Welcome to VTGenWeb of Windsor County, Vermont
for History and Genealogy Research
Select from the TOWNS TABLE below to view information and links specific to each town/township.
Or, Select this LINK to see GENERAL WINDSOR County History and Genealogy information and links.
County Coordinator: Ann Mensch
Please note: Though the information on this web page is believed to be correct, the possibility of error remains. Please notify the Ann Mensch should an error be found.
Windsor County TOWNS are listed in bold print below.
Villages and communities within each town follow the town's name, in normal type.
TOWN - Villages and communities
Town coordinator for Genealogy & History
ANDOVER - Andover, Simonsville
BALTIMORE - Baltimore
BARNARD - Barnard, East Barnard
BETHEL- Bethel, West Bethel
BRIDGEWATER - Bridgewater, Bridgewater Center, Bridgewater Corners, West Bridgewater
CAVENDISH - Cavendish, Proctorsville, Whitesville
CHESTER - Chester [historical names: Flamstead, New Flamstead] After 1768, when Cumberland County, New York was created, legal matters could be settled at Chester, VT, where there were courts of common pleas and of quarter sessions.
HARTFORD - Hartford, Quechee, West Hartford, White River Junction
HARTLAND - Hartland, Hartland Four Corners, North Hartland, Wilder (aka Olcott/Olcott Falls)
LUDLOW - Ludlow, Smithville
NORWICH - Lewiston, Norwich, Pompanoosuc, West Norwich
PLYMOUTH (historical name: Saltash) - Tyson, Plymouth, Plymouth Union
Town coordinator: Nancy Wygant
POMFRET - Hewitts Corner, North Pomfret, Pomfret, South Pomfret
READING - Felchville, Hammondsville, Reading, South Reading
ROCHESTER - Emerson, Rochester, Talcville
ROYALTON- North Royalton, Royalton, South Royalton
SHARON - Sharon
SPRINGFIELD - North Springfield, City of Springfield
STOCKBRIDGE- Gaysville, Stockbridge, "No Town"
WEATHERSFIELD - Amsden, Ascutney, Nelsons Corners, Perkinsville, Weathersfield Bow, Weathersfield Center
WESTON - The Island, Weston
WEST WINDSOR - Brownsville, Sheddsville
WINDSOR - Windsor
WOODSTOCK - Prosper, South Woodstock, Taftsville, West Woodstock, Woodstock
GENERAL WINDSOR COUNTY HISTORY & GENEALOGY
Would you like to volunteer to assist with this Windsor County, Vermont site? Please consider donating further information, history, biographies, and so forth, from a non-copyright Windsor County, Vermont resources. These may be donated to this site, by contacting Ann Mensch , or you may donate to the USGenWeb Archives Project at the link below.
· The Tombstone Transcription Project for Windsor County, Vermont Cemeteries
· The Political Graveyard: Windsor County, Vermont - includes Cemeteries and Memorial Sites in Windsor County.
· The Poorhouse Story, by Linda Crannell and CCS - a collection of information, by state, which invites submissions to help tell this untold tale - read "Emma's Story " to see the touching story behind the site!!!
· Etiquette of Funerals , from Polite Life and Etiquette or What is Right and The Social Arts, written by Georgene Corry Benham, published by Chicago : Louis Benham & Company, 1891.
· Index to 1790 U.S. Census Vermont Info. - Note: Vermont joined the Union in March, 1791, so its 1790 census was actually taken in 1791. At that time, Vermont consisted of 7 counties. Present-day counties were later formed from all or portions of these seven counties.
· 1790 Census Info: Chittenden County - (includes towns which later became part of the counties of Franklin, Chittenden, Lamoille and portions of Orleans, Washington and Addison Counties)
· 1790 U. S. Census of Orange County, Vermont Towns which were soon to become part of Caledonia County when formed, in 1792, from Orange County, (includes towns which came to be within the counties of Caledonia, Essex, Orange, Orleans and Washington) abstracted by Jim Dresser, dedicated Town Coordinator for Groton, VTGenWeb. Thank you Jim!!! Note: This census of Vermont was actually taken in 1791.
· 1790 Census (familysearch.org)
· 1800 Census (familysearch.org)
· 1810 Census (familysearch.org)
· 1820 Census (familysearch.org)
· 1830 Census (familysearch.org)
· 1840 Census (familysearch.org)
· 1850 Census (familysearch.org)
· 1860 Census (familysearch.org)
· 1870 Census (familysearch.org)
· 1880 Census Index - Excellent resource!!! (familysearch.org)
· 1900 Census (familysearch.org)
· 1910 Census (familysearch.org)
· 1920 Census (familysearch.org)
· Obtaining EDs for the 1930 Census in One Step (Large Cities), by Stephen P. Morse, PhD, Joel D. Weintraub, PhD and David R. Kehs, PhD
· 1930 Census (familysearch.org)
· 1940 Census (familysearch.org)
· USGenWeb Census Project for Vermont, coordinated by Linda Talbott
o Prologue, Spring 1996, Vol. 28, No. 1, "First in the Path of the Firemen" The Fate of the 1890 Population Census,” by Kellee Blake.
· Burial Grounds of Vermont. Bradford, Vermont, by Arthur Lee and Frances P. Hyde (editors), Vermont Old Cemetery Association, 1991.
· History of Windsor County, Vermont, with Illustrations and Biographical Sketches of Some of its Prominent Men and Pioneers. Lewis Cass Aldrich and Frank R. Holmes. (Editors). Syracuse, N. Y. : D. Mason & Co., Publishers, 1891.
· President Calvin Coolidge was born 4 Jul 1872 in Plymouth, Vermont.
· Tyson Furnace : "...In 1835, while looking for minerals, Isaac Tyson, Jr. discovered iron ore in the valley of the Black River near Plymouth [Vermont]. He set up his iron works in the southern part of Plymouth, which he named Tyson Furnace..."
· The Vermont Atlas & Gazetteer. Eighth Edition, Third Printing. Freeport, Maine: Delorme. 1988.
· School and Library Atlas of the World. Fred W. Foster, Ph.D. (Editor). Sycamore, Illinois: School and Library Publishing Company. 1982.
· Vermont: A Bibliography of Its History. T. D. S. Bassett. (Editor). Boston: G. K. Hall, 1981.
· Bibliography of Vermont: Or a List of Books and Pamphlets Relating in any Way to the State. Gilman, Marcus D. (Editor). Burlington: Free Press Association, 1897.
· State and Province Vital Records Guide. Michael Burgess, et al. (Authors). San Berardino, CA: Borgo Press, 1993.
· Vermont Historical Gazetteer. 5 vols. Abby M. Hemenway. (Author). Burlington: The Author, 1867-1891.
· Men of Vermont: An Illustrated Biographical History of Vermonters and Sons of Vermont. Jacob G. Ullery. (Editor). Brattleboro: Transcript Publishing Co., 1894.
· Encyclopedia, Vermont Biography: A Series of Authentic Biographical Sketches of the Representative Men of Vermont and Sons of Vermont in Other States. Prentiss C. Dodge. (Editor). Burlington: Ullery Publishing Co., 1912.
· Vermont, the Green Mountain State : past, present, prospective. Greene, Frank L.. unknown. Vermont Commission to the Jamestown Tercentennial Exposition. 1907.
Windsor County, Vermont: Organization of Townships
Abstracted from: History of Windsor County, Vermont, with Illustrations and Biographical Sketches of Some of its Prominent Men and Pioneers.1
When the State of Vermont was admitted to the Federal Union, in 1791, all that had been previously done by the State toward erecting and maintaining an independent government was confirmed and sanctioned by Congress, while the jurisdiction theretofore attempted to be exercised by New York was withdrawn and declared at an end. At that time the county of Windsor, and others of the State as well, was fairly well organized, the officers of each branch of the local government were in the exercise of their functions, and peace and plenty prevailed on every hand.
But the townships of Windsor county, or at least a majority of them, were organizations the creation of which antedated that of the State and that of the county, by a number of years. Between the governor of New Hampshire on the one side, and of New York on the other, there was but little of the territory of Vermont that had not in some manner been granted and chartered. These grants, of course, were conflicting in numerous cases, and the grantees and their successors were compelled to pay allegiance to one or the other of the Commonwealths; and instances are not wanting in which the settlers of towns surrendered their original charter from the one government, and purchased anew from the other.
Of the several towns that now comprise Windsor county the first to be chartered was that now known as Chester, but which under the original grant was named Flamstead . The first grant of this town was made February 22, 1754. However, the charter proprietors failed to comply with the conditions and requirements of the grant, whereupon it was forfeited. The second charter of the same territory was made on the 3d of November, 1761, to another set of proprietors, and under another name, the latter being New Flamstead. Under this grant settlements were made and pioneer improvements commenced. But it appears that during the early years of the controversy between New York and the Green Mountain Boys, the inhabitants of this town were disposed to favor the New York interests, and being imbued with such spirit, yielded up or set at nought the New Hampshire charter and procured another from the former province. Under this last grant, which was made on July 14, 1766, the name Chester was given the township, and by that name it has ever since been known. In 1771, under the New York authority, an enumeration of the town's inhabitants was made, and Chester was found to contain one hundred and fifty-two souls.
The next grants of townships now of Windsor county under the authority of New Hampshire were made on the 4th day of July, 1761, by which the towns of Hartford and Norwich were brought into existence. Then, following two days later, on July 6th, Governor Wentworth made grants of the townships of Saltash (now Plymouth), Reading, and Windsor . Pomfret came next, July 8, 1761, and was followed on the 10th of the same month by Woodstock, Hertford (Hartland), and Woodstock. Barnard was chartered on the 17th of July, 1761; Stockbridge on the 21st; Sharon on the 17th of August; Springfield and Weathersfield on the 20th; Ludlow on September 16th; Cavendish on October 12th; Andover on October 13th. All of these towns were granted during the year 1761 by Governor Benning Wentworth of New Hampshire. But not all of these towns were organized and continued under the authority of the New Hampshire charters, some subsequently, like Chester, receiving a new grant from the provincial governor of New York.
And there were other towns, too, that now form a part of this county that were organized or granted under still another jurisdiction--that of the independent district or State of Vermont, although they were, of course, a latter-day creation. Bethel was one of the latter class of townships, being the result of an associations, which was formed at Hanover, N. H., and which petitioned the Vermont authority for a charter right for the purpose of making a settlement on the White River and its branches. This petition was made to the Vermont Legislature in 1778, and was granted during the month of March of the same year.
In substantially the same manner was the town of Rochester brought into existence, the grant therefore being made on the 30th of July, 1781. It contained originally slightly more than twenty-three thousand acres of land, but its township area was materially increased by subsequent annexations from adjoining towns.
Royalton was one of the townships granted first under the authority of New York, on November 13, 1769, but the claimants under that charter felt insecure in their possession, and were fearful lest the constantly increasing and arbitrary power of Vermont should deprive them of their believed rights, and were consequently induced to apply for a new charter under the new State, which was granted to the petitioners on December 20, 1781.
Next in the order of formation came the township of Baltimore ; a small, triangular tract of land, embracing some three thousand acres, which, for the convenience of the residents of that part of the town of Cavendish who lived southeast of Hawk's Mountain, was set off into a separate sub-division of the county, by an act of the Vermont Legislature passed October 19, 1793. This is the smallest by several fold of any of the county's sub-divisions, but none the less a township organized and conducted upon the same truly democratic plan of government so characteristic of all New England towns.
The same necessity that led to the formation of Baltimore also induced the erection of the township of Weston out of the lands that formerly formed a part of Andover and the five thousand acre tract known as Benton's Gore. The extremely high ridges known as Mount Terrible and Markham Mountain extended north and south about through the central part of Andover, thus making it exceedingly difficult for the residents of the western part of that township to hold business communication with the eastern half; and for this reason the western inhabitants betook themselves to the State Legislature, asking that their section be erected into a separate township. Their prayer was heard, and on the 26th of October, 1799, the western part of the town, together with the gore, was erected into a separate town and named Weston.
The town of West Windsor is the junior of the subdivisions of the county, its separation from the township of Windsor having been effected first in 1814, but restored during the next year. Again, in 1848, the town of Windsor was divided, and West Windsor set off. The act of the Legislature that effected the last division was passed October 26, 1848.
It is also proper to furnish to the reader the names of the townships of this county which were organized under the jurisdiction and control of the province and subsequent State of New York; and this mention, collectively, becomes important from the fact that the preceding paragraphs have primarily noted the organization under New Hampshire and Vermont authority. The towns now forming a part of Windsor county which were chartered or granted by the governors of New York, together with the date of each, are as follows:
Bethel. -- This town was first chartered or granted to a company of men, most of whom were then, or afterwards became, Tories. The date of this charter is unknown. [per Deming's Catalogue]
Cavendish. -- This town was chartered by New York June 16, 1772.
Chester. -- Already mentioned; chartered by New York July 14, 1766.
Hartland. -- Chartered as "Hertferd" by New Hampshire July 10, 1761; but charter confirmed by New York to other proprietors July 23, 1766.
Plymouth, formerly Saltash. -- Town granted by New York to Ichabod Fisher and others May 13, 1772.
Reading. -- Granted by New York March 6, 1772, to Simon Stevens and others.
Royalton. -- Chartered by New York November 13, 1769.
Springfield. -- Granted by New York to Gideon Lyman March 16, 1772.
Stockbridge. -- Granted by New York to William Story and others in 1761.
Weathersfield. -- Granted, April 8, 1772, to Gideon Lyman and others.
Windsor. -- Granted, July 7, 1766, to David Stone, 2d, and others.
Formation of Windsor County, Vermont
A division of the State, or, as it was then known, the district of the New Hampshire Grants, into counties, was made by the province of New York, on the 3d of July 1766, by virtue of an act of the Provincial Assembly. By that act all the district of the grants that lay eastward of the Green Mountains was erected into a county by the name of Cumberland. This act, however, was annulled by the Royal decree of 1767, which was intended to forbid New York from exercising further authority over the district, at least for the time being, but that province continued its policy, notwithstanding the kin's order, and in 1768 repassed the act and proceeded again to organize the county. They established a Court of Common Pleas and appointed judges for the county. For a number of years the courts were held at Chester, one of the towns of Windsor county, but there seemed to be an element of the population in Chester that strongly favored the new State policy, and, as the New York control had erected no county buildings in the town, it was deemed expedient to move the seat of justice to Westminster, where existed less opposition to New York. This removal to the more congenial locality was made during the year 1772.
In the year 1770, by an act of the Provincial Assembly of New York, passed March 7th, the territory of Cumberland county was divided, and the county of Gloucester was formed, comprising the lands lying north of the present north line of Windsor county, and the county seat of the new sub-division was fixed at Newbury. Thus did the district of land east of the mountains remain until the year 1778, after the Independence of Vermont had been declared; and from that time forth until the New York dominancy became gradually extinguished the people of the territory now of Windsor county were living under the double and conflicting authority of the two States.
In March, 1778, the Governor and Council and the General Assembly of Vermont met in session at the meeting-house in Windsor; and among the proceedings of that session were those looking to the erection of counties and the establishment of such other institutions as were necessary to complete the civil organization of the districts. On the 17th of March the Governor and Council recommended that the Assembly divide the territory of the State into two counties, that portion west of the main chain of the mountains to be known as Bennington, and the part east to be known as "Unity county." The first request was complied with, but the latter was, on the 21st of March, amended or altered by the Assembly, the name "Cumberland county" being adopted instead of "Unity county." It was also voted at the same time that each county have four probate districts; also that the county elections be held on the 4th day of June, 1778.
On the 26th of March the Council appointed John HATCH, Joshua BAYLEY, Ezra SARGEANT and Darius SESSIONS as county surveyors for the county of Cumberland for the time being; also John BENJAMIN as sheriff, for the time being, which meant until the forthcoming election. The shire town of the county of Cumberland was fixed upon as Westminster, and judges of its courts were appointed by the Assembly as follows: Major John SHEPARDSON, first; Mr. Stephen TILDEN, second; Hubbel WELLS, third; Deacon Hezekiah THOMSON, fourth; and Nathaniel ROBINSON, fifth judges for the shire. And on the 17th of June the Assembly boted to appoint special judges for the several shires, those for Cumberland county as follows: John SHEPARDSON, Stephen TILDEN, Hezekiah THOMSON, Colonel Samuel FLETCHER and Joshua WEBB.
In October, 1778, after the State election, the Legislature again met at Windsor; and there were present members elected by the towns that form a part of Windsor county, as follows: Springfield, Lieutenant Samuel SCOTT; Chester, Major Thomas CHANDLER; Weathersfield, Captain William UPHAM; Windsor, Captain Ebenezer CURTISS and Thomas COOPER; Hertferd (Hartland), William GALLOP; Woodstock, Captain Phineas WILLIAMS and Captain John STRONG; Hartford, Stephen TILDEN; Pomfret, Captain John THROOP; Barnard, Captain Edmond HODGES; Sharon, Benjamin SPAULDING; Royalton, Lieutenant Joseph PARKHURST; Norwich, Abel CURTISS and Captain Joseph HATCH.
During this same fiscal year the county, now called Windsor, seems also to have had a fair representation in the higher body of State officials --the Council of Governor Chittenden; for the records disclose that Peter OLCUTT of Norwich, Paul SPOONER of Hartland, Thomas MURDOCK of Norwich, and Benjami EMMONS of Woodstock, were elected councillors, while Joseph MARSH of Hartford was elected lieutenant governor. These persons were chosen to the same offices in the preceding March election, and their re-election seems to have shown that each possessed the entire confidence of his constituency.
From what has already been stated, it will be observed that the greater part of the towns of Windsor county were in existence a number of years prior to the organization of the county itself. When Windsor county was set off by the division of Cumberland county, the character of the government of the towns was in no manner changed, and the only effect of that act was to lessen the territory included within the county, and to make its government more convenient for its inhabitants and for the State. And by the extinguishment of the New York authority and jurisdiction there seems not to have been occasioned any material change in any of the towns, and no interests appear to have been adversely affected. The people were merely changed from the jurisdiction of one State to that of another, and all controversy over the rights of State was ended and forgotten. Those of the town that were organized and governed under the New York charters continued for the time being their distinctive character, and the succeeding elections not infrequently found officers chosen under Vermont that had previously served under New York.
Such became the situation of affairs in this county, and in others, when Vermont was admitted to the Union in 1791. Disagreements and disputes were alike compromised and dropped as the result of that consummation, and an interest in the general welfare of the whole people took the place of strifes and contention among individuals.
With the end attained, the people of the several towns of the county entered upon an era of prosperity not before enjoyed in the history of the Commonwealth. And the people of the region were fully able to appreciate the advantages and blessings of peace and quiet, as for forty years prior to that event those who had lived in the State and upon the grants had seen nothing but a succession of combats and misfortunes and strifes and dissensions, and to them in particular was the peace that followed the year 1791 a double blessing.
But for only one short score of years were the people to be thus favored, when America found herself on the verge of another war with Great Britain; and again was the farmer to leave the field, the woodsman the forest, and the mechanic his shop, and with sword and musket again join the ranks in the defense of that independence he had so lately fought to gain. During the five years next preceding 1812, the whole country was in a state of nominal peace; but throughout these years there was gathering in the political horizon that dark cloud which was destined to plunge the nation into another foreign war. In 1775, and the years following, America fought for independence, and achieved a recognition among the powers of the earth. In 1812 she again engaged against the mother country to maintain that independence which in years past had been forcibly acquired.
HISTORICAL & GENEALOGICAL SOCIETIES
· Vermont Area Map of ca. 1756: An accurate map of His Majesty's Province of New-Hampshire in New England & all the adjacent country northward to the River St. Lawrence, & eastward to Penobscot Bay, containing the principal places which relate to the present war on the continent of North America. By Saml. Langdon (1723-1797).
· Ca. 1780 Map which shows land grants and purchases in northeastern New York State and granted townships in Vermont and parts of New Hampshire, and Massachusetts: A chorographical map of the Northern Department of North-America, drawn from the latest and most accurate observations, at Amsterdam by Cóvens and Mortier and Cóvens, junior. By H. Klockhoff, sculp., [Amsterdam] 1780. Repository: Library of Congress Geography and Map Division Washington, D.C. 20540-4650 USA, url: <http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.gmd/g3715.ar082800>
· Ca. 1781 Map: An Accurate map of New Hampshire in New England, from a late survey. [London, 1781]. From the Universal magazine of knowledge and pleasure. March, 1781. Repository: Library of Congress Geography and Map Division Washington, D.C. 20540-4650 USA, url: <http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.gmd/g3740.ar087200>
· Ca. 1784 Map: An accurate map of the State and Province of New-Hampshire in New England, taken from actual surveys of all the inhabited part, and from the best information of what is uninhabited, together with the adjacent countries, which exhibits the theatre of this war in that part of the world, by Col. Blanchard and the Revd. Mr. Langdon. Engraved by Thomas Jefferys. With many additions by Abel Sawyer. Boston, 1784. Repository: Library of Congress Geography and Map Division Washington, D.C. 20540-4650 USA, url: <http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.gmd/g3740.ar087100>
· 1795 Map of Vermont, from actual survey. By Doolittle, Amos (1754-1832). From Carey's American Atlas, Philadelphia, 1795. DLC. Philadelphia, 1795. Repository: Library of Congress Geography and Map Division Washington, D.C. 20540-4650 USA, url: <http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.gmd/g3750.ct000093>
· 1814 Map of Vermont, from actual survey. By Carey, Mathew (1760-1839). From Carey's General Atlas of the World. DLC. [S.l.], 1814. Repository: Library of Congress Geography and Map Division Washington, D.C. 20540-4650 USA, url: <http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.gmd/g3750.ct000094>
· Vermont Maps – Middlebury College digital collections.
· Vermont in the Civil War, by Tom Ledoux.
· A Windsor County, VT Genealogy Mailing List on Rootsweb is administered by Darrell A. Martin. If you would like to subscribe, instructions are online at http://lists.rootsweb.ancestry.com/index/usa/VT/windsor.html.
Vermont vital records may be obtained through the town clerk of the town in which the event occurred and/or through the resources below:
· How to Obtain Vital Records for Vermont ?
· Index to Vermont Vital Records, 1760-1954, (familysearch.org) – note this index may not be complete, some towns and records may not be included among state records.
· Index to Vermont Vital Records, 1955-2003, (familysearch.org).
· Vermont, Town Clerk, Vital and Town Records, 1732-2005, (familysearch.org) - Vital and town records acquired from local town clerk offices.
WILL & PROBATE
· Vermont Probate Courts - ". . . The Probate Division handles the probate of wills, settlement of estates, adoptions, guardianships, name changes, correction of vital records, and uniform gifts to minors. . ."
· Windsor District Probate Court: P.O. Box 402 - North Springfield VT 05150; Phone: (802) 886-2284.
· Hartford District Probate Court: On The Green - Woodstock VT 05901; Phone: (802) 457-1503.
TOWNS/TOWNSHIPS - Villages and communities
ANDOVER - chartered in 1761; villages & communities include: Andover, Simonsville
Note: In 1799, the Town of Weston was taken from a portion of Andover.
· The Local History of Andover, Vermont, by Hiland H. Gutterson, et. al. Abby Maria Hemenway, editor. Chicago, 1866. (includes biographical sketches)
· Andover Town Clerk: 953 Weston-Andover Road - Andover, VT 05143; Phone: (802) 875-2765.
· Cemeteries include:
Batchelder - Baldwin Cemetery, established in 1831; last burial in 1888;
East Hill Cemetery, established in 1797; located in northeastern Andover, at Latitude: 431805N, Longitude: 0724143W
Heald Cemetery, established in 1803; located in east central Andover, northwest from the village of Andover, at Latitude: 431700N, Longitude: 0724213W
Middletown Cemetery, established in 1807; located in west central Andover, at Latitude: 431701N, Longitude: 0724434W
Parkhurst Cemetery (private plot), established in 1844;
Pettengill Cemetery, established in 1838; last burial in 1894; located in west central Andover, just north from the village of Andover, at Latitude: 431706N, Longitude: 0724144W
Simonsville Cemetery, established in 1830; located near the village of Simonsville, in south central Andover; at Latitude: 431532N, Longitude: 0724305W
BALTIMORE - was formed in 1793 from the Town of Cavendish. Villages & Communities include: Baltimore
· Town of Baltimore, VT Facebook Page
· Baltimore Town Clerk: 1902 Baltimore Road - Baltimore, VT 05143; Phone: (802) 263-5274.
· Cemeteries include:
The Baltimore Cemetery, established in 1795; last burial in 1907; located at Latitude: 432203N, Longitude: 0723254W
BARNARD - Barnard, East Barnard
· Barnard Historical Society Museum
· Charles Danforth Public Library - Barnard, VT 05031; Phone: (802) 234-9183.
· Barnard Town Clerk: P.O Box 274 - Barnard, VT 05031 Phone: (802) 234-9211.
· Cemeteries include:
There are several family plots in Barnard including the Boyden, Chamberlain, and Moore burial grounds.
East Barnard Cemetery, established in 1841; located at Latitude: 434438N, Longitude: 0723235W
Ellis - Ashley Cemetery, established in 1821; last burial in 1912; located at Latitude: 434606N, Longitude: 0723530W
Moore Cemetery, established in 1838; last burial 1949.
North Road Methodist Cemetery, established in 1810; located at Latitude: 434602N, Longitude: 0723638W
Nye Cemetery, established in 1807; last burial in 1956; located at Latitude: 434359N, Longitude: 0723950W
Perkins Cemetery, established in 1822; located at Latitude: 434212N, Longitude: 0723440W
Prosper Cemetery, located in southeastern Barnard; at Latitude: 433835N, Longitude: 0723321W
Silver Lake Cemetery (see Village Cemetery).
South Barnard Cemetery, established in 1797; last burial in 1979; located at Latitude: 434053N, Longitude: 0723553W
Village Cemetery (aka Silver Lake Cemetery), established in 1915; located at Latitude: 434333N, Longitude: 0723717W
Winwood Cemetery, established in 1973.
BETHEL- Bethel, West Bethel
· First Congregational Church, Bethel, VT: 1906 List of Pastors, Deacons & Parishioners, by Janice Boyko, on the Northeast Kingdom website
· 1848: Vermont's first train passes on the twenty-seven miles of tracks from White River Junction to Bethel..., online from the VHS.
· Map of Bethel, Vt. 1886. Burleigh Lith. Establishment. Burleigh, L. R. (Lucien R.), 1853?-1923. Published Troy, N.Y., L. R. Burleigh . Repository: Library of Congress Geography and Map Division Washington, D.C. 20540-4650 USA.
· The Fairbanks Brothers of Bethel and Royalton - soldiers of the Civil War
· Bethel Historical Society Museum: Church Street - Bethel, VT 05032 - Phone: (802) 234-9413.
· Bethel Town Clerk: 134 South Main Street (P.O. Box 404) - Bethel, VT 05032 Phone: (802) 234-9722.
BRIDGEWATER - Bridgewater, Bridgewater Center, Bridgewater Corners, West Bridgewater
· UNH Dimond: Historic USGS Maps of Bridgewater, Vermont
· Bridgewater Town Clerk: P.O Box 14 - Bridgewater, VT 05034; Phone: (802) 672-3334.
CAVENDISH - Cavendish, Proctorsville, Whitesville
· Cavendish Historical Society Museum - (VT Route 131 in Cavendish, VT) P.O. Box 110 - Cavendish, VT 05142; Phone: (802) 484-7498.
· Cavendish Town Clerk: P.O Box 126 - Cavendish, VT 05142; Phone: (802) 226-7292.
· Cemeteries include:
Cavendish Village Cemetery
Old Revolutionary War Cemetery
Twenty-Mile Stream Cemetery
Wheelock Resthouse Cemetery
CHESTER - Chester [historical names: Flamstead, New Flamstead]
Of the several towns that now comprise Windsor county the first to be chartered was that now known as Chester, but which under the original grant was named Flamstead. The first grant of this town was made February 22, 1754. However, the charter proprietors failed to comply with the conditions and requirements of the grant, whereupon it was forfeited. The second charter of the same territory was made on the 3d of November, 1761, to another set of proprietors, and under another name, the latter being New Flamstead. Under this grant settlements were made and pioneer improvements commenced. But it appears that during the early years of the controversy between New York and the Green Mountain Boys, the inhabitants of this town were disposed to favor the New York interests, and being imbued with such spirit, yielded up or set at nought the New Hampshire charter and procured another from the former province. Under this last grant, which was made on July 14, 1766, the name Chester was given the township, and by that name it has ever since been known. In 1771, under the New York authority, an enumeration of the town's inhabitants was made, and Chester was found to contain one hundred and fifty-two souls. (History of Windsor County, Vermont, by Lewis Cass Aldrich and Frank R. Holmes, 1891).
After 1768, when Cumberland County, New York was created, legal matters could be settled at Chester, VT, where there were courts of common pleas and of quarter sessions.
· First Congregational Church, Chester, VT: 1868 List of Pastors, Deacons & Parishioners, by Janice Boyko, on the Northeast Kingdom website
· The Whiting Library: 117 Main Street, PO Box 68, - Chester, VT 05143 Phone: (802) 875-2277.
· Chester Historical Society: Main Street - Chester, VT 05143; Phone: (802) 875-3767 or (802) 875-2497.
· Chester Town Clerk: P. O. Box 370 - Chester, VT 05143 Phone: (802) 875-2173.
· Cemeteries include:
Brookside, North Street, Pleasant View, Poplar Grove, and cemeteries located in West Chester and on Spoonerville and Smokeshire Roads.
HARTFORD - Villages & Communities include: Hartford, Quechee, West Hartford, White River Junction
· 2nd Congregational Church, Hartford, VT: 1812-1892, by Janice Boyko, on the Northeast Kingdom website
· Hartford Library: 1587 Maple Street, Hartford, VT 05047; Phone: (802) 296-2568.
· Quechee Public Library: 41 Main Street - Quechee, VT 05059; Phone: (802) 295-1232.
· Hartford Town Clerk: 171 Bridge Street - White River Junction, VT 05001; Phone: (802) 295-9353.
HARTLAND - Villages & Communities include: Hartland, Hartland Four Corners, North Hartland, Wilder (aka Olcott/Olcott Falls)
· First Congregational Church, Hartland, VT: 1906 List of Pastors, Deacons & Parishioners, by Janice Boyko, on the Northeast Kingdom website
· Hartland Historical Society and Museum: P.O. Box 198, Hartland, VT 04048
· Hartland Town Clerk: P.O. Box 349 - Hartland, VT 05048; Phone: (802) 436-2444.
LUDLOW - Villages and communities include: Ludlow, Smithville
· Congregational Church, Ludlow, VT: 1907 List of Pastors, Deacons & Parishioners, by Janice Boyko, on the Northeast Kingdom website
· Black River Academy Museum - (14 High Street in Ludlow, VT) P.O. Box 73 - Ludlow, VT 05149; Phone: (802) 228-5050.
· Fletcher Memorial Library: 88 Main Street - Ludlow, VT 05149; Phone: (802) 228-8921
· Ludlow Town Clerk: P.O Box 307 - Ludlow, VT 05149; Phone: (802) 228-3232.
NORWICH - Villages & Communities include: Lewiston, Norwich, Pompanoosuc, West Norwich
· Congregational Church, Norwich, VT: 1891 List of Pastors, Deacons & Parishioners, by Janice Boyko, on the Northeast Kingdom website
· Norwich Town Clerk: P.O Box 376 - Norwich, VT 05055; Phone: (802) 649-1419.
PLYMOUTH (historical name: Saltash) - Villages & Communities include: Tyson, Plymouth, Plymouth Union
· VTGenWeb: Plymouth, Vermont Genealogy and History, by Nancy Wygant
· Note: For 1790 U.S. Census of Plymouth, see Saltash, Vermont.
· President Calvin Coolidge was born in Plymouth, Vermont
· Tyson Furnace : "...In 1835, while looking for minerals, Isaac Tyson, Jr. discovered iron ore in the valley of the Black River near Plymouth. He set up his iron works in the southern part of Plymouth, which he named Tyson Furnace..."
· Plymouth Town Clerk: 68 Town Office Road, Plymouth VT 05056; Phone: (802) 672-3655.
POMFRET - Villages & Communities include: Hewitts Corner, North Pomfret, Pomfret, South Pomfret
· Pomfret, Vermont [History], in 2 volumes, by Henry H. Vail and Emma Chandler White
· Vital Records of Pomfret, VT, (familysearch.org)
· The LEONARDS of Pomfret, VT, with photos and genealogy, by Bob Dill (firstname.lastname@example.org) of Clermont, FL
· Pomfret Historical Society: P.O. Box 54, South Pomfret, VT 05067; Phone: (802) 457-1021
· Abbott Memorial Public Library: Stage Road (P.O. Box 95) - South Pomfret, VT 05067; Phone: (802) 457-2236
· Pomfret Town Clerk: P. O. Box 64 - South Plymouth, VT 05067 ; Phone: (802) 457-3861.
READING - chartered in 1761; Villages & Communities include: Felchville, Hammondsville, Reading, South Reading
· The young Chief Justice Salmon P. Chase and Robert Estabrook on Shedd Hill, too, (in Reading, Vermont), by Stephen F. Ells, includes a photo view from Bald Hill, Reading, Vermont.
· Centennial Celebration, Together with an Historical Sketch of Reading, Windsor County, Vermont, and its Inhabitants from the First Settlement of the Town to 1874, By Gilbert A. Davis, Bellows Falls, Press of A.N. Swain, 1874.
· History of Reading, Windsor County, Vermont. Vol. II. By Gilbert A. Davis, [Windsor? Vt., 1903]. Supplementary to the author's "Centennial celebration, together with an historical sketch of Reading, Windsor County, Vermont, and its inhabitants from the first settlement of the town to 1874 ... Bellows Falls, Press of A.N. Swain. 1874."
· Reading Historical Society Museum: Reading, VT 05062; Phone: (802) 484-7271.
· Reading Library: 717 Route 106, Reading, VT 05062; Phone: (802) 484-5428.
· Reading Town Clerk: P.O Box 72 - Reading, VT 05062; Phone: (802) 484-7250.
· CEMETERIES in Reading, Vermont include:
Amsden Cemetery: Established in 1804, Located north of Felchville (Reading P. O.), in eastern Reading Township, near the Reading and West Windsor boundary, Latitude: 432817N; Longitude: 0723151W
Buck Cemetery (family): Established in 1828. Last burial in 1861, north of Reading in the woods off of Route 106.
Felchville Cemetery: Established in 1842, Located at Felchville, in southeastern Reading Township, Latitude: 432721N; Longitude: 0723232W
Hapgood Family Cemetery: Established ca. 1795, Located west of Hammondsville; at Bailey's Mills Bed & Breakfast
Hapgood-Spite Cemetery: Established in 1807, Located in east central Reading Township, Latitude: 433015N; Longitude: 0723407W
Rice Cemetery (family): Established in 1836. Last burial in 1864, Location unknown
Shedd Cemetery: Established in 1831, Last burial in 1883, Located in north central Reading Township, Latitude: 433123N; Longitude: 0723434W
South Reading Cemetery: Established in 1811, Located at the village of South Reading, in Reading Township, Latitude: 432827N; Longitude: 0723515W
Spear Cemetery: Established in 1798,
Swain Cemetery: Established in 1825, Last burial in 1878, Located in central Reading Township, Latitude: 433049N; Longitude: 0723633W
Weld-Sawyer Cemetery (aka Sawyer-Stand Cemetery): Established in 1786; Located in south western Reading Township, Latitude: 432859N; Longitude: 0723710W
ROCHESTER - Villages & Communities include: Emerson, Rochester, Talcville
· Rochester Public Library: P. O. Box 256, 22 South Main Street, Rochester, VT 05767
· Rochester Historical Society: P. O. Box 238, Rochester, VT 05767-0238.
o Rochester History Topics
· Printed books:
o Rochester, Vermont, Its History, 1780-1975, by Wendall Wales Williams, Published by the authority of the Town of Rochester, 1975 (Burlington, Vt. : Queen City Printers).
o Rochester Remembers: 1781-1981, edited by Earl N. Davis, Jr. and Mary O. Davis, [Rochester, Vt.? : s.n., 1975?].
· Rochester Town Clerk: 67 School Street - P.O Box 238 - Rochester, VT 05767; Phone: (802) 767-3631.
· CEMETERIES in Rochester, Vermont include:
Bingo-West Rochester Cemetery: Established in 1822. Last burial in 1931, Located in western Rochester, by the fork of West Branch brook, Latitude: 435221N; Longitude: 0725308W
Little Hollow Cemetery: Established in 1853, Located near Alexander Hill, in eastern Rochester, Latitude: 435311N; Longitude: 0724420W
Lucy Morris Plot: (one person): 1888 Latitude: unknown; Longitude: unknown
North Hollow Cemetery: Established in 1806, Located in north central Rochester, north from Rochester village, Latitude: 435458N; Longitude: 0724815W
Old Village Cemetery: Established in 1798, Last burial in 1908, Located near Rochester village, in central Rochester, Vermont, Latitude: 435232N; Longitude: 0724835W
Oliver Reynolds Cemetery: Established in 1846. Last burial in 1911, Located in West Rochester, by West Branch brook, Latitude: 435202N; Longitude: 0725248W
Tupper Cemetery (family): Established in 1813. Last burial in 1852, Located near the White River and SR 100, Latitude: 434835N; Longitude: 0724658W
West Hill Cemetery: Established in 1828, Located in West Rochester, to the north of SR 73, Latitude: 435118N; Longitude: 435118N
Woodlawn Cemetery: Established in 1825, Located in central Rochester, Vermont, Latitude: 435156N; Longitude: 0724827W
ROYALTON- Villages & Communities include: North Royalton, Royalton, South Royalton
· The Fairbanks Brothers of Bethel and Royalton - soldiers of the Civil War
· Royalton Memorial Library: P.O. Box 179, 23 Alexander Place - South Royalton, VT 05068; Phone: (802) 763-7094
· Royalton Town Clerk: P.O Box 680 - South Royalton, VT 05068; Phone: (802) 763-7207.
· Royalton CEMETERIES include:
Branch View Cemetery, established in 1791, still in use -
Broad Brook Cemetery, established in 1806, discontinued in 1909 - located in southeastern Royalton, on Urstadt Road.
Dewey Cemetery, established in 1795, discontinued in 1964 - located in northeastern Royalton, on LDS Lane.
Havens Cemetery, established in 1812, still in use - located off Dairy Hill Road, north of VT Route 14.
Hickey Cemetery, established in 1791, discontinued in 1967 - located in southwestern Royalton, on North Road.
Howard Cemetery, established in 1813, discontinued in 1836 - located off Royal Hill.
Lindley Lot, established in 1801, discontinued in 1820 - located off Johnson Hill.
North Royalton Cemetery, established in 1779, discontinued in 1968 - located on VT Route 14, southeast from the intersection of Route 107.
Perrin #1 Cemetery, established in 1814, discontinued in 1878 - family lot.
Perrin #2 Cemetery, established in 1859, discontinued in 1888 - located off Russ Hill.
Pleasant Hill Cemetery, established in 1831, still in use - near Royalton center, on VT Route 14.
River View Cemetery, established in 1905, still in use - located off Route 14.
Samuel Metcalf Cemetery, established in 1801, discontinued in 1872 - I believe this is the cemetery located on the north side of VT Route 14, by Happy Hollow Road, west of South Royalton Village.
South Royalton Village Cemetery, established in 1778, discontinued in 1950 - on South Windsor Street, in South Royalton Village
SHARON - Villages & Communities include: Sharon
· Sharon Town Clerk: Sharon Municipal Bldg. on Route 32, P.O Box 250 - Sharon, VT 05065; Phone: (802) 763-8268.
· Sharon Cemeteries include:
Alexander Cemetery, established in 1842, discontinued in 1891 -
Broad Brook Cemetery, established in 1784 -
Chamberlin-Harvey Farm Cemetery, established in 1832, discontinued in 1868 -
Day District Cemetery, established in 1782, discontinued in 1903 -
Howe Hill Cemetery, established in 1784, discontinued in 1906 -
Orange Avery Cemetery, established in 1785, discontinued in 1867 - location not yet identified
Preston Farm Family Cemetery, established in 1802, discontinued in 1832 -
Roberts - Sharon 4 Corners Cemetery, established in 1815, discontinued in 1869 -
Village Pine Hill Cemetery, established in 1792, discontinued in 1976 - located on VT Route 14.
Wallace Doubleday Cemetery, established in 1798, discontinued in 1925 -
SPRINGFIELD - Villages & Communities include: North Springfield, City of Springfield
· Congregational Church, Springfield, VT: 1869 List of Pastors, Deacons & Parishioners, by Janice Boyko, on the Northeast Kingdom website
· Baptist Church, North Springfield, VT: 1878 List of Pastors, Deacons & Parishioners, by Janice Boyko, on the Northeast Kingdom website
· Springfield Town Clerk: 96 Main Street - Springfield, VT 05156; Phone: (802) 885-2104.
· Springfield Cemeteries include:
Crown Point Cemetery, established in 1759, discontinued in 1760.
Eureka Cemetery, established in 1789, discontinued in 1836 -
Field #1 / Day Cemetery, established in 1789 discontinued in 1839 - located near the north end of Davis Road.
Field #2 Cemetery, established in 1785 - located near the north end of Davis Road.
Oakland Cemetery, established in 1893, still in use - located near River Street (Rt 106).
Parker Hill Cemetery, established in 1790, discontinued in 1857 - located in southern Springfield Township.
Pine Grove Cemetery, established in 1782, still in use - located by Cemetery Road, south of Route 106.
Pleasant Valley Cemetery, established in 1795, discontinued in 1958 - located by Boedker Road.
St. Mary's Catholic Cemetery, established in 1903, still in use - located on Walnut Hill Road, near the intersection of Orchard Lane.
Shedd Cemetery, established in 1810, discontinued in 1854 - location not yet identified
Summer Hill Cemetery, established in 1789, still in use - located on Cherry Hill Street, near to The Commons Park.
Walker-Gill Cemetery, established in 1799, discontinued in 1968 - located on Putnam Road, near the intersection with Route 5.
STOCKBRIDGE- Villages & Communities include: Gaysville, Stockbridge, "No Town"
Gaysville and Stockbridge are located in the town/township of Stockbridge. Though a portion of Gaysville was destroyed during the flood of 1927, it remains a vibrant village.
Another hamlet, by the name of "No Town", though not appearing on modern maps that have been consulted, is found situated, in the southeastern corner of Stockbridge , on a 1911 map of the northwest corner of the Woodstock quadrangle, online at Historic USGS Maps of New England & New York . The boundaries appear to have varied through the years, with "No Town" appearing to be within Sherburne, in Rutland County on a 1943 map ., however, this area remains within Stockbridge presently.
· Stockbridge Town Clerk: 1722 VT Route 100 - Stockbridge, VT 05772; Phone: (802) 746-8400.
· Vermont in the Civil War, online by Tom Ledoux
· Cemeteries include:
Abbott Cemetery, established by ca. 1812; located about 1.2 miles northeast from the village of Gaysville, at Latitude: 434724N, Longitude: 0724103W.
Alcorn Cemetery, established in 1828; last burial in 1865.
Betsey Bartlett Grave, single burial, near the village of Stockbridge, by the intersection of 107 and 100, located at Latitude: 434624N, Longitude: 0724534W.
Maplewood Cemetery, established in 1796; located at the village of Stockbridge, at Latitude: 434710N, Longitude: 0724521W.
Mt. Pleasant - Ranney Cemetery, established in 1820; located off 107, about 1/2 way between the villages of Gaysville and Stockbridge, at Latitude: 434521N, Longitude: 0724329W.
South Hill Cemetery, established in 1799; located in southwestern Stockbridge township, at Latitude: 434426N, Longitude: 0724719W.
Watkins Cemetery, established in 1835; last burial in 1844
WEATHERSFIELD - Villages & Communities include: Amsden, Ascutney, Nelsons Corners, Perkinsville, Weathersfield Bow, Weathersfield Center
· Weathersfield Historical Society
· William Jarvis and the Merino Sheep Craze - "...Before settling in Weathersfield, Vermont in 1812, William Jarvis (1770-1859) had been a successful merchant and the United States Consul to Portugal..."
· Weathersfield Town Clerk: P. O. Box E - Ascutney, VT 05030; Phone: (802) 674-2626.
· Weathersfield CEMETERIES include:
Ascutneyville Cemetery, established in 1794, located at Ascutney, in northeastern Weathersfield township; at Latitude: 432428N, Longitude: 0722442W.
Deane (family) Cemetery, established in 1812
Eddy Cemetery, established in 1813; last burial in 1828, located by the North Branch of Black River, in northwestern Weathersfield township; at Latitude: 432541N, Longitude: 0723118W.
Filley Burial Plot (one person), established in 1794
Greenbush Cemetery, established in 1825, located by 106, in northwestern Weathersfield township; at Latitude: 432517N, Longitude: 0723117W.
Grout Cemetery, established in 1781, located northeast from the village of Perkinsville, in central Weathersfield township; at Latitude: 432257N, Longitude: 0722938W.
Hubbard Cemetery, established ca. 1790, located in Weathersfield Bow, in eastern Weathersfield township; at Latitude: 432115N, Longitude: 0722423W.
Plain Cemetery, established in 1788, located northeast from the village of Perkinsville, in central Weathersfield township; at Latitude: 432256N, Longitude: 0722943W.
Richards Cemetery, established in 1774
Toles Cemetery, established in 1793, located at Weathersfield Center, in central Weathersfield township; at Latitude: 432236N, Longitude: 0722800W.
Tuttle Cemetery, established in 1772, last burial in 1882, located by 5, between Weathersfield Bow and Ascutney, in eastern Weathersfield township; at Latitude: 432246N, Longitude: 0722501W.
Upham-Aldrich Cemetery, established in 1804, last burial in 1886, located south from Weathersfield Center, in south central Weathersfield township; at Latitude: 432131N, Longitude: 0722811W.
Weatherbee Cemetery, established in 1794
Weathersfield Bow Cemetery, established in 1803, located in Weathersfield Bow, in eastern Weathersfield township; at Latitude: 432134N, Longitude: 0722435W.
WESTON - Villages & Communities include: became a separate town in 1799. Villages & communities include: The Island, Weston
Note: In 1799, the Town of Weston was taken from a portion of Andover.
· Congregational Church, Weston, VT: 1884 List of Pastors, Deacons & Parishioners, by Janice Boyko, on the Northeast Kingdom website
· Weston Town Clerk: P.O Box 98 - Weston, VT 05161; Phone: (802) 824-6645.
· Weston CEMETERIES include:
Forefathers Cemetery, established in 1806, last burial in 1895, located at Weston, in central Weston township; at Latitude: 431738N, Longitude: 0724751W
Island Cemetery, established in 1803, located on Lowell Lake Road, in southern Weston township, near the northern boundary of Londonderry township; at Latitude: 431505N, Longitude: 0724719W
Maple Grove Cemetery, established ca. 1860, ocated on Andover Road, near intersection of Rte 100, at Weston, in central Weston township, near 43rd Infantry Div. Mem. Hwy. & the road to Andover; at Latitude: 431738N, Longitude: 0724716W
WEST WINDSOR - Villages & Communities include: Brownsville, Sheddsville
· West Windsor Historical Society: P.O. Box 12 - Brownsville, VT 05037; Phone: (802) 484-7474
· Civil War Soldiers born in/ credited to West Windsor, by Tom Ledoux.
· West Windsor History, on Karima's site
· West Windsor Town Clerk: P. O. Box 6 - Brownsville, VT 05037; Phone: (802) 484-7212.
o Vital Records for West Windsor - information
· West Windsor Cemeteries include:
Brownsville Cemetery (1), established in 1839, discontinued in 1945 - located north of Route 44, on Brownsville Hartland Road, on the west side of the road.
Brownsville Cemetery (2), established in 1839, still in use - located north of Route 44, on the east side of Brownsville Hartland Road.
Daniel Cady Family Mausoleum -location not yet identified
Sheddsville Cemetery, established in 1795 - located near the center of West Windsor - located on Sheddsville Cemetery Road
WINDSOR - Villages & Communities include: Windsor
· First Congregational Church, Windsor, VT: 1768-1898 List of Pastors, Deacons & Parishioners, by Janice Boyko, on the Northeast Kingdom website
· Windsor Town Clerk: Box 47 - Windsor, VT 05089 Phone: (802) 674-5610.
· Windsor Cemeteries include:
Ascutney Cemetery, established in 1800, located at Windsor, in eastern Windsor township; at Latitude: 432840N, Longitude: 0722408W.
Hewett Cemetery, established in 1806
Old South Church Cemetery, established in 1766, last burial in 1900, located by SR 5, in Windsor, in eastern Windsor township; at Latitude: 432842N, Longitude: 0722317W.
St. Francis Cemetery, established in 1864
WOODSTOCK - Prosper, South Woodstock, Taftsville, West Woodstock, Woodstock
· Congregational Church, Woodstock, VT: 1781-1917 List of Pastors, Deacons & Parishioners, by Janice Boyko, on the Northeast Kingdom website
· Woodstock Historical Society and Museum: 26 Elm Street - Woodstock, VT 05091; Phone: (802) 457-1822.
· Norman Williams Public Library: 10 South Park Street - Woodstock, VT; 05091 Phone: (802) 457-2295.
· Woodstock Town Clerk: 31 The Green - Woodstock, VT 05091; Phone: (802) 457-3611.
Return to Vermont History <-> Genealogy Main Page.
Copyright 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001-2017, by Ann Mensch. All Rights Reserved.