The State of Vermont was originally divided into but two counties,
the Green Mountains, from which Vermont derives its name through the French
Verd Mont, being the dividing line. The portion on the west was called
“Bennington,” and that on the east "Cumberland" County. On Feb. 13, 1781,
by an act of the General Assembly, Bennington County was circumscribed
to its present limits, while the portion to the northward was formed into
Rutland County. By the formation of Addison County, in 1787 Rutland County
was brought to its present limits, with the exception of Orwell, which
was set off to Addison County, Nov. 13, 1847. Tinmouth was selected as
the county seat, and remained so until 1784, when it was removed to Rutland.
The bar-room of the hotel, built of logs, was used as a court house. The
first chief justice of the county was Hon. Increase MOSELEY, of Castleton,
a native of Connecticut, and a graduate of Yale College. The Supreme Court
commences its session at Rutland on the 1st Tuesday after the 4th Tuesday
of January, and the County Court on the 2d Tuesdays in April and September.
The United States Circuit Court sits here annually on the 3d, and the District
Court on the 6th day of October.
The county is divided into two Probate Districts, Fairhaven and
Rutland. The county District is composed of the towns of Fairhaven, Pawlet,
Wells, Poultney, Westhaven, Castleton, Benson, Hubbardton and Sudbury,
while the residue of the county is included within the Rutland District.
The county sends four Senators, and each town a Representative annually
to the General Assembly.
The county lies in the western part of the State, between 43°
18' and 43° 54’ north longitude east from Washington. It is bounded
north by Addison county, east by Windsor, south by Bennington, and west
by Washington County, N.Y., and contains twenty-five towns: Benson, Brandon,
Castleton, Chittenden, Clarendon, Danby, Fairhaven, Hubbardton, Ira, Mendon,
Middletown, Mount Holly, Mount Tabor, Pawlet, Pittsfield, Pittsford, Poultney,
Rutland, Sherburne, Shrewsbury, Sudbury, Tinmouth, Wallingford, Wells and
The county is centrally distant from Montpelier, the State Capital,
about fifty-five miles, is forty-two miles long from north to south; and
thirty-four wide from east to west, and contains 958 square miles of territory.
The physical features are diversified by lofty peaks of the Taconic and
Green Mountain ranges, the former cut by broad fertile valleys. The mean
temperature of the climate is about 43°, while the rainfall averages
about 40 to 43 inches a year. All the mountains east of Otter Creek belong
to the Green Mountain range, while those to the west of it belong to the
Taconic range, which extends from Massachusetts through Bennington County
as far north as Brandon in Rutland County. Along Otter Creek and in the
southwestern part of the county, the surface is level and handsome, and
the soil of the first quality. The remaining parts are hilly and broken,
but the soil is warm and well adapted to the production of grass and grain,
arid it is owing to this that Rutland County is so noted as a wool-growing
county. The highest point is Killington Peak, one of the Green Mountain
range, so named from the town of Killington, now Sherburne; it is situated
in the towns of Mendon and Sherburne, and about ten miles east from Rutland
village. Its height, according to the admeasurement of the signal service
corps, in 1879, is 4,380 feet. Pico Peak, in Sherburne and Mendon; Shrewsbury
Peak, in Mendon and Shrewsbury; White Rocks, in Wallingford; Mount Tabor,
in Mount Tabor, are also elevated peaks in the Green Mountain system.
Several peaks in the Taconic range rise to the height of three thousand
feet or more, and, in consequence of the decomposition of the limestone
which often enters largely into the composition of the rock of the mountains,
the tops and sides are often clothed with a verdure rarely if ever seen
on the western slope of the Green Mountains, where siliceous rocks prevail
to a great extent. The principal peaks are Bird and Herrick mountains,
in Ira, Moose Horn mountain, in Wells, and Danby mountain, in Danby. The
timber of the county is principally spruce, hemlock, beech, birch and maple,
with some pine, basswood, poplar and oak.
The country is well watered by numerous streams that have their
sources in the several mountain tops. Otter Creek, the principal one, flows
through the county from south to north. Black, White and Quechee rivers
all originate in the eastern part, and flow easterly into Connecticut River.
Pawlet River runs across the southwest corner, and Poultney, Castleton
and Hubbardton Rivers water the western part.
Numerous lakes and ponds are located in the several towns, of which
Lake St. Catharine or Lake Austin, in Wells and Poultney, and Lake Bomoseen,
in Castleton and Hubbardton, are the largest. The latter is a handsome,
deep sheet of water about eight miles long by two and one-half in width.
The lakes are much resorted to by pleasure parties.
The rocks of the county are the Calciferous sand rock, which enters
the State from New York, in the town of Westhaven, passing northward through
the western portion of that town and Benson, into Addison County. This
rock forms the transition from pure sandstone to pure limestone, and therefore
partakes of the character of each. The width of the belt varies from a
few rods to three miles, and its thickness from two to eighty feet. Adjacent
to, and parallel with this rock, extends a narrow range of Trenton limestone
which contains a great many beautiful fossils. This range, according to
Prof. ADAMS, is about four hundred feet in thickness.
The Hudson River slates enter the county at Westhaven, and extend
north through Benson into Addison County. The range has a mean width of
about five miles. In the south eastern part of Benson, and eastern part
of Westhaven, it is cut by a ledge of Hudson River limestone about a mile
and a half in width, and eight to ten miles long. This slate, though not
as valuable a range as the Georgia slate, is still of great value. A number
of quarries are worked for roofing slate. The operation of splitting the
slate to the required thickness for roofing is a difficult one and requires
much practice and patience; it is generally performed by Welshmen, who
take the blocks of slate rock and at a glance perceive the direction of
its "cleve" or "rift," and commence work upon it by splitting through the
middle of the block and continue to subdivide each block till sheets of
slate thin enough for roofing are produced.
A narrow belt of Talcoid schist enters the county at Fairhaven,
and extends in a northerly direction through the south eastern corner of
Benson, into Hubbardton. Another range of this rock, about five miles in
width, enters at the southern extremity of the county, in the towns of
Pawlet and Danby, and extends north through Middletown, Ira, Rutland and
Castleton, into Hubbardton. Talcoid schist is a stratified rock of a greenish
color, having a smooth lamina of a. pearly luster, and, when reduced to
powder, is unctuous to the touch. To this formation of rock, according
to Prof. HAGER, all the gold found in Vermont is confined.
There is a peculiar kind of conglomerate associated with this rock,
found only in Rutland County. It consists of transparent quartz pebbles
in a talcose paste. It is abundant in Ira, Middletown, Wells and Pawlet.
Upon Bird Mountain, in Ira, it constitutes the mass of the rock. The pebbles
are usually about the size of kernels of corn,
There is an immense bed of limestone in schists, lying partly in
Ira, but mostly in West Rutland. It is very dark blue, nearly black. There
is also another large bed in Pawlet, and some small beds in talcoid schists
of Castleton and Hubbardton. The average thickness of the talcoid schists
is over two thousand feet.
The Georgia slate is a very abundant rock, entering the State in
Pawlet and extending northward in a belt from five to eight miles in width,
passing through the towns of Pawlet, Wells, Poultney, Fairhaven and Hubbardton,
where it gradually becomes narrower, through Sudbury, and finally ends
in Addison County. The finest roofing slates of the Georgia slate deposit,
in Vermont, are found in Rutland County. The excellent character of the
slate for economical purposes is too well known to demand repetition here.
It has various colors, such as greenish, reddish brown, what is generally
called "slate color," chocolate, mottled, bright red, and bluish gray.
There are numerous shades of all these colors, as well as innumerable intermediate
varieties. Some of the varieties are so soft as to be used for slate pencils,
and can be cut into every conceivable shape. Many of the layers are compacted
together, and, being destitute of cleaverage planes, appear like a thick,
homogeneous mass of argillaceous rock. More will be said of the quarries,
etc., of this range in connection with the several towns.
Entering the county at Danby, and extending northward through the
towns of Tinmouth, Clarendon, Rutland, Pittsford and Brandon, is a range
of rocks, varying from one to five miles in width, that has made the name
of "Rutland" familiar in nearly all parts of the world. It is a range of
famous Eolian limestone, or Marble. Marble is a name appropriately applied
to those varieties of carbonate of lime, or lime and magnesia, that can
be quarried it large blocks, destitute of fissures, and sufficiently compact
and uniform in structure to receive a good polish. The variety of marble
that has been most extensively worked in Vermont is the white granular
variety. In color and structure it closely resembles the Italian Carara
marble, the quarries of which were opened in the days of Julius Caesar,
and since then have become celebrated for the great amount of marble taken
therefrom and the valuable blocks that they have contributed for statuary
purposes. Of the marble quarries, etc., more will be spoken anon.
Within this range, extending through the towns of Danby, Wallingford,
Clarendon and Rutland, are narrow beds of Quartz rock and Talcoid schists.
Next to the Eolian range, and extending through the whole length of the
county, is a Pliocene tertiary deposit of narrow limits. At Pittsford,
a branch shoots off into Chittenden. In this deposit are found ores of
Manganese, brown coal, ocher, and hematite ores.
The most abundant of the rocks, is the Green Mountain gneiss, which
enters the county from the south, and is deposited in Mount Tabor, Wallingford,
Mount Holly, Shrewsbury, Sherburne, Mendon and Chittenden. Most of the
gneiss is concealed by drift, the only ledges being found at South Chittenden,
and along the border of the formation north of this village. The greater
part of Chittenden is made up of this range, where in the eastern part,
it forms very high mountains.
Granite is composed of the same material as gneiss, the composition
of gneiss varying from it only, in having a distinctly stratified, slaty
or laminated structure. For this reason, many suppose the Green Mountains
are composed of granite; but this idea is erroneous, for but very little
granite is found in the entire range. There are some streaks found in the
gneiss of this county, but not enough for remunerative working.
Iron Ore. -- Iron, which contributes more to supply the varied wants
of man, and is made mole serviceable than any other metal, is found abundantly
disseminated in the crust of the earth and in a greater variety of combinations
than any other metal. Ores of iron are scattered with beneficent profusion
over every portion of the earth, and it not only forms an essential ingredient
in most of those substances that are compounded in the great laboratory
of nature, but it enters into the material organization of man, and is
essential to his existence. Many ores of iron are found in Rutland County,
of which the brown oxyd or hematite is the most abundant. This ore is generally
imbedded in, and has upon its surface a friable oxyd of iron, known as
yellow ocher, from which the solid and valuable ore is separated by washing
before it is smelted. The ocher is prepared and used largely as a paint.
Kaolin is also found, and generally resting upon or lying above the beds
of ocher. Beds of iron ore are found in Chittenden, Tinmouth, Wallingford,
Pittsford and Brandon. The latter town contains the most iron, and formerly
contained the largest furnace in the State. Fire brick, paints and paper
clay (elutriated Kaolin,) are prepared and manufactured in large quantities
Fossils of many varieties are found throughout the county, the finest
of which are found in the Trenton limestone of the northern part of the
county. In Mount Holly, 1,415 feet above the level of the ocean, the bones
of a fossil elephant were found in 1847. Other fossils are found in Chittenden,
-- the bones of small animals such as are not now extinct.
Moraine terraces were formed when water covered the greater part
of Vermont. They are elevations of gravel and sand, with correspondent
depressions of most singular and scarcely describable forms.
The theory of the formation of Moraine terraces is, that icebergs
became stranded at the base and on the sides of hills, and that deposits
were made around and upon them, and they would have been level topped if
the ice had remained; but in consequence of its melting, they are now extremely
Extraordinary accumulations of Moraine terraces occur upon the watershed
of the Battenkill River and Otter Creek. Following down the creek, Moraine
terraces may be seen extending through the greater part of Danby, and at
North Wallingford. They are continuous from this village to Clarendon.
In the north west part of Tinmouth, passing into Clarendon, may be seen
other examples of Moraine terraces. They are particularly abundant in the
east part of Rutland, near the line of Mendon, most of the length of the
town, lying at the foot of the great range of quartz rock. Between Pittsford
Furnace and North Chittenden, upon the north west side of Furnace River,
is one of the finest examples of Moraine terraces in the State.
Near the village of Pittsford, and continuing north to Forestdale,
in Brandon, along the west slope of the Green Mountains, are found evidences
of an ancient sea beach from six hundred to eight hundred feet above the
present level of the sea.
Alluvium. -- Under this head geologists include all the loose or
partially consolidated materials that have been worn from the older rocks
at whatever period, and brought into their present state since the tertiary
period. These materials, by whatever agencies first torn off from the solid
ledges, have been more or less sorted and deposited by water in layers
or strata, generally horizontal. The size of the fragments varies from
that of enormous blocks, weighing thousands of tons, down to the impalpable
powder of the finest mud. The power of water in the frozen state -- as
glaciers, icebergs and icefloes -- is very great; but still greater when
it exerts its expansive force in freezing. Gunpowder hardly equals it,
and probably a large part of the loose materials scattered over the surface
as bowlders, are first loosened from the ledges by the freezing of water
in the crevices of the rocks. Even though they get only an infinitesimal
start the first year, each subsequent year -- because the crevices are
widening -- will witness an increase of the work. The drainage of the land,
also, by rivers, accomplished again and again, by the vertical movement,
has worn out gorges and valleys of great depth, and the work has not yet
ceased, as may be seen in the remarkable change effected in the Poultney
River, three miles north west of the village of Fairhaven, during a freshet
in 1783. The river had previously run through a rocky gorge over a fall,
because probably its old bed on a previous continent had been filled with
sand. But having been diverted back again by the freshet, into the sand,
it soon cleared out its channel and left the falls dry. About two miles
north of Cuttingsville is an old river bed now occupied by the railroad,
in Shrewsbury, near the west line. The length of the old bed is about three
quarters of a mile. The river now runs through a deep gorge in slaty rock,
seventy five feet deep in some places. Terraces abound at the side of the
gorge near where the old bed is situated. On Mill Brook, a branch of Otter
Creek; a little east of the Bennington and Rutland Railway, in Clarendon,
the stream has cut a gorge through the rock eighty five feet deep, and
three old beds can be traced.
Thus the face of the earth is constantly changing, and the change
will continue, as it has in the past, through countless ages.
The staple productions of the county, are corn, rye, buckwheat,
potatoes, butter, cheese, hay, maple sugar, and products of the orchard
and garden. Considerable attention is also paid to dairying and wool growing.
According to the U. S. census of 1870, the county contained 301,499 acres
of improved land, producing 23,192 bushels of wheat, 7,939 bushels of rye,
180,780 bushels of Indian corn, 246,092 bushels of oats, 3,462 bushels
of barley, 22,127 bushels of buckwheat and 617,094 bushels of potatoes.
It had $2,314,499.00 worth of live stock, consisting of 19,594 milch cows,
5,623 horses, 4,566 swine, 1,227 oxen and 83,870 sheep.
From the milk of the cows was manufactured 119,645 lbs. of butter,
and 1,369,844 lbs. of cheese. The sheep yielded 425,216 lbs. of wool, or
about five and one half pounds to the fleece.
SPANISH MERINO SHEEP BREEDING
The famous Merino Sheep, the breeding of which Vermont is so justly
celebrated, is brought to as fine a state of perfection in Rutland County,
and it produces as fine specimens, as any district in the world.
The Merino is the most important breed of sheep as regards the texture
of the wool. The breed in modern times was brought to great perfection
in Spain, though their originals probably formed the flocks of the patriarchs
thousands of years ago and have been the stock of all the fine-wooled sheep.
They have wool growing on their foreheads and cheeks; the horns
are very large and heavy, and convulated laterally; the wool is fine, long,
soft and twisted in silky spiral ringlets, and naturally so oily that the
fleece looks dingy and unclean from the dust and dirt adhering to the outside;
the form is not so symmetrical as in many English breeds, and there is
generally a loose skin hanging from the neck and other parts of the body.
Both Spanish and French Merinos have been introduced into the United
States, the former by Hon. David HUMPHREYS, Minister to the Court of Madrid,
in 1802, and the latter by Mr. TAINTOR, of Hartford, Conn., in 1846; it
is said that three Spanish Merinos were brought to Boston in 1793, by William
FOSTER, but they were not preserved for breeding purposes. In Rutland County
the breeding of Merino sheep has been brought to such a state of perfection,
that it may indeed be called without exaggeration, a "science." First,
and foremost among the old masters in this line, should be mentioned, Mr.
Dyer TOWNSEND of Wallingford, the oldest sheep breeder in the State, and
a man who in the early history of the breeding of Merino sheep in Rutland
County, in 1827, purchased thirteen Merinos brought from Connecticut by
Mr. Frederick BUTTON.
For a long term of years Mr. TOWNSEND was said to have the best
Merino sheep in the State. Rutland County sheep breeders are justly proud
of his record. Mr. TOWNSEND is today a hale, hearty man, 94 years of age,
having never seen a day's sickness, never had the headache and "cannot
remember when he has missed a meal." A man possessed of the. highest moral
character, and never having allowed himself the use of intoxicating liquors,
he stands today a living .monument in favor of the cause of temperance.
He still superintends a large farm, attends to banking, and much other
business, but at the same time does not forget his early love for fine
Merinos. He still retains a small flock of the same blood he has so long
bred, and standing at the head of this flock is a fine ram, sired by "Poney"
whose picture heads this article [not included here].
Mr. Alfred HULL, also of Wallingford, bought of Mr. ATWOOD, of Connecticut,
in 1849, a few sheep which he bred in company with Col. N. T. SPRAGUE,
of Brandon, a former president of the Vermont Merino Sheep Breeders' Association.
In 1827, Deacon Frederick BUTTON, of Clarendon, bought of Stephen
ATWOOD, of Connecticut, two lots of Merinos, from which he bred a flock,
afterwards breeding in blood from the flocks of Consul JARVIS. At the time
Mr. BUTTON made one of these purchases, he was accompanied by Mr. David
P. HOLDEN, of Wallingford, who also purchased a few. "These are the first
ATWOOD sheep brought into Vermont," says Mr. Albert CHAPMAN, editor of
“The Vermont Merino Sheep Register.”
The father of Edward HINDS, of Brandon, also bred one of the leading
flocks in Vermont, of ATWOOD blood, and Edward has a flock of the same
Mr. J. S. BENEDICT, of Castleton, also one of the old time breeders,
has one of the prime flocks of the State, his breed being largely tinctured
with blood of the "Rich" flock, bred by V. RICH, in Addison County, and
one of the most valuable breeds in the State.
During the late civil war, the flock owned and bred by Mr. Milton
BARBER, of Hubbardton, was one of the best in the State, but is now scattered.
Hon. BRADLEY FISH, of Ira, has a flock of long standing and is a
very successful breeder.
Many flocks of considerable importance have been scattered abroad,
which our space will not allow mention of. We can speak of only a
few of the most important.
The flock owned by the late Capt. Joseph SHELDON, of Fairhaven,
was one of the finest showing flocks in the State. Another fine flock was
the old "Mead" flock of JARVIS sheep, purchased by Esquire Abner MEAD,
and bred a long time by him, and afterwards by his son, Andrew Jackson
MEAD. In the early days, Mr. MEAD would drive a lot of fine cattle over
to Weathersfield, Vt., the home of Consul JARVIS, which he would there
exchange for a few small Merino sheep, bringing them over the Green Mountains
in a lumber wagon. Since this time the MEAD farm, at West Rutland, has
always been noted for its sheep breeding. The Merinos early imported from
Spain by Consul JARVIS, would only shear ewes, from three to four pounds,
and rams, from four to seven pounds, the fleeces shrinking, by cleansing,
from one third to one half their weight. After a time, from this stock,
Abner MEAD bred a ram which became quite noted, and was widely known as
"Old Tiger," and which sheared a fleece of seven pounds weight.
There is now on the MEAD farm a flock that has descended, after
sixteen years careful care and attention, from one ewe bred by Mr. V. RICH,
of Shoreham, Vt. These sheep are called by their present owner, Mr. John
H. MEAD, the "Stub's family" of RICH sheep, from the fact of the grand
dam being called "Old Stubs." Two ram tegs from this flock were publicly
shorn, May 3, 1881, which sheared respectively, 17 pounds 6 ounces, and
17 pounds 8 ounces, and at the same time two ewe tegs which cut 15 pounds
10 ounces, and 16 pounds 14 ounces.
Some of the best Merino rams shear over 30 pounds, cleansing nearly
10 pounds. The famous "Peck" ram, that sired the ewes exhibited by Hon.
Geo. CAMPBELL, of Westminster, Vt., at the World's Fair in Europe, and
which took the first prize, was bought by Col. N. T. SPRAGUE, of Brandon,
and left stock that made its mark in Rutland county. One of its descendants
was the famous ram "Green Mountain," owned by Mr. Elijah SMITH, of West
Rutland. Green Mountain gained a great name as a stock animal, and was
a source of great profit to his worthy owner.
The following, very fully illustrates what has been done towards
increasing the value of the Merino sheep: Where the original Spanish Merino
had but about 1,500 wool hairs to the square inch, by careful breeding,
the growth has been increased to nearly 6,000 n the same space.
Some of the most prominent breeders of Rutland County that have
not already been mentioned are, F. & J. Q. SMITH, Samuel BOARDMAN &
Son, J. COOK, R. C. MEAD and Leonard F. B. GORHAM, of West Rutland; Harry
COLLINS, Lester FISH, Leonard FISH, C. LINCOLN, and Henry, Lyman W. and
Albert FISH, of Ira; Hiram and Rufus R. HAMILTON and J. A. ELLIS, of Fairhaven;
F. H. BUTTON, of Clarendon; F. H. FARRINGTON, D. W. PRIME and D. BLACKMER,
of Brandon; O. C. MARTIN and Rollin GLEASON, of Benson; D. T. HOLDEN &
Son, G. PRITCHARD, E. C. WHEATON, and W. P., Thos. D. & Son and Dan
K. HALL, of Pittsford; Chauncey L. BARBER, Jeremiah P. GIDDINGS, A. P.
THORNTON, of Castleton, and V. N. FORBES, of Westhaven.
COUNTY AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY
The Rutland County Agricultural Society was organized, and held
its first Fair in 1846, at Castleton. Its first principal officers were,
William L. FARNHAM, of Poultney, president; Orel COOK, of Rutland, secretary,
and Hon. Zimri HOWE, of Castleton, treasurer.
For many years the annual Fairs were held, alternately, at Rutland
and Castleton. One year, 1852, the annual exhibition was held at Poultney,
and is the only exception of its being held at other than the places named.
In 1860, the annual exhibitions were permanently located at Rutland. Some
forty acres of land were purchased, situated about a mile south of the
village, and buildings, sheds and race track erected, and the annual Fairs
have since been held thereon, the Vermont State Fair being held upon the
grounds nine years.
The Society has had its days of prosperity and adversity -- "fair
weather and foul," but is noW in a flourishing condition, with $600.00
in its treasury. The following is a list of the executive officers from
Presidents -- William L. FARNHAM, Poultney; David HALL, Pittsford;
Henry W. LESTER, Rutland; Joseph SHELDON, Fairhaven; BRADLEY FISH, Ira;
Alpha H. POST, Rutland; Henry HAYWARD, Rutland; A. D. SMITH, Danby; Pitt
W. HYDE, Castleton; L. H. KELLOGG, Benson; Lensey ROUNDS, Clarendon; J.
S. BENEDICT, Castleton; Henry F. LATHROP, Pittsford; Horace H. DYER, Rutland;
Henry CLARK, Rutland.
Secretaries -- Orel COOK, Rutland, ten years; W. H. SMITH, Rutland,
ten years; Henry CLARK, Rutland, fifteen years; Miner HILLIARD, Rutland;
Lensey ROUNDS, Clarendon; Cornelius C. PIERCE, East Clarendon.
Treasurers -- Zimri HOWE, Castleton, fifteen years; Miner HILLIARD,
Rutland; A. D. SMITH, Danby; Jesse L. BILLINGS, Rutland; Walter C. LANDON,
Of the manufacturing interests, that of marble and slate, in their
various branches, are the most important. Much capital is also employed
in the manufacture of various kinds of machinery, scales, buttons, soap,
paint, paperstock, etc., etc. In some of the towns, lumbering, with its
various products is most important. According to the U. S. census of 1870;
the county had 377 manufacturing establishments, operated by 32 steam engines
and 199 water wheels, giving employment to 2,145 males and 84 females;
there being a capital of $3,190,855.00 invested in manufactures. However,
statistics from the census of 1880, when tabulated and given to the public,
will show a large increase in these figures. In connection with the history
of the various townships, the manufactures will be spoken of in detail.
As previously stated, Court was held at Tinmouth, from 1781 to 1784,
when it was removed to Rutland.
The Court House, for eight years, from 1784 to 1792, was the old
gambrel roofed building, still standing, next west of the Advent Chapel,
on West street, in this village.
Externally, it was then substantially as now. It had only two rooms,
one with a floor, and the other none. The west one was the court room,
having a floor and seats on the north side, a little elevated, for the
judges, and benches for the jurors, witnesses and spectators. The east
room had no floor, and answered all the other purposes of a court house,
grand and petit jury room, &c. The jail was built of logs and stood
a few yards to the north west of the court house.
Humble as this old building may appear to our modem eyes, there
yet hovers about it a wealth of historical interest that well may fill
us with feelings of veneration. It was here that the first United States
District Court ever held in Vermont had its session, on the first Monday
in May, 1791, with Nathaniel CHIPMAN as judge, and Frederick HILL as Clerk.
The State Legislature met here in October, 1784 and 1786, and it was under
the brief control of the anti court mob, in November, 1786. Each board
and timber of the venerable structure, were they endowed with speech, would
doubtless rehearse to us many tales of joy and sorrow, strangely mingling
the tragic with the comic in their narrative of those who have long since
In the year 1792, a more pretentious court house was built on Main
street, Just above the old Franklin House; the funds for its completion
being furnished by voluntary contribution. It was built of wood, framed
and clapboarded, facing towards the north. During the first session of
the Legislature therein, there was passed, October, 25, 1792, "An act for
the purpose of raising by lottery, the sum of one hundred and sixty pounds
lawful money, for the purpose of defraying the expense of building the
new Court House in Rutland."
The building remained wholly of wood until the year 1828, when George
W. DANIELS, as contractor, bricked up the outside eight inches thick, subletting
the wood work to W. W. BAILEY, the expense being paid by the citizens.
An extension of twenty feet was put on the building in 1844, under the
supervision of Zimri HOWE of Castleton, as first County Judge. For over
seventy five years outraged law was avenged, and justice meted out from
this building, until the great fire of early morning, April 3, 1868, when
it was destroyed. The Court was in session at the time of the fire, and
for the remainder of that term was held at the rooms of judge PROUT, the
presiding judge; one term it was held in the Christian Association rooms,
and two in the Town Hall, after which, until the partial completion of
the new Court House, was held in the U. S. Court Room.
The new Court House was commenced the year following the fire, 1869,
and first occupied in March 1871, $72,000.00 having been expended in its
construction up to present date. It is a fine building, situated on the
corner of Court and Centre streets, built of pressed brick, all but the
steps, trimmings and foundation walls, which are of Chester granite. The
first floor of the building contains the offices of the County Clerk, Judge
of Probate, and Sheriff. On the second floor is the Court Room and office
of the presiding judge. The basement was originally intended to be occupied
by cells for criminals awaiting trial, but has not been completed, and
probably never will, for the reason that a portion of the House of Correction
has been set off as a jail for Rutland County.
The poor of the County are supported by the towns where the applicants
reside, and it is to the credit of some of the towns that the office of
Overseer of the Poor is almost that of a sinecure.
The railroad between Rutland and Bennington was built under an act
of the Legislature, passed November 5, 1845, incorporating the Western
Vermont Railroad Company.
The Company was duly organized, and the first Board of Directors,
elected Feb. 28th, 1850, were Myron CLARKE, President; Aaron R. VAIL, Vice-President;
Robert PIERPOINT, Robinson HALL, Ira COCHRAN, Martin C. DEMING, Asahel
HURD, Lemuel BOTTUM, Alanson P. LYMAN. Seneca SMITH was chosen Clerk, The
road was put into operation in 1852.
The title of the original stockholders having been extinguished
by the foreclosure of the first mortgage, January r, 1857, the road passed
into the possession of Shepherd KNAPP and George BRIGGS, Trustees, who
leased it to the Troy & Boston Railroad Company, by which it was run
until January 16, 1867, Meantime, July 28, 1865, the bondholders organized
a new corporation, called the Bennington & Rutland Railroad Company,
of which the first Board of Directors were Trevor W. PARK, President; Hiland
HALL, Alanson P. LYMAN, Chas. E. HOUGHTON, M. Carter HALL, Chas. G. LINCOLN,
Treasurer; Nathaniel B. HALL, Hugh Henry BAXTER, Geo. W. HARMON, Clerk.
Subsequently, on the 8th day of August, 1877, a new corporation,
called the Bennington & Rutland Railway Company, was organized with
the following named directors: -- Abraham B. GARDNER, President; Augustus
SCHELL, Cornelius VANDERBILT, Benjamin R. SEARS and Trevor W. PARK. George
W. HARMAN was chosen Clerk, and C. E. HOUGHTON, Treasurer.
The road is now run by that company, and the following are its officers:
-- Trenor W. PARK, President; John G. McCULLOUGH, Vice President; Geo.
W. HARMAN, Clerk; Chas. E. HOUGHTON, Treasurer; and Abraham B. GARDNER,
The Rutland and Washington Railroad Company was organized under
an Act approved by the Legislature November 13, 1847. The first meeting
was held at West Poultney, on the 23d of February, 1848, at which the following
Board of Directors were chosen: Merritt CLARK, Marcus G. LANGDON,
Henry STANLEY, Isaac W. THOMPSON, Horace CLARK, Edgar L. ORMSBEE and Milton
BROWN. Merritt CLARK was subsequently elected President, and Horace CLARK,
his brother, Treasurer and Superintendent. The Board of Directors continued
nearly the same for two years, when the road was opened through to Salem,
forming a continuous line from Rutland to Troy, N. Y. Four years from the
day of organization, Horace CLARK, a pioneer and master spirit in projecting
and completing the road, died, on the 25th of February, 1852; the day appointed
for celebrating its opening, witnessed his funeral rites and burial. The
road cost about one million of dollars, and did not at first prove a financial
Jay GOULD became Superintendent of the road January 1, 1864, having
his headquarters for the first two years at Rutland, boarding at the Bardwell
House. In July of 1876 he negotiated the sale of the road to the D. &
H. C. Co., by which it is still owned and operated, doing a prosperous
The Champlain and Connecticut River Railroad was incorporated November
1, 1843. The first meeting of stockholders was held at Rutland, May 6,
1845, with Timothy FOLLETT of Burlington, chairman, and Ambrose L. BROWN
of Rutland, clerk. Voted to open subscriptions for stock, June 10, 1845.
June 12, 1845, more than 2,000 shares having been subscribed to
the capital stock, stockholders were notified to meet at the court house
in Rutland for choice of nine directors, which were chosen as follows:
Timothy FOLLETT, Samuel BARKER, Ira STEWART, Charles LINSLEY, John A. CONANT,
Chester GRANGER, George T. HODGES, William HENRY, and Henry N. FULLERTON.
Subsequently, January 14, 1846, the following were chosen directors in
place of the old board: Timothy FOLLETT, Samuel P. STRONG, William NASH,
Charles LINSLEY, John A. CONANT, Chester GRANGER, George T. HODGES, Nathaniel
FULLERTON, William HENRY, John ELLIOTT, Horace GRAY, Samuel DANA, and Samuel
HENSHAW, with Timothy FOLLETT, president.
The first blow towards its construction was struck during the month
of February, 1847, in the town of Rockingham, near Bellows Falls. Two years
and nine months sufficed to complete the road, and it was opened through,
December 18, 1849.
The name of the road was changed to the Rutland & Burlington
Railroad Company by an Act of the Legislature, November 6, 1847. It was
subsequently changed to the Rutland Railroad Company, Hon. John B. PAGE
being now president, and Joel M. HAVEN, treasurer. Thus, through various
changes and vicissitudes, litigations and bankruptcy, the whole line, its
buildings, etc., on the 1st day of January, 1871, was leased for a period
of twenty years to the Vermont Central Railroad Company, since which time,
and under the new organization of the Central Vermont Railroad Company,
it has rapidly grown in prosperity.
The Rutland and Whitehall Railroad, from Castleton to Whitehall,
N. Y., twenty four miles in length, was organized under an Act approved
by the Legislature, November 13, 1847, and the road completed in 1850.
Soon after its completion, it was leased to the Renssalaer and Saratoga
R. R. Co., who operated it until 11866, when it was leased to Jay GOULD.
On July 1st of the same year, Mr. GOULD gave a perpetual lease of the road
to the D. & H. C. Co., by whom it is still operated.
A. W. and Pitt W. HYDE, William C. KITTRIDGE and Alanson ALBEE were
the chief promoters of the enterprise. The first officers were, A. W. HYDE
of Castleton, President; Alanson ALBEE of Fairhaven, Vice President; P.
W. HYDE, Clerk; and W. C. KITTRIDGE of Fairhaven, Treasurer. These, with
W. W. COOLEY, now president of the corporation, constituted the first Board
Six weekly papers are published in the county, with one daily, and
one issued monthly.
RUTLAND. The first paper ever published in the county was
Herald of Vermont or Rutland Courier; a weekly, edited and published
by Anthony HASWELL. The first copy was issued June 18, 1792, and contained
the following motto which clearly proclaims the character of the paper:
flow Free and Candour guide,
no Part, and Espouse no Side."
This paper was only continued a few months, when the printing office
was destroyed by fire, either Sunday, September 16th or 23d, 1792. This
put a stop to the publication of the sheet, and it was never again resumed,
although the Legislature at Rutland on the 31st of October following, "passed
an act granting a Lottery to A. HASWELL, to raise £200 to repair
the damages sustained by him on account of the destruction of his printing
office by fire."
In 1793, James LYON commenced the publication of the Farmer's
Library or Vermont Political and Historical Register. The first copy
was issued April 1st, and the publication continued until November 29th,
1794, when the concern was purchased by judge Samuel WILLIAMS and Rev.
Samuel WILLIAMS, LL. D., and on the 8th day of December, 1794, the first
number of the RUTLAND HERALD was issued by them under the name of
"The Rutland Herald or Vermont Mercury." In the first number the
proprietors say, "As we have purchased of Mr. LYON, editor of the Farmers
Library, the Printing Office, Apparatus, and Privileges annexed by
Law to his paper, it will for the future be carried on by the subscribers,
with the above title, under the direction of Dr. WILLIAMS. * * * * The
price of the Herald will be nine shillings per annum, to those to
whom we send the paper ourselves; seven shillings and sixpence to those
who call at the office and take them." On Monday, June 29, 1795, the title
was changed to "The Rutland Herald, a Register of the Times." During
the different changes of proprietors it has met with several slight variations
in its title, but was always known as the
The paper was continued by the two WILLIAMS until the first part
of the present century, when it was taken by William FAY. In 1817, the
firm was FAY & DAVISON, and later in the same year changed to FAY,
DAVISON & BURT, DAVISON afterwards becoming president of the Saratoga
& Whitehall Railroad. In 1819 it was again changed to FAY & BURT.
BURT remained in the firm one year, when the business was again carried
on by FAY alone, until the latter part of 1827. From this time forward
the business changed hands quite often, the changes occurring as follows:
From the time FAY left it until 1830, by E. C. PURDY; 1831 '32, E. MAXHAM;
1833, MAXHAM & TUTTLE, and G. A. TUTTLE alone, from March; 5th to April
12th; 1834 '38, William FAY; (FAY died in 1839.) 1839 '42, WHITE, EVERSON
& Co., and H. F. WHITE & Co.; 1843, WHITE & GURNSEY, (GURNSEY
inventing the well known printing press, bearing this name;) 1844, H. T.
WHITE, and from April of that year until 1851, Geo. H. BEAMAN; 1851, George
H. BEAMAN and G. A. TUTTLE; 1852-'54, George H. BEAMAN; 1855, and part
of '56, C. H. HAYDEN, publisher, and printed by G. A. TUTTLE & Co.,
the latter then taking the business, which they retained until 1862. September
1, 1862, TUTTLE & GAY; 1866, TUTTLE, GAY & Co., and later in the
same year, TUTTLE & Co.; February 10, 1872, A. H. TUTTLE; July 1, 1873,
TUTTLE & REDINGTON; February 16, 1874, A. H. TUTTLE. In 1875, S. B.
PETTINGILL and W. P. WINSLOW joined TUTTLE, under the firm name of the
"Herald Association." Winslow died, and the paper was conducted by the
remaining partners, until September 1, 1877, when the Globe was
consolidated with the Herald, and a new corporation, "The Herald
and Globe Association" was formed by the stockholders of both papers, who
now issue THE RUTLAND HERALD AND GLOBE, with Mr. A. H. TUTTLE as
manager and principal proprietor.
The first daily was issued April 29, 1861. It grew out of the exigencies
of the late war, being first started as an experiment, but has since become
one of the fixed institutions of Rutland. The HERALD, one of the
oldest papers in the U. S., under the present efficient management, continues,
as it has in the past, to exert a wonderful influence over the minds of
the people of Vermont; and to its credit, it may be said, its influence
is always for the good.
In January, 1795, the first number of The Rural Magazine or Vermont
Repository was issued, with Rev. Samuel WILLIAMS, editor. The last
number was issued in December, 1796.
In 1802, the
Vermont Mercury was started by Stephen HODGMAN.
This was an independent weekly, and continued but a short time.
On July 25, 1808, the first number of the Vermont Courier
was issued by Thomas M. POMEROY, and was continued until May, 1810.
On August 29, 1848, The Rutland Republican was commenced
by Simeon LOCKE, and had for its motto the following: -- “Free Soil, Free
Speech, Free Labor and Free Men." It was continued but a short time.
In September, 1849, The Vermont Union Whig was issued, a
home newspaper devoted to politics and literature, published at Rutland
and Brandon every Wednesday; William C. CONANT, editor at Rutland, and
Samuel M. CONANT, at Brandon. The first steam printing press ever used
in Rutland County was used for the first time in printing the first number
of this paper at Rutland. It was issued but a few months and died. The
first number of it issued in Brandon, was in 1847.
In January, 1855, The Guard of American Liberty was started,
edited and published by H. F. POTTER. It was devoted to "Know Nothingism."
Only a few numbers were ever issued.
On August 12, 1857, The Rutland Courier was commenced, and
published every Friday morning for several years, by CAIN & MCLEAN,
with John CAIN, editor. It was purchased by the Globe Paper Co., in April,
1872, and discontinued as an individual paper.
In July, 1858,
What's the News, a monthly paper, was commenced
by William A. BACON. Only continued a short time.
July 21, 1866,
The Rutland County Independent was commenced
by James K. McLEAN and Thos. C. ROBBINS. An introductory number was issued
July 4, 1866, but the first regular number not until July 21st. The name
was soon after changed to the Rutland Independent. Mr. ROBBINS withdrew
from the firm, and in April, 1872, Mr. McLEAN sold out to the Globe Paper
Co., when the enterprise was discontinued as an independent paper.
In January of 1870, the first number of the Rutland Times
was issued, a boy's paper, issued weekly, edited and published by McLEAN
& AIKEN, the former a son of James K. The paper was suspended in November
The Marble City Mirror, a weekly; was published during a,
few months of 1870, by James H. LANSLEY.
The Vermont Mason, a monthly, was commenced by Henry CLARK
in May of 1871, and continued by him until May of 1873, when it was discontinued.
The Biblical Messenger, a monthly, was started by A. A. HOYT
in 1872, and discontinued after a few issues.
The Rutland Globe, (daily and weekly,) was commenced May
1, 1873, by the Globe Paper Co., who had previously purchased the Rutland
Courier and Rutland Independent, and continued by them until
September 1 1877, when it was consolidated with the Herald, and has since
been issued as the HERALD AND GLOBE, by the Herald and Globe Asssociation.
The leader, issued weekly, was commenced January 1, 1877, by Henry
CLARK, who continued it until September r, 1879, when he sold it to James
L. McARTHUR, and was changed by him to the Rutland Times, (which
The Inquirer was started by V. C. MEYERHOFFER in January
of 1878. In October of the following year it was purchased by H. W. LOVE,
who consolidated it with the Review.
The Sunday Review was started by H. W. LOVE, on the 2nd of
April, 1878, as a branch of the Sunday Review of Burlington. Under
this name it was continued about one year and then changed to the Saturday
Evening Review, and soon after the Inquirer was united with
and the name again changed, to the Review Inquirer. August 5, 1880,
the office was taken possession of under a chattel mortgage, and from that
date the Review and Inquirer were published as separate papers;
the former by LOVE, as the RUTLAND REVIEW, (and is now published
by the Review Association,) and the latter by L. W. REDINGTON:
The Inquirer was subsequently purchased by Geo. E. RICHARDSON,
who suspended its publication in 1881, for the purpose of starting a new
paper, to be known as the RUTLAND STANDARD, the initial number of
which is expected to be issued about September 1st of this year. It is
the intention of the publisher to maintain in this paper an independent
position in regard to politics, and aim to make the interests of Rutland
County its interests. Mr. G. E. RICHARDSON, its publisher and editor, has
had considerable experience in the newspaper business, having at one time
been proprietor of the Thomaston, (Me.) Herald and Printing House, in which
capacity he acquired a reputation for marked ability and sagacity, which
cannot fail to be of great value to him in his present undertaking.
On September 1, 1879, The Rutland Times, a daily and weekly,
was commenced by James L. McARTHUR. It was issued about three weeks and
THE VERMONT BAPTIST was started in March, 1879, by Rev. Justin
K. RICHARDSON, and is still continued by him. It is issued on the 10th
of each month, devoted to the interests of the Vermont Baptist State Convention.
The Poultney Gazette was started in November,
1822, by Sanford SMITH and John R. SHUTE, at East Poultney. This paper
was continued by them until January, 1825, when it was changed to The
Northern Spectator, which they continued to publish for just one year,
when it became the property of an association, with "D. DEWEY and A. BLISS,
agents for the proprietors." They continued in this capacity several months,
when they were succeeded by E. G. STONE. He was succeeded by several others,
until June 11, 1830, when the paper was discontinued.
The Spectator will always remain famous, as being the office
where Horace GREELEY learned the printer's trade.
The Poultney Owl was published about six months in 1867,
by James H. LANSLEY.
On March 12, 1868, the first number of The Poultney Bulletin
was issued by J. A. MORRIS, with John NEWMAN, editor, and Geo. C. NEWMAN,
assistant editor. It was published by MORRIS one year, when Geo. C. NEWMAN
became publisher. On October 7, 1869, Hon. Barnes FRISBIE became editor,
and remained until June, 1870. In September, 1870, H. L. STILLSON and William
HASWELL became publishers, STILLSON again selling his share of the concern
to HASWELL, on August 8, 1871, who published it until November, 1873. In
December following, R. J. HUMPHREY bought the Bulletin office, and
issued the first number of the:
POULTNEY JOURNAL, December 8, 1873. The Journal has
published since that date to the present time -- four years by Mr. HUMPHREY,
two and a half years by FRISBIE & NEAGLES, and then by FRISBIE &
ROSS, until about April 1, 1881, when Mr. Charles W. POTTER purchased Mr.
FRISBIE's interest, and it is now published by POTTER & ROSS.
The T. C. A. Casket was issued for a time by the students
of the Troy Conference Academy, during the time Bishop Jesse T. PECK, now
of Syracuse, N. Y., was principal of that institution.
The Ripley Female College Quarterly, composed of contributions
by Students, was edited and published here for a time by John W. NEWMAN,
D. D., president of the college.
The Golden Sheaf, a paper issued by the students of Troy
Conference Academy, during 1876 '77, was printed at the journal office.
WALLINGFORD. -- A part of the time between the years 1855 '60, there
was a small sheet published at this village by P. H. EMERSON and Amasa
BISHOP, called the
Local Spy. The printing was also done here.
In 1877 The Wallingford Standard was established by Addison
G. STONE a part of the time issued by S. SABIN, and continued until 1880,
when it was discontinued, The printing was done a part of the time at Bennington
and a part at Brandon.
DANBY -- The Otter Creek Valley News was begun in September,
1878, printed at Bennington, Vt., by A. S. BAKER & Son, and published
by J. C. WILLIAMS, editor, issued every Friday, independent in character.
Was discontinued In 1880.
The Telegraph was started by a joint stock company, to some
extent under the supervision of the Baptist State Convention. Ephraim MAXHAM,
now connected with the Waterville, Maine, Mail, was publisher for the proprietors.
MURRAY, on becoming editor and publisher, made the paper anti slavery,
and finally infidel. Rev. Nathan BROWN, one of the early editors of the
went as a missionary to India; he translated the New Testament into the
language of the Rig Veda, Vajur Veda, Sama Veda and Authora Veda, and afterward
founded the American Baptist.
The Voice of Freedom was published at Montpelier four years
before it was removed to Brandon.
The Vermont Record was removed to Brattleboro.
D. C. HACKETT, who started the OTTER CREEK NEWS, brought
his office to Brandon from Ludlow, where he had been publishing the
Black River Gazette, the Gazette being printed for some months
in the News office, and then suspended.
FAIRHAVEN. -- In 1793, Mathew LYON has been said to have started
the Farmers' Library in this village. This statement is, however,
probably incorrect, as the first number of that paper is dated at Rutland,
April 1, 1793, and published by his son James.
In 1794, LYON commenced the Fairhaven Gazette, which was
printed by James LYON, and by Judah P. SPOONER during a part of its existence.
It was succeeded by the Farmers' Library or Fairhaven Telegraph,
the first number of which was issued July 28, 1795 by J. P. SPOONER and
W. HENNESSY. This was continued under the management of these gentlemen
until March, 1796, when Mr. SPOONER took entire charge. The name of the
paper was again changed in November, 1797, to The Farmers Library, or
Vermont and New York Intelligencer, and was continued until 1798.
[In 1796, '97
and '98, The Vermont Almanac and Register, giving the dates of the
grants, and the ratable property of each town in the State, was published
by Mr. SPOONER.]
On October 1, 1798, The Scourge of Aristocracy and Repository
of Important Political Truths, was commenced by James LYON, and continued
one year, as a semi monthly. It contained several articles from the pen
of Mathew LYON, who was at that time imprisoned in Vergennes under the
"Alien and Sedition Act."
In 1854 and '55, a small monthly paper called The Banner
was issued by DeWitt LEONARD.
In January, 1861, one number of a small sheet called the Golden
Sheaf was issued.
In September, 1863, the first number of the Fairhaven Advertiser
was issued as an advertising medium; other numbers were issued from time
to time, until 1866, when the office was purchased by William Q. BROWN
and it was made into a regular monthly publication, and the name changed
to The Rutland County Advertiser, and continued until April, 1868.
On September 5, 1868, the first number of The People's Journal
was issued by JONES & GROSE, with Rev. P. Franklin JONES as editor.
This paper was continued until July, 1869, when it was purchased by DeWitt
LEONARD and E. H. PHELPS and the name changed to The Fairhaven Journal,
with E. H. PHELPS, editor. It was finally discontinued 1877.
On January 1, 1879, The Vermont Era was commenced by the
INMAN Brothers, who after three weeks sold out to Joseph E. COLTON, and
the name was changed to
THE FAIRHAVEN ERA, and continued by him till September 15,
1879, when it was again sold, to Frank W. REDFIELD who still publishes
CASTLETON. -- The Vermont Statesman was commenced in 1824
by Ovid MINER. Whig in politics. Mr. MINER was connected with it but a
few years, when he left Castleton. Under the management of different editors,
retaining essentially the same political character, the Statesman
continued till 1855.
In 1832, The Green Mountain Eagle was established under the
excitement of "Anti Masonry." Judge HOWE was the prime mover and principal
proprietor of the. enterprise. Its existence terminated with the Anti Masonic
Though no direct or positive knowledge exists that the county was
ever the permanent home of any particular tribes of Indians, yet it is
fair to presume that some time in the remote past it was. It was long a
disputed territory among the various tribes of New England, New York and
Canada, and used as a hunting and camping ground during seasons of the
year by all. It is certain that a large portion of the territory now included
within the limits of the county, was owned, or claimed by the Mohawk Indians
of New. York, and by them deeded, or given to John Henry LYDIAS of that
Province, the present township of Rutland, having at one time been granted
by him, under the name of Fairfield, on the strength of their deed, although
his grant was pronounced illegal. More will be said on this subject in
connection with the history of the various towns.
FIRST SETTLED BY THE WHITES
Just at what time the first settlement of the county was made, we
cannot state. About a century and a half ago, between Massachusetts and
Canada there was a brisk trade kept up, Massachusetts being able to sell
goods at Fort Dummer, cheaper than the French could sell them in Canada.
Goods were transported by the traders, across what is now the State of
Vermont, to Crown Point, and thence down the lake, into Canada, the line
of travel being directly across the territory now included within the limits
of Rutland County. Also, in King William's wars, soldiers passed from Massachusetts
to the lake. From the journal of one COSS, a trader, who made the journey
from Massachusetts to Crown Point in the Spring of 1730, we learn that
he was greatly impressed with the richness of the soil along Otter Creek.
It is fair to presume that this fact may have also been observed by others,
and induced them to emigrate thither.
The trade between Massachusetts and Canada was finally swept away
by the breaking out of the French war in 1755, and which extended its operations
from Canada to the adjoining colonies of New England, New York and Pennsylvania,
causing tracts of land to be traversed that had heretofore been a dense,
unexplored wilderness, the war being finally terminated by the great battle
fought on the plains of Abraham, near Quebec, September 13th, 1759, in
which the British arms were victorious, and the whole Province of Canada
surrendered to Great Britain. This event at once awakened attention to
the territory of Vermont, to which the adjoining province had been transformed
from a hostile to a friendly neighbor.
Many of the soldiers, doubtless, who had crossed Vermont on their
way to the war, and had become impressed with its beauty and richness,
at once settled within its limits. Most certain it is, at least, applications
for towns were now made in rapid succession to Benning WENTWORTH, the colonial
governor of New Hampshire, who was disposed to grant them on the most liberal
terms, so that the principal towns now included within the counties of
Bennington, Rutland and Addison, were chartered in 17 6 r. In most of these
towns there was an interval, however, of several years between the time
the patents were granted and the commencement of settlement. In ten towns
of Rutland County whose charters were granted between the 26th of August
and the 20th of October, 1761, settlements were commenced at the following
periods: Pawlet, 1761; Danby, 1765; Clarendon, 1768; Rutland, Castleton
and Pittsford, 1769; Tinmouth, 1770; Poultney and Wells, 1771, and Brandon
in 1772. These settlements, and those of the other towns of the county,
will be spoken of in connection with their respective histories.
and Business Directory of Rutland County, VT.;
Compiled and Published by Hamilton Child;
N.Y.; Printed at the Journal Office
1881, Pages 33-54 .
by Karima Allison 2004