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       St.Johnsbury,* the county seat of Caledonia county, lies in the eastern-central part of the same, in lat. 44º 27', and Iong. 4º 58', and is bounded northeast by Lyndon, east by Kirby, southeast by Waterford, and west by Danville and Barnet. 
*For much of the following sketch we [Child’s assoc.] acknowledge our indebtedness to the writings of Rev. Edward T. Fairbanks, who has delved deeply in the mine of the town's historical lore. 
       These few lines will guide the stranger in his search as to what St. Johnsbury is; but if be would know what it was, what built it, the causes which brought into existence the beautiful township of today, let him follow us in a journey back to a period prior to the existence of the state of Vermont, to the times of its parent? the “New -Hampshire Grants.”  In 1770 a tract of land on the Passumpsic river was granted by King George III. to his “loving subjects of the Province of New York.” This tract contained 39,000 acres, including nearly all of the present St. Johnsbury, and a portion of what is now Concord and Waterford, and was granted to thirty-nine petitioners, under the leadership of John Woods and William Swan.  In honor of the Earl of Dunmore, who was afterwards appointed governor of the province, the new township was named "Dunmore."  But King George and his representatives were soon crowded aside, and seven years after the grant of Dunmore, Vermont declared herself an independent sovereignty.  Probably most of the grantees of Dunmore sold or relinquished their claims in Vermont, and settled in other quarters.  It is not known, at least, that any permanent settlements were made within its limits until 1785. 

       About this time Jonathan Arnold, in behalf of himself and associates, petitioned governor Thomas Chittenden, of Vermont, for a tract of unappropriated lands. In answer to this petition the governor had drawn up, October 27, 1786, a charter for a new township, and which was formally granted November 1, 1786. To this new township it was thought to give a name other than that which was to have perpetuated the name of the Earl of Dunmore. Among the French people the grantees had found a man who challenged their respect and won their gratitude? St. John De Crevecoeur, the French consul at New York. At the suggestion of General Ethan Allen, a personal friend of St. John, it was decided to name the new township in his honor. That the honor was not ill-conferred nor unappreciated, may be, seen by the following letter relative to the subject, received by General Allen:

NEW YORK, 3Ist May, A. D., 1785. 


  Inconsequence of the leave you have given me, with pleasure I will communicate to you the following thoughts, earnestly desiring, you'd be persuaded that they have not been dictated by any vanity or foolish presumption, but by a sincere and honest desire of being somewhat useful to, a state for the industry and energy of which I have a great respect. 

  I am an American by a law of this state passed in the year 1763. 1 have lived and dwelled in it ever since. I married in 1770. I have three children. I have drained 3,000 acres of bog meadow, built a house, cleared many acres of land, planted a great orchard. I have had the pleasure of publishing in Europe a work which has been well received by the public; wherein many interesting facts, are recorded of the bravery, patience and suffering of the Americans in the prosecution of their last war. Such, dear sir, are the titles whereon I presume to found and establish the liberty I am now taking. 

  First, I offer to have the seal of your state elegantly engraven on silver by the king's best engraver, and to change, somewhat, the devices thereof. I offer, with pleasure, to get another engraven for the college which the state of Vermont intends erecting, and I will take upon myself the imaging of the device thereof. I will do my best endeavors to procure from the king some marks of his bounty, and some useful presents for the above college. 

  If the general approves what I told him formerly concerning national gratitude, and the simple though efficacious way of showing it to such French characters as have amply deserved it, no opportunity can be so favorable as the present, since new counties and districts will soon be laid out. 

  If the general don't think it too presumptuous, in order to answer what he so kindly said respecting names, I would observe that the name of St. John, being already given to many places in this country, it might be contrived by the appellation of St. Johnsbury. But the most flattering honor that the citizens of Vermont could confer on me would be, to be naturalized a citizen of that State, along with my three children; America Francis St. John, William Alexander St. John, Philip Lewis St. John. 

  As soon as any resolution will be taken towards giving to the new townships and districts, some of the new names, I earnestly beg the general would write the account of it, which I should beg of him to send me by two or three different ways, so that I should not fail to have that part of it translated and put into the French newspapers, with the name of the general. 

  Wishing your state every prosperity, your good governor and counsel and yourself, my dear sir, I take my sincere leave of you, and beg you will look on me as a true friend and your very humble servant, 


       The names of the grantees of St. Johnsbury were as follows : Jonathan Arnold, Esq., Samuel Stevens, Esq., John, James, Clark and Joseph Nightingale, Joseph Lord, Ebenezer Scott, Jr., David Howell, Thomas Chittenden, Esq., John Bridgman, John C. Arnold, Joseph Fay, Esq., Ira Allen, Esq., Simeon Cole, Benjamin Doolittle, Josiah Nichols, James Adams, Jonathan Adams, J. Calender Adams, Thomas Todd, William Trescott and Jonathan Trescott. Governor Chittenden, in accordance with the usages of the day, received one share as remuneration for his services in drawing up the charter. His right was located on the east bank of the Passumpsic river, north of the present Center Village.  Ira Allen, of Irasburgh, and Joseph Fay, of Bennington, men of influence and position in the state, were also nonresident proprietors to the amount of four rights. The principal proprietor was Samuel Stevens, who held eighteen rights, or about 5400 acres. Being a nonresident, however, he subsequently transferred most of his lands to Doctor Arnold and others who were ready to settle. Arnold, at the date of the charter, held 3,900 acres, thirteen rights, or a tenth in amount of the old township of Dunmore.   Of the other grantees, the last eight in the list obtained the rights of proprietorship by virtue of settlement previous to the chartering of the town, and held respectively one 210th part, or about 100 acres. Each of the seventy-one equally divided rights included 310 acres, one rood, twenty-two poles, the whole area being estimated at 21,167 acres. 

       Besides the rights appropriated to the several grantees, one 71st part was reserved for the use of a seminary or college, and the same for the use of county grammer schools in the state. Also “lands to the amount of one 71st part for the purpose of settlement of a minister or ministers of the gospel in the said township, and the same amount for the support of an English school or schools in the said township.” The first two mentioned reservations were to be under the control of the state assembly, the latter to be located “justly and equitably or quantity for quality” in such parts of the township as would least incommode the settlement thereof. At the first proprietors' meeting was determined that the college and grammer schools reservations should include two full rights in the extreme northeastern corner of the town? the others were variously located, in no case comprising more than one third of the same right.  Provision was also made in the charter for the erection of the first grist and saw-mills out of the proceeds of the public lands, and nine acres in each 71st part, and the same proportion for each lesser part, was so arranged by the charter that the profits arising there from should be applied to the construction of public roads and highways. The conditions and other reservations of this charter were, “that each proprietor of the township should plant and cultivate five acres of land, and build a house at least eighteen feet square on the floor, or have one family settled on each respective right in said township within the time limited by law of the state. Also, that all pine timber suitable for a navy be reserved for the use and benefit of the freemen of the state.” The penalty of non-fulfillment was forfeiture of each non-improved right of land, the same to revert to the freemen of the state, and by their representatives be regranted to such persons as should after appear to settle and cultivate them. 

       The surface of the township whose birth we have thus recorded is pleasing to the eye and well adapted to the purposes of cultivation. Through the center of the town from north to south the Passumpsic river has its course. From its smiling valley the higher lands rise on either side to the east and west. In the southern part of the town it is joined by the Moose river, a large stream from the east, and Sleeper's river, a smaller tributary, from the northwest. There are a number of smaller streams in the township, so that the territory is well watered, and much available mill-power afforded. 

       In 1880 St. Johnsbury had a population of 5,800. In 1886 the town had sixteen school districts and thirty common schools, employing fifty-two female teachers, to whom was paid an average weekly salary, including board, of $9.06. There were 1,374 scholars, 365 of whom attended private schools. The entire income for school purposes was $21,403.93, while the total expenditures were $19,375.61, with E. T. Sandford, superintendent. 

       St. Johnsbury village is charmingly located, where the Moose river joins the Passumpsic. The surrounding landscape is diversified by numerous mound-like hills and knolls, plateaus and winding water courses. Nature made it beautiful at first, and architecture and horticulture have added to the attractions of the place.   It is a village of handsome residences and pleasant homes, and the hand of elegant culture is everywhere seen in the parterres of shrubs and flowers and verdant lawns fronting the dwellings of the people. Nearly every house is owned by its occupant, and prosperity and happiness reigns in the community. The name of “St. Johnsbury” and “Fairbanks,” however, are almost synonymous appellations, and justly, too, for it is this large firm that has made this village what it is a thriving, prosperous center. It was more than fifty years ago that the Fairbanks brothers: Erastus, Vermont's first war governor, Sir Thaddeus, the inventor, and Joseph P., started the wheels of industry in a primitive scale factory here that has made their names famous the world over, and brought honor and wealth to the family and prosperity to the town. These pioneer scale makers were succeeded in the industry a generation since by the present management, ex-Governor Fairbanks becoming associated with the original firm of E. & T. Fairbanks in 1842, Col. Franklin Fairbanks entering in 1856, and Col. William P. Fairbanks dating his connection with the scale company from a more recent date.

       A series of moral and physical photographs of St. Johnsbury from 1830 to 1885 would be remarkably full of interest and instruction.  In that era it has become the shire town and business center of eastern Vermont. In addition to its great scale industry the town contains a number of handsome buildings and public institutions which the munificence of the Fairbankses have provided or founded. The St. Johnsbury academy, with its fine and spacious buildings, the St. Johnsbury Athenaeum, with its choice library of 11,000 volumes, the commodious and handsome Y. M. C. A. building, and other minor structures, stand as monuments of their public spirit and liberality. Then there is Music Hall and the North church edifice, to which they liberally contributed; the handsome Union school building, a dozen beautiful and attractive churches, and a fine soldier's monument to interest the visitor. The town has two national banks, the Merchants’, and First National, with an aggregate capital of $900,000.00; also two savings banks, the Passumpsic Savings Bank and the Citizens Savings Bank and Trust Company. St. Johnsbury is admirably situated for manufacturing purposes, being located at the confluence of the Passumpsic and Moose rivers, both of which streams furnish good waterpower for mills and factories. The vast lumber regions of Lamoille and Essex counties are tributary by rail to St. Johnsbury, and the valuable granite quarries of northeastern Vermont supply large quantities of block granite to St. Johnsbury manufacturers. Miller & Ryan manufacture carriages; A.H. McLeod operates extensive flouring-mills; the Ely Hoe and Fork Company manufacture agricultural hand implements; M. J. Caldbeck and H. & H.E. Randall operate sash, door and blind factories; John Belknap makes knife blades and water motors; the St. Johnsbury Granite Co. and Carrick Bros. manufacture cemetery work and execute building contracts; Fletcher & Co. and E.T. & H.K. Ide operate flour and grist-mills; Demers & Pinard turn out packing-boxes, and G.W. Bonnett and B.F. Rollins manufacture agricultural implements. The history of its railroads, its newspapers, and its county buildings has already been given. 

       Summerville is a post village just east of St. Johnsbury village. It is located principally on one street. 

       St. Johnsbury East is a post village in the southeastern part of the town. 

       St. Johnsbury Center is a post village in the central part of the town. 

       St. Johnsbury Academy ranks as one of the best educational institutions of its kind in the United States. The academic buildings were the gift of Sir Thaddeus Fairbanks, and are suited in every way to the requirements of modern education. The academy edifice, of Romano gothic architecture, is three stories high, and stands over a high basement containing the gymnasium, heating apparatus, etc. South hall is four stories high and contains sixty rooms for students. The academy was founded in 1842, the present buildings being dedicated October 31, 1873. Aggregating the original cost of the buildings, subsequent gifts and subscription to an endowment fund, the gifts of Mr. Fairbanks to the institution amount to $200,000.00. 

       P. D. Blodgett & Co., insurance.? The office of  P.D. Blodgett & Co. is one of the largest fire, life and accident insurance agencies in the state, and the firm represents a large number of the best and strongest companies in America and Europe. This agency has had a large experience, and is able to offer reliable indemnity in all branches of insurance. The Messrs. Blodgett give their business their personal attention, and the adjustment of losses through their office has invariably given good satisfaction. They are to be found in their pleasant rooms in the Y. M. C. A. building, on Eastern avenue, and offer every form and plan of insurance issued by first class companies. 


       The following extract is from a late publication, "Attractions of St. Johnsbury, Vt.:"

      Fairbanks Scale Works:  "The magnitude of special manufacturing is one of the few items of American industry of which the majority of people know but little. The years which must crown the labors of the inventor find their corollary in the lifetime of exertion of those who control and direct the largest of America's special manufacturing establishments, dotted here and there throughout the United States, and which can be counted on one's hand; they assume but little of their genuine importance when referred to by the march of progress. No more striking illustration of this theory can be referred to than the honest success, and, we think we will be pardoned if we use the strong expletive, the prodigious magnitude of The E. & T. Fairbanks & Company Scale Works. The benefit St. Johnsbury derives from this manufactory can hardly be estimated; and only those who have made a careful examination of the works can have any approximate idea of the magnitude of the industry. The history of the Fairbanks scale dates back to 1830. About that time a business company was established in St. Johnsbury for the purpose of cleaning hemp and preparing it for market. After commencing operations it was found that a machine or scale was very much needed to facilitate the operations of weighing the hemp. This necessity led to an investigation of the principle of levers as combined in a weighing machine and resulted ultimately in the invention and development of the platform scale by the late Sir Thaddeus Fairbanks. The invention of this machine, the first grand idea which has resulted in profit not only to the manufacturers, but to almost every branch of human industry, was by no means a mere accident; and yet, hardly less mental ingenuity was required to originate the idea than in after years to perfect the manufacture, a work to which the skillful mechanical genius of the inventor was constantly and most successfully directed. 

  "The works of E. & T. Fairbanks & Co. occupy about twelve acres of ground upon which are over a score of substantial buildings, chiefly of brick. Spur tracks run from the railway lines entering St. Johnsbury to the company's works, thus facilitating the shipment of goods. Labor-saving machinery, and all the appliances which years of study can develop, are employed by the firm to facilitate the manufacture of their goods; and the delicate accuracy, strength and unchanging quality of the scales are due in a great measure to the minor improvements successively introduced. The success of the establishment has been a natural sequence of skill in construction, care in management, and increasing demand for the article manufactured. The officers of the company care as follows: Horace Fairbanks, president; Franklin Fairbanks, vice-president; William P. Fairbanks, secretary and treasurer. The company gives employment to about 600 skilled artisans and mechanics who annually turn out over 80,000 standard scales of every conceivable form, the different modifications of which number over 400. The works have been operated by the present company since 1874, the company being incorporated in that year. The Fairbanks scale is recognized as the standard in all countries, and in every competitive exhibition it has received the highest honor and awards. Large shipments of scales are made to Russia, Austria, Germany, Brazil, Chili and Australia. The Russian and Austrian government railways are supplied with the Fairbanks track scale, and Russia has adopted the Fairbanks scale as the government standard. 

  "Messrs. E. & T. Fairbanks & Co. have for many years supplied the United States government with all the scales used in the Postoffice department. In addition to this contract the company have recently built and erected a monster testing machine in the U.S. Navy Yard shop at Washington. The capacity of the machine is 150,000 pounds, and when tested it responded promptly to a weight of one and one-fourth pounds. 

  "In 1884 a company known as the Austro-Hungarian Fairbanks Company was organized at Buda Pesth, Hungary, with a capital of $100,000. The company was formed to set up scales for the European market made at St. Johnsbury and shipped thence in pieces. E. & T. Fairbanks & Co. have agencies in almost every city in the world. Their principal warehouses are: Fairbanks & Co. New York, Pittsburgh, Baltimore, Md., New Orleans, Buffalo, N.Y., St. Louis, Mo., Indianapolis, Ind., Albany, N.Y., Montreal, Can., Philadelphia, and London, Eng.; Fairbanks, Brown & Co., Boston, Mass.; Fairbanks, Morse & Co., Chicago, Ill., St. Paul, Minn., Cincinnati, 0., Louisville, Ky., and Cleveland, Ohio; Fairbanks & Hutchinson, San Francisco, Cal." 

      Carrick Brothers' granite Works:  The granite works of Carrick Brothers have been in operation only about three years, yet in this brief time the firm has built up a large business, and now employs over fifty hands. The Carrick Brothers are sole proprietors of the Victory Hill quarries, and do all kinds of granite work, monuments and statues being a specialty. The Victory Hill granite is especially adapted to monumental purposes, being of a fine grain and very durable. 

      Ely Hoe and Fork Company:  The works of the Ely Hoe and Fork Company were established by the late George W. Ely, in 1848, Ely, Balch & Co. succeeding Mr. Ely, the Ely Hoe and Fork Company being organized in 1880. The company employs a force of fifty men in the manufacture of hoes, forks, diggers, and other agricultural implements, the annual capacity of the works exceeding 12,000 dozen. The firm makes forty different sizes of hoes and forks, and uses 150 tons of steel annually. Superior workmanship and the use of the best materials in the manufacture of their goods have given the Ely Hoe and Fork Company a high reputation at home and abroad. 

     The Paddock Iron Works, located at Paddock Village, on the Passumpsic river, were built and established by Huxham Paddock, in 1828. His blast furnace was supplied with ore from Troy, Vt., and bog-ore from Lancaster, N.H., and other towns, and hauled by teams. The charcoal (and he had no other) was supplied from the forests near at hand, and also hauled to the furnace, giving employment to a large force of laborers. In conjunction with the foundry, where was manufactured plows, stoves and general custom castings, he established a machine shop for manufacturing all kinds of machinery, and especially for mills. The business was conducted by Mr. Paddock until near the close of his life, in 1845. About 1843 his only son, John H. Paddock, in company with his uncle, John C. Paddock, and Newell Woods assumed the business, under the firm name of J. C. & J. H. Paddock & Co. In about a year Mr. Woods retired from the firm. About 1849, Joseph Fuller became a partner with J. C. & J. H. Paddock and about one year after J. C. Paddock withdrew from the firm. Mr. J. H. Paddock, with and without a. partner, conducted the business until recently. Now the iron works are conducted by Mr. Hynes. 

      The Paddock machine shop, established in 1828, was leased by O. V. Hooker and Daniel Thompson in 1876, and the business was continued about a year under the firm name of Hooker & Thompson, when Mr. Hooker retired from the firm and Mr. Thompson continued the business alone until May, 1881, when Edward Goss became his partner, under the firm name of Thompson & Goss. This firm continued until September 18, 1886, when Mr. Thompson again became sole proprietor, and is now prosecuting the business.  He is a manufacturer of all kinds of iron and brass machinery, with a specialty in steam engine repairing and pipe fitting. This enterprise of Mr. Thompson gives employment to a force of from ten to twenty men. 

      The St. Johnsbury Brick Company's works, N.P. & T.H. Bowman, proprietors, located in Paddock Village, give employment to about twenty hands in the manufacture of common and pressed brick, turning out about 1,000,000 per year. The business was established in 1871, and came into the possession of the present proprietors in 1881. 

      The St. Johnsbury Granite Co. was established in 1874, by R. W. Laird, P. B. Laird and H. Moody. Mr. Moody retired from the company during the first year, and Mr. R. W. Laird is now sole proprietor. This leading industry gives employment to from seventy-five to one hundred men, manufacturing everything called for in the line of granite and statuary, with monumental work a specialty. Mr. Laird is also proprietor of granite quarriesin Brunswick, Ryegate, Greensboro and Woodbury, all of which yield granite of superior quality. The manufactory is under the efficient management of Mr. E.M. Harris, foreman, and turns out of manufactured goods about $50,000.00 to $75,000.00 worth annually. Crystal granite quarry of Brunswick, Vt. yields a quality containing seventy-three per cent. of glass. 

       Valley Falls Mills, manufacturers of air-dried straw-board, were established by A. A. Pierce in 1864. He continued to operate them with his son, F. A. until May, 1884, when A. A. Pierce retired, and F. A. and J. W. Pierce assumed the business, under the firm name of Pierce Brothers. They produce about 2,500 pounds of straw-board per day, employing eleven hands and running about five months per year. Pierce Brothers also operate a circular saw-mill, doing custom and merchant work, cutting about 6,000 feet per day, about five months of the year. 

       D. M. Bacon's tannery, on road 23, near 35, was established about sixty years ago. John Bacon, 2d, bought it of Alden Foster, in 1853, and operated it until his death, in 1876, since which time his son D. M. has conducted the business. He employs two or three men, and tans from 1,000 to 1,200 hides per annum. 

       O. P. Bennett's marble works are located opposite the depot in St. Johnsbury. Mr. Bennett gives employment to from three to five men in all kinds of monumental work.

      Jones & Shields furniture shop is located on the Passumpsic river, at Paddock Village, where they manufacture chamber and office furniture and extension tables, employing seven men. 

      The Caledonia grist and flouring mills, A. H. McLeod, proprietor, are located at the north end of Railroad street, in St. Johnsbury village. They have six runs of stones, with the capacity for grinding 2,500 bushels per day. 

       Pinard & Demers's shops are located on Pleasant street, Paddock Village, where they manufacture hard wood furniture and packing cases. The firm commenced business in 1877, and give employment to twenty-five hands. 

       O. V.  Hooker & Son's machine shops are located at the north end of Railroad street, St. Johnsbury village. The company was formed in 1878, and the present buildings then erected. They manufacture circular saw-mills, planers, stave machines and general machinery, also doing job work of all kinds. The upper portion of the building is occupied by Warren S. Smith, as a sash, door and blind factory. 

      The Acme Iron Works, located at Paddock Village, are owned by M. Hynes, who makes all kinds of brass and iron castings, giving employment to eight men. 

       Wilder & Sons' machine shops, on Railroad street, were established in 1885. They manufacture Wilder's patent beveled sawing tables, and do general light machine work.

      Thompson & Goodwin's turning works, located opposite the depot, in St. Johnsbury, were established by them in June, 1886. They have machinery for turning out 1,000 broom handles per day, or a proportionate amount of other work, from maple, ash, birch, poplar and basswood.

       Miller & Ryan's carriage shop, at the corner of Railroad and Portland streets, was built by them in 1881. They employ twenty men, and manufacture 200 carriages and l00 sleighs per annum. 

       Pierce & Jones' feed mill is located on the site of the mill built by Rufus Spaulding in 1817, at St. Johnsbury Center. The mill has two runs of stones, and turns out both custom and merchant work. 

      The East St. Johnsbury tannery was built by Henry F. Griswold, in 1881. 

       F. W.  Estabrook's grist and flouring mill is located at St. Johnsbury East.


     The First National Bank of St. Johnsbury:  This bank was organized May 9, 1864, and authorized to begin business in July following; but it really began banking in February, 1865, succeeding the old Passumpsic bank then closing up. Of the thirty-one men who signed the articles of association, twenty-three years ago, seventeen have died, as follows: Erastus Fairbanks, Noah Eastman, Ephraim Jewett, David Boynton, William W. Thayer, James K. Colby, Harry Chamberlin, Barron Moulton, A. G. Chadwick, Moses Kittredge, John D. Stoddard, Theron Howard, Joel Fletcher, James M. Eddy, Calvin Morrill, John Bacon, Thaddeus Fairbanks. The first board of directors were L. P. Poland, Horace Fairbanks, Calvin Merrill, John Bacon, Charles S. Dana, Franklin Fairbanks, and George A. Merrill.   L. P. Poland, president; Horace Fairbanks, vice-president; and George May, cashier, held these offices from its organization until January, 1886.   January 12, 1886, Luke P. Poland, president, and George May, cashier, resigned their respective offices. Hon. Horace Fairbanks was then elected president, and John C. Clark, who was assistant cashier nearly three years, was elected cashier. The bank was organized with a capital of $100,000.00. This has been increased from time to time, until it now stands at $500,000.00. During its existence it has paid back to its stockholders, in dividends, $174.00 on each share, and at the present time holds a surplus of $79,000.00 unimpaired. It has declared one semi-annual dividend of $2.00, one of $2.50, fifteen of $3.00, two of $3.50, twelve of $4.00, thirteen of $5.00, and the first one of $7.50. No losses were sustained until 1877, after which, for four or five years, the bank suffered severely, with others, in the general depression and depreciation of values. 

     Merchants' National Bank, incorporated 1875; capital $400,000, surplus $6,000. Banking house, Railroad street. W. S. Streeter, cashier. W. E. Peck, president; H. E. Folsom, vice-president; L. D. Hazen, C.T.A. Humphrey, W. L. Pearl and I. M. Smith, directors. 

     Passumpsic Savings Bank. Deposits, July, 1885, $1,279,000.00. Banking house, 55 Main street. W. S. Boynton, treasurer. Investing committee, Emerson Hall, Andrew J. Willard, A. E. Rankin, Edward F. Brown and G. L. Bradley. Emerson Hall, president; Truman C. Fletcher, Andrew E. Rankin, Theron M. Howard, Andrew J. Willard, W. S, Boynton, Edward F. Brown, George L. Bradley, John M. Alvord, Henry C. Ide, and Walter P. Smith, directors. 

     The Citizen's Savings Bank and Trust Company, of St. Johnsbury, organized January 12, 1887, with Jacob G. Hovey, president; Charles M. Chase, vice-president; John T. Ritchie, treasurer; and O. H. Austin, G. P. Blair, A. L. Bailey, F. Richardson and P. F. Hazen, directors. The bank pays two per cent. semi-annually to depositors, and does general banking business. 


     The settlement of the town was begun in the latter part of 1786, just before the charter was granted. At that time James Martin, and J. C. and Jonathan Adams came up the valley to the meadow south of the Railroad street, and there began the first clearing in town. About the same time Simeon Cole established himself on the meadows south of Center village. Later Benjamin Doolittle, Josiah Nichol, Thomas Todd, Jonathan and William Trescott had all obtained the right of proprietorship. The winter of 1786-87 was uneventful. A great settlement had not as yet sprung up on the ruins of Dunmore. The distant stores and grist-mills of Barnet furnished rum, sugar, and flour for the settlers. Amusing bits of experience of the men in bringing stores from Barnet to St. Johnsbury are related.  One of these is about the old pioneer, first elected representative to the state Assembly, who used to make periodic journeys on foot to Barnet, and return with a two bushel bag of grain on his back, and a gallon of rum in his hand. Another story was told of a certain eccentric individual who bought a bag of potatoes "down below," and having, with the assistance of two or three able bodied men, secured the same on his back, set out for St. Johnsbury. Unfortunately 3 small rent in the corner of the bag became so enlarged in the course of the trip as to permit the escape of one of the potatoes. He feared to stoop least the weight of the bag would prevent his regaining his balance, and proceeded to kick the potato all the way home. 

       In the spring of 1787 came Jonathan Arnold, Joseph Lord and Barnabas Barker, with fourteen others. Dr. Arnold had been for several years a member of Congress from Rhode Island, and was a man of sterling integrity and bright intellect He settled first at the head of St. Johnsbury Plain, then and until 1797 known as Arnold's Plain. He also owned the district now known as Fairbanks Village. It was he who ordered the survey of the town in 1787, which is quaintly bounded in the old charter as beginning at a hemlock tree at Barnet corner, running to a birch tree at the southwest corner of Lyndon, then to a maple tree at the southeast corner of Lyndon, then to a stake near a beech tree at Littleton north corner, then to a stake near a white pine tree at Littleton southwest corner, and then back to the "bounds begun at." The bill presented for expense of surveying contained some old entries, including "one quart rum 15., seven males' victuals at l0d. each, entertainment for hands 10S.," etc. A tradition in connection with the surveys is related: Dr. Arnold was with others laying out certain lines in the vicinity of Sleeper's river, then known as West branch. The provisions and equipments were left in charge of Thomas Todd. When they returned, Todd was found on the river bank rolled up against a log and fast asleep. "Henceforward," said Dr. Arnold, "let the West branch be known as Sleeper's river," and so it has since been known. 

       During the summer of 1787, Dr. Arnold built the first frame house erected in St. Johnsbury.  It was located in the woodlands at the northern extremity of the plain, just above the park which still bears the family name. To this house Dr. Arnold carried home his third wife, Cynthia Hastings, and for years it was occupied by successive generations. The old house stood until 1844, when the boys burned it in celebrating the election of General Polk. In 1790 the first town meeting was held at Dr. Arnold's house, with Jonathan Arnold, moderator; Jonathan Arnold, clerk; Jonathan Adams, treasurer; Asa Daggett, constable and collector; Jonathan Arnold, sealer of weights and measures; Joel Roberts, Joseph Lord and Martin Adams, selectmen. During this year the plain was mostly cleared of its forests, and contained three habitations, Dr. Arnold's at the northern extremity, Joseph Lord's log hut at the southern, and a rude cabin at the “Bend," on the site now occupied by the St. Johnsbury House. A road was cut across the plain, corresponding to Main street as it now lies; charred stumps on either side and dense woods beyond. A ravine twenty feet deep ran across the street, which was afterward bridged. Dr. Arnold died February 1, 1793, aged fifty-two years. 

       In June, 1787, the several undivided rights in the township were “drafted" for. The "one full right" reserved according to the charter for building mills, was located on the Passumpsic, just above the mouth of Moose river. This property, 300 acres, was assigned to Dr. Arnold, and during the spring of 1787 he put up a saw-mill, and later a grist-mill, the modern Paddock Village being then known as "Arnold's Mills."

       After the mills were established, the rights assigned, and the settlement of the town fairly under way, the population increased rapidly by immigration from the south. Most of the new comers were citizens of New Hampshire, Massachusetts or Rhode Island. No regular record of marriages, births and deaths was kept, until after the organization of the town, in 1790. The marriage service was commonly performed by Dr. Arnold, the first record being that of Eneas Harvey and Rhoda Hamlet, who "were married 17th Jany., 4 1793, by Jonathan Arnold, Esquire, in presence of several witnesses." The earliest recorded births are those of  Polly, daughter of David Doolittle, December 14, 1789; and Polly, daughter of John McGaffey, August 28, 1788. 

       David Goss, son of Philip and Hannah (Ball) Goss, was born in Winchester, N.H., October 16, 1770, married Cynthia Britt, and removed to St. Johnsbury in 1792, locating where his grandson, Willard, now lives. They brought their household effects with them. While they were building their log cabin they slept under a shelter of hemlock bark. They entered the cabin as soon as it was completed, and in 1794 Mr. Goss built a comfortable house, which is now in a good state of preservation. In 1793 he built the first saw-mill in his neighborhood, on Sleeper's river, near his residence, which was of great value to himself and neighbors. This saw-mill formed the nucleus of a hamlet which soon contained a grist-mill, tannery, cloth-dressing and wool-carding mill, a blacksmith and harness shop, and a starch factory, and received the name of Goss Hollow, which it retains to the present day. Mr. Goss died May 9, 1861, in the ninety-first year of his age. His wife died in 1850, aged eighty years. They had born to them six children, viz: Philip, Celia, David, Orpha, Seth W. and Emory. The second son, David, remained with his father on the homestead, and succeeded him at his death. He received a common school education, and while a young man taught school several terms. He married Esther, daughter of Major Butler, in 1819, who was the mother of all his children, and died in 1854. He served as lister, selectman, and as state senator. He died in 1880, aged nearly eighty-five years. 

       Dr. Jonas Flint was an early settler in St. Johnsbury. His son Alvin cleared the place known as the Flint farm, on road 9, and spent most of his life there. His son George was born on this farm, in 1822, and lived there until his death, in 1881.

       Daniel Pierce came to this town with his family, probably before 1800, and located upon the place where J. W. Prescott now lives. He began clearing the farm, boarding at his father's, and crossing the Passumpsic in a log canoe. The land was covered with a growth of hemlock so dense that he was obliged to unyoke his oxen and drive them single. He married Mercy Allen, was one of the organizers of the Methodist Episcopal church at the Center, and lived to pass his eighty-second birthday. He reared children as follows: Louisa H., Clark, Sally, Josiah H., who died young, Jacynthia, widow of Darius Bradley, and Abel A., who occupies the homestead. The last mentioned studied medicine when young, but devoted his time principally to the manufacture of lumber, and in 1864 with a partner, established the first straw paper factory in St. Johnsbury. He has been an efficient member and officer of the church and Sunday-school for many years. He married twice, first, Rosetta Ayer, and second, Sarah McGrath. He has five children, of whom F.A. and J. W. are engaged as the firm of Pierce Brothers, paper manufacturers. 

     Thomas Pierce, one of the early settlers and a pioneer of St. Johnsbury, came from Putney, Vt., as early as 1796, purchased a right of 300 acres, including the village of St. Johnsbury Center, and located his home on the hill half a mile west of the village, where his great-grandson, Hiram D. Pierce, now lives. He gave his attention to clearing and improving his large farm, and erecting comfortable buildings. The old home, now nearly a century old, was built by him, is now in a good state of preservation, and is occupied by Hiram D. Pierce and his family, sheltering the fifth generation of the Pierce family. His son Thomas succeeded him on the homestead, spent his life on the estate until the infirmities of old age compelled him to retire from business, when he removed to the Center, where he died. Hiram, son of Thomas, Jr., succeeded next to the homestead, married twice, first, Lois Stiles, who was the mother of two children, viz.: Lucina (Mrs. Stark), who resides near the homestead, and Hollis, who resides in the northern part of the town. He married, second, Diantha Fuller, who bore him three children, viz.: Emeline, who married Stephen Hunter, a farmer in East Burke; Amos, who died at the age of thirteen years; and Hiram D., before named. He married Marion Hopkins, October 8, 1862, and they are the parents of five children, viz.: Abbie A. (Mrs. Charles Salmon), who resides at St. Johnsbury village; Florence J., deceased at eleven years of age; Mabel, who died at the age of five years; Mary B., born September 1, 1878; and Willis H., born November 4, 1880. Among the relics of the ancient family is the old clock, tall and dignified, and still, as for more than a century past, ticking and correctly measuring the fleeting moments. 

       Reuben Spaulding was born in 1772, came to this town in 1794, married Sarah Sweat, and had nine children. His son John married Catharine Rice, and reared children as follows: Zelotus H., Bazelial B., John W., Jr., Ira W., Sarah A., Emeline, Zulena A., Lovina H., Flavilla A. and Reuben. Bazelial B. married Seraphine Kellogg, and has had born to him seven children; Edward M., Ira M., Cora E., Sarah H., Lyle B., Clinton and Jennie. He lives on the homestead. Reuben, son of John, married Susan L. Brigham, has two children, Herbert C. and Elwin, and lives on road 18. Herbert C. married Carrie Holmes, daughter of George and Mary E. (Howard) Holmes, and has one daughter, Susie M. 

       Calendar J. Adams, a native of Massachusetts, came to this town as one of the first settlers, locating on the meadows below where the depot now stands. He finally moved to Newport, Vt., where he died in 1813. He married, first, Submit Purchase, who bore him five children, and second, Mrs. Trescott. His son Charles married Rebecca Morgan, and settled in Waterford, where he died in 1843, aged seventy-two years. He reared ten children, viz.: Polly, Sally, John C., Rebecca, Cornelius, Mehitable, Priscilla, Minerva, Ruth and Jonathan. The last mentioned married Roxanna Ladd, and has had born to him six children, namely, Otis, of California, Martin, Moses, Jonathan, Orange, and Hannah who lives in Providence, R.I.  Mr. Adams lives in East St.Johnsbury. 

       Jeriah Hawkins was born in Cranston, R.I., and came to this town from Winchester, N.H., in 1794. He was a minute-man in the Revolution, and was delegated to carry important dispatches. He married twice, and reared eight children. He lived to be ninety-nine years of age. His son Stephen married Abbie Shorey, and reared ten children, six of whom live in St. Johnsbury. 

       Capt. Oney Hawkins, son of Hezekiah, was born on the Hawkins homestead, and lived there most of his life. He married twice, first, Sally Stearns, who was the mother of three children who grew to mature age, and several who died in childhood. The eldest, Willard, was born on the homestead, August 17, 1809, married Freelove Arnold, March 10, 1835, first settled on the farm now owned by Arzo Peck, where he lived six years, when he bought the place where his son Willard, Jr., now lives, where he continued till the close of his life, January 14, 1883, aged seventy-three years. His wife died July 23, 1872, aged sixty-one years. They had born to them three children, Maria, who lives with her brother Willard, Lucy S., who married Horace E. Hall, and resides in Somerville, Mass., and Willard, Jr., who lives on the homestead. Lewis, second son of Captain Hawkins, married Hannah Ware, and was the father of eight children. He died in Sutton. Sally married John McGaffey, and was the mother of four sons. She resided in Lyndon, where she died early. 

       Bartlett Bowker, son of Bartlett, was born in Fitzwilliam, N.H., in 1784, came with his sister and her husband, David Stowell, to St. Johnsbury in 1805, and in 1808 bought the place off road 13 where he resided until his death, in 1865. He married Hannah Carpenter, of Walpole, and reared ten children, five sons and five daughters, only three of whom are now living; Cyrel, in Wisconsin, Calvin J., in St. Johnsbury and Charles A., in Hull, Mass. 

       Oliver W. Stevens, a native of Petersham, Mass., came to Barnet at about the close of the Revolutionary war. In 1796 he came to St. Johnsbury, and located on the farm where his grandson, Simeon D. Stevens, now lives, about half a mile west of the present village of St. Johnsbury Center, where he remained until his death in 1846, at the advanced age of eighty-three years. He married Elizabeth Lang.  Mrs. Stevens survived her husband until 1851, and lived to the great age of 101 years. They were parents of eight children, seven of whom lived to adult age, and were married. Joseph, the eldest, born in 1788, in Barnet, married Nancy A. Blodgett, and succeeded his father on the homestead, where he lived after he was eight years old, and gave his attention to his farm. Of his two children, Simon D. and Cornell D., the former resides on the homestead, married Sodema Briggs, and reared nine children, only three of whom are now living, a son, Elmore H., in Washington Territory, and two daughters, Abbie C. (Mrs. E. D. Allen), in Charleston, Vt., and Sarah A. (Mrs. Willie Sanborn), in Wheelock. Cornell D. Stevens, son of Joseph, married Sarah Briggs, is a retired farmer, and resides with his son Lafayette W., in Charleston, Vt. Willard Stevens, son of the pioneer Oliver Stevens, was born in Barnet, in September, 1794, and when he was about two years of age his father removed to St. Johnsbury. He was educated at the common schools of his district, and at the age of about eighteen or nineteen years, served his country one year, as a soldier in the War of 1812. Early in life he married Hannah Russell, of Lyndon, and settled as a farmer in the western part of St. Johnsbury. He continued a citizen of this town during his life, with the exception of one year, and finally died at the residence of his son, James R. Stevens, aged seventy-seven years. He had born to him three children. James R., born in St. Johnsbury in 1822, received his education in the common schools and the academies of St. Johnsbury, Lyndon and Danville. Early in life he taught several terms in the common schools. In 1847 he married Susan Field, of Lyndon, and settled on the farm where he still resides. A portion of the place is a part of the Oliver Stevens homestead. He is active in the interests of his town, and has held the position of selectman ten years. Mr. and Mrs. Stevens are parents of six children viz.: Charles H., who is largely engaged in the manufacture and sale of lumber, and resides in St. Johnsbury; Ella E. (Mrs. L. H. Parker), who resides in Portland, Oregon, where her husband is engaged for E. & T. Fairbanks & Co., Albert W., who is mining in the west; Edwin, who married and resides in St. Paul, and is a dealer in real estate; Jessie (Mrs. Charles Farr), who resides in St. Johnsbury; and Truman E., a bank teller, who is married and resides in Omaha, Neb. Martha, daughter of Willard Stevens, married Alanson Aldrich, settled in the central part of St. Johnsbury, and was mother of a son, Clinton Aldrich, a farmer. She died in 1864. Roancy, daughter of Willard Stevens, married, first, Elmore Goss, who was the father of her two sons, Edward and Willard, and second, Rowland Brown, and is now a widow, residing in St. Johnsbury village. 

       Gen. Joel Roberts, born in Winchester, N.H., came to St. Johnsbury about 1787, and settled at the "Four Corners," on the farm where Mr. J. Burnham now lives. After spending a summer in clearing a few acres and building a log house, he returned to Winchester. The next spring he moved his wife and infant son, Hollis, to his "pitch" with a pair of steers and a cart. At this time the nearest grist-mill was at Barnet, to which place he was obliged to carry on his back what corn he could, to be ground, and returned to his home in the same manner, guiding his laborious footsteps by marked trees. He was a man of more than ordinary abilities for his times, and gave much attention to the interests of his town. He had the honor of being its first representative in the state legislature, and held all the offices in the gift of his town. He also had an active interest in military affairs, and rose from the rank of private to that of general of militia. At the early age of sixteen years he entered the Continental army and fought for our independence. He married Sally Goss, sister of David Goss, the pioneer of Goss Hollow. Their children were Hollis, Galen, Sally, Calista, Malona, Rumania, Armida D. and Hiram. Warren Roberts, grandson of general Roberts, and son of Galen, is a wealthy farmer, residing in the northwestern part of this town. He married Sarah A. Spaulding. His brother married Lemia Ayer and resides in the same neighborhood, and is also a farmer. 

       Samuel Ayer came to St. Johnsbury at an early day, and settled in the northern part, on the farm now owned by his great-grandson, Horace W. Ayer. At that time the place was a dense forest, and they suffered the hardships and privations of a pioneer life. His son Hezekiah came with, and succeeded him, on the farm. They went to Lyndon to mill, a distance of about five miles, by the aid of marked trees. Samuel died in 1807, in his seventieth year, and his wife survived him until 1828. Hezekiah died in 1849, aged seventy-nine years, and his wife survived him until 1863, dying at the age of ninety-nine years. He was the father of eight children, and was succeeded on the homestead by his son George, who married Eliza Humphrey, of Burke, their only child, Horace W., now residing on the homestead. He married Emma Kendall, of Sheffield, Vt. They have one son, Harley L., born on the homestead May 15, 1870, and is the fifth generation on the place. 

       Gardner Wheeler, born in Petersham, Mass., in 1766, came to St. Johnsbury, from Westmoreland, very soon after the close of the Revolutionary war, and settled in the wilderness, on the farm where his son Gardner, who is now eighty-five years of age, and his grandson, Horace H., live. He came on foot in company with his brother Martin, Samuel Aldrich and Eleazer Sanger. He and his brother Martin, Eleazer Sanger and William C. Arnold, whose lots all cornered together, commenced to fell the trees and clear the land on the adjoining corners of their respective lots, hence the origin of the name of this neighborhood, Four Corners, which it still retains. He married Lettice Carlisle, and continued to live in the log cabin until after the birth of three of their children. About 1798, he built the house now occupied by his son and grandson, and which is still a well preserved structure. He had six children, viz.: Betsey, Maria, Lucy, Gardner, Carlisle and Jacynthia, only two of whom are now living, Gardner and Jacynthia. Mr. Wheeler died March 3, 1838, aged seventy-one years, and his wife survived him until 1845, dying at the age of seventy-six years. Mr. Wheeler served as selectman and magistrate, and was a highly respected citizen. His son Gardner always lived on the homestead, and has done much toward the cultivation and improvement of the place. He married Mary Goss, in 1826, who died in 1884, aged eighty years. He has had three children, Horace H., Lucy M. and Mary A.  Mr. Wheeler has served the town as lister, selectman, and a special term in the legislature. His son Horace H. married Malona P. Hurlbutt, and has had four children, George G., Clara M., May B. and Arthur H.  Lucy M. married Samuel Norris, and died in 1869, leaving two children. Mary A. married Alonzo Miles, resides in the neighborhood of Four Corners and has one daughter. 

       Asquire Aldrich, a Revolutionary soldier, born in Rhode Island, June 15, 1760, came to St. Johnsbury previous to 1798, and settled in the wilderness, near Fairbanks Village. Late in life he removed to East St. Johnsbury, where he died, January 16, 1836, aged seventy-five years. He was married five times, and was father of fifteen children, only two of whom are now living.  Sally, born July 8, 1806, married Samuel Snell, of St. Johnsbury, is a widow, and resides on the farm where she and her husband first settled, near the village of Summerville, and George, born May 2, 1808, who married Susanna Farnham, November 2, 1831. At the time of their marriage, Main street, the only one then in the village, was a country road, with about a dozen houses, and between the St. Johnsbury House and the North church, was a ravine known as "The Hollow," so deep that a cart and load of hay passing through it was completely hidden from sight. The burying-ground was then located on the grounds occupied by the present fine court-house. Mr. and Mrs. Aldrich have lived to see the gradual growth of the entire village, and its increase from a few families to a population of about 4,500. Mr. Aldrich has had various occupations; farmer, mechanic, merchant and hotel keeper. They were parents of two children, both deceased in infancy. They raised an adopted son, an artist, and now perfecting his studies in Europe. Mr. Aldrich's mother was Abigail (Ide) Aldrich, eldest of the family of thirteen children of John and Deborah Ide, a pioneer of St. Johnsbury, a farmer and mechanic, and a prominent citizen in his day. 

       Ephraim Humphrey came from Connecticut to St. Johnsbury at a very early date, was a farmer, and raised a large family. Late in his life he removed to Canada, where he died at the advanced age of eighty-five years. His son Thomas, born in Connecticut, February 22, 1791, came to St. Johnsbury when a child, and had only a limited common school education. In 1811, he married Susannah Olmstead, daughter of Phineas Olmstead, of Lyman, N.H. She was born May 14, 1791. He settled in St. Johnsbury as a farmer, where he lived until about 1822, when he removed to Barnston, Canada. In 1850 or '51, he returned to St. Johnsbury, again engaged in farming, and died about a mile north of St. Johnsbury Center, aged eighty-one years. Mrs. Humphrey survived her husband till July 21, 1883, at the advanced age of ninety-two years. Mr. and Mrs. Humphrey were parents of fourteen children, all of whom, except one, Wells O., lived to mature age, and married. Their names and births were as follows: Margaret, February 6, 1811; Thomas, August 21, 1812; Wells O., April 27, 1814; Mary C., December 20, 1815; Susan, November 26, 1817; Martha, July 4, 1819; Solomon, February 8, 1821; Carlos, December 31, 1823; Calvin J., September 4, 1825; Electa, July 13, 1827; Jane P., June 6, 1829; Sylvia, April 18, 1831; Curtis A., August 2, 1833; and Henry L., October 28, 1836. They all have resided some portion of their lives in Caledonia county. Calvin J., a farmer, and Mrs. Sylvia Powers, a widow, are the only residents now in this county. 

       John Woods was an early settler of Barnet, locating on the place now owned by Mrs. Riley Woods, his son's widow. He reared a large family, and died rather early in life. His son Ebenezer married Lettice Barker, and settled in the southwestern part of St. Johnsbury, on the farm now occupied by his grandson, Albert F. Lawrence. He died in 1874, aged eighty-six years, and his wife died in 1868, aged seventy-two years. They had born to them two children, John B. and Julia F. The latter was born in 1814, married Jonathan Lawrence, and eventually returned to the homestead a few years before her father's death. They were the parents of two children, a daughter and son. The daughter, Ellen M., married Albert F. Felch, who died at the hospital, Alexandria, Va., was a soldier in Co. F, 15th Vt. Vols. She is now living with her second husband, Hiram Russell, a farmer, in St, Johnsbury. Their son, Albert F. Lawrence, married Lura A. Houghton, of Danville, and, as before mentioned, resides on the Woods homestead. He has four children, Addie B., Frank A., Jennie V. and Fred J., all residing with their parents. John B. Woods, born in 1820, married Mary T. Winslow, daughter of Luther and Naomi Winslow, remained on the homestead about ten years, then owned a farm adjoining, where they lived a few years, and in  the fall of 1856 settled permanently on the place where Mrs. Woods and her sons, Charles H. and Willis F., now reside. He died in May, 1882, aged sixty-two years. They were the parents of four children. The oldest Edwin E., a merchant at Passumpsic, died January 1, 1886, aged forty years. Their daughter, Rosa M., married Ira T. Harvey, a farmer, and resides in Waterford. The others, as before mentioned, reside on the homestead. 

       Huxham Paddock, one of the first extensive manufacturers of St. Johnsbury, was a son of John Paddock, and a nephew of Hon. Ephraim Paddock, and was born in Holland, Mass., January 24, 1791. His wife was Orris Fuller, of Wilbraham, Mass. He came to St. Johnsbury, as near as can be ascertained, about 1815. He had a mind above ordinary ability, and was a very skillful and capable mechanic. As a manufacturer of machinery he had few equals. He built a small foundry on the grounds now occupied by the Fairbanks Scale Works (the first in St. Johnsbury), and later, in 1828, built the famous Paddock Iron Works, where he conducted a large and flourishing business. He died at the early age of forty-five years, universally respected. He filled the important office of representative of St. Johnsbury, in the popular branch of the state legislature. His only son, John H., of St. Johnsbury, survives him. 

       In 1815, Joseph Fairbanks, a substantial farmer of Brimfield, Mass., moved to St. Johnsbury. He was in the sixth generation from Jonathan Fairbanks, who came to this country from Yorkshire, England, in 1633, who built the "Fairbanks House," still standing, in Dedham, Mass. 

       Joseph Fairbanks having settled in St. Johnsbury, built saw and grist-mills on the waterpower around which Fairbanks village subsequently grew. He was a man of solid qualities, never prominent in society, but respected by all for his practical sense and character. His wife, Phebe Paddock (sister of Judge Ephraim Paddock), was a woman of uncommon strength and energy of mind, and many of the above qualities were inherited by her three sons, Erastus, Thaddeus and Joseph P., all of whom were born at Brimfield and died at St. Johnsbury. 

       Erastus Fairbanks (October 28, 1792-November 20, 1864). His early life was one of great struggle. He won his way through repeated difficulties, obstacles, disappointments, till in 1830 he established a manufacturing business with his brother Thaddeus, producing stoves, plows, forks, machines, and finally platform scales.  From this time till his death, thirty-four years later, he was senior partner of the firm of E. & T. Fairbanks & Co., and to a large degree manager of its work and prosperous business. During these years he was also prominent in public life and in various enterprises. He became a trusted leader in state politics. As first president of the Passumpsic railroad, his energy and perseverance secured its construction in face of great obstacles. In 1852 he was made Governor of Vermont; again in 1860 he was called to the same post. On the breaking out of the Civil war, the state placed a million of dollars at his disposal, relying entirely on his judgment as to its appropriation. The results justified this mark of confidence; his administration was energetic, wise, firm and successful; the salary to which he was entitled was never drawn. During his entire life Gov. Fairbanks was active in support of morality, political honesty, temperance, religion. He felt profoundly his obligation, not only to seek the favor of God upon all his affairs, but to further the world's progress by energetic christian influence and liberal benefactions. His fine presence and dignified manners indicated native strength; by his strict integrity and prompt handling of affairs he became widely useful in social and civil life. 

       Thaddeus Fairbanks (January 17, 1796-April12, 1886). From early life his mechanical genius was marked. In almost any direction he could invent and construct. He obtained patents for the cook stoves and cast-iron plows manufactured by himself and brother, and also was the original inventor of the refrigerator system now universally adopted; but his most important invention was that of the platform scale, patented in 1831. The manufacture of scales involved the planning and construction of a great amount of new machinery, and the variety of modifications in the scales themselves (over 400 in all), kept his brain and hand busy almost to the last. During his life he received forty-three patents, the last one reaching him in his ninety-first year, shortly before his death. He lived to see the results of his genius in practical use the world over, having from the first the belief that "a just balance and scales are the Lords," and that the pattern thereof was given him for the benefit of mankind. He was a man of most childlike simplicity of character and bearing. He shrunk always from public notice, After he had been knighted by the Emperor of Austria, and decorated with various foreign insignia, he was familiarly known as "Sir Thaddeus," but the only honor he ever desired was that his life might be accepted of God and wrought into the great plan or elevating human life. His benefactions were large and varied, accompanied always with warmest sympathy in whatever good cause needed help at home or abroad. St. Johnsbury Academy owes its fine buildings, also its rank and influence, for the most part, to his liberality and unwearying devotion, Prominent among the objects of interest in the town where he had wrought for seventy years, was his patriarchal figure of most benignant aspect, crowned with silver-white hair, revered and loved by all who knew him.

       Joseph P. Fairbanks (November 26, 1806-May 15, 1855), Though youngest of the “three brothers,” and taken away in mid-life, the name of Joseph P. Fairbanks went deeply into the heart of his generation. His mind was strong, capacious, alert and remarkably well balanced. He was intelligently familiar with business, science, law, history and literature. He had singular capacity for absorbing ideas, collating facts, transacting business, influencing men. Few could excel him in stoutly maintaining personal convictions, at the same time, securing the love and confidence of all who differed in opinion. He was averse to public life, though in more ways than men ever knew he was influencing public opinion, and securing the public good. In all current questions of education, politics, temperance, morality and religion, his mind and heart were incessantly engaged; his pen busy, his purse open. He crowded a long life into a few years, and died as a consequence prematurely, at the age of forty-eight years, lamented by all. The larger part of his property was bequeathed to benevolent objects, religious and educational. 

       Horace Fairbanks, (March 21,1820,) son of Erastus, is president of the corporation of E. & T. Fairbanks & Co., also of the First National Bank of St. Johnsbury. He was Governor of Vermont in 1876-1878. In 1870 he presented to the town the public library and art gallery, known as "The St. Johnsbury Athenaeum," containing 10,000 volumes, and carefully selected works of art. He is trustee of the University of Vermont, also of Andover Seminary. 

       Franklin Fairbanks, (June 18, 1828) son of Erastus, is manager of the manufacturing department of the scale business. He has been twice speaker of the Vermont House of Representatives, and for many years was member of the International Sunday-school committee. 

       Henry Fairbanks, Ph. D., (May 6, 1830) is the only son of Thaddeus. He was nine years professor of philosophy at his Alma Mater, Dartmouth, is a trustee of that college, also of Hartford Theological Seminary. He is president of the Vermont Domestic Missionary Society, and chairman of the Y. M. C. A. of Vermont.

       Edward T. Fairbanks, (May 12, 1836) son of Joseph P., was educated at Yale College and Andover Seminary. He has been pastor of South church, St. Johnsbury, since 1874. 

       William P. Fairbanks, (July 27, 1840,) son of Joseph P., is secretary and treasurer of the corporation of E. & T. Fairbanks & Co. 

       Robert Stark, born in Dunbarton, N.H., married Mary Ayer, of his native town, first settled there, and in 1811 he emigrated to St. Johnsbury, locating on the farm now owned and occupied by his grandson, David Stark, in the northern part of the town. His farm, then containing 100 acres, had only a small clearing of three acres and a log house, which was his home several years. He gave his energies to clearing his farm, and in a few years built more commodious buildings and made himself and family a comfortable home, where he remained till he died, at the age of sixty-six years. His wife survived, as near as can now be ascertained, till she was about eighty years of age. They were parents of six children, only one now living. Of their children, Betsey married John Armington, a farmer, settled in St. Johnsbury, removed to Iowa, where she died. She was the mother of eight children. Sally married Gayland Roberts, a farmer, of St. Johnsbury, was the mother of eight children, and died in this town.  Charles Stark, oldest son, born in Dunbarton, in 1801, was ten years of age when his father came to St. Johnsbury, was educated in the common schools, and succeeded his father on the old homestead. He was always a farmer, held the office of lister a number of years, added 260 acres to the farm, but reduced by sale of 100 acres before he left it. He married, January 29, 1829, Mary Ayer, daughter of Samuel Ayer, of St. Johnsbury, and they had born to them four children, viz.: Luella, David, Sarah and Mariette. Luella died aged ten years. Mrs. Stark died in February, 1874. Mr. Stark married for his second wife Mrs. Rosetta Grout, of East St. Johnsbury, when he removed to her residence, where he lived till he died, in July 1877. His widow still resides at her home in East St. Johnsbury. David, as before mentioned, resides on the homestead, and married Viola Ayer, in 1859. Their children are Cora (Mrs. Eugene Joyce), who resides at the Center Village, and Nellie, who resides with her parents. Sarah, daughter of Charles Stark, born in 1839, married Artemas Whitney, living in St. Johnsbury, and has three children. Mariette, youngest daughter of Charles Stark, married Frank Hill, has two children, and resides in Lyndon. 

       Edward Allen, born in Lyme, N.H., April 26, 1812, was educated in the common schools of his native town, where he resided until about twenty-four years of age, He married Rhoda Flint, of Lyme, March 10, 1836, and removed to St. Johnsbury on the sixteenth of the same month. He located on the farm purchased of Maj. Daniel Pierce. Maj. Pierce was its first owner, taking it when a dense wilderness, in 1792, and made it his home until conveyed to Mr. Allen.  Mr. Allen and his son Edward P. are now its joint owners and occupants. Mr. and Mrs. Allen were parents of two sons, Edward P., before named, and John Allen, a farmer, residing in Lyndon. Mrs. Edward Allen died March 13, 1886, and was buried on the fiftieth anniversary of their settlement in St. Johnsbury. Mr. Allen has served one year as lister, but has declined further honors offered by his townsmen. 

      Samuel Ward, born in Peabody, Mass., or an adjacent town, removed to Dublin, N.H., where most of his large family of children were born. About 1796 he removed to South Wheelock, Vt., where he remained a few years, and then removed to Canada, where he eventually died. Several of his older children remained in South Wheelock, among whom were the oldest two sons, Thaddeus and Samuel, who ultimately settled in North Danville. The third son, Josiah, removed with his father to Canada, where he remained until of age. He then returned and settled in North Danville, in the neighborhood of the two older brothers, where they all together were parents of thirty children who attained adult age, and three who died in infancy. Josiah Ward married Susannah Hayward, whose father, Nathaniel Hayward, was one of the first settlers in Danville. Josiah Ward remained in Danville until 1838, when he removed to St. Johnsbury and located on the farm now owned and occupied by his son Josiah Ward. In 1850 he removed to St. Johnsbury Center, where he died in 1859, aged seventy-one years. Mrs. Ward survived him until 1873, when she died, aged eighty years. They were parents of eight children, only four now living, two in St. Johnsbury, one in Lyndon, and one in Illinois. Josiah, son of Josiah, born in North Danville, in 1825, married Mianda M. Ayer, of St. Johnsbury, daughter of Hiram Ayer, in 1850. Mrs. Ward was born in Burke, in 1825. Mr. Ward has given his attention to his farm, and sustains the relation of local preacher of the Methodist Episcopal church. He has also held offices of trust in town. 

       Lewis Bailey removed from Ox Bow, N.Y., to Compton, Canada, about 1842, where his only child, Alden L. Bailey, the subject of this sketch, was born, in May, 1845. His father died when he was eighteen months old, and his mother when he was but nine years of age. He was then taken into the family of his mother's brother, Mr. Amos Hartwell, of that town, where he resided until he was twenty-one years of age. With a common school education, and two terms at the academy of the town, and nothing besides but a good physical constitution and indomitable energy, and habits of persevering industry and sterling integrity, he started out for himself and wended his way to White River Junction, Vt. He entered into the employ of Messrs. Gates & Barnes who were extensively engaged in farming and running a line of coaches to the White Mountains, acting as their foreman for two years. He then went to St. Johnsbury, Vt., and was in the employ of Messrs. E. & T. Fairbanks for a short time, when in September, 1870, he went into business with H. P. Shorey in the sale of sewing machines and organs. After the death of Mr. Shorey, Mr. Bailey discontinued the sale of sewing machines, and has since continued the sale of organs, pianos and musical supplies alone. His fine salesrooms and large stock may be seen on Eastern avenue, St. Johnsbury. He also has an extensive branch store in Burlington, and another in Barre, and gives employment to twelve traveling salesmen. Mr. Bailey is reported the largest dealer in pianos and organs north of Boston. Besides conducting his large business, Mr. Bailey finds time to give aid and support to the benevolent and religious interests of his town. He is a member of the Methodist Episcopal church, and was one of the first in influence and means in aid of building their present fine church edifice, and is a generous contributor to the finances of the church.

      John Higgins, son of John and Polly (Hoyt) Higgins, was born in Danville, Vt., July 22, 1805, was educated in the common schools, and at the age of twenty-one years came to St. Johnsbury. In 1830 he married Ella Ide, daughter of Timothy Ide, and settled on the farm where his son William Higgins now lives, where he continued to the close of his life, July 18, 1883. Mrs. Higgins died in 1865. He gave his attention mainly to his large farm, was selectman and lister several years. He had three sons. viz.: J. Clark Higgins, who was a farmer and died in November, 1884; George I., who has had various occupations, resides in West Concord, and is now engaged in breeding blooded horses; and William, the youngest son, who owns and resides on the old homestead. He is serving his town as first selectman, which position he has held the last ten years, and was member of the board two years previous.

       Israel Brainerd, a lineal descendant of Daniel Brainerd, who emigrated from England, and settled in Haddam, Conn., in 1662, was born in Haddam, September 14, 1772. In early life he settled in Campton, N.H., where he resided about twenty years. He went to Danville, Vt., in 1786, where he lived until his death, in 1819. He was regarded as a man of superior ability and devoted piety. He was the first deacon of the Congregational church, twenty-six years. Asa, son of Israel, was born January 5, 1773. He died April 16, 1857, aged eighty-four years. Ira Brainerd, son of Asa, was born in Danville, June 14, 1803, was nearly forty years in the mercantile business at Danville, and president of Caledonia bank several years. He married Martha Page, daughter of Kimball Page, of Ryegate, January 12, 1821, by whom he had an only son, George, born May 19, 1833, who succeeded his father in the mercantile business, which he continued about twenty-five years. He then removed to St. Johnsbury, where he was for a time, extensively engaged in the grocery trade. On account of ill health he has now retired. He married Martha L. Hale, May 31, 1854. All of their three sons died in youth and early manhood. 

       Horace Carpenter, son of William and Sophronia (Seaver) Carpenter, was born in Taunton, Mass., February 17, 1811. When he was one year old his father removed his family to Williamstown, Vt., and two years later to Washington, and finally to Chelsea, where he died in February, 1844, aged sixty-two years. Horace left his father's farm at the age of twenty-one years, and has been engaged as a carpenter, contractor and builder up to the present time. Among the many structures that rose up under his creative hands are the court-house at Chelsea, in 1847; Universalist church, in Washington, in 1848; the residence of General E. B. Chase, of Lyndon, in 1850; South Congregational church, of St. Johnsbury, in 1851; the fine residence of Governor Horace Fairbanks, in 1852; the Caledonia county court-house, in 1856. In 1861 he engaged in the manufacture of doors, sash and blinds, builders materials, and the sale of lumber, and continued building also from 1861 to 1876, when his shops were burned. In 1884 he built the Savings bank, and now, at the age of seventy-five years, he claims to have retired from active life, and is living in his pleasant home on Summer street, yet vigorous and well preserved. In February, 1836, he married Rachel R. Barron, of Washington, Vt., and they have had seven children, four now living, viz: Charles L., the eldest of the family, a carpenter; Fred E., a molder; Lillie J. (Mrs. Charles P. Carpenter), who resides in St. Johnsbury; and Sarah A. (Mrs. Thomas Bishop), who resides in Brooklyn, N. Y. Mrs. Carpenter died October 15, 1879. In February, 1882, Mr. Carpenter married a second wife, Miss Helen A. Parker, of Lyndon, Vt. 

       Jonathan Lewis, son of Jonathan and Persis (Crosby) Lewis was born in Billerica, Mass., March 20, 1758. He removed to Concord, Vt., March 20, 1788, with his wife, whose maiden name was Sarah Warren, and a son, Jonathan, Jr., then about eight months old, and settled in the wilderness near where the village of West Concord now stands. At this time some ten or twelve pioneers had made a pitch in the woods before him. He encountered and endured the hardships incidental to pioneer life, going long distances to mill, by marked trees, carrying his bag of grain on his shoulders. His second child, Sarah, born August 1, 1789, was the first female white child born in Concord. He was a farmer and shoemaker, and officiated as proprietor's clerk from the time he entered the town until its organization. He was also a soldier in the Revolutionary war, was on duty at the battle of Bunker Hill, and also present at the surrender of Gen. Burgoyne. In 1806, March 20, he removed to Hopkinville, now the town of Kirby, where he resided till his death, August 1, 1841, aged eighty-three years. He officiated as town clerk in Kirby several years. He was father of ten children, none of whom are now living. Jonathan Lewis, Jr., born in Harvard, Mass., July 6, 1787, came to Concord, Vt., with his parents in 1788, was educated in the common schools, and taught in the district schools during several winter terms. He learned the trade of carpenter and joiner, which occupation he pursued until his marriage with Lucretia M. Willard, of Hartland, Vt., January 5, 1819. He then settled on a farm where the village of West Concord now stands, where he remained until 1834, when he removed to Kirby. He died at West Concord, August 6, 1877, at the great age of ninety years. His wife survived him until February 26, 1881, aged nearly eighty-seven years. They had nine children, only two of whom are now living. Warren C. Lewis, born in Concord, August 18, 1821 fitted for college but did not graduate. In early life he was a successful teacher, and dealer in jewelry and silver-ware, and later a manufacturer of lumber and woolen goods in his native town, in connection with others. About four years since he removed to the village of St. Johnsbury, where he is engaged in fire insurance, practicing land surveying and farming. The other son, Ethan N. Lewis, now resides in Springfield, Mass.

       James Harris, born July 21, 1803, in Chesterfield, N.H., received his education in the common schools, and early in life engaged in navigating the Connecticut river on flat boats and rafts. January 6, 1831, he married Arlinna Locke, daughter of Timothy Locke, of Kirby, Vt. and settled on a farm in the northeastern corner of the town of St. Johnsbury, were he resided until 1835. He then sold, and conducted the town poor farm the ensuing five years. In the spring of 1840 he removed to a farm which he purchased in what is now the village of Summerville. In 1855 he was influential in laying out Portland street, through his farm and building the Portland street bridge, which spans the Passumpsic river. In 1854, in company with Jonathan Lawrence, he built the saw-mill on Moose river, now owned by Mr. E. L. Hovey. In 1855 he removed his barns from Concord avenue to Portland street, and also built the fine two story house now owned and occupied by his son, Edwin Harris. By his generosity in the sale of building lots, the flourishing village of Summerville, now numbering about 900 inhabitants, rapidly sprung into existence. As a citizen he was reliable, liberal and honorable. He officiated as collector for the town, and as deputy sheriff several years. Mrs. Harris died October 28, 1876, aged seventy-five years, and Mr. Harris November 13, 1877, aged seventy-four years. Of their three sons and three daughters, three are now living, viz.: Dealia A. (Mrs. John E. Forrest), whose husband is a manufacturer of sash, doors and blinds, at West Burke, Vt.; Edwin Harris, residing on the homestead, as before mentioned, is a farmer; and Albert Harris, a farmer and trader, resides on Harrison avenue, Summerville. He was a soldier in the 15th Vt. Vols., in the capacity of color corporal, nine months, and in the quartermaster department of the trans-Mississippi department, three years. 

       Daniel B. Batchelder, born in Stanstead, Canada, March 20, 1804, went to Danville, Vt., when about nineteen years old, and learned the trade of house-joiner. Two years later he married Sally Shattuck, of Danville, daughter of Simeon Shattuck, one of the pioneers of that town, and a prominent citizen and farmer. Here he remained and prosecuted his trade, and cultivated a small farm the remainder of his life, with the exception of seven years spent in his native town. He died in Danville, in February 1874, aged about seventy years. Mrs. Batchelder died December 30, 1843. They had eight children. Judkins R. Batchelder, the eldest, was born in Danville, September 13, 1826, was educated in the common schools, was a carpenter. At the age of nineteen years he engaged in a cotton-mill in Lowell, where he spent five or six years. June 10, 1848, he married Martha W. Root of Royalton, Vt. In 1850 he settled in Peacham, manufacturing carriages and furniture, which he continued until 1863, when he removed to St. Johnsbury and engaged in ornamental and sign painting for E. & T. Fairbanks & Co., under a contract, employing from six to twelve men, which business he continued about sixteen years. Since that time he has owned and conducted a fine farm in Danville about two years, and conducted a large shoe store in St. Johnsbury over two years. He is now proprietor of the Batchelder block, containing eleven tenements, on Prospect avenue, St. Johnsbury. 

       George W. Sargent was born in Haverhill, Mass., in 1797. At about the age of twenty years he came to St. Johnsbury, and bought a farm with his father, about a mile and a half west of the Center, where his son, Wesley Sargent, now lives. He married Rumina Roberts, of St. Johnsbury, daughter of Gen. Joel Roberts, a pioneer of the town. They remained on the farm until the close of his life, in 1863. Mrs. Sargent survived her husband three years. Mr. Sargent was a man of the old school style, honest, upright, industrious and prudent, abhorred debts, and when he died owed no man, and bequeathed to his family a good farm of 180 acres. Mr. and Mrs. Sargent had six children, three sons and three daughters, all living in St. Johnsbury.   Carlos resides at the Center village, and is engaged at the E. & T. Fairbanks & Co. scale works. Lovina (Mrs. C. O. Pierce), has two children, and lives at the Center. Cyrus married Sophronia Russ, is chief of police, and is also engaged at the Fairbanks scale works. He resides at St. Johnsbury, and has two children. Wesley, as before stated, resides on the homestead, married Orlane A. Hall, and has a son and daughter. Sarah P. (Mrs. Thomas Randall) resides at the Center village, and has no children. Martha A. (Mrs. E. W. Miles) also resides at the Center village, and has one daughter.

       Christopher Sargent was born in 1791, married Mary Webster, and reared six children, of whom Asa married Hannah Fitch, and reared four children, viz.: Mary A., Sarah I., Rosetta M. and John F. The latter was born in Danville, came here in 1860, and married, first, Savannah Houghton, and second, Fanny Dexter.

       Warren Esterbrook, a native of Danville, located in St. Johnsbury, in 1872, and engaged in the dry goods and grocery business. He married. Elizabeth Copp, and has had two children, Henry F. and Fred. The latter married Lydia A., daughter of Abial and Jane (Fulford) Richardson, and has one daughter, Maud. He is a miller at East St. Johnsbury.

       Nathan Ruse married Isabel Charlton, and reared four children, Simeon, Mary, Luthera and Nathan. He died at the age of thirty-two years. Simeon married, first, Adaline Hovey, who bore him two children, Emily and Charlie, and second, Rosalind M. Green, by whom he had three children, Maria A., Mary E. and Horace E. The last mentioned lives on the homestead, on road 16. 

       Oramel F. Russell, son of Luther, was born in Kirby, came to this town in 1853, and now resides at St. Johnsbury East.  He married, first, Henrietta E. Parker, who bore him two children, Francis E. and Lestina E., and second, Tirzah, daughter of Solomon Wheaton. Mr. Russell lives on road 51. 

       Franklin Griswold was a tanner by trade, located in this town, served as town lister, and died here in 1874, aged sixty-six years. He married Caroline E. Wells, and reared five children, namely, Caroline E., Sarah F., Edward F., Charles L. and Henry F. The last mentioned married, first, Lillie F. Johnson, who bore him four children; Lillie F., Carrie M., Frank M. and Grace A.; and second, Flora D., daughter of Palmer Russell, and has one son, Palmer R.  Mr. Griswold lives in St. Johnsbury East, on road 53. 

       David Goodall, a native of Littleton, N.H., located in St. Johnsbury about fifty years ago, and engaged in trade at the Center, where he remained one year, and then removed to St. Johnsbury East, where he remained in trade until 1860. He died at the age of seventy-six years. He married, first, Adaline Page, who bore him two children, Leon and West F.; and second, Mary E. McGregor, and had two children, Inez and George E. The latter married Henrietta Carleton, and has one daughter, Mary. 

       Captain Fernando C. Harrington served in the Mexican war, and also in the Rebellion, in Co. D, 3d Vt. Vols. He was admitted to the bar in 1852, has published a paper, and is now postmaster at St. Johnsbury East. 

       John W. Learned came from Dublin, N.H., to St. Johnsbury Center, in 1837, and up to ten years ago carried on the business of a builder. He has erected about a dozen church edifices in the towns of northeastern Vermont. The present Congregational church at St. Johnsbury Center was built by him in 1849. The Methodist Episcopal church at the Center he also erected. He has two sons and four daughters. The eldest son, James W., served four years in the late war.

      Elijah Ranney was a native of Westminster, Vt., where he died at the age of seventy years. He married Lydia Crawford, and his children were Samuel, Alfred, Russell, Bradford, Mark, Lyman, George, Charles, Fanny, Elizabeth and Lydia, all of whom lived until the youngest was fifty-six years of age. George was born in Westminster in 1813, came to this town in 1841, and has officiated as deacon of the First Congregational church about thirty years.  He married Eliza J. Hall, and has had five children, namely, Crawford, Olive E. (Mrs. F. A. Pierce), Fremont H., Sarah J. (Mrs. George H. Morrill), and Charles H.  Deacon Ranney has been lister twenty-five years, selectman four years, and for fifty years has been engaged as a land surveyor. Charles H. married, first, Sarah A. Hawkins, who bore him one child, Etta M., and second, Nancy P. Bennett. He is conductor on the Boston & Lowell Railroad. 

       Solomon Gerry, son of Seth, was born in 1802, married Polly Lowell, and located in Walden, where he lived many years, and where his son Lucius S. was born, in 1825. The latter married Elvira S. Pope, and has had born to him one son and one daughter. Mr. Gerry served in the late war, in Co. B, 15th Vt. Vols., and was appointed 1st lieutenant. 

       Abel Shorey came to this town, from Rhode Island, and located at Goss Hollow. His first wife was Bethiah French, and his second, Sally Brown. He reared thirteen children, and died at the age of seventy-eight years. His son Leonard, at the age of eighteen years, began to clear the farm where his son Moses B. now lives, on road 13. He married Rebecca Bagley, in 1829, and lived on this farm until his death, in 1860, aged fifty-six years. His children were as follows: Russell, Moses B, Melvina B., Isabel and Sarah A.  Moses B. married Charlotte Frost, and has four children. 

       Jesse Farnham, from Palmer, Mass., came to St. Johnsbury with his father, and settled at East St. Johnsbury. He followed the trade of blacksmithing, and had a trip-hammer mill. His son Lucius C., now living on road 12, has been a merchant in St. Johnsbury Center, and in Wisconsin, Dunkirk village; from where he enlisted in the 7th Wis. Vols., and served until he received a bullet through his right lung, disabling him for service or hard labor. He has resided in St. Johnsbury since the war. 

       Nehemiah Weeks was born in Piermont, N.H., went to Danville when a young man and learned the trade of tanner. He married a daughter of Samuel Brown, removed to Lyndon over sixty years ago, and engaged in business at Lyndon Corner. He located in St. Johnsbury Center about 1846, where he died in 1869, aged seventy-seven years. His son Hiram was in trade at the Center for twenty-eight years, has been town treasurer, tax collector, and served as postmaster eight years. His farm, “ Riverside,” a beautiful estate lying nearly a mile along the Passumpsic, is a part of the original farm of Major Butler, who transferred it to his son Jefferson, whose daughter became the wife of Mr. Weeks. 

       John Dana, Sr., spent most of his life in Danville and St. Johnsbury. His father was a native of France, and came into Vermont from Canada when John was about three years old. John married Abigail Hartshorn, of Danville, and had six children. Two sons, Edward and John, Jr., and their father served their country in the Civil war. John, Sr., was over fifty years old when he volunteered. He was captured and spent five months in Andersonville prison, from which he was released, and came home a mere skeleton, but lived until January 31, 1885. 

       Maj. Abel Butler came to St. Johnsbury about 1810, from Dummerston, Vt., where he was born in 1761. He bought a tract of about 400 acres of land, comprising the present farms of Henry Ross and Hiram Weeks. He brought with him his family of six daughters and two sons, Abel and Jefferson. Major Butler was one of a company who went to Plattsburg to take part in the battle, but arrived too late to participate. Abel Butler, Jr., spent his life upon the homestead and kept a hotel in stage times. He married Almira Whittridge, of Montpelier, and three children were born to them, Corilla (Mrs. Rev. B. M. Tillottson) Beauman and Mortimer. Jefferson had that part of his father's land lying east of the river. He married Ruth Sargent, and was the father of one daughter, Sarah, who married Hiram Weeks, and three sons, George, Jerome and Lafayette, all business men of Portsmouth, N.H. Maj. Abel Butler and his son Abel were chosen selectmen, and Beauman Butler served in that capacity seven years in succession. He married Elizabeth A., daughter of William Armington. 

       Elijah Hollis, a soldier of the War of 1812, married Margaret Allen, and his children were Elijah, Daniel, Laura, Sophronia and Nelson A.  He died in 1824. Nelson A. came to Essex county in 1835, was a Freewill Baptist minister, and married Polly Bingham. His children were Sophronia C., Vandana S., Naomi A. and Nelson P. He died in Lyndon, in 1885. Nelson P. married three times, first, Fanny Gaskill, second, Kate A. Southworth, and third, Ella Powers. He has one child, Kate, and lives in this town, on road 52. 

       Nathaniel Babcock, a native of  Norwich, Conn., was an early settler of Orleans county, Vt., married Elizabeth Eddy, and reared four children, namely, Henry, Elizabeth E., Sarah H. and George A. He died in 1848, aged sixty-nine years. George A. located in Caledonia County in 1848, married, first, Deborah G. Morgan, who bore him two children, Maria G. and Elizabeth A., and second, Priscilla, daughter of Charles and Rebecca (Morgan) Adams, and by her has had three children, Sarah A., George A. and Effie P. He resides in East St. Johnsbury. 

       Capt. Artemas Knight, a native of England, located in Franconia, N.H., as an early settler, and finally moved to Westmoreland, N.H., where he died, aged ninety-seven years. He served as a captain in the Revolution, and drew a pension. His children were five, of whom Thomas was born in Franconia, N.H., married Abigail Knapp, and reared twelve children, viz.: Tabatha, Artemas, Luther M., Elmira, Oliver, James, Mary A., Abigail, Rebecca, Horace, George and Thomas.  Mr. Knight died in his native town, at the age of sixty-two years. His son Thomas came to St. Johnsbury, from Franconia, N.H., in 1862, engaged in Fairbanks's foundries, where he remained twenty-two years, and then retired to East St. Johnsbury, where he now resides. He married Mary J., daughter of Benjamin and Harriet (Mason) Locke, and has one daughter, Grace E. (Mrs. S. W. Robertson), of Gilmanton, N.H. 

       Asa Hovey located in Waterford as one of the early settlers, in 1801, married Mary Alsworth, and reared eight children. He died in 1818, at the age of forty-six years. His son William, who came to Waterford at the age of five years, married Lydia, daughter of Abial Richardson, and had born to nine children, viz.: Abial R., Mary A., Armenia, Emily C., William M., Edwin L., Emery E., Marcus A. and Jacob G. The last mentioned married first, Elizabeth L. Chamberlain, who bore him one, William C., and second, Sarah J., daughter of Erastus and Melissa (Bradley) Graves, and has had born to him two children, Erastus G. and Marcus J.  Mr. Hovey resides on a farm on road 54, where he has lived twenty-two years. He has held the office of associate judge of Caledonia county two years, justice of the peace, sixteen years, lister fourteen years, and has held many appointments from the probate court. 

       David Locke, son of James, was born in Hopkinton, Mass., February 22, 1740, and died in 1800. He married Betsey Kibbe, and reared nine children. Mr. Locke was a soldier in the Revolutionary war, and was present at the surrender of Burgoyne. His son John married Fanny Fyler, and reared eight children, namely, George, Elmira, Mary M., Katherine B., Samuel, Harriet N., Elizabeth B. and Charles H. The last mentioned married Ellen C., daughter of John and Eunice (Wood) Russell, by whom he has had three children, John R., Herbert W. and Irving M.  Mr. Locke has lived on road 51 thirty-two years. 

       Benjamin Williams, a native of Rockingham, married Mary Lovell, and reared five children, namely, Patty, Mary, Fannie, Betsey and Henry L. The last mentioned located in St. Johnsbury, in 1833, married Mrs. Betsey Walker, daughter of Thomas Reed, and reared children as follows: Mary, Gracia, Lucius, Benjamin, Harriet and George S.  Mr. Williams died in 1862, aged sixty-three years. George S. married Louisa, daughter of Joseph and Mary (Bingham) Willie, and by her has had seven children, viz.: Katie L., Mary L., Nellie M., Inez E., Hattie E., Frank G. and Ruth H. He resides on the homestead, on road 14. 

       Charles H. Olcott, son of Henry, married Carrie R. Severance, daughter of Chandler and Sophronia (Chapman) Severance, and has one son, Arthur H. He resides on road 15. 

       John C. Paddock, son of John and Naomi Paddock, was born in Wilbraham, Mass., in 1807. In the winter of 1822 he made the journey of 175 miles to St. Johnsbury, on foot and alone, and entered the family of his brother, Huxham Paddock, who had then established an iron foundry on the grounds now occupied by the E. & T. Fairbanks & Co.'s scale works. He entered the employ of his brother and remained until about 1842, when he formed a copartnership with John H. Paddock, son of Huxham, purchasing a half interest in the Paddock Iron Works, at Paddock Village. A few years later he sold to his partner and removed to Montpelier, and engaged in a like business there for about five years. He then returned to St. Johnsbury, where he now resides at the advanced age of seventy-nine years. October 30, 1831, he married Miss Charlotte Lovell, of St. Johnsbury, who died February 25, 1874, aged sixty-nine years.

       Jeriah Hawkins came from Connecticut to St. Johnsbury previous to 1794, when, on September 2, he is recorded as having taken the freeman's oath. He settled in Goss Hollow, where he brought up several children. Stephen Hawkins, born before they settled at St. Johnsbury, was a farmer at Goss Hollow and was prominent in military affairs, in which he engaged as soon as his age would permit, and rose to be colonel and major general. He lived to see four sons and four daughters of his ten children have families of their own, and died September 19, 1877, aged eighty-eight. Ansel W. Hawkins, his second son, now lives on Summer street. His only son, Abel W., enlisted in Co. A, 11th Vt. Vols., and died February 26, 1864, aged seven-teen years, nine months. 

       Joel Owen, Jr., was born in Northumberland, N.H., in 1799. The death of his father, when Joel was six years old, left him to the care of strangers, and he was brought up by a Mr. Willis, in Hanover. He married there Amelia Gould, and about 1825 moved with an ox team to St. Johnsbury. He settled in the east part of the town, cleared up two farms, and brought up nine children, of whom two sons and one daughter are living: Adna T., who lives in Wichita, Kan., Amelia G. (Caswell), in Colusa, Cal., and Marquis G., in Barnet. Joel Owen died in, 1863. William Owen and Albert Caswell, of St. Johnsbury, are grandsons of Joel. 

       Albert G. Chadwick, born in Boscawen, N.H., November 10, 1810, a printer by trade, engaged in publishing The Courier and Enquirer, in Concord, previous to his removal to St. Johnsbury, in 1837. He established The Caledonian, a Whig paper, the first number being issued August 8, 1837. He edited and published this paper for eighteen years which from small beginnings, through his indomitable energy and perseverance, became well established and was ranked among the best of Vermont journals. In 1855, The Caledonian was sold to C. M. Stone & Co.  Mr. Chadwick's remaining years were largely devoted to public duties connected with the village, town and county. He represented the county in the state Senate of 1858 and '59, and prepared "The Soldier's Record of St. Johnsbury."  His death occurred August 4, 1873. He married Helen Martin, of St. Johnsbury, in 1843, whom he left with four children, Charles K., Martha, Payson M. and Albert M.

       William Wilder was born in Oswego Co., N.Y., went to Littleton, N.H., in 1845, where he engaged with Edmund Carleton in manufacturing lumber. He went to California in 1850, crossing the Isthmus on foot, came back in 1855, and in the spring of 1856 to St. Johnsbury, where he engaged in business under the firm title of Ely & Wilder, manufacturers of hoes, and continued until 1862 or '63. He then spent about two years in California, and was for some time engaged in the kerosene oil business, at Bothwell, Canada. In January, 1870, he bought out the hardware department of Joel Fletcher, and until his death carried on the business. He died in February, 1885, aged sixty-seven. In June, 1883, his son Arthur became partner, and still continues under the firm name of William Wilder & Son. 

       Benjamin Walker, son of Lieut. Moses Walker, of Rehoboth, Mass., born October 19, 1770, married Susannah Bullock, of Rehoboth, November 22, 1801. He removed to Lyndon, Vt., in 1797, on to what is known as Pudding Hill, and was a farmer, selectman, lister, justice of the peace and representative to state legislature. Benjamin died at Lyndon, September 10, 1847. His wife, Susannah, died at Burke, Vt., May 14, 1859, aged ninety years. They had four children, born at Lyndon, viz.: Ferdinand L., born August 25, 1805, died February 20, 1858. He married Sarah Randall, March 3, 1831, who was born in Lyndon, April 27, 1808. She died October 23, 1860. Nancy B., born in Lyndon, March 29, 1807, married, January 10, 1830, Abel Brown, M. D., son of Josiah Brown. Adeline R., born February 20, 1809, married Harris Smith, of Sheffield, February 16, 1835, who was born in Lyndon, August 20, 1802, now living at Burke. Rodolphus W., born in Lyndon November 30, 1811, unmarried, now resides at Oakland, Cal. Ferdinand L. Walker, of Lyndon, had two children, Nancy B., born January 27, 1832, died September 5, 1835; and George B., born April 21, 1837, married, September 14, 1857, Mary Jane, daughter of D. Whipple, Esq., of Lyndon, and now lives at St. Johnsbury. He is owner of Walker's block, on Main street, and has two children. 

       At a town meeting held in March, 1794, seven years after the first settlement, the subject of hiring preaching was discussed. On the question being put:  "Will the town raise money by a tax to pay for preaching the gospel?" it was "determined in the negative." During the seven following years, several attempts were made to raise money for hiring a minister, but these efforts, generally, if not in every case except the last, proved abortive. But in July, 1804, the town voted to raise one hundred dollars, and appointed Joel Roberts, Barnabas Barker, and Nathaniel Edson, to superintend the expenditure, and to provide a place for meeting. The committee accordingly performed the service assigned them. From that time to the present, whatever has been done in the town for the support of the ministry, has been done by the voluntary association of individuals. 

       With the increase of population, and the increased number of those who were disposed to attend public worship, the want of a house for religious and town meetings was more and more felt; but difference in opinion respecting the location, prevented the erection of one for a considerable time. The first town meeting in which this subject was acted upon, was held in March, 1798. At this meeting a committee was appointed to report to the town on the following June, "the most convenient place whereon said house shall be built."  June came; the town met; but instead of accepting the committee's report, they voted not to build at all. Still, those desirous of a house, though defeated, were not discouraged. Through their means the town was called together again in the September following. Again the question was presented, "Will the town build a meeting-house or a town-house?" The same result followed as before. It was "determined in the negative." Four years now passed without any thing being done in relation to a house. The population bad increased to about 800. The difficulty of transacting the business of "March meetings" and "Freemen's meetings" was great. In September, 1802, the town met once more upon this long-agitated subject. At this meeting the town voted to raise $850.00, the sum supposed necessary to build a "town-house," determined on its location, and appointed a committee to superintend the expenditure of the money. The committee was, directed to build of such size as they might have the means to do, by adding to the $850.00 such sums as individuals would pay for pews, to be by them occupied as their own property, except when town meetings were holden. The next year the town added $80.00 to the $850.00 voted before. The result was, that in 1804 a large house was completed upon the hill about one-fourth of a mile west of where Center Village now is. This house was built by Nahum Stiles, one of the chief carpenters of those days. For nearly twenty years this was the only meeting-house in town. Public worship was commonly attended in it on the Sabbath, and as occasion required, on other days. Those having individual rights in consequence of aiding to defray the expense of building by the purchase of pews, were of several denominations, and each denominatjon was entitled to occupy it, if they chose, in proportion as each had paid for building. From several causes, however, it was more occupied by Congregational preachers than by those of any other denomination. Owing to the location of this house, it was not used for public worship for several years previous to its removal, though it was generally occupied for town meetings till the summer of 1845, when it was taken to pieces, removed to the village and the same frame there again erected, with some slight alterations; and in the lower story was finished a spacious room for a town hall. The upper loft of the large house originally built by the town, upon the hill, but now standing in the village, became, by an arrangement with the town, the property of members of the First Congregational Society; and it being deemed desirable to have a better place of worship than the one which was then occupied, in the summer of 1846 this spacious loft was finished for a place of worship, and is now the meeting-house of the First Congregational church and society in St. Johnsbury. It is comely, convenient and sufficiently large, being capable of seating 350 or 400 persons. It was dedicated on the 29th of September. It is thus seen that it was long after the settlement of the town before a convenient place for public worship was provided, and still longer before there was any organized church. An unusually small proportion of those who came here to settle for the first ten or fifteen years, had been members of churches elsewhere; and though a few while residing here had become hopefully pious, yet the number of such was also small. And the circumstance that the few church members who came from abroad were of several denominations, added to the difficulty. However, on the 21st day of November, 1809, more than twenty years after the first settlement of the town, the way was so prepared that the First Congregational church was organized. It consisted of nineteen members; six males and thirteen females. Their names were John Barker, Andrew Putnam, Stephen Ayer, Hubbard Lawrence, David Stowell, Samuel Eaton, Jr., Aphia White, Rebecca Stowell, Rebecca Houghton, Sarah Ayer, Lucy Putnam, Susanna Mansfield, Rebecca Brown, Ruth Barker, Mary Lawrence, Mary Bissel, Nancy Ayer, Susanna Baldwin and Martha Aldrich. 

       For six years after its organization, this church remained destitute of a pastor; but public worship was generally maintained on the Sabbath, sometimes with and sometimes without preaching. But in 1815 the church procured a pastor, viz.: Rev. Pearson Thurston, who had previously been settled in Somersworth, N.H. He was installed pastor of the first church in St. Johnsbury, on the 25th day of October, 1815, at which time the number who had ever been received to the church was 60. The present pastor of the society is Rev. Nahum W. Grover. 

     The Second Congregational church in St. Johnsbury, the present North church, was organized April 7, 1825 being a colony from the First Congregational church, which was located on the hill west of the Center Village.  Nineteen persons, six males and thirteen females, having obtained the consent of the First church, were constituted a separate church, under the name of the Second Congregational church in St. Johnsbury. The ecclesiastical council called on the occasion, consisted of the Rev. Leonard Worcester, of Peacham; the Rev. Mr. Mason, of Waterford; the Rev. Mr. Hollister, of Danville; and the Rev. Mr. Hall, of Concord. A small building, formerly a store, had been moved to the lot which is now the north corner of Main and Maple streets, and fitted up for a place of worship. This building was occupied thus by the church during the first two years after its organization. It was afterwards removed, and is now a small dwelling-house, nearly opposite Union block, on Main street. In the summer and autumn of 1827, a commodious meeting-house was built on the site of the present house of worship. 

     The house was built by subscription, with the condition that it should be the property of the church, and the pews rented for the support of the gospel ministry therein. The house was dedicated in October, 1827. It was removed in 1847, and is now the academy boarding-house, next south of the court-house. In the year 1847, the first meeting-house being inadequate to accommodate the church and congregation, the present house was built by subscription, upon the same conditions as were stipulated in regard to the first house. The grounds had been previously deeded to the deacons of the church, and their successors in office, in trust, for the use and benefit of the church. The first pastor, Rev. James Johnson, was installed February 28, 1827. The present pastor is Rev. Charles M. Lamson, D. D. 

     The Third Congregational church was organized in the east village of St. Johnsbury, November 25, 1840, and on the same day their meeting-house, then recently built, was dedicated. This church consisted of twenty members from other churches, namely: from the Second church, eleven; from the First church, two; from the church in Kirby, five; from the church in Lyndon, two. The first pastor of the society was Rev. Rufus Case, installed May 4, 1842. The present pastor is Rev. Joseph Walker. 

     The South Congregational church was organized October 16, 1851, and consisted of sixty- one members, who were dismissed for that purpose from the Second church. The large and commodious meeting-house in the south part of the village of St. Johnsbury, was built by contributions from both societies, for the use of the South church and congregation, with the provision that it should be the property of the church, and the pews rented for the support of the gospel ministry therein. On the 14th of January, 1852, this house was dedicated; and on the same day the Rev. Sumner G. Clapp was installed as pastor of the church. The present pastor is Rev. Edward T. Fairbanks. 

     Before the foundation of the diocese of Burlington, 1853, St. Johnsbury had only the privilege of visits from missionaries, the Catholic population numbering but a few families. The first priest who attended this parish was a Father Drolet, formerly residing in Montpelier. He came frequently, being obliged to celebrate the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass in a public hall. This building is now entirely demolished. The second missionary was the Rev. Father Maloney, of the Congregation of the Oblate Fathers. He resided in Burlington. It was he who bought the ground on which the old church stands, the deed bearing date from February 27, 1856. The same year he was replaced by the Rev. Father O'Reilly, present rector of the church of West Rutland, who commenced a part of the foundation of the old church. All these missionaries left no register in St. Johnsbury. In the month of July, 1858, Rev. Father S. Danielou arrived in St. Johnsbury, and he was the first residing parish priest. This worthy pastor worked very zealously for the new congregation, completed the church already commenced, built the first rectory, bought the old cemetery, and began the construction of the present school for the boys. In 1874 he went to reside in New Jersey. The same year, July 29th, Rev. J. A. Boissonnault arrived in St. Johnsbury, where he still resides. His first care was to repair the foundation of the school, which he terminated in the month of November. At the same time he made great reparations on the rectory. May 5, 1876, he bought the new cemetery which is one of the most beautiful in Vermont. The same year he bought the magnificent chime of bells, and consecrated them the 4th of July, the first church in Vermont furnished with the like.

     In the month of June, 1878, the worthy pastor obtained a residence for the nuns, on Cherry street. In this he was greatly aided by His Lordship Bishop Rappe, formerly Bishop of Cleveland. On September 1, 1879, he confided the direction of the schools to the Reverend Sisters of the Congregation of Notre Dame, of Montreal. These devoted religious are to-day at the head of a large boarding and day school. As this building was too small for the number of pupils, the devoted pastor bought, in November, 1882, the ground on which the present convent stands. In the month of April, 1883, he began the foundation of the new convent. The work progressed so rapidly that the Sisters took possession in the commencement of November, the same year. In February, 1884, the Reverend pastor bought the beautiful residence which he actually occupies, and the 29th of July, 1886, he commenced the foundation of the new church, After what we have seen of the plan, this temple will be worthy of the good and honest Catholic population of St. Johnsbury. The Catholics in this parish number 230 French Canadian families and 70 Irish families. As the worthy pastor exercises the holy ministry in both languages, there is a perfect understanding among the congregation.

     The Church of the Messiah, Universalist, located on Eastern avenue, was organized by its first pastor, Rev. B. M. Tillotson, with twenty-three members, in 1873. The church building, a wooden structure, erected during that year, will seat fifty persons, and is valued at $10,000.00. The society now has fifty members, with Rev. E. A. Hoyt, pastor. 

     The Baptist church of St. Johnsbury was organized by William Bacon, of New York city, with thirteen members, June 20, 1874. Rev. J. H. Marsh was the first pastor. The church building was erected in 1875. It is a wooden structure, capable of seating 240 persons, and is valued, including grounds, etc., at $5,000.00. The society now has 150 members, with Rev. E. T. Sanford, pastor. 

     The Reformed Presbyterian church, located on Eastern avenue, was organized by the New York Presbytery, with thirty-one members, July 29, 1879. W. R. Laird was the first pastor, and is still in charge. The church building was erected in 1882, will seat 350 persons, and is valued, including grounds, at $ 11,000.00. The society now has seventy-one members. 

     The Methodist Episcopal church of St. Johnsbury was organized by Rev. S. Chamberlain, with thirty-four members, in 1856. Rev. Alonzo Webster was the first pastor. In 1858 a church building was erected, and the present house was built in 1883. It will seat 500 persons, and is valued, including grounds, at $20,000.00. The society now has 250 persons, with Rev. L. L. Beeman, pastor. 

     The Methodist Episcopal church of St. Johnsbury East is a small society with no stated supply. They have a small church building and fifteen members. 

     St. Andrews Protestant Episcopal church, on Main street, was organized about 1859, although the church building was not erected until some years later. The present rector is Rev. F. S. Fisher. In correspondence with those interested we have failed to receive statistics of this church. 

     The Advent church, at Paddock Village, and also the Free Baptist church, are located in the town of St. Johnsbury. Rev. F. L. Piper is pastor of the former, and Rev. D. H. Adams of the latter. We have failed to receive statistics of these churches.

Gazetteer of Caledonia and Essex Counties, VT.; 1764-1887, 
Compiled and Published by Hamilton Child; May 1887, 
Page 309-345

This excerpt was provided by:

1887–1888 Business Directory for St. Johnsbury, Caledonia Co. by Hamilton Childs
1890 Saint Johnsbury Directory, St. Johnsbury, Vermont
Tombstone listings from Goss Hollow Cemetery, Saint 
Johnsbury, Vermont
St. Johnsbury Academy
Welcome to St. Johnsbury
1895-1896 St. Johnsbury, VT Directory of Town Officials
Ca. 1858 St. Johnsbury, VT Land Owners, Businesses & Features
History of the Catholic parish of St. Johnsbury.