

PART VII

     In recognition of Robert Hammond’s services, Parliament voted him an annuity of 500 pounds a year to be settled “on himself and his heirs:, ( April 3, 1648 ).  Later, this was changed into a pension of 400 pounds a year, and finally commuted for lands of Ireland , to the value of 600 pounds a year.  ( Call State Papers, Dom. 1654, PP 321-328)  During the early part of the Cromwellian regime, Robert Hammond took no part in the public affairs of the State, but his friendship for Cromwell was steady and true.  On the 22nd of July 1651 , he wrote to his friend Oliver, asking him to intercede for the life of Christopher Love, assuring him of his own attachment to Cromwell and the cause of the Commonwealth (John Milton State Papers, P 75).  And to prove this warm and lasting friendship, when Cromwell became the Lord Protector of the Commonwealth, he used every opportunity to reward his loyal friends, and Robert Hammond was among the first to receive his from the Lord Protector.  In August 1654, Robert Hammond was appointed a member of the Irish Council.  He reported at once to Dublin , and began the reorganization of the Judicial system, but contracted a fever and died early in October 1654.  Thus ended the earthly career of a brave officer, able and trusted civilian official, and a true Englishman.

     So many of the Hammond clan made history, that it becomes necessary to discriminate as to the selection from here out.

     There was an Anthony Hammond (1668-1738) who was chosen a member of Parliament for Huntingdonshire.  A dispute arose, over the result of the election, as it is understood, causing a duel to be fought between him and a Lord Pawlett, in which Anthony Hammond was wounded in the thigh (Luttrell Relations of State Affairs).

     In Parliament, this Anthony Hammond was accepted as an authority on the subject of Public Finance; and another quality he possessed was that of excelling in public speaking.  Bolingbroke called him the silver-tongued orator, but regarded him as somewhat lacking in tact, which led Chesterfield to say “that he had all the senses but common sense”.  This is no way seemed to interfere with his vote getting ability, for in July 1689, he was returned to Parliament, to represent the University of Cambridge , “on which occasion he was made an M. A. as a member of Saint John’s College .  Anthony Hammond was more than a clever speaker and financer.  He was a writer of considerable note, for he was a poet and pamphleteer; a writer of fundamental subjects.  He had a long and traditional background, tracing back to Saint Albans in Kent County, England.

     In the then coming session of Parliament he was unfortunate in his choice for Speaker.  He favored Harley instead of Sir Thomas Littleton, who was selected.

     Anthony Hammond was reelected in 1700, but was defeated in the following election by Isaac Newton.  Yes, it was Sir Isaac Newton, the creator of Modern Dynamics, the famed mathematician who formulated the binomial theorem, the laws of gravity and motion.  He was plain Isaac Newton at the time of the above mentioned election; he was knighted in the year 1705.  The City and the University of Cambridge took the occasion of electing him to Parliament as a means of honoring him, but we think that such a genius as Sir Isaac Newton becoming a member of that August body, honored it.  Intellects of the first rank seemed to fare better at the hands of the electorate then than now.  In this country it has seemed to us that the voters are more attracted to men of talent than to those in the rank of genius.

     Another member of the clan of the historic family of Hammond was William Hammond of Saint Albans , County Kent , England , who received the honor of Knighthood in the year 1608.  He married the daughter of Anthony Archer, Esq., of Bishopsborne, and had issue.  His wife was the granddaughter of Edwin Sandys, Archbishop of York, and niece of George Sandys.

     There was another Wm. Hammond, the third son of the above named gentleman, born in 1614, who became an author and poet.  His interesting little volume titled “Cindri Gloria Sera Venit”, was published in 1655-1816 by Sir Samuel Edgerton Brydges.  This same publisher put out a small volume containing a poem on Dunluce Castle , giving the history of the MacQuillins who occupied that strong fortress in the sixteenth century.  Of course the 1816 publication of the Hammond poem is a reprint of the original.  Several of his poems are addressed to Thomas Stanley, whose mother was a sister of William Hammond.  The Brydges reprints are difficult to find because there were less than a hundred copies published.

     Reference has already been made to Doctor John Hammond, the physician to King James I, and to two of his sons, and grandson Robert.  This member of the House of Burgesses from Isle of Wight County , named for Isle of Wight in England .  He did not, however, make Virginia his future home, even after representing the colony for many years in the Burgesses.  He went from Virginia to Maryland , where he stayed for several years, and wrote a book on the two colonies entitled Leake and Rachel.  He went back to England and never returned to the Colonies.

     (Part VIII Next Week)

 

The Gate City Herald
August 19, 1960

Colonial Expansion, Westward
Some Historic Highlights with Respect to the Hammond Families
By C. Mac Q

PART VIII

     There was a Samuel Hammond in England of the period of which we are now writing, who was a non-conformist minister.  He was a butcher’s son of York .  He was not the first brilliant mind to come through the butcher’s trade,: William Shakespeare was a butcher’s son, and a bankrupt butcher at that.  One can never tell where genius will strike.  Woodrow Wilson spoke some pertinent words on the subject at the dedication of the Abraham Lincoln Shrine at Hodgenville , Kentucky , in 1916; and so did Henry Waterson on an earlier occasion, when asked the question, “where did Shakespeare get his genius”, and answered it by saying; from God, and God alone.”  This writer longs to see the time when Americans will put less emphasis on class distinction, and live the spirit of true Democracy, and real Christianity.  When they do, the Communist will have less ground for propaganda, and the brotherhood of man will approach reality, and universal peace will soon dawn in a world once confused, frustrated, distracted and bewildered.

     The doctor, Samuel Hammond, just referred to, living in England of the seventeenth century, was an aid to Doctor Samuel Collins of King’s College, Cambridge University, became the leading Evangelist of that century, The Earl of Manchester saw great possibilities in the young man while he was still in college, and was able to procure for him a scholarship to enable him to do graduate work.  Later, young Hammond was invited to accompany Sir Arthur Hesilrigge to the North of England, and Scotland , where he greatly impressed his audiences.

     The Hammondses not only made history in the old world, but nearly as much in the new.  It was to Ralph Hamor or Hammond , that Jamestown was patented in 1624, by King James I, of course, other gentlemen were involved in this royal deal.  Among them, was Sir Francis Wyatt, Governor, George Yeardley, and ten others, all of whom composed the council.

     This shift of policy on the part of the English government from private enterprise to the issuance of a royal charter meant a great loss to the stock holders of the Old London Company.  Their loss has been estimated to have been one hundred and fifty thousand pounds, which was the equivalent of about one million dollars.  Even so, they did not fare so badly as some of the Irish chieftains, when King James First, confiscated all the land they had by granting it to some of his favorites, who aided him in the pursuit of  his State policy towards the Irish landowners.  Only twenty-two days after James ascended the throne of England in 1603, he gave to Randall MacDonnell 334,000 acres of land, formerly belonging to Chief Edward Mac Quillin, lord of the Route, County Antrim, whose seat of power was Dunluce Castle, the then strongest fortress in the British realm according to one of the Lord Lieutenants whom England sent over to Ireland to get control of it.  The remainder of the Territory of the Route, a vast residue, was granted to other favorites by King James I.

     At first, in explorations and colonial settlements, the English had been strong in the direction of private enterprise.  Later, however, a strong trend set in against it.  In Ireland as early as 1573, we see the private enterprise system of planting colonies still going strong, even to the extent of Queen Elizabeth I being a partner with one of her favorites, the Earl of Essex, Walter Devereux, to plant colonies in the Northeast of Ireland.  “She made him a grant of all country between Coleraine and Belfast , “she to bear half of the expenses and get half of the dividends.”  There was one official in the English government who was bold enough to criticize his proposed plan.  It was Sir Henri Sidney, who was a boyhood friend of Henry VIII, the father of Elizabeth .  He called it “a mean and shameful bargain”, saying that the conquest of Ireland should not be “private subject enterprise, but at the Queen’s purse.”  Nothing came of this proposal because of the O’Niells were then too powerful to submit to such an exploitation.

     Now back to Ralph Hammond, previously referred to.  It appears that he was the first of the name in North America .  Some members of the clan came to New (fragmented entry in newspaper) or Hammond was of the family of Aerin, County Kent , England and was a younger son of that House, whose lineage is the same as those of St. Albins.  The record shows that Ralph did not long survive the rigors of Colonial life, and died at Jamestown .

     There was a George Hammond, born in England in 1620, and died there in 1705.  He was preacher, having been educated at Eyeter College and Oxford University .  He received an M. A. degree; was a very able minister, and attracted the attention of Archbishop Ussher.

     And continue with the list of Hammondses, it is a pleasure to mention Major General John Hammond, who was born on Isle of Wight in 1643, and died in Maryland 1707.  He was the first of the name to remain in Maryland .  He was one of the most distinguished and versatile of the early colonial leaders.  He filled some very important positions.  He was a Judge of and ejected non conformist Vice Admiralty; Major General of the Western shore (of the Chesapeake Bay, presumably) a member of the House of Burgesses, Justice of the Provincial Court, and a member of his Majesty’s Council, 1698-1707).

     General John Hammond was buried in St. Anne’s Church Yard, Nov. 29, 1707 , Annapolis , Maryland , where his tomb may still be seen in good condition.  There is also the Hammond Bible, left to the church by him, who having been not only a member, but a Vestryman, which, of course, explains he reason for the gift.  In 1695 he gave a deed for the church site upon Severn Heights , and the Hammond Bible was purchased by the Vestry in 1707, from the legacy of ten pounds, left for that purpose.

     This Major General John Hammond married Mary Howard, and had issue of several children.

     The Howard clan is one of the oldest and most historic in the annals of Western Europe .  Their deeds embrace a thousand years of recorded history.  The Howard Family, as given by Burke in his long list of Peers, as “the oldest and most illustrious in the world.”  The name is of Saxon origin, and appears very early as “Hereward.”  It traces back in English history to the reign of King Eadgar or Edgar, King of England from 944 to 975.  This early Hereward’s son was he great lord Leofric, whose wife was Lady Godiva, of the Coventry ride fame.  We are told that she rode a white horse in her birth suit through the town of Coventry , in the Midlands of England, so that her husband would abolish a burdensome tax on the people.  This was in accordance with their agreement.

     The third generation of the Maryland Hammondses also intermarried with the Howards.  Mary Katherine Hammond married Cornelius Howard, and had issue.  Time and space forbid us to give details here.

     A parting word here shall be given with respect to the importance of the Howard Family as to their rating in the noble families of England .  The head of the House of Howard is the Duke of Norfolk, the premier Duke of all England .  It was the ***ness a royal parade in Birmingham , England , May firs **** privilege of this writer to **** where the Duke of Norfolk **** the royal procession, in **** King George V and Queen **** were the royal guest of **** fair city.

     (Part IX to appear next week.)

CORRECTION

     In the issue of July 22, a proofreader’s oversight allowed the Roman numerals XIII to appear following the name of he King of England in Part VI, paragraph 10.  The sentence should have read “King Henry VIII proclaimed himself the head of the English Church .”  Those who are keeping scrapbooks of these articles will want to make the correction to set the record straight.

 

The Gate City Herald
September 22, 1960

Colonial Expansion, Westward
Some Historic Highlights with Respect to the Hammond Families
By C. Mac Q

PART IX

     Colonel William Hammond, the third generation of the Maryland Hammondses, laid out the town of Baltimore .  The Maryland General Assembly of August 9, 1779 , appointed him Commissioner to do the job.  Baltimore has since grown into a great metropolitan city.  William Hammond was also High Sheriff of Baltimore County, and was Colonel of the Colonial militia.

     Samuel Hammond, born in September 1757, was a revolutionary soldier, who served with “vim and vigor”, and having had some previous military experience in war against the Indians, he raised a company of volunteers and commanded them at the Battle of Long Bridge, Norfolk , in Dec. 1776.  In 1779, he joined General Lincoln’s Army with the rank of captain, and saw service in Georgia and the Carolinas .  He was at the siege of Savannah in 1779, and the fall of Charleston in 1780, where Sergeant Jasper rescued the Colonial flag shot down by the British.  Samuel Hammond was with General Nathaniel Green in some of the hottest engagements in the Carolinas , which slowed down the advance of General Cornwallis in his advance to Virginia .  Two of these were the Battle of the Cowpens, and Eutaw Springs.

     At the close of the war Samuel Hammond became a merchant at Savannah , and in the pursuit of his business he went on trips to Latin America , where he learned Spanish, also some French, both of which proved a big help in his business.  In 1802, he was elected to Congress, and later President Jefferson appointed him Military and Civil Commander of the Northern District of La., 1804-06; also Judge of the Common Pleas Bench, 1811; member of the Territorial Council of the Missouri Territory, 1820.  He was also a member of the Missouri Constitutional Convention.  For 20 years he lived in the little French Village of Saint Louis .  He organized the firs bank there, and was its first president.  He returned to S. C. and repurchased Varello Farm, located on the S. C. side of the Savannah River , near Augusta , Ga.   He was married twice (1) to Rebecca Rae, widow of Colonel John Rae.  She died in 1798.  In May 1802, he married Eliza O’Keefe.  There were children by both marriages.

George Hammond, 1763-1853

     George Hammond was the youngest son of William Hammond of Kirk Ella, East Riding, Yorkshire , England .  He was secretary to David Hartley, Jr., at the Paris Peace Conference of 1783, to bring a settlement be between the Colonies and Britain .  He did more to bring about an amicable settlement than any other person.  His role reminds n o the Hon. Arthur J. Balfour, Secretary to the Hon. Benjamin Disraeli at the Congress of Berlin, in 1878.

     One of the difficult subjects at the Paris Conference was that of the loyalists.  There had been thousands of them involved in the Revolutionary War; New York State alone, had 15,000, most of who escaped to Canada during Washington ’s campaign on Long Island and Manhattan .  After the war was over many of these wished to return and take up living where they left off, which meant, of course, the restoration of their estates.  Getting these confiscated lands returned to the original owners constituted young Hammond ’s chief problems.  Although he was only 28 years old, he proved himself a real diplomat, and succeeded in a large measure in solving the problem.  The Colonial leaders yielded reluctantly to the wishes of the young Englishman, because they remembered how the loyalists hampered Washington in pursuing the war.  The spy work of Peggy Shippen, the young debutant daughter of a wealthy Philadelphia merchant, still ranked in the bosom of our diplomats.  It was she who influence caused Benedict Arnold to turn traitor, and surrender West Point , the strongest fortress in the Colonies, to the British in 1780.

     After the Peace settlement, this same George Hammond, was sent over to Philadelphia , the then Capital, by Lord Greenville, British Foreign Minister, to be the first Ambassador to the U. S.  He was prominent socially, having married a young lady of the Quaker City , which, naturally increased his influence for bringing about harmony between the two countries.

Now back to Charles Hammond (1779-1840)

     Charles Hammond (1779-1840) was an able writer, including poetry.  He wrote both the Scioto Gazette and the Cincinnati Gazette.  In 1823, he became Editorial writer for the latter paper.  Later, Charles Hammond was the leading member of the Ohio Bar, and widely recognized outside of that state as one of the ablest lawyers of his generation.  Chief Justice John Marshall spoke highly of his acute and accurate mind, and Thomas Ewing complimented him for his clear and concise English “as good as Addision wrote in the Spectator”.  Simplicity, conciseness and originality would best characterize the man.  His most famous case was Osborne versus the Bank of the U. S. (9 Wheaton 738)  He was not a friend of Andrew Jackson (all the worse for him we think) the Bank’s leading opponent, but they fought the same battle against the giant of finance.

     John Quincy Adams offered to appoint Charles Hammond a Justice of the Supreme Court, but he declined to accept the honor.

     Edwin Hammond, (1801-1870), and his brother William, of New England, were descended from Benjamin Hammond, who came over from London to Boston with his mother, a sister of Admiral Sir Wm. Penn, the father of William Penn of Brotherly Love fame, in 1634.

     These brothers excelled in the growing and grazing stock, such as sheep, horses, and cattle.  At one tie they had over 1,000 sheep, of the Saxony breed, which was a big number for a New England farm in those days.

     George Henry Hammond (1833-1886) is known as the pioneer meat packer instead of Swift and Armour.  George Hammond was the first one in that field to discover, so far as we know, the use of refrigerator cars.

     He was born in Mass. May 5th, 1838 , the third of 12 children, of John and Sarah Huston Hammond, and the eighth generation from Wm. Hammond, whose widow, Elizabeth, was a sister of William Penn’s father, the Admiral in the British Navy.  Some of our readers will wonder how come a Quaker to be in the Navy.  We answer this by saying that the Pennsylvania Penn’s father was not a Quaker; it was the son who was, and his life influenced Benjamin Franklin to become one, and many other American leaders.

     Joseph Fort Newton, a native of Texas , tells in his “Rivers of Years” how William Penn’s writings influenced him.  He purchased two of Penn’s books in a second hand store in St. Louis , Mo. , the titles of which were: Some Fruits of Solitude, and More Fruits of Solitude.  The two books were made up of epigrams, embodying wisdom of thought, and spiritual insight of one who lived his philosophy of life, even to purchasing the land from the Indians after it had been granted to him by the British Government to pay a debt owing Penn’s father for his services as a fighting man in the best navy in the world of that period of history.

     Just a parting word about George Henry Hammond.  In 1857 he married Ellen Barry of Detroit , Michigan , “by whom he had 11 children.”  His use of refrigerator cars was a phenomenal success for the period, and they brought him wealth, as well as making him a powerful success in centralizing the meat-packing industry.  He took the first car of dressed beef into Boston in October 1868.

(Part X to follow next week)

 

The Gate City Herald
October 6, 1960

Colonial Expansion, Westward
Some Historic Highlights with Respect to the Hammond Families
By C. Mac Q

PART X

     Jabez Delano Hammond (1778-1855), was a historian and a politician.  He was born at New Bedford , Mass. , but lived much of his life in New York State .  He, too, was a descendant of Benjamin Hammond, who came to Boston in 1634.  He took an active part in politics, and was elected to Congress.  He was an ardent supporter of DeWitt Clinton, who was elected Governor of New York.  Jabez Hammond was the author of “Political Parties in the State of New York ,” a work which brought him fame.

     Edward Payson Hammond (1831-1910), was an Evangelist, born at Ellington , Conn.   His father was Elijah Hammond, who was a descendant of Thomas Hammond, of Hingham , Mass. , an emigrant who came over from England in 1634.

      Edward Hammond studied at Phillips Academy , Andover , Mass. , and later graduated at Williams College , in the year 1858; followed by two years of study at the Union Theological Seminary, New York City , after which he went on to finish his training at Free Church College , Edinburgh , Scotland .

     Edward Hammond held revivals in remote places in Scotland , and was called to Edinburgh and Glasgow, and other noted places in Scotland .  The Rev. F. B. Myer, a well-known clergyman of London , tells of the influence on him by Edward Hammond; and General William Booth, the founder of the Salvation Army, testifies to the same influence in his life, to the extent of determining his life’s work.  Edward Hammond was the Billy Graham of his generation, having traveled and preached in Canada , Alaska , Sweden and other European countries.  He was the guest of the Queen of Sweden.

     James Henry Hammond (1804-1864), was born at Stony Battery, Newberry District, S. C.  His father was Elisha Hammond of Massachusetts , and a descendant of the well-known Benjamin, who came to Boston with his mother in 1634.

     Although the New England tradition was strong within him, James Henry Hammond became a devoted Southerner.  He was a champion of Nullification, and later an ardent secessionist.  He went so far as to become a strong advocate of Southern Nationalism.  He was Governor of South Carolina two terms, during which time he “secured the transformation of the arsenals at Columbia , and the Citadel at Charleston into military academies.”  It was the ardent wish of James Henry Hammond to succeed John C. Calhoun in the U. S. Senate, but the State Legislature at the State Capitol chose R. B. Rhett, instead.

     Mr. Hammond owned thousands of acres of land, well adapted to the growing of cotton, the staple money crop of the South.  It was this Mr. Hammond, according to my memory, who originated the phrase, “Cotton is King?” a once popular subject appearing on college bulletins for the writing of essays.  He lived at Red Cliffe, on Beach Island , in the Savannah River .  Mr. Hammond did become a U. S. Senator, although he did not have the honor of succeeding the leader of the Slavery party.  His principal speech in the U. S. Senate, was in reply to one made by Senator Wm. H. Seward, of New York , who said that the North would rule the South like a conquered province.  This extreme statement reminds on of Senator Robert Toombs of Georgia , who said on the floor of the U. S. Senate, that he expected to call the roll of his slaves at the foot o the Bunker Hill monument.  Both of these statements reflect the signs of the times, and show to what extremes intellectual leaders went in those days.

     It appears to us not an exaggeration to say that Charles Henry Hammond was one of the wealthiest men of his day.  His land alone was a big fortune, and the 300 slave he owned, estimated at a reasonable price of labor (of course their souls were beyond price) were worth at least $300,000.  He was not the biggest slave holder.  Robert Toombs owned 1,000 slaves; and Robert “King” Carter, when he died in 1732, owned 1,000 slaves.  But the biggest of all the slave owners was Nathaniel Hayward, of South Carolina , who had 1,843 slaves.  One other statement said the Hampton family of South Carolina owned 3,000; we doubt this.

     James Bartlett Hammond (1839-1913) was an inventor who had descended from Benjamin Hammond of New England .  This Mr. Hammond invented one of the first typewriters, the best one of his time, in 1884.  It made its first official public appearance at the New Orleans Centennial Exposition, where it won the gold medal in competition with other typewriters.

     John Hays Hammond (1855-1936), was a man of phenomenal success, perhaps the most outstanding, successful person of the whole Hammond tribe.  He was Born in San Francisco , Calif. , the son of Richard P. and Elizabeth Hays Lea Hammond, the widowed sister of John Coffee Hays, a fellow officer in the Mexican War, after whom John Hays Hammond was named.  Both parents were of Southern birth.  His mother was descended from a prominent Tennessee family.  The Hammondses had lived in Maryland and Virginia since early colonial days.  The son’s grandfather was an army surgeon, and two of his uncles, like his father, had served in the Mexican war.  He had been told many an Indian tale by his Uncle Jack Hays; and his father’s friends included some of the most colorful Confederate Generals.  His education was of the best for his life’s work, the Yale Sheffield Scientific School , in 1873, with a Ph.D., after which he enrolled in the famous Royal School of Mines, at Freiberg , Saxony , Germany .  Following his graduation in 1879, he returned to California , and was employed by the friend of his father, U. S. Senator George Hearst.  Later he worked for the California Geological Survey, collecting data on gold mining.

     In January 1881, he married Natalie Harris, the daughter of a Confederate General, in Maryland , whom he had met in Germany .  During their honeymoon in Washington, D. C., they were entertained at the White House by President Hays, a friend of his father.

     His mining ventures read like a story book out of the Arabian Knights.  But prior to this extensive traveling, he was Superintendent of the Union Iron Works of San Francisco, and the Southern Pacific R. R., Superintendent of the Empire and North Star Mines in Grass Valley , Calif. ; Bunker Hill and Sullivan Mining and Concentration Co., in the Coeur d’ Alene District of Idaho, one of the largest lead, silver and zinc mines in the world, which was purchased on his recommendation.

     After these operations were put on paying basis, he started on his world travels, to Mexico , Central America , South America , South Africa , etc.  He became a mining expert for the Barnato Bros., of London , who here heavily interested in South American property.  A year after this, he became associated with Cecil Rhodes, the Empire Builder of the Dark Continent .  The two men became fast friends as long as Rhodes lived.  John Hays Hammonds ventures led him into political entanglements with the Boer Government.  After the Jameson Raid, of which Hammond did not approve, he was arrested and sentenced to death by the Boer Regime, but later the sentence was commuted to 15 years of imprisonment, which was later lifted by him paying a fine of $150,000.  After this, he still directed the mining industry from London .  Following this, he returned to the U. S. and became associated with the Guggenheim interests as General Manager and Consulting Engineer, and negotiated the sale of perhaps the largest silver mines in existence, located in Mexico, the Santa Gertrudis, for which the largest single check ever issued in a mine transaction, $10,000,000 in Mexican currency was issued in payments to Hammonds’s English clients.

(More to Follow)

 

The Gate City Herald
November 11, 1960

Colonial Expansion Westward
Some Historic Highlights with Respect to the Hammond Families
By Claude Mac Quillen

PART XI – Conclusion

     John Hays Hammond, was also interested in hydro-electric power development, and irrigation projects, oil lands, etc., including the irrigation of 1,000 square miles of land in the Yaqui River District in Sonora province of Mexico; large oil bearing tracts on the East Cost of Mexico and the U. S.  It was he who inspired the building of the first street railway in Mexico City , as well as in South Africa ; Mount Whitney Power Co., in California , and the Guanajuato Power co., in Mexico .  He also investigated the conditions of the minerals in Russia , Siberia and Mongolia , and industrial resources of and also the possibilities of irrigating 600,000 acres of land in Russian Turkestan.  For a year, John Hays Hammond taught Mining Engineering at Yale University ; 1902-03.  He lectured on the subject at Harvard and Columbia universities, as well as John Hopkins.  He was appointed special representative of the President of the U. S. to attend the Coronation of King George V.  He was Chairman of the World Court Congress, 1914-15; and the U. S. Coal Commission in 1922-23.  He was the author of three books, namely, “The Engineer,” “The Truth of the Jameson Raid”, and the “Autobiography of John Hays Hammond”, he also collaborated with Dr. Jeremiah W. Jenks, “On American Issues”.  The Wm. Lawrence goad medal was given to him, the highest award of the Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers, for his genius in developing mines at home and abroad, “his independent leadership and his public service”.

     One of the outstanding things relating to John Hays Hammond, which is frequently omitted, is the very handsome structure and palatial home of his until 1936, the year of his death, now occupied by the French Embassy.  It is, in the opinion of this writer, the most beautiful embassy in the Federal City .  I write of the ground and general outside appearance.  Any tourists who come to the City of Washington should drive by it and see it.  It is located at 2221 Kalorama Road .  It is built on what was formerly the old Holmead estate.  The Holmead Manor House was named “Kalorama”, the Greek equivalent of “Beautiful View”.  This remarkable man and his lovely wife had four children, three boys and a girl.  One of the sons was named John Jr. who has to his credit 460 patents, most of them in the field of Electronics.  We shall not go into that subject, for these articles must be brought to a close, but shall leave with you this thought, namely, the law of heredity  is very important, and the role of genius is paramount in the progress of mankind.

    Now, for a word pertaining to the Hammondses of Scott County, Virginia, who form the link of bringing into being these articles.  When this writer was a boy there he knew two Hammondses, Stonewall, named for Stonewall Jackson, no doubt, who invariably came by our place every election day; and Basil Hammond, who lived near Clinchport.  Both of these men were fine citizens.

     There is one George Hammond listed in the fourth census, (first for Scott County) with the figure “5” opposite the name, meaning the number in the family.  In the 1850 Census more information about them is given.  There is a John G. Hammond, 42 years of age, Lucinda, his wife, 32, place of birth is Virginia.  Children: Nancy A. 17, Elinor 14, James H. 11, Mariah 5, Wm. K. 8 months old.  Also a Malinda 30, and Isabella 2 months old.  Malinda must have been a widow; Sally 50, Wm. 16, Andrew 13, and Maliza J. 13, Mahala 5, and Martha 3.  Again, Wm. Hammonds 41, Mary A. 30, Children: Thomas 11, Amos 9, Jenkins 7, Sam H. 5, Eliza 3.  Apperson Hammond’s 27, Debby 25, Jas. H. 4, Henry 3, Margaret J. 3 months old.  These were all born in Virginia .

     The is one male listed as having been born in the State of Ohio .  He is John Hammond, 33, wife Hester, 28.  She was born in Virginia .  The early census records give little information, not even the maiden name.  John and Hester Hammonds, in 1850, had three children, Lafayette , 6, Josiah 4, and William H., 1.

     Here, again, it is not my purpose to complete these records, even were it possible, but only to “scatter specimens”, as Walt Whitman says, hoping that enough interest will have been generated among the members and descendants of this noble tribe to cause some one to take up where I have left off.

     I was about to forget to mention another contribution made by this historic family, the Hammond organ, and also the Hammond Atlas, the very best of the whole lot published.  And be it said that this clan has left its impression in may of the states of the Union .  In several states, towns have been named for them.  For example, Hammond, Indiana; Hammond , Louisiana , and perhaps others.

     We salute all members in Scott County , and elsewhere, of this noble clan, and hope that you will start having an annual reunion; your great history and long tradition warrants such a thoughtful movement, if you have not already started having them.

Claude Mac Quillin

 

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