The Town of Peacham (New Hampshire Grant of December 31, 1763) was one of only three towns that Governor Benning Wentworth chartered in what is now Caledonia County. The village of Peacham has always been the major business center for Peacham. The first post office opened there in 1799 and is still open. A second office was established at South Peacham in 1869, and a third opened at East Peacham in 1886. Both these offices closed in 1933.
There are conflicting sources for the name "Peacham". There is a discussion of this conflict in Esther Swift's book (see the bibliography).
All traces of the hamlet of "North Peacham" have disappeared. This was in the area in the western part of the town and was in the notch between Cow Hill and Lookout Mountain. Another hamlet still exists north of Peacham and was named "Ewell's Hollow" for Isaac Ewell who ran a gristmill there. "Green Bay" is a settlement on the eastern shore of Martin' Pond.
The Jonathan Elkins Tavern was situated on the Bailey-Hazen Road and can still be seen just east of the road between Peacham and South Peacham.