This article covers practically all known information as to the Hazen Road, which greatly facilitated the early development of the upper Connecticut valley. 


       PREVIOUS to the French and Indian war, but few settlements had been made in the territory now called Vermont, and those were of a very unstable and transitory character. Mr. Wells in his history of Newbury, well says,  “With the close of the French and Indian war, (1760) the history of Newbury begins and practically that of Vermont. Before that time a few settlements along the Connecticut river had been made in the southeast corner of the state, and those held only by the intrepidity of the settlers. All the rest of the state lay an unbroken wilderness, save only for a few spots of land cleared by the Indians, like the ox-bow." History tells us that when the first white man visited what is now Newbury in Vermont and Haverhill in New Hampshire, they found portions of those great meadows on both sides of the Connecticut cleared land to some extent, and covered with a luxuriant growth of wild grass. 

        With the surrender of Montreal on the 8th day of September 1760, the empire of France in the New World, which had been so valiantly held, passed away. The army which had conquered Canada was disbanded, and the victors sought their homes to the southward. 

       Among those who returned through the Connecticut valley from the surrender of Montreal, were four officers who had served in Goff's regiment; they were Lieutenant Jacob Bayley, Captain John Hazen, Lieutenant Jacob Kent, and Lieutenant Timothy Bedell. 

        It is not known whether either of the four had ever passed that way before, but it is certain that they remained at or near the meadows before referred to, several days and carefully examined the surrounding country. They decided it was a desirable place in which to settle and the natural gateway to a vast fertile and finely wooded country above. The Indian name of this section (being the valley of the Connecticut, north of and including that about Newbury and Haverhill) was  “Co-os,” which word in the Abenaqui language, is said to signify “the pines,” and it was known for many years by the name of the  “Co-os country.”

        Upon their return to Massachusetts, these four men being prompt and resolute set themselves at once to the work of obtaining charters of two towns at “Co-os,” one on the east and the other on the west bank of the Connecticut. Bayley and Hazen stood high in the estimation of the colonial government, as both had done efficient service in the war just closed and both had influential relatives whom Governor Wentworth was anxious to please. Hazen was aided by his brother, Gen. Moses Hazen, while Bayley received the advice, and powerful support of his brother-in-law, Col. Moses Little. These last named men, were not only prominent officers in the French and Indian war, but were destined to become more distinguished in that of the Revolution. 

       As a result of their combined efforts, the charter of Newbury was granted May 18,1763, to Jacob Bayley, John Hazen, Jacob Kent and Timothy Bedel and seventy-two others, and on the same day the charter of Haverhill was granted to John Hazen and others about the same in number. From that time on until their death, Jacob Bayley, John and Moses Hazen stood first among the powerful men of that section. 

        Within a month after the granting of the aforesaid charters, Bayley and John Hazen petitioned the General Court, on behalf of the proprietors of both towns, for aid in building a road from Dover through Barrington, Barnstead, Gilmantown, to cross Winnepesocket Pond at the wares, through Salem Holderness, the four mile township, and Romney to Haverhill. On Christmas day, 1764, Bayley again wrote urging the importance of a road as an aid to the settlement of this part of the country. 

        From 1760 to 1774 the section all about the “Coos” country was rapidly being settled up; Gen. Bayley in a letter written about 1770 says, "The whole country is rapidly filling up with a very desirable class of settlers, and what was ten years since, a howling wilderness is now fast becoming fruitful farms. 
 
 

        Ever after the settlement of New England, military organizations were considered indispensable, and were always carefully kept up, as an aid to protection against the ever dreaded Indian. In the fall of 1764, the first military company was organized at Newbury and Haverhill and continued in existence to the breaking out of the revolution. The settlements in and about, “Coos” were exceedingly patriotic, even the Scotch settlers of Ryegate, fresh from Great Britain were for the American cause to a man. The excitement throughout all this region upon the first news of war was intense, as the “Coos Country” lay in the direct pathway from Canada to Massachusetts and was almost sure to suffer from an invasion. 

        Councils of safety and correspondence were formed, Jacob Bayley was appointed General of all the militia of that section, and the best possible organization effected for the safety of the settlers. The invasion of Canada which resulted so disastrously to the American cause, promised success for a while; but the army before Quebec was repulsed and were forced to retreat, and the advantages which had been gained were soon lost. To prevent the total destruction of the American army, troops were obliged to be at once sent from New England to aid and assist in covering their retreat. This had first been done by the way of Charlestown and Lake Champlain. It was of the greatest importance that what was to be done in this respect should be done expeditiously and bring assistance at the earliest possible moment. Gen. Washington was anxious to learn if there was not some shorter route to the scene of action. Gen. Jacob Bayley, then with the army before Boston, informed the Commander-in-chief that a much shorter road lay through the Coos Country, and that he could produce men who would start forthwith and go through the wilderness and mark out a road. 
 
 

        History tells us that Captain Thos. Johnson of Newbury was selected as the man to take charge of this enterprise. He was to take three or four soldiers and an Indian guide, and mark a road by blazed trees to St. Johns, Canada. He took with him Frye Bailey, Abial and Silas Chamberlain and John McLean all from Newbury. They left Newbury on Tuesday, March 26th 1776. They marched on snow shoes and reached St. Johns the next Friday, it being ninety-two miles from Newbury. The following is taken from Col. Thomas Johnson's diary kept by him at the time. “Tuesday, March 26. Set out from Newbury, lodged at the last inhabitant's” (Without doubt this was Jonathan Elkin’s in the town of Peacham.) “waited half a day for the rest of the soldiers to come up; good land for a road.  Wednesday, 27. Marched a mile, good country, Thursday, 28. Marched twelve miles, good country for road. Friday, 29. Marched twelve miles good country for road, except for about two miles. Saturday, 30, Marched fifteen miles, good country for a road except three miles. Sunday, 31. Marched ten miles to Mr. Metcalf's, good country, waited half a day for the rear. Monday, April 1st. Marched twenty-five miles to St. Johns. Tuesday, 2. Tarried at St. Johns. Wednesday, 3. Returned to Mr. Metcalf's. Thursday, 4. Tarried for the rear. 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th traveled home.” In the same diary we find the following. "Distance from Boston to Charlestown and Crown Point to St. Johns 310 miles, distance from Boston to Newbury, 145 miles and from Newbury to St. Johns 92 miles, or in the whole 237 miles, making the route by Newbury and the Coos Country 73 miles the shorter route.”

        We also learned from the Johnson papers, that Mr. Metcalf was an English gentleman who lived on the Canadian side of the line and near the Mississquoi river. His house was on the route which scouts, spies and expresses generally took, as well from Canada as from Vermont, and they often sought and obtained refreshment beneath his roof. His residence must have been near the border and opposite the town of Berkshire. 
 
 

       Along the path thus marked out several regiments of troops passed to Canada on snow shoes. It was found that troops could be sent to Canada by way of Coos about ten days quicker than by way of Crown Point and Lake Champlain, and this fact led the Continental authorities to begin a military road from Newbury to St. Johns. And this was the beginning of  “Hazen's Road.” 

       As soon as the snow was alone, and it was practicable to work in the forest, James Whitelaw, a competent surveyor, and subsequently Surveyor General of Vermont, with assistants, was employed to go on and survey and locate this military road; and they were followed by General Bayley with a large force of men and teams to cut out the trees and construct the same. This road was partly completed to a point about six miles beyond Peacham, when scouts came into the woods with intelligence that troops from Canada were coming on over the path marked out by Johnson, to capture the road makers and destroy the settlements. Bayley and his men made a hasty retreat, and the military road was abandoned for the time being. 

        In 1778 another invasion of Canada was planned, and as the route through the Coos Country had been proven to be the much shorter way, the government felt a highway ought to be built between Newbury and St. Johns, that should be fairly practicable for moving men and the munitions of war. Inasmuch as the writers of Vermont history are not agreed as to whether an invasion of Canada was really planned at this time, and also are not agreed as to the cause of Col. Hazen's building what he did of the “Hazen Road” so called, I think it will be of interest if I give in full two letters, one from Col. Bedel to Gen. Gates, and the other from Gen. Jacob Bayley to Gen. Gates, the last dated, Newbury, July 13, 1778. 

        The one from Col. Bedel to Gen. Gates is as follows: 
 


         “Col. Hazen has communicated his business to me and I most sincerely rejoice in, the Probability of an expedition into Canada. I see no kind of difficulty attending it, by the route or routes proposed; there are three different routes, either of which I think is very practicable, viz.: directly from hence to St. Johns, to the river Mosca, and to St. Francois, all and every of which is marked on Col. Hazen’s plan. I shall by and with the advice of Gen. Bayley and Col. Hazen have them all surveyed immediately. I shall send three different parties to different parts of Canada for intelligence, with orders to return with all possible expedition, A considerable quantity of provisions both flower and meat maybe had at this place; forage is plenty. I have eighty tons at the service of my Country, if wanted, for other particulars I must refer you to the bearer, Col. Hazen; and shall hold myself in readiness with the remainder of my reg't at this place for your Honor's further orders; but beg to remind you of the need of some clothing for my men.”

N.H. State papers, (Vol. XVII.) Vol. 4, p. 210.

        The one from Gen. Jacob Bayley to Gen. Gates is as follows:
 


            "NEWBURY 13 JULY, 1778. Sr: Col. Hazen arrived here last evening and has communicated to me what his business is respecting a land road into Canada together with what provisions may be had here. It is my opinion by the many observations I have made of the Country between this and Canada, that it is very practicable. I have once by Maj. James Wilkinson surveyed a road from this place to St. Johns, which is marked and good at 95 miles, the same is made about 30 miles, the remainder well marked. We have also surveyed to the south end of Memphremagog, which we find good, from thence to Mosca (Mississquoi) it has the appearance of being a good country for a road, as to the distance, I refer you to the plan Col. Hazen has which I assure you is true as far as the Canada line and St. Johns; the water carriage on this river is good from Hertford (Hartland, this name was altered to Hartland by act of the legislature, June 15, 1782.) to 20 miles above iso (?) except five or six short rapids; where there are good cart roads.  I have not the least doubt but six, eight or ten thousand bushels of wheat may be purchased in this quarter, and beef in plenty; as to forage, if wanted, I will supply from my farm 100 tons, of hay, &c.

            “Should an expedition into Canada be undertaken (if wanted) I will assist, and with Col. Bedel, think we can raise 1500 men for that service and I should think myself happy to serve another successful Campaign with your Honor, which I doubt not but one into Canada would be.  J. Bayley.” 

N.H. State papers, Vol. XVII, Vol. 4, page 240.

        From the forgoing letters it will be seen that an active invasion of Canada was being planned; at least, and a short road to get there the government arranged should be at once built. In April, 1779, Col. Hazen was directed to move his military stores to Peacham: a large portion of Col. Bedel's regiment was also ordered to Peacham to assist in constructing a road along the way which had been marked by Col. Johnson three years previous. 

        This road from Newbury passed through Ryegate, and a part of what was subsequently the following towns in the order here given; a corner of Barnet; Deweysburgh (afterwards divided between Danville and Peacham) Cabot, Walden, Hardwick, Greensboro, Mindon (now Craftsbury) Lutterloch, (now Albany,) Kelleyvale, (now Lowell) terminating in the town of Westfield near the line between Westfield and Montgomery at the notch of the mountains since called “Hazen's Notch." I have spent much time in search of a survey made with a compass of this road, but as yet without avail. From among the papers of the surveyor general of Vermont, lately secured from the state of New York, one or two maps are to be found which give the  “Hazen Road” from Newbury to Hazen’s Notch. We must bear in mind that this road was built one hundred and twenty-seven years ago and before a town had been chartered or but few settlements made during the whole distance, and while this section was an unbroken wilderness. 

        History tells us that the course of this road kept upon the high lands as much as possible, which were for the most part, timbered with hardwood and therefore open and dry. This road was constructed by cutting out the trees, and through the swamps packing logs closely together, covering the same with earth, making what the early settlers knew as a “corduroy" road and crossing the streams with bridges made of logs; altho roughly constructed this road was an important factor in the settlement of Caledonia and Orleans Counties. 

        It may be of interest right here to give you a short sketch of the life and services of the man who constructed this road, and for whom it has since been called.

        General Moses Hazen was born at Haverhill, Mass., June 1, 1733. Of his early life history tells us but little. We find him in Canada early in life, and he soon entered the Canadian army. He was in the expedition against Crown Point in 1756, and Louisburg in 1758. Accompanied Wolfe to Quebec in 1759, and distinguished himself near that city in an affair with the French and in the battle of Sillery April 28, 1760. He was rewarded for his distinguished services with a lieutenancy (44 Foot) in February, 1761. He was on half pay in the British army and was a man of wealth, for the time, residing near St. John, when the Revolutionary war broke out. He at once espoused the American cause and furnished supplies and rendered other aid to the army of Montgomery in his expedition against Quebec. As a result, his property was destroyed by the British, for which he at once applied to Continental Congress for compensation. This application resulted in his being paid for his property and receiving an equivalent for the half pay he had forfeited, and in January, 1776, Congress appointed him colonel of a regiment he was to raise among his friends in Canada. He raised the regiment, it was called the 2nd Canadian, but of course in the retreat in '76 he was obliged to leave Canada with such of his regiment as were disposed to adhere to his fortunes. From that time his regiment was independent of any state and under the control of Congress solely; and Hazen was authorized to recruit wherever he could find men to enlist. Finally his regiment was selected by Congress to receive all foreigners who were willing to serve, and was called "Congress' Own." Col. Hazen served through the war in different fields of service and was made brigadier general by brevet June 2, 1771. Gen. Hazen was at Newbury and Haverhill, where his brother John resided, often during the Revolutionary war and after, and finally settled at Albany or Troy, N. Y. (Some histories say Albany and others Troy.) He died at Troy Feb. 4, 1803. Walton in the Governor and Council of Vermont says of him,  “His name has been familiar in Vermont since 1779, for his work in completing the military road which is still known as the “Hazen's Road.” 

        To make this road as safe as possible for passing soldiers and supplies along its course, block houses were built at stated intervals, in some of which garrisons were left for a short time. History tells us that Col. Hazen built a block house in Peacham, but abandoned it in the fall, as he did all the block houses along this road, except the one twelve miles above Peacham, which he committed to the care of a sergeant's guard. In the spring of 1780 one Captain Aldrich came to Peacham and built a picket or stockade around the house of James Bailey, which was on this road, and the block house was abandoned. This road went to what is now known as South Peacham from there to Peacham Corner, and over the hill past the present farm of Frank Chandler, striking the Danville line near the Bolton place, continuing north easterly to Cabot plain, passing between Joe's and Molly's pond. Col. Hazen camped for a while on this plain. He fully expected an attack from the British, and to prepare for them he caused a hill or elevation to be fortified and for years this was known as “fortification hill.” This spot is now permanently identified by a suitable marker erected by the town of Cabot. From near Joe's pond this road led to the south of the present highway, until it came to where three roads came together near the present cemetery on Cabot plain, here it strikes what is now the present traveled road and from thence to the south line of Walden about one fourth mile west of the farm house of Fred Wilson. It passed across some portion of what was afterwards surveyed as lots No.9. 10. 15. 34. 35. 37. and 38. of the town of Cabot. 

        After entering Walden it passed through the south-west part of the town past what is now the Damon farm; South Walden being on this road, Col. Hazen built a blockhouse in this town on land afterward occupied by one Cyrus Smith. He left an officer and soldiers to hold it until the next summer, The name of the officer left in command was Walden, who asked that the town should receive his name when chartered; which was granted, This block house remained for some years and was temporarily occupied by many of the first settlers, having the honor of convening the first school, the first preaching service, and the first birth, being that of one Jessie Perkins. 
After leaving Walden, Hazen's road passed into Hardwick, near where is now the bridge over the St. J. and L. C. railroad. 

        The first village in Hardwick was upon the Hazen road and was called “Hardwick Street.” Here was opened the first public house in town, it was built of logs, and opened by one Col. Abner Warner. A prominent landmark to point one to the location of this road, is the old “Stone house” at "Hardwick Street" which stands near the site of this road. October 14, 1906, "Hazen Road Pomona Grange" dedicated a suitable monument near “Hardwick Street" to commemorate this road.
 
 
 

It is a granite spire, three feet at the base and two feet at the top, about eight feet high. It is finished in the rough with a polished surface on the face, upon which is a suitable inscription. Governor Charles J. Bell delivered the memorial address. From Hardwick this road passed into Greensboro near what is now known as the Tolman farm. It went along the west shore of  "Davis Lake" later called, “Lake Beautiful” and now called “Caspian Lake.” Col. Hazen built a block house upon land now owned by one Henry Miller, a short distance from the shore of the lake. History tells us that Nehemiah Lovewell was stationed with his company in Peacham during the summer of 1781. In September he sent a scout of four men up the Hazen road to take possession of the block house on the west side of the lake in Greensboro. In an unguarded moment when at a distance from the block house they were attacked by a party of Indians, and Constant Bliss of Thetford and Moses Sleeper of Newbury were killed, and the other two were taken prisoners and carried to Canada. Sometime subsequently, having been exchanged, they returned to Peacham.  It was not until their return that the fate of Bliss and Sleeper was known to their friends, a party of whom at once proceeded to Greensboro, where they found the bodies undisturbed, but badly decomposed; being in such a condition burial on the spot was unavoidable.

        The first settlement in Greensboro was made by Ashebul and Aaron Shepard in 1789, and the block house built by Col. Hazen was their home. The site of the block house was afterwards known as Cushing and later the Williams farm and now the Miller place. 

        From Greensboro this road passed into Craftsbury, entering the town near what is now East Craftsbury village, going northerly, diagonally across the corner of said town. There is in the town clerk's office in Craftsbury, among the proprietor's records, a map dated 1793 showing the course of this road through the town of Craftsbury. 
 

        This road entered the town upon what was subsequently surveyed as lot number 12 in range 5, from thence passing, across the south west corner of lot 12 in the 4th range; diagonally across lot number 11 in the 4th range; across the south-west corner of lot 11, in the 3rd range; across lots 10, 9 and 8, in the 3rd range; across the south-west corner of lot 8, in the 2nd range; across lot 7 , in the 2nd range, passing between “Big” and 'Little Hosmer” ponds but very near the south end of  "Big Hosmer," thence across the south-west corner of lot 7, in the first range and across lot 6, in the in the 1st range into what was subsequently the town of Lutterloch, now Albany, just east of Black river which it soon crossed near or upon the farm now occupied by Henry Hayden, passing over the old Hayden farm to the Rogers farm. At the Rogers farm the road left the valley and commenced to climb towards the Lowell mountain and entered the town of Lowell near where the school house is located that was afterwards in school district No. 13, in Albany. After entering the town of Lowell, this toad skirted the range of the Green Mountains between Albany and Lowell, ever climbing. When this road reached within about a mile of the summit, it came to a section of the mountain (although covered with heavy forest) which was very steep, and the soil very shallow, and underneath was one continuous ledge, sloping at an angle of about 45 degrees but very smooth, necessitating building over this section, by using logs and trees, laying them against the growing trees and filling between them and the ledge with timber and dirt. The road along this portion is substantially the same today and is even now very rugged and wild. This road crossed the summit of the mountain upon lot No.12, in the second range of lots in Lowell, which lot of land my father bought of Hugh McGuire April 20th, 1859, and which I subsequently owned. After crossing the summit the road passed on down in the south side of what was later known as the Truland brook, crossing the same near where the Truland buildings now stand, and passing near where Lowell village now stands. From the site of Lowell village this road went northeasterly directly to the notch or low place through the Green Mountains, in the town of West-field, where Colonel Hazen's work in this direction terminated. 

        This spot was permanently indicated on the 21st day of August 1903, when the Orleans County Historical Society held a special meeting to which there were present over eight hundred people. At this time a granite tablet was dedicated upon which was the following inscription: “Terminus of the Hazen Road, 1779," and the writer of this article delivered an address. 

       Col. Hazen encamped for some time on the site of what is now Lowell village, and this was called by him the  “Camp at the end of the Road.” He wrote Col. Bedel from there a letter which I feel is sufficiently interesting to be here given in full.
 
 

                                                                               24th Aug. 1779.

Dear Sir: 

         We are determined to put an end to our work here by next Saturday night and therefore have ordered out all the provisions that will be wanted up to that time, viz: 2600 lbs. of Flower and about 3000 wt. of fresh Beef. (no more ox teams or Stinking beef.) We shall not find much difficulty in getting up to the notch of the mountains. We began to work yesterday only, and this afternoon I moved my Camp Commisary and Hospital Stores three miles on. 

         I  have directed Major Reid, three Captains, two Subalterns and eighty-five men, including those at the Block House, as an escort for provisions; who come on and return with the pack horses", and I shall pay very particular attention to secure the woods on my left from our van to Onion river, so that I hope I may not be surprised. 

         If  I shall find that a party is coming to attack me I shall endeavor to draw them further into the woods by filing off to the right toward the upper "Coos" and gain a little time for your militia to assemble and get in their rear when I think we can manage any party they can send. Every Necessary Peice of Intelligence I shall Communicate. If Mrs. Bedel's health will admit of your leaving home should be glad to see you here, and in that case you must come out with Dixon as there will not be any guards left behind him. 

         We shall eat up the flower he brings and then return. I shall be much obliged to you if you will Ride up to Camp on receipt of this and see that Duncan has it in his power to send on the provisions Ordered;?what I have said here will be best to keep to yourself. 

                                                                     Your Humble Servant, 
                                                                     MOSES HAZEN. 

COL. BEDEL." 
N. H. State papers, (Vol. XVII.) Vol. 3, p. 276. 

        Several things are made certain by this letter, one is that Col. Hazen was at work upon this road August 24, 1779, and near where he finally left off work; that he had then determined to close his labors upon it by the next Saturday night; ? and that what he was writing he desired Col. Bedel to keep secret. Why he did not complete this road to St. John or Canada line, or why he should construct it to the summit of the Green Mountains, and where he could see easily with the naked eye the Queen's dominions, and then abandon it, history fails to give us any very reasonable and logical reason, so far as I have been able to learn. Miss Hemenway in her history about Lowell says: 
 
 

"Colonel Hazen cut a road through this town in 1779 or ‘80. His regiment encamped on the banks of the Missisquoi river, while his men cleared the road and made it passable for the ordnance of war. He had cut the road to the notch of the mountains, when the news of peace came, and he left his unused road for the benefit of the settlers. The notch where he ended his work, took the name of Hazen's Notch in honor of Col. Hazen. It was some six miles ahead of where his regiment was encamped, in the town of Westfield."

Hemenway's His. Gaz. Vol. 3, p. 276. 

        Now the statement that Col. Hazen had cut this road to the notch of the mountains, when the news  peace came is certainly not correct as peace was not declared until 1783. Mr. Wells in his history of Newbury says: "Work was discontinued on the military road the last of August, the reports of forces being dispatched from St. John to capture the constructing party hastening the abandonment." It is quite probable that this was correct, as Colonel Hazen in his letter to Colonel Bedel, given above, refers the fact that he might be attacked; but many causes may have contributed to the termination of this work. 

        In 1779, the situation in Vermont was extremely critical. On the 8th day of September 1779; only fifteen days after the date of the above letter, delegates from New York laid before Congress the instructions of the legislature of that State directing them to make use of all possible exertions to obtain the speedy and effectual interposition of Congress against the Vermonters as the only means of preventing a resort to military force. New Hampshire, which had formerly been friendly to Vermont had become hostile and laid claim for a part of the state, at least, and this was not all; it was rumored in Congress that the British Ministry were favoring the Vermonters, with a view to inducing them to look to them for deliverance. Vermonters were deserted by the Continent, poorly equipped to defend themselves, and lay at the mercy of Canada and a swarming horde of the savages of the forest. This condition of things may have had more than we know to do with the termination of work by Col. Hazen upon this military road.

        Since the question of the Hazen road has been under discussion, attention has been called to a certain map in the State Library, which some have denominated a “survey of the Hazen road made in 1808.” Now this is not correct; what is known as the Hazen road was constructed under the management of Col. Moses Hazen and he completed and finished all that he ever did upon that road in the fall of 1779. There is a map of the Survey of a road in the State Library which the State Librarian has recently had handsomely mounted, made by James Whitelaw in 1809, and which runs substantially over the course of the old Hazen road. In 1805 the Legislature of Vermont passed an act incorporating a company called “The Boston & Montreal Turnpike Company”, (1) and in this act this turnpike is described as follows: “A turnpike road from Connecticutt river in the County of Orange, through "Hazen's Notch” so called, to the north line of this state, in the most direct and convenient course from Boston to Montreal; this road provided for toll gates every twelve miles; this act was altered and revived at the session of the legislature in 1808. (2) This map has upon it the following certificate:” 
 
 
 


 
 

Ryegate July 30, 1809. I hereby certify that the annexed sketch of the Boston and Montreal Turnpike road was truly protracted from the survey made under the direction of the committee appointed by the legislature to layout said by me.
                                                                        JAMES WHITELAW."
(1) Chapter 71, Acts of Vt., 1805. 
(2) Chapter 74, Acts of Vt., 1808.


 
 
 

[Source: By Hon. F. W. Baldwin. The Vermonter, Vol. XI, No. 16, Chas R. Cummings, Editor and Publisher, Chas S. Forbes, Associate Editor, White River Junction, VT., November 1906, pages 297-323.]

Article and Photos provided by Tom Dunn.
Graphics by Ishinan