1761. MIDDLEBURY was chartered Nov. 2, 1761, 68 shares to 62 grantees. John Everts, Esq. having three towns to survey, named the one on the south Salisbury, the one on the north New Haven, and the third, from its middle posiュtion, Middlebury.

1766. John Chipman came from Salisbury, Conn. with 15 young men. They cut their way through the wilderness to their different destinations. Chipman made choice at Middlebury, and cleared the first land in town, 6 or 8 acres; but did not then make a permanent settlement.

1773. Benjamin Smalley, from Salisbury, Conn. was the first settler who came with his family, and built of logs the first house in town. John Chipman and Gamaliel Painter soon after came with their families.

1774. This year Robert Torrence and family settled. The other settlers before the war were Joshua Hyde, Wm. Hopkins, Daniel Foot, Simュeon Chandler, Enoch Dewy, Joseph Plumley, John Hinman, Jas. Bently, Philip Foot, and Eber Evarts.

Upon our return to Bristol village, we were gratified to find among the landscape sketches at Dr. J. M. F. Walker's, a very correct one of this charmュing fall.

1776. The first recorded deaths are those of Zerah Smalley, who died Dec. 1, 1776, aged 18, and his sister Anah, the February following, aged 20.

1778. The settlers built their first log schoolュhouse, and Miss Eunice Heep taught the first school in the settlement. This memorable fall there was a general destruction of property and capture of prisoners all along the borders of the Champlain, which caused a complete desertion of the settlement till after the close of the war. The settlers buried in the earth what of their effects they could not take in their flight. Olive, daughter of Robert Torrence, who was but five years old when her father came to Middlebury, gave, a short time before her death, (in 1850, at the age of 84.) the following account. They came down Otter Creek on a raft, and built their cabin on the spot where the family still reside. At the time of the flight she was 8 years old. When the rumors of the depredations in adjoinュing settlements came, the men left their hoeing, and hollowed out from the trunk of trees six canoes which they held in instant readiness. In August the message came. The Tories and Inュdians were approaching. They buried their sugar, flour, pewter, &c. under the floor of their cabin. Her mother went out once more to look upon the promising garden vines she had taken so much pains to culture; then they all proュceeded down to the creek, where a raft was constructed upon which the women, children, and goods were placed, and their journey commenced up the creek, their only highway. "Mrs. Bently carried in her arms the first child born in town, Hannah Bently, which being the only infant among us attracted much attention." The fugiュtives landed at Pittsford, where a military post was stationed. "Mrs. Torrence followed the train of women and children, carrying in her arms a child* two years old, in a sort of double gown brought over her shoulders." Met a regiュment of soldiers drawn up in front of her. The colonel recognized her, and called out, "My God, there's Sally Peck!" (her maiden name.) "It makes a man's eyes run to see you brought to this!" At his suggestion the soldiers gave up their quarters to the women and children. The family were absent from Middlebury 8 years, 7 of which Mr. Torrence was employed in casting ordnance for the army.

Judge Painter, though driven from his home, did not leave the State till the British had gained a dangerous control over all western Vermont. He had been acquainted with Ethan Allen before he came to Vermont, and was "intimately assoュciated with him, Warner, and Baker, in their movements." He once visited the British post


* We do not know how Miss Torrence or our histoュrian reconciles the statement of Hannah Bently, an infant on the raft, being the first born in the settlement, when Mr. Torrence and family settled in 1774, and Mrs. Torrence is here introduced with a child two years old in her arms.


while they held Crown Point, in order to spy out their condition and plans. He played the part of a half idiot, "taking with him a basket in which he carried a little butter, a few eggs, and some notions to sell among the soldiers." The guard had been instructed to let no suspicious person pass, and Painter, notwithstanding his appropriate dress and foolish appearance, was too suspicious-looking; hence, instead of being adュmitted into the fort, he was taken into a boat and rowed toward a large boat in which were the superior officers, before whom he was to be carried for examination. He knew he was in the power of an enemy who would soon be able to prove the falsity of his feigned character. He saw that the eyes of the officers were watching his every movement, but, as though seeing not, suspectュing not, and casting himself down into the boat, began to count over to himself the profits of his traffic. If he sold mother's butter for so much per pound, and sister Susy's eggs for so much apiece, this innocent unconcern and idiotic gibbering saved him. The officers began to dread the ridicule it might bring upon them to take so much pains to capture a "perfect idiot," and upon a little consultation turned their boat about and allowed him to enter the fort and traffic with the soldiers; which being done, he hurried his departure with a fixed resolution never to hazard his life in another such underュtaking.

At another time, passing through a Tory nest in Clarendon, meeting three men on horseback, he escaped suspicion by boldly inquiring, before they could challenge him, for their rendezvous, the residence of their leader.

Col. Chipman was first commander at Fort Edward, and next at Fort George. Of the latter he was commander at the time of the capture of the garrison. Not aware of the proximity of the enemy, he had sent out all his forces except 60 or 70 men in scouting parties. Surprised by "an overwhelming force, the garrison was forced to surrender." He was taken prisoner, but exュchanged in 1781, and afterward rose to the rank of major. While in command of the forts, Mrs. Chipman remained with him; and Mrs. Loomis, his daughter, has now in possession his orderly book, in which is "an order for a court-martial signed by Col. Warner, supposed to be in his own handwriting."

1783. The former settlers began to return in April, Benjamin Smalley, Bill Thayer, Jonaュthan Chipman, with their families, Daniel Foot and his five sons, and Joshua Hyde.

1784. Judge Painter, Col. Chipman, and Robert Torrence returned. Robert Torrence built and occupied a brick house, which is still standing, till his death in 1816. And here his two daughters lived and died. Mr. Torrence served in the French war, "and it is supposed with the Green Mountain Boys, under Ethan Allen. They were special friends in after life, and had exchanged guns and powder flasks." "The former," Mr. Battell says, "I saw, which the good ladies preserved with religious care, a long duck piece, hanging up, loaded in a spirit not unworthy of a token of the hero of the Grants." John Chipman soon surrounded himュself with the luxuries of life. On the site of his first cabin, he built "a handsome brick house, which he opened for the entertainment of travellers coming into the country." The colonel was "a man of commanding person and address, with talents peculiarly fitted for an executive officer." From 1789 to 1801, he was county sheriff, and much of the time held offices of trust in town. He died in 1829, aged 84. The folュlowing is his own summary of services in the Revolution.

"I turned out, at the commencement of the war, as a volunteer with Col. Ethan Allen, in the spring of 1775, to take Ticonderoga and Crown Point. In May or June, I received a second lieutenant's commission in Capt. Grant's comュpany, Col. Seth Warner's regiment. Went into Canada; was at the taking of St. John and Montreal; was discharged at Montreal, and reュturned home in the first part of December. In the summer of 1776, I received a first lieutenant's commission in Capt. Smith's company, Seth Warュner's regiment, and joined the army at Ticonュderoga in March, 1777. I was in the retreat with the army, and was in the battle of Hubbardton. I was also in the battle of Bennington, so called, on the 16th of August of that year, and was at Saratoga at the taking of Burgoyne in Octoュber. We were ordered to Fort Edward and Fort George in 1778 and 1779. I was promoted to a captaincy, and served in that capacity until Ocュtober, 1780, when I was taken prisoner at Fort George. I remained in this situation until the summer of 1781, when I was exchanged, and reュmained a supernumerary until the close of the war.



Daniel Foot was the man for a pioneer. "There must be forests to subdue, and new dwellings to erect, or it was no place for him." It was said he owned more than a thousand acres before the war; but, having buried his wife, he divided among his children his property at Middlebury, and at the age of 80 started off "to make a new settlement in Canton, then a wilderness." "On his way through Montreal, he took the smallpox, of which he died a few days after his arrival. He died at last in the woods, and for lack of boards for a coffin, was laid in bark from an elm tree."

Capt. Stephen Goodrich and his two sons, William and Amos, came into town the spring of 1784. The father returned after they had taken possession, leaving his two sons to make a commencement before he moved his family. They erected a shanty, and spent the summer in clearing the land. Amos, in his old age, de‑


clared to Mr. Battell, who visited him to gather incidents in regard to the early settlement, that "he never was happier than in this solitary place." A few strips of hark on the roof above their bed protected them from the rain, and a few slabs of basswood logs, set up about them, kept off the wind. The whole region around the falls was a dense hemlock forest. Only Foot was on Foot street, Chipman and Painter beginning again, in the southwest part of the town, Hop Johnson in the village quarter, and Washburn building a saw-mill. Not till 1785 were other farms commenced. The same year his father, with his mother and sister, came on with cart and oxen, five cows, etc. Guided by marked trees they made their way through the wilderュness to the river, where the family and cart were floated down the creek on a raft. There were no cattle near them the first two summers; the third, each of the neighbors had a cow. Stephen Goodrich died in 1823, aged 93; Amos in 1784, aged 57; William in 1812, aged 90.

1784 or 1785. Abisha Washburn, of Salisュbury, Conn. "spent the summer in getting up a saw-mill on the falls. In the fall, he went to Salisbury, and the authorities of Massachusetts engaged him to cast cannon for the impending war. In the spring of 1784, Washburn returned to rebuild the mill which had been destroyed by the Indians during the war, and by the aid of Chipman and Painter, the mill was in operaュtion in 1785, but swept away by a freshet the succeeding spring." Washburn made the first and only settlement in the neighborhood of the village before the war. He died in 1813, aged 91.

1786. Stillman Foot in 1786 built a house for his family, which is the oldest dwelling-house now remaining, and occupied by J. S. Bushnell, Esq. Daniel Foot built the first bridge across the creek; the abutments of logs, the string-pieces single, formed from pine trees, and the whole covered with poles. The village was orュganized the same year at the house of Daniel Foot, and the first highways surveyed.

1787. Dea. Ebenezer Sumner, who settled in 1787, was one of the first deacons in the Conュgregational church; a man of piety and a "faithュful supporter of religious institutions." He died in 1844, aged 87. His widow, who died at the age of 84, in 1853, gave the following relation. She was married in 1780, and came 10 days after to Wells, Rutland Co. where they lived 7 years, and then with their little family removed to Midュdlebury. Their log-house stood at the north end of Foot street, and so darkened by the wood at first it was very gloomy. Before the organizaュtion of the church there was with some of the people much religious interest, and they came into meeting, from a distance, on ox-sleds. She did not remember the names of the first preachュers, but Dr. Smith preached two or three times a year before Mr. Barnet came, who was ordained in a barn. One summer the meetings were held in her husband's barn. She remembered the dysentery, so fatal about 40 years before. "A grave was opened in town every day for 4 weeks "

1787. John Willard, M. D., commenced practice in Middlebury about 1787. From 1801 to 1810 he was marshal of the district of Verュmont. Becoming noted as a politician, he dropped his practice and gave himself to politiュcal duties; for a number of years was chairman of the central committee of the Republican party; one of the directors of the Vermont State Bank till the Middlebury branch was closed, and in 1812 appointed county sheriff. The doctor was a native of Madison, Conn. "His father, Capt. John Willard, a shipmaster, died when he was a child." For awhile, he aided his mother in carrying on their small farm, but growing tired of farming, went to sea, where he was taken by the British and "subjected to the horrors of the Jersey prison-ship." After his release, he became "quarter-master in a Connecticut regiュment of volunteers, and served to the close of the war." After which he entered upon the study of his profession. In 1809, he was marュried to Miss Emma Hart, Principal of the Middlebury Female Seminary, which he aided her in bringing up to a high standard. They removed to New York in 1819. Dr. Willard died May 25, 1825, at the age of 66.

1788. Samuel Miller, the first lawyer in town, and one of the most distinguished citizens, settled in 1788. In 1790, he married Rebekah Matュtocks, daughter of Hon. Samuel Mattocks, State treasurer for many years. He had an extensive practice, and stood side by side with Daniel Chipュman, at the head of the profession in the several counties in which they practised. In 1797, he was an influential member of the General Asュsembly. While the prominent men of Middleュbury were pressing their claims before the legisュlature, it was remarked that "the influence of Painter with his cunning, Chipman with his argument, and Miller with his courteous address, if it were possible, would deceive the very elect." Mr. Miller was devoted to the village, and conュtributed liberally to build up its institutions of religion and education. He was particularly acュtive in procuring the college charter, and gave $1,000 to establish the first professorship. Of the Congregational church he was a member, and left it a legacy of $1,000, and $500 to the Vermont Missionary Society. He died of cancer on the 17th of April, 1810, aged 52.

1788. Judge Painter put in operation the first grist-mill.

1790. The greatest scarcity known in town occurred this year, some families, wholly destitute of bread, subsisted upon the boiled heads of unripe wheat, and fish from the creek.

1791. Mrs. Wm. Goodrich taught the first primary school in the village.


1792. The county courts were removed to Middlebury, where they have since been held.

1793. Post-office established; Robert Husュton; first postmaster.

1794. The first jail built of wood, with prisoners' cells and dungeon; second of stone, at about $4,000 cost, 1796; third of brick, at about $8,000 cost, in 1845.

1796. The court-house commenced; first occupied in 1798; remodelled to expense of $1,250.11 in 1814. Nothing but the old frame remains to the now handsome court-house. 1800 and 1806, the State legislature held its sessions here. John Seymour built the first store in the place this year.

1801. Joseph D. Huntington and John Fitch. Dec. 16, published the first number of the first newspaper, the Middlebury Mercury, and soon added a book-bindery and store; in the fall of 1802, the first Vermont Register, and Law Magazine, by John Simmons, Esq., of Middleュbury, the first book of legal forms ever published in this State; and in 1805, Discourses on reliュgious subjects, by the late Rev. Job Swift, D. D. Since 1812, weekly newspapers have been uninterruptedly published; frequently 2, sometimes 3; occasionally, other periodicals ; in all, 15 different books and 20 different periodicals.


MIDDLEBURY REGISTER. The People's Press was published by H. Bell, Esq., 1841'49; name changed to Northern Galaxy, 1843; 1848, to Middlebury Galaxy; 1849, J. H. Barrett and Justus Cobb, Esqrs., commenced publication in their name; 1856, Mr. Barrett withdrew, Cobb & Fuller published; 1857'59 Justus Cobb and Rufus Mead publishers; January, 1850, name changed to Middlebury Register. The Register is now published by Mead & Fuller.



The discovery of marble was made by Eben Judd as early as 1802. 1803, he obtained from Appleton Foot a lease to dig marble for 999 years anywhere on his lot between his house and the creek, the whole foundation of which was marble. A factory was erected, in which was carried on the first extensive manufactory of marble in the State, with a machine for sawing first put in operュation by Dr. Judd, which is now extensively used elsewhere. Here, marble of finer texture than wrought in any other part of the United States, both white and black and dove-colored, elegantly variegated; was for many years sawn, ground, polished, cut, and carved with an elegance not surpassed on this side the Atlantic; wrought into costly monuments, tables, jambs, sideboards, mantel-pieces, &c. and exported to Boston, New York, Canada, and the South. In 1857, N. H. Hand purchased the building and established his pail-factory, which in full operation is capable of manufacturing 600 pails daily.


1806. BANKS. The State legislature established a bank with two branches, the Woodstock and Middlebury branch. In 1812, a burglary was effected; the directors were called on for missing funds; lawsuits ensued; judgments were renュdered, and the State bank at length discontinued. The Middlebury Bank was chartered Nov. 10, 1831; the Middlebury Savings Bank, Nov. 12, 1836.


1808. FIRES AND FIRE COMPANY. Fires have from time to time done their work of deュstruction, consuming, now the dwelling-house of the citizen, then the shop, the mill, the factory, and the forge. Among these wrecks, one of the most conspicuous was the burning of the mill curiously constructed upon a rock projecting over the creek, about 30 feet from the falls below, the inlet and outlet of the flume formed in the solid rock, so that the water never froze. The fire company was organized in 1808.


1811. MANUFACTURES. As early as 1811, Major Daniel Page commenced building a stone cotton-factory, and manufactured some cloth, beュfore the close of the war of 1812, sold for 50 cents per yard which would now sell for 36 or 38 cents per yard. Mr. Joseph Gordon, who had set up several factories in Scotland, built for Mr. Page 20 power looms, the first ever built in the United States, with the exception of 6 in Rhode Island. Isaac Markham, who died in 1825, aged 30, with decided reputation as a machinist, manufactured the iron of the machinery. The building is 150 feet by 37, 6 stories high in front, 3 at the rear, built of gray and white limestone; has at present 100 looms, and manufactures daily 1,600 yards of heavy sheeting. On the opposite side of the river stands the flourishing manufacュtory of Davenport & Clay, which has heretofore known too many vicissitudes to enumerate here. Among the most liberal patrons of every imporュtant interest, religious, educational, or political, were the late Rufus and John Wainwright, who established themselves in the tin and iron busiュness at an early day. Their principal business was the manufacture of stoves.

1812. During the fall an epidemic fever scourged the town that raged till into 1814, desュignated the fever of 1813, and proved the most fatal disease that ever visited the place. In 1826, the erysipelatous fever prevailed to an alarming extent, and in 1855, when no epidemic prevailed, there was "a remarkable mortality among promュinent citizens." Number of deaths recorded from 1806 to 1859, 1,660.

Upon the declaration of the war, Col. Sumner called out his regiment, of which 3 companies belonged to Middlebury. Sept. 6th or 9th, 1814, Gen. Warren came on to the village common to raise volunteers. By the time he had marched "once or twice around with martial music, 40 or 50 men had fallen into the ranks," and "the number was afterwards increased, according to


different estimates, from 150 to 200." When a dozen or two were ready to start with him, they marched for the field of battle, and others followed as soon as they could get equipped. A patriotic party of men and boys were employed in the office of Esq. Seymour the night before the volunteers marched, making cartridges for the detachment. Fearing to introduce a light, they worked on in the dark, and in the morning one present, pointing to the floor, literally blackened by gunpowder, exclaimed, "We have certainly been in more danger here to-night than any of our volunteers will be in at Plattsburg." Another party, meanwhile, raised a contribution of $275 for ammunition and equipments. Gen. Warren, with his first detachment, reached the camp-ground the evening before the battle, another party the next morning, and some not till after the engagement. Bethuel Goodrich was the only one wounded from Middlebury.

Gen. Warren, during the war, rose to the rank of major. Gen. Hastings Warren was not only distinguished as a volunteer in the defence of the liberties of his country, and his high military position, but as one of the early settlers, a citュizen of business enterprise, useful and influential for many years. He died in May, 1845

1856. Sept. 10, died Elnathan Hammond, the oldest man our history gives as ever deceased in town, at the age of 95 years. Also, Mrs. Eleanor Sellick, widow of Daniel Sellick, one of the early settlers, Oct. 27, aged 97.


1859. MIDDLEBURY, the shire town of Addison District, has a central position, and slightly rolling surface, with the exception of "Middlebury mountain," on the east; a clayey soil not easy of tillage, imbedded with rich marble quarries; two rivers, the Otter Creek, noted for its picturesque falls and three-mile bridge, and Middlebury river, which enters into the creek near the south line of the town, and two villages, "Middlebury," incorporated in 1816 under the name of "Middlebury borough," changed in 1852 to the "Village of Middlebury," one of the oldest and handュsomest villages in Vermont, revered by its citiュzens and named with praise by its numerous visitors, with a population of between 2,000 and 3,000, embracing within its limits the court-house and new stone college, with its handsome grounds, Female Seminary, 5 churches, 18 stores, 3 groceries, 2 meat markets, 9 manufactories, 23 mechanic shops, etc.; is literally not one, but many houses "built upon a rock," the whole foundation upon which it rests being one marble bed, and East Middlebury village, which lies up the north border of Middlebury river, eastュward to the foot of the mountain, where the river issues from a deep gorge, a pretty village of 430 inhabitants, (in 1850,) with a neat church, owned by the Universalists, 2 stores, 2 saw-mills, 1 grist-mlll, 1 tannery, 1 sash-factory, and several machine shops.





COMMON SCHOOLS have been gradually improving. The number of districts is 11.


The ADDISON COUNTY GRAMMAR SCHOOL was incorporated Nov. 18, 1797; Rev. Jeremiah Atwater, from New Haven, first principal.


FEMALE SEMINARY. Without a legal corュporation, through the agency of Hon. Horatio Seymour, Miss Ida Strong, of Litchfield, Conn. in 1800, opened her school in the court-house, which soon rose to such reputation as to attract pupils from nearly all parts of the State. In 1802-3, a voluntary association made preparation for the erection of a suitable building. Mr. Seymour gave the grounds. The requisite funds were raised by subscriptions. Young men from the lawyers' offices, stores, and mechanics' shops, in their enthusiasm volunteered and built a plank walk across the flat, wet ground in front of the building. Miss S. kept her school in successful operation until her health failed. She then journeyed to Bennington Co. to rest a season, but continued to decline, dying at the home of a pupil in Rupert, October, 1804, at the age of 20. Miss Strong was the pioneer of female education in Vermont; a woman of no common talents, education, and energy, evinced by her building up the first distinct school, for the education of females in the higher branches, established in this State. In 1807, the school resumed its operation under the charge of Miss Emma Hart, from Berュlin, Conn. Of her marriage in about two years with Dr. Willard, and removal, we have already spoken in our sketch of the Doctor. It was in Middlebury that Mrs. Emma Willard, the "representative woman, who suitably typifies the great movement of the nineteenth century for the eleュvation of woman," laid the corner-stone of her educational services. We quote the following from Mrs. Willard's communication :


"The school, which in 1814 was begun in Middlebury, is fairly entitled to the honor of being the first Normal School in the United States. It was in Midュdlebury that the stream of lady-mathematicians took its rise, which afterwards went out from the Troy Seminary to every part of the Union. If otherwise than as a teacher, I have done any good to posterity, for which they will remember me after my decease, Middlebury will be associated with it. My theory of the circulation of the blood, by means of respiration, now so extensively acknowledged, would never have been formed but for events occurring in Middlebury. After my marriage, Dr. Willard's office of Marshal called him to make long journeys from home. But his old medical library, with Cheselden's Anatomy to begin with, remained at home. He had a passionate attachment for these old authors, and talked to me in their language, and I kindled into his enthusiasm, and prepared myself, much to his delight, to respond, and to understand what he taught me, and thus I obtained some knowledge of scientific physiology and medical practice as it then stood.



MIDDLEBURY COLLEGE was incorporated Nov. 1, 1800, Rev. Jer. Atwater, President. Two classes were received the same fall, the first conュsisting of one member, Aaron Pety, graduated in 1802; number of next graduating class, 16. Pres. Atwater resigned in 1809. Henry Davis, D. D., succeeded in the presidency in 1811; reュsigned in 1817. As a president, he was very popuュlar; his graduating class of 1815 numbered 30. In 1818, Joshua Bates, D. D. succeeded Dr. Davis. During the administration of President Bates the college rose to its highest prosperity. The under graduates numbered 160; the graduating class of 1838 numbered 40. Deciding to return to the ministry, Dr. Bates resigned in 1839, and died in 1853, aged 77, at Dudley, Mass. where he was settled as pastor. From 1838 to 1840, there was a total change in the Faculty; and the corpoュration began to realize that the institution, in order to maintain its reputation among the well-endowed colleges in the land, must enlarge its endowments. The college was at first destitute of funds; the tutors supported by contributions from the citizens, and its only building of wood, erected for the Grammar School.


DONATIONS. State contributions, about $1,400; Daniel Parker, an American in Paris, conュtributed $178; Prof. Hall made up the sum to $300, and named it the Parkerian fund; the inュcome to furnish premiums for best speakers from lower classes; the exhibition held the evening beュfore Commencement draws a large audience; citiュzens subscribed $8,000 for stone building for stuュdents' rooms, built in 1816; from 1815 to 1818, $1,400 more; in 1819, came a large legacy from Judge Painter, and $12,500 from the will of Jos. Burr, of Manchester; the professorship of Chemュistry and Natural History placed on this foundaュtion bears the name of the donor; Dea. Isaac Warュren, of Charlestown, Mass. also bequeathed $3000, the income for the support of young men for the ministry; 1833, $30,000 raised by subscription for building a stone chapel, new rooms, repairs, &c.; $500 by Wm. Bartlett, Esq. of Newburyport, Mass. made up by others to $740; a literary fund; the income for distinguished students in need; 1818, a chemical fund of several thousand contributed principally by Windham County; a legacy of $10,000 from Joseph P. Fairbanks, of St. Johnsbury; some 5,000 acres of land in Albany, Orleans Co., by Gen. Arad Hunt, of Hinsdill, N. H. deeded to the corporation; other lands from donors in different parts of the State.


SOCIETIES. The Philomathesian, incorporaュted in 1852; meetings weekly for literary improveュment, and an annual address and celebration at Commencement; library, 2,500 volumes; the Philadelphian, for promotion of religious inforュmation; library, 800 religious and theological books; and the Beneficent, for providing inュdigent students with text-books. The college has a library of 10,000 volumes, a handsome cabinet, and is provided with chemicals and apュparatus on a liberal scale.


PRESENT FACULTY. Benjamin Labaree, D. D., President and Prof. of Moral Philosophy; Wm. H. Parker, A. M., Prof. of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy; Rensalaer D. C. Robュbins, A. M., Prof. of Languages; Geo. Hadley, A. M., M. D., Prof. of Chemistry and Natural History; Rev. Samuel M. Boardman, A. M., Prof. of Rhetoric and English Literature, and pro tempore Prof. of Intellectual Philosophy; Chas. M. Mead, A. B., Tutor in Latin and Greek; Lewis A. Austin, A. B., Tutor and Librarian.

In conclusion, we can only give brief notices of but few among a number of once distinguished members, now deceased. Frederick Hall, LL. D. first professor in any department in the college; elected Tutor in 1805; Prof. of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy in 1806; visited Europe durュing his professorship; resigned in 1824; and was Prof. in the Episcopal College, at Hartford, and Pres. of Mount Hope College, Md. and died in 1843. Solomon M. Allen graduated at this colュlege in 1813; in 1816, Tutor; in 1817, Prof. of Languages; "upon the 23d of September went upon the roof of the college building to remedy a defect in a chimney; the scaffolding gave way, he was precipitated to the ground, and died from the injury the same evening. "Perhaps no event ever spread such sadness over this whole commuュnity. He was known and loved by all." Edュward Turner was elected Tutor in 1823; in 1825, Prof. of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy. While in that office he was married to Sophronia Storrs, daughter of Col. Seth Storrs, and died in January, 1838, aged 41. Prof. Turner was reserved in conversation, but distinguished as an accurate mathematical and classical scholar. Solomon Stoddard, who with Mr. Andrews pubュlished "Andrews and Stoddard's Latin Gramュmar," was a professor in the college 9 years. From his official duties he retired to his native town in Massachusetts, in 1847, where he soon died. Charles B. Adams, "on the recommendaュtion of Prof. Hitchcock, in 1838, was appointed Prof. of Chemistry and Natural History." Durュing his professorship he spent one winter in India making explorations and collections in different branches of natural history. He was, under appointment of Gov. Slade, for 2 years State Geolュogist; in 1847, resigned to occupy a similar professorship at Amherst, and died in 1853. Hon. James Meacham was born in Rutland, Aug. 10, 1810. In early life left an orphan, he comュmenced an apprenticeship in a cabinet-maker's shop; but not destined for this occupation, by his native talents and energy and the kindly aid of a discerning neighbor, he raised himself to distincュtion. He graduated at Middlebury College in 1832; studied theology at Andover; was princiュpal awhile of the academies of Castleton and St. Albans; from 1836 to 1838 tutor at his "Alma Mater;" and from 1838 to 1846 pastor of the


Congregational church in New Haven. He was elected Professor of Rhetoric and English Literュature at Middlebury, in 1846. In 1849, chosen a representative to Congress; in 1850, "resigned his professorship, and continued to represent the State until the time of his death, just before which he had been unanimously nominated by his party for a new election." "Before his elecュtion to Congress he had established a high repuュtation as a writer and extempore speaker, and as a member he was universally respected. Several of his published speeches have obtained him an enviable reputation as an orator." "His position as chairman of the committee on the District of Columbia brought upon him exhausting labor, which with other duties made serious inroads upon his health, previously much impaired. A few days before the close of his last session, too much enfeebled to discharge his official duties, he left Washington for his home, and on his arrival, said he had come home to die." His prediction a few days after was verified. He died Aug. 23, 1856, at the age of 46.


SEMI-CENTENNIAL ANNIVERSARY. The asュsociated Alumni have held annual meetings at Commencement since 1824. The meeting of 1850 was the fiftieth anniversary of the estabュlishment of the college. The assembly was large, and the exercises rendered interesting by addresses from Rev. Dr. Bates, late President, and Rev. Dr. Hough, late Professor; closed by a numerously attended dinner, enlivened by the singing of a song written for the occasion by Edward D. Barber, Esq., and delivery of a charュacteristic poem by John G. Saxe.






WHERE Justice holds her scale,

And blindly hears each prayer,

Within her highest pale,

Thy sons sit honored there.


In the Senate-hall their voice

Hath filled the nation's ear;

And made the free rejoice,

And tyrants quake with fear.


Where the angel of the grave

His shaft points at the heart,

They show their power to save,

And turn aside the dart.


Where'er the Poet's hand

Hath swept the trancing lyre,

Thy sons have graced the band,

And touched its chords with fire.


Where'er the battling throng

For freedom strike or fall;

Thy pilgrim shout and song

Ring clear to Freedom's call.


Where the good their triumphs win,

And love to God and man

Redeem the world from sin,

Thy sons still lead the van.


They lift the banner high

In the islands of the sea;

And 'neath the Indian sky,

They plant the gospel tree.


Then honor to thy name,

Our mother, loved and dear,

We cherish still thy fame;

We leave thee with a tear.







THE Congregational Society was established in this town as the "standing order." Its hisュtory is a part of the history of the town. Mr. Collins is said to have been the first man that ever preached in town. Occasionally there was a sermon read, but no regularly organized church and stated preaching till 1789. Jan. 1, this year, they voted to raise "a tax of threepence on the pound, to be paid in wheat at 5s per bushel, for the support of preaching." It appears that Mr. Parmlee preached some 3 or 6 months that year. But Mr Burnett was the first settled minister, orュdained Nov. 11, 1790. The ordination was held in a barn, probably the one previously built by Daniel Foot, to accommodate meetings. The church of 12 members had been organized a week before, on the 5th. Mr. Burnett's salary was 」50, money, per year. A controversy soon arose about where meetings should be held, which rendered the pastor's position very unpleasant. At the end of 5 years he was dismissed, but remained in town 2 years longer. Mr. Burnett then left Middlebury, and after several removals, died at Dorham, N. Y., Dec. 5, 1837, aged 84. After Mr. Burnett left, "various clergymen were temporarily employed until 1805, and the meetュings had been held in the court-house, from its completion, in 1798. The erection of the first church was commenced in 1805, and dedicated May 31,1809." "The house was regarded as not inferior to any in the State," its steeple, 135 feet in height, is "still admired for the beauty of its proportions." Previously, in 1805, Oct. 19, Mr. Merrill was ordained. Rev. Thomas A. Merュrill continued his pastorship 37 years; and durュing his ministry large additions were made to the church and society. "He had a reputation for talents of a high order," and the degree of Docュtor of Divinity was conferred on him by Middleュbury College in 1837. "By his connection with all the ecclesiastical bodies of the Congregational denomination, and important benevolent associations in the State, he exerted, by punctual attendance and active labors, an extensive influュence among the clergy and churches." Several of the last years of his life, by his own request, he was released from his pastorship; but preached occasionally, supplying destitute churches around him, as long as his health permitted. He died April 29, 1855, of heart disease. After the reュsignment of Mr. Merrill, the pulpit was tempoュrarily supplied by different clergymen, until the installation of the Rev. James T. Hyde, (present pastor,) June 10, 1857.







THE history of St. Stephen's Church, and the Society to which it belongs, can only now be given with that brevity and incompleteness that results from deriving the knowledge that we posュsess from dry records of past occurrences, and not from the memory of an eyewitness, or an actor in the scene. Many matters, that to the worshippers in this church, scattered all over the land, would be of the greatest possible interest, must go unnoticed, unrecorded. The Society was organized Dec. 5, 1810, under the name of the "First Episcopal Society in Addison Counュty," according to an act passed Oct. 20, 1797, entitled, "An act for the support of the gospel." Services were held, and arrangements made with Clergymen who visited the village occasionally, and supplied, for a season, the wants of the people, until 1811, when a resident minister was secured, the Rev. P. Adams, from 1811 to 1814. Pubュlic worship at first was held in the court-house. Then a room belonging to the late Judge Seyュmour was placed at the disposal of the Society, which was used for many years. At length a building belonging to Mr. Daniel Henshaw, was fitted up for the exclusive purpose of public worship, and continued to be so used, until the present edifice, known as St. Stephen's Church, was erected. There is no record as to the completion of the erection, or as to the time of the consecration of the building. This, as we learn from other sources, took place on the 14th day of September, 1827. Rev. W. T. Webbe, elected by the vestry on the 4th of June, 1854, and instituted to that office on the 4th of July, 1855, is the present rector.







REV. EBENEZER WASHBURN was on the Verュgennes circuit in 1801. In 1842 he published in the Christian Advocate and Journal: "At Middleュbury I found a small and persecuted class. Our preaching was at the house of Lebbeus Harris, and in the midst of that village, our average congregation was from 25 to 30."

Speaking of the trials which he endured on this circuit, he says, "I have had stones and snow-balls cast at me in volleys. I have had great dogs sent after me, to frighten my horse as I was peacefully passing through small villages; but I was never harmed by any of them. I have been saluted by the sound of 'glory! hosannah! amen! hallelujah!' mixed with oaths of profanュity. If I turned my horse, to ride towards them, they would show their want of confidence, both in their master, and in themselves, by fleeing like base cowards."

Middlebury first gave its name to a circuit or station in 1810, and PHINEAS PECK was the first resident pastor. Mr. Peck is remembered by some who yet live, and is represented as a man of sound sense, sterling integrity, and good preaching talents. At the end of his first year there were 60 members reported. In 1813, SAMュUEL HOWE was stationed in Middlebury, and again in 1816. During his first year the first chapel was erected, a humble structure, yet, doubtless, much better than the "loft" in which they had worshipped since leaving the house of Lebbeus Harris. Mr Howe became an itinerant in 1801, and labored diligently till 1831, when impaired health rendered it necessary for him to take a superannuated relation. On the 16th of Feb. 1858, he went to Troy to attend the funeral of an aged and esteemed member of the church. After the sermon, which was preached by anュother, Mr. Howe made a few remarks, and closed by saying: "I have entered my 78th year, and expect soon to follow the deceased, and hope to meet him in heaven." He immediately retired to one of the class-rooms in the basement, sat down in a chair, and expired before the procession had left the church. "How many fall as sudden, not so safe!"

The next in regular succession was CYPRIAN H. BRIDLEY. In 1820 he was compelled to take a superannuated relation, during which time 24 years he resided in Middlebury; in 1844 he became effective, and travelled till 1850. He is now at Appleton, Wis., with some of his children. Many in this place will call to mind his small, but wiry frame, quick, elastic step, mighty prayers, and moving exhortations. When he was young in the ministry, it was supposed by many, even in the moral and orderly village of Middlebury, neither unlawful nor dishonorable to disturb Methodist meetings, and maltreat Methodist ministers. Mr. Bridley has interュesting recollections in this department of expeュrience. On many occasions he was followed from evening meetings by savage hootings, and assailed by dangerous missiles. On one occasion his window was broken in the night, and a large, heavy file, thrown into his house, was found sticking in the wall above the bed on which he lay at the time of the assault. He facetiously remarked that he thought the devil was about to retire from business, as he had begun to distribュute his tools. EBENEZER BROWN was a minisュter of rare talents. Under his labors, "the place was too strait," and the house was enlarged. Still, a portion of the "old-fashioned Methodists" were not quite pleased with the preacher. He was not loud enough for them, though sufficiently so to be heard with distinctness and ease in all parts of the house. Besides, he had a fashion of tying his white cravat in a double-bow, in front, and moreover, his hair stood up in front, instead of lying smoothly down on his forehead. When labored with for this last offence, his explanation was that he had a "cowlick" on one side of his forehead, and his hair on that side stubbornly


refused to comply with the usage, and he chose to allow the other side to keep it company. In 1822, NOAH LEVINGS, D. D. was appointed to this station. Having afterwards served the churches in Troy, Schenectady, Albany, and Vestry street, New York, he was elected financial secretary of the American Bible Society. During his ministry of 30 years he officiated in 18 circuits and stations, preached about 4,000 times, dedicated 38 churches, delivered 65 miscellaneous adュdresses, 273 addresses in behalf of the Bible Sociュety, and travelled more than 36,000 miles. ROBERT SEENY is reported as one of the best pasュtors ever stationed in this place. In preaching, he greatly excelled, being full of thought, easy in manner, and rapid and graceful in elocution. On Sabbath mornings, however, feeling he could not possibly preach, he would hurry from room to room, in his efforts to prepare for church; and yet, if his wife did not follow and put him in orュder by piecemeal, he was likely to go with half-adjusted apparel, and hair unkempt. In 1836, JOSEPH AYERS became the pastor for one year, and again in 1841, for two years. There was a great revival during his last term, and the numbers went up to 451. J. F. YATES labored here 2 years (1856, 1857). During his last year the house of worship was thoroughly modernized, and made one of the best in the denomination in western Vermont. Mr. Yates was succeeded by B. M. HALL, who is still the pastor. The same spring the Annual Conference was entertained here. Of those who were in full connection in 1809, BETSEY T. BIGELOW is the only repreュsentative. Of all who joined on trial in 1809, Althea Demming alone survives among us. Present number of members, 280.




For many years there was a respectable Baptist Church and Society, generally supplied with regular preaching, and the usual ordinances of religion. But for 10 or 12 years past, their memュbers have been so much reduced by removals and deaths, that the organization has ceased, and the remaining members attend upon the worュship of the other churches. The church was organized Dec. 10, 1809. First pastor, Rev. Nathaniel Kendrick, from 1810 to 1817.







THE first missionary Catholic priest that came to this town was the Rev. James Macquaide, in 1822. He left the following year, and we had none here until 1830, when the Rev. Jereュmiah O'Calogan came as a missionary of the whole State, coming here occasionally, until 1834. Then the State was made into two misュsions, and the Rev. James Walch came on this part of the mission, and left in 1835. In 1887, Rev. John B. Daley came here and built the present brick church, which is 60 feet by 40, in 1839, and remained on the mission till 1854. Then the first and present Catholic Bishop of this Diocese, the Right Rev. Lewis Goesbriand, sent the Rev. Joseph Duglue, who is hero now. The number of hearers is about 400, and the number of communicants 300. Some of these are from the adjacent towns.


[ The clergyman who resides here, is also charged with the spiritual direction of the Catholics who reside in Shoreham and Orwell, and visits at stated times the Irish settlement in Starksboro. Ed.








was born in New Haven, Conn., May 22, 1742. He had three wives; his first, Abigail Chipman, who died 1790; the second, Victoria Ball, who died, 1806; the third, Mrs. Ursula Ball, who survived him. By his first wife he had 2 sons, and by his second, 1 daughter, all of whom died before him, his second son at the age of 25 was drowned in the creek. "He was a plain man, slow of speech, with but a common-school educaュtion, but possessed sound judgment, on which his friends placed safe reliance," and great shrewdness in the formation and execution of his plans. "He personally surveyed and laid out lands and public roads, was the first delegate who ever represented the town in any public meeting, one of the first judges of the county court, and a leader in all important enterprises." "As early as 1791, when the village was little else than a wilderness, standing on the lot he had deeded to the county, he said to the by-standers: 'This is the place for the court-house,' " which tract he gave, May 22, 1794, "for the express use and purpose of erecting a court-house and jail thereon, and as a common, never to be put to any other use."

Through his agency as a member of the legュislature, his plans were accomplished. He superintended the erection of the Congregational church and stone college. Of the village he was one of the original trustees, and bequeathed about $13,000, all his estate, except en annuity to his widow, to that institution. He died May, 1819, aged 76.



No man occupied so often the office of selectュman, and so well understood and economically


* We have found it most difficult of all our selecュtions to choose, from a score having claims to repreュsentation, the few for whom we could allow space for a biographical sketch.

We have the following account of the funeral of his first wife. A raft was made by lashing together two canoes, and spreading boards over them; on this the coffin was placed, accompanied by the mourners and friends, and men to manage the boats, while a few others walked on the shore. Thus arranged, the procession moved up the creek, and the body was deposited in the burial-ground near Col. Chipman's. The boats, on their way, leaked, and the men, having no pails or dishes with them, bailed out the water with their shoes. No clergyman was presュent on the occasion.



managed the prudential and financial interests of the town. He was several years representative, and died in 1828, aged 78.




was born June 24, 1756, in Mansfield, Conn.; graduated at Yale College, 1778; was associate principal of a seminary at Northampton, Mass. several years, and then came to Vermont ; studュied law with the Hon. Noah Smith, of Benningュton, and located in the town of Addison, where he married the daughter of Hon. John Strong and remained till his removal to Middlebury, in 1794. From 1787 to 1797, he was first State Attorney. "Col. Storrs was among the most active in advancing the prosperity of the village; gave a large part of the land on which the gramュmar-school building was erected, and the common connected with it, and the whole tract which forms the handsome grounds of the college. He was a member of both corporations; also of the Congregational church, of which he was one of the first regularly chosen deacons, and for many years church clerk, and town clerk. In brief, Col. Storrs was a "Christian gentleman," of the "old school." He died at the age of 71, while on a visit to Vergennes, Oct. 5, 1842.




the first tutor of Middlebury College, was admitュted to the bar in 1801; in 1817, elected Judge of the Supreme Court; a member of the old council, in 1815; in 1834, president of the council of cenュsors; in 1819, a member of the college corporaュtion; united with St. Peter's church at its organュization, and continued an exemplary and devoted member until his death, at the age of 68, March, 1841.




was born in Litchfield, Conn., May 31, 1778; graduated at Yale College in 1797; in October, 1799, came to Middlebury; in 1800 was licensed to practise law, and, in competition with such disュtinguished lawyers as Daniel Chipman and Samuel Miller, entered at once into an extensive practice. In 1800, he married Miss Lucy Case. He was one of the Directors of the Vermont State Bank, and from 1800 to 1809, postmaster; and in 1820 elected to the Senate of the United States, and re-elected for a second term. He did not often make any formal address in the Senate, but was greatly respected for his sound, modest opinions, and his influence, though unobtrusive, was generally recognized; but when an advocate, poured forth, in his quiet way, a comprehensive argument that his opponent found it hard to meet, and manifested great ingenuity and tact in the management of his causes. No man had fewer enemies, or more attached personal friends. He was a patron of the literary institutions; for many years a member of the college and grammar-school corporations, and senior warden of the parish of St. Peter's church. In 1847, the degree of LL. D. was conferred upon him by Yale College. He died, Nov. 21, 1857, in his 80th year, leaving 3 sons, and the children of a deceased daughter.




was born at Holliston, Mass., Nov. 17, 1787. His father at an early day removed to Newfane, Vt., where he labored on a farm till his 21st birthュday, when, with his wardrobe in a bundle, he set out "to seek his fortune." For several years he taught a village school in Townshend, and studュied Latin with the pastor. He afterwards studied medicine, attended lectures at Dartmouth, and received his degree in 1814; practised medicine in Windham Co, till 1820, from which time he delivered chemical lectures in Middlebury College till 1826. In 1822 he commenced the practice of medicine in this place, and as a learned physician and surgeon, built up and sustained a wide reputation. He made a valuable collection of minerals in the cabinet of the college, was a prominent member of both the Addison Co. and State Medical Society, and published many articles on the various branches of the science in the Medical Journal. (In the Boston Medical Journal, a sketch of the life of Dr. Ralph Gowdy, who was for many years an esteemed physician in Middlebury) Dr. Allen died Feb. 2, 1848. Of him it has been said: "The crownュing trait of his character was stable Christian principle."



from Litchfield, Conn. settled in this town in 1811. He was most distinguished as a Free Mason, and rose to the highest grade in that institution; lectured before Masonic Lodges in many parts of the State, was for several years Grand Master of the Grand Encampment of the Knights Templars of the State, and had the rank of Past Grand Commander at the time of his death, June 8, 1859, aged 69 years. He was buried with Masonic honors, attended by a long procession of Masons.



was born at Litchfield, Conn., May 13, 1793; graduated at Yale in 1811; attended the Litchュfield law school, the lectures of Judges Reeve and Gould in the winter of 1812; in the spring came to Middlebury, and continued his studies with Hon. Horatio Seymour. He was one of the 100,000 draft men of 1812, was ordered to the Canadian frontier, and served in the ranks at Burlington and Plattsburg, and received the apュpointment of paymaster in the United States service. From 1814 to 1831 he had an extenュsive and successful law practice. In 1827 he was chosen one of the council of censors, whose ad‑


dress to the people was written by him; in 1831 was elected to the legislative council, and during that session, appointed a judge of the Supreme Court, which office he held seven years, and in the fall of 1838 was elected United States Senator, and again re-elected in 1844. As a judge, he was distinguished for his discriminating, comprehensive views; as a reporter, for his clear, forcible, convincing arguments; as an advocate, in his own State, and before the Supreme Court of the United States, as a cogent, powerful reasoner; as a senator, cautious and conservative; not inュclined to take a leading position; one whose inュfluence, though silent, was felt, who was recュognized through the Senate as a statesman of sound, practical talents; and it is said that the recommendation of his reports, fortified as they were by a definite statement of the case, were seldom, if ever, rejected. His labors on commitュtees of claims and Indian affairs were highly apュpreciated, and several of his published speeches gave him a prominent reputation through the country. At the close of his second term he reュtired to private life. Nov. 11, 1852, before a large assembly at Middlebury, he delivered an unwritten eulogy on the life and character of Daniel Webster. Upon the death of Senator Upham, Gov. Fairbanks appointed him to fill the vacancy. The ensuing fall, it was a mooted question whether a Senator appointed by the exュecutive would fill the vacancy. By the solicitaュtion of his friends he went on to claim his seat; but a majority of the Senate decided against his claim. Judge Phelps died at his residence, Mar. 25, 1855, in the 62d year of his age.








ABOUT 30 or 40 rods to the right of the road, leading N. E. from the village, and nearly 2 miles distant, on very low land belonging to Messrs. William and Edwin Hammond, within a circuit of 20 feet radius, are 7 springs, the Septennary Springs. They appear to be indeュpendent of each other, as digging a channel and lowering one does not affect the others. They have deposited, especially the western ones, in abundance, calcareous tufa, which much resembles that of Clarendon. Some of this tufa exhibits its traces of iron, and all of it, probably, when exposed to intense heat, would show the presence of sulphur. Some of them, especially the largュest and most southerly one, have often proved beneficial in cutaneous diseases; and in cases of poison, they are said, when drunken freely, and used for washing the affected part, to afford a very speedy and certain cure.*


* Thus far from Swift's History of Middlebury.






By N. H. Wright, Author of "The Fall of Palmyra," a small volume of poems published at Middlebury, 1817.


THE banner of freedom triumphantly waving,

Displayed in bright colors the stripe and the star,

Whilst the light-curling billow the war-ship was laving,

And the foeman was seen on the water afar.

In his bosom the heart of each freeman heat high;

He thought of his country, his love, and his honor;

And he swore by the blood of his fathers to die,

Or conquer, and share in the fame of Macdonough.


And now the dire conflict with fury was raging,

And many a hero lay panting for breath;

Whilst the Genius of War forbade Pity assuaging

The pains which could only he ended by death.

Yet no pang tore the hearts of those freemen so brave,

For they knew they had fallen in glory and honor,

And their last parting sigh, as it fled o'er the wave,

Was a prayer for their country, their friends, and Macdonough.


Mid the blaze of the battle their spirits ascended,

And hovered aloft till its thunders were o'er;

Then to regions of glory, by angels attended,

The tidings of victory triumphantly bore.

The banner of Albion was lowered from its height,

The flag which had erst proudly floated in honor,

While the stripes and the stars beamed more brilliantly bright,

As they gracefully waved o'er the head of Macdonough.


For the brows of the brave, let the fair hand of Beauty

The laurels of victory, with pleasure entwine,

And the heroes, whose ardor kept pace with their duty,

Like the stars in a bright constellation shall shine.

Their country shall cherish their glory and fame,

Their deeds be enrolled on the records of honor,

And Memory shall treasure with fondness the name

Of each warrior who fought by the side of Macdonough.











SIR, I choose to deal with this subject, not as a matter of reproach to the people of the South, not as a question of morals, but as a political question of transcendent importance, to be deュtermined by our legislation. In that point of view I regard it, and in that aspect I feel at libュerty to discuss it. Sir, I am confident that I speak the sentiments of three fourths of the people of this country, and of a very great proportion of the people of the slaveholding States, when I say that the institution itself is an evil and a curse. When I say that it is an evil of which they would get rid in a moment, if they could do it with safety, I believe I speak the general sentiment of the slaveholding States.


Very few men, at the present day, can be found willing to defend this institution as, in its origin and inception, just or expedient. Who is there, at this day, if the institution were not in existュence amongst us, who would raise his voice in favor of the introduction of the first colored slave? Who, indeed, would not protest against it, not only as an outrage upon humanity, and as incompatible with the fundamental principles of our institutions, but as introducing a political evil to endure to all generations, increasing in magnitude and in danger, the consequences and the termination of which no human sagacity can foresee. And yet, with this sentiment in relation to the institution pervading our people, we are called upon to extend it. The honorable Senaュtor from Georgia seems to be alarmed at the idea of the institution being pent up in some of the old States. Why should it not be pent up? Where is the necessity of inflicting the instituュtion, if gentlemen will pardon the phrase, on territories where it does not now exist? I can conceive of but one consideration which should excite anxiety in this particular, and that is, the accumulation of the slave population, and the necessity of a safety-valve to the increase of that population. If the institution is limited, it is not necessary that the population should be pent up. Admitting the force of this consideration, the question results in this, whether that increase, if it should be thrown off, should be thrown off upon the rest of the world as freemen or slaves. Shall they be sent forth in the character of freeュmen, to aid in the extension of civilization over our immense territorial domain; or shall they be sent as slaves, extending and perpetuating an institution acknowledged on all hands to be an evil? Will you let these men, created in the likeness of their Maker, go forth free, possessed of all the rights and advantages which the God of nature has bestowed upon us all; or will you send them forth as the representatives of this relic of a barュbarous age, and the living monuments of the insincerity of your professions? Sir, I am opュposed to this extension of an institution which I hold to be utterly at war with the opinions and moral sentiment of the age. The sense of the Christian world, and, I may add, of the civilized world, is universally against it. Shall we set the example of perpetuating and extending an institution which the whole civilized world, with the exception of a portion of our own people, have combined to exterminate? . . . .

While we are congratulating the world upon the progress of the great principles of human liberty, and the overthrow of ancient despotisms, shall we be called upon to propagate a system of slavery which reduces our fellow-man to the conュdition of a brute; which converts a being, creュated originally in the likeness of his Maker, into an article of merchandise, like the beast of the stall? Let us be consistent. Let us prove the sincerity of our professions by our actions.





COUSIN, more years have flitted by

Than we might choose to tell,

Since, sworn moss-troopers, you and I

Have lived beneath each summer sky

So heartily and well.

And little cared we all the while

How fast those years were flying,

And little marked how youth's bright smile,

That did their flight so well beguile,

From off the world was dying.


Worthy of thine old-fashioned race,

Well hast thou borne thy part,

And, spite the gathering years, we trace

Few wrinkles on thy manly face,

And none upon thy heart.

In sooth, old Time has hardly cast,

A shadow on thy track,

Though, as life's summer day flies past,

The harvest moon is rising fast

Above us, Cousin Jack.


The woodcock in the tangled brake

Marks well thy whistle's note;

The deer that by the wood-fringed lake

A moment halts his thirst to slake,

For thee looks sharply out;

The wild duck, as he scuds along,

Seeth thine eye of black,

And cries with shrill, despairing tone,

"Don't shoot, old boy, I'm coming down!

I know you, Cousin Jack!"


Thou should'st have lived in that old day,

Long famed in song and story,

Of baron bold, and lady gay,

Of tournament, and feast, and fray,

Love, chivalry, and glory,

When faces were of hearts the token,

And hearts were true, like thine,

When manly thoughts were boldly spoken,

And healths were drunk, and heads were broken,

O'er sparkling Rhenish wine.


Those bluff and hearty times are gone

From off the changeful earth,

Their monuments have crumbled down,

And the sham virtues, then unknown,

Are now of passing worth.

But in the few and rare like thee,

Left to this modern day,

We sometimes yet are fain to see

That frank, old-fashioned chivalry

Has not all passed away.


When o'er the woods another Fall

Its lingering charm has thrown,

My gun will hang upon the wall,

My horses learn another's call,

My dog, a stranger's tone.

But still may thou, aye kindly known

On Champlain's glorious water,

Till many a year has come and gone,

Wake the wild woodland echoes on

Dead Creek and little Otter.





"My Cousin Jack" is veritably our excellent friend and fellow-citizen, JOHN PIERPONT, ESQ.

勇d. Vergennes Citizen, 1855.




'TIS Father Time, the sexton, rich in wealth of smiles and tears,

Who hurries to their crowded graves the many-tinted years,

Who delveth for a hiding-place for all we know or love,

Except the deathless beautiful that gleameth from above.

Down into the dominion of the silence-fettered Past,

The worn-out years, with all their freight of love and light, are cast;

But lest they be among the glare of coming hours forgot,

The flower of recollection blooms the heart's forュget-me-not.

The ice-glazed hills are green again, and brooks go singing by;

The vernal queen is coming, with her train of sunny hours,

And on the air methinks I find the scent of orange-flowers.

Oh, happy hour, when thus I mourned to see the old year die!

Oh, happy time, Oh, blessed love, that made so fit reply!

Oh, blessed years, so full of light, that have so sweetly rolled

From birth to second-childishness, while we were growing old!

The frost hath touched her scattered locks, but lieth gently there

The springlight glistens in her eye, and warmth of summer air.

Beside the dead forget-me-not we laid the orange flowers,

And wait for during blossoms in the land that folュlows ours;

For the garden-gates of Paradise are softly opening,

And we see the heart's-ease blooming in the city of our KING.









THE autumn days have come at last,

The swallows are southward flying,

The brown leaves scamper adown the blast,

And the flowers are withered and dying;

The frost has humbled the summer's pride,

And the tints or decay are vying

With the hues which the spring-time birth supplied,

And the autumn winds are sighing.


Aye! the winds are sad, and the leaves are sere,

And a voice through the pines is wailing,

That sings the dirge of the dying year,

All its hidden decay unveiling;

But the holy calm of the "Harvest Home"

Rests over earth's dead and dying,

For we know that another spring will come,

Though the autumn winds are sighing.


So the soul has its autumn sere and brown,

When its leaflets of bliss are falling,

When each breeze that scatters its roses down,

Is in desolate accents calling.

When, its few good deeds of faith and love

In golden sheaflets tying,

It waits for the call to the realms above,

Where no autumn winds are sighing.







TO MRS. 覧.


To how many you are mother,

I cannot exactly say!

Cannot tell one from another,

Cannot name them, how are they?


If a family is a blessing,

And all children blessings are,

Such a number you possessing

Must be blessed, I declare.


I've no child, while you have many;

Which is best we scarce can know,

To have twenty, or not any,

Future time alone can show


If this life would end the story,

If at death we ceased to be,

Children, riches, earthly glory,

Would be all to you and me.


But beyond this vale of sorrow,

And beyond the scenes of earth,

Comes to-day, and no to-morrow,

This is certain at our birth.









I WOULD not forget, I would not forget,

Though memory keeps for me

A store of sorrows that brood in the soul,

As the mist broods over the sea;

Though the tears may spring from a throbbing heart,

When a careless word is said,

Which brings to my mind the loved who sleep

On the hill with the holy dead.


I would not forget, though the joys of life

Have ever been linked with pain;

Though hours of sorrow grow fresh to me,

As I count them o'er again.

For I never had known the peace that comes

To the spirit weary and lone,

Had I never said in my whispered prayer, "

My Father, thy will be done!"


And so when I sit at the twilight hour,

With Memory's hand in mine.

The song that she sings to my list'ning ear,

Hath ever a wearisome chime;

But I think of the time that yet shall come,

When safe on the beautiful shore,

I shall clasp the hands of the friends I love,

To whisper good-by no more.













THE cemetery at Middlebury is situated at such a retirement from the village, the centre of busiュness and living, as you would choose as a matter of taste, if to select the spot where the eye would glance willingly upon those mimic pinnacles and towers, which the locust leaves conceal in part, and which separate the city of our destination from that whom we abide. Reversing the view, and passing among the indefinite avenues of that imaginary city, we see the place of the liv‑


ing with an approval of good taste, and are grateful that the habitation of cares and trials, of hopes and labors endless, is pleasant, too, at the foot of its landmark hill, in the protection of the Mountains it honors, with spires and towers of worship glittering or sombre, with homes gay, or halls expanded, and in its own "visible sphere" is equally content. Nearer, the college rises heavily, and looks off across its neighbor of the valley, as if life, and not death, were its study. But here at the cemetery itself, is the company of either world, and in truth, to the visitor, either is equally harmless, equally instructive. Either has an angel aspect here, and neither denies an equal companionship to our humanity. Life would solicit one to duty, not as hardship, but as opporュtunity, so pleasant when we can. Death diminュishes the lesson, having our passive ear, as if to be were the main thing with it, and not to do ever so bravely. And yet they clasp hands as friends about us, and are ready to wait upon us, each in his own good time. So it is, that man goeth to his long home; and here the living are to lay it to heart.

The summary of life is in the graveyard, with the memories of the dead. All we have lived for, so far as man is concerned, is that flour of life, sifted and treasured even by the carefulness of the winds, which indifference and neglect have failed to bear away. We look less to fame than love to care for this food of the soul, with the zest of which we attain companionship with anュgels at the table of good works. Great things are of little account with them, or here; they banquet, as we do, at the memorial table, which presents the virtues of the meek, pure, beneficent, and serves us not out the decayed fragments of the feast, of falsehood or pride, except for pity that the servants of themselves have but menial places after death. The motive of life, in the highest, is that which endears what remains of it to memory; the habit of life, its spirit, is that which imparts a pleasant fragrance to its choicest acts. No cheat comes to the grave. It has no pay for humbugs, and the glory of the cemetery is, that a weir is drawn across the river of death, or a fall dikes it, and man's abominable crimes come not up to the graveyard. They are not, as respects the dead, and virtues only warble inarticulately here, among the graves, with a melody like children's voices, sweeter than words.

The voices of the virtues of friends they are. Kindred of soul of like objects and attachments with us. Home was theirs as mine, and still is, and will be while a ground of open communication is left us here. They differed in their love of home, and in the grace with which they ornaュmented it, and thus differ now. They differed in station, but this was nothing; if they loved equally in another's act, it was as if they did it. Who was not daily pure and beneficent in Storrs' life, though not by education and habit a leader like him? They cheered the Founder every day, as his shrewdness opened through some dust of sunュbeams to the eye, the track of his beneficence, and the patriarch of reason, they lauded even the manner of that apostle of the gospel of reform, Physicians who ministered to us more for love than money, they with whom our inmost confiュdence mingled, trusted so often with our friends, recall themselves; the princes of the people, too, for talent, authority, or generosity. The integrity of goodness was with another, but I recall no more, lest I should miss more than any. It is not well to single out among the beloved, though those who were merry with us will revive intiュmacy, those who acted with us remind us, those whom I admired, if such there be here, repeat some test of my sincerity. You know that I was sincere, beloved of others! That that which in you took hold on kindness, or taste, or purity to me was the resulting beam from the spring of the Infinite, that bore my thoughts to heaven.

He is not here, but He is risen! and they that chose Him, with Him! The graves thus are hushed and beautified. I am with nature, where she dreams as in a garden; even the Atlantic tempest, checked by the mountain-range, and moaning up its summit, respects the placid calm of verdure here. The symphony of the waterュfall, from the place of the living, revives the lesュson of the cemetery for them. The same virtue is their faculty and blessing. Not what you have, nor what you pretend, not what you are thought, but what you are; ye that make your families happy, that fill those streets with welcome kindュnesses, that make the stranger commend your charities, that send the name of the home your predecessors planted, as a talisman of liberality, honor, truth, wherever the guests of your hosュpitality are spread!











WITH twelve of the nineteen transported tribes treaties were made during the administration of General Jackson, and they were all made in acュcordance with the spirit of his message, and the law of Congress.

No man but General Jackson could have carュried it through. The Indians, feared, respected, loved, and trusted him. They looked up to him as the great father of a great nation. He told them, that if they went to the new abodes assigned in the West, they should there remain unmolested forever. The Indians believed the word of General Jackson, backed by the pledge of Congress and the assent of the people. There


is the solemn covenant of this nation; her honor is pledged to keep that covenant. It seems degrading to ask, Will you do it? If so, now is the time to do it. Will the same Congress that sends medals of gold to Capt. Ingraham for the rescue of Koszta, of doubtful citizenship, crush the poor Indian we have sworn to protect? You took up these tribes from out the old States, because you could not allow them to have a govュernment of their own within another government; you planted them there, and told them to govern themselves. You took them from the midst of the whites, because you said they were cheated and besotted, and corrupted. and placed them there, to be beyond the reach of degrading enticement; you tore them away from all that was delightful in the present, and sacred and glorious in the recollections of the past. Will you now throw around them again the lines of a local government, and expose them again to the unbridled rapacity of the white man? Now is the time for decision.

But I may be asked if I would forever keep that large body of territory open on account of these Indians? And I will answer, that I would, at all events, and all hazards, keep my word. I would run a line north of those Indians from the Missouri to the Rocky Mountains, and make all territory south of it sacred to the red man. Ordain and execute laws to protect him; you can do that peacefully. If not, keep your faith with the helpless, and do it by force; plant a line of soldiers, a double or triple line, if needed, around the whole boundary. If that will not do, keep your word, and plant a Chinese wall around it, and let a flaming sword gleam over every gateュway.

Can it be believed that this government is to be formed without even asking the consent of the Indians? Your commissioner went to a portion of the tribes. He found them in great alarm at the tidings of the threatened invasion of the whites, terror had taken hold of them. They had believed they were safe in their solitude when our government had vowed them protection. No wonder that a shudder ran through their savage hearts, when tribe after tribe took up and bore on the fearful intelligence of renewing encroachュments. They were about to call together a council of war, and confederate for defence. I shall be amazed if they shall not yet do it; if they do not look on the passage of these bills as their death-warrant; and, seeing their last hope for existence has expired when our vow of proュtection is revoked, if they do not light up their council-fires, and, together, dance their last war-dance, determined, if they must have death, they will have revenge in advance. Does the report of your commissioner give promise that they will ever consent to another removal? Diュrectly and positively the reverse. All the tribes, except a few insignificant fractions, refused to dispose of any part of their lands.

The interview, itself, of the commissioner with the Indians, but for the awful events connected with it, would have been supremely ridiculous. I do not blame him; he acted ably and faithfully. Look at the scene. An agent of this government is having a talk with a band of Kickapoos, in the far-off wilderness of Nebraska; he is givュing them, in the name of their great father, Franklin Pierce, a lecture on United States morality. He is chiding them for not having become better farmers, better mechanics, for not making more advance in education, in morals, and religion; for adhering to the customs and traditions of their fathers, "and that therefore it was absolutely necessary, in their present ignoュrant and feeble condition, that they should abanュdon their present possessions." Why were those savages sent to that wilderness? Simply because they did not wish to conform to the rules of civュilized and Christian society. They were sent there to live as they list. When did they ever agree, or the United States threaten, to forfeit their possessions if they did not mend their morュals? I should rejoice to see all of them become industrious, skilful, intelligent, and virtuous; but I hope it may be voluntary, without the coercion of force or of forfeiture. If a religion is to be forced on them, I trust it may be brought from abroad. Import the crescent, and creed, and sword of Mohammed, to convert the Indian, but in such political and compulsory benevolence, I pray you not to degrade the religion of Christ.

I had read, with deep interest, the report on the progress of the transplanted Cherokees. Many of them, so soon after their migration, are living in a style equal to southern gentlemen in easy circumstances. They are inclosing and cultivating their farms, building beautiful dwellュings, adorning their gardens, maintaining their schools, rearing churches, printing and circulatュing the gospel. I acknowledge that a feeling of indignation and horror came over me when I saw that the boundary of the first bill ran diュrectly through the whole Cherokee country, and cleft it in twain. And are we so soon to make our pledges to them a hissing and byword among the heathen? Is that tribe, who so nobly conquered themselves, and moved peacefully westward under the guardian care of our great military chieftain, again to be torn up, and its bleeding roots retransplanted into some sterile and distant soil? The new bill, for some other political reasons, without any reference to the Inュdians, has moved the line to their northern fronュtier. But other tribes inclosed, are treated with equal injustice. Where, if their consent could be gained and it cannot can you locate them? You have no other place for them. If not safe here, in what province of Jehovah's emュpire can the hunted and persecuted Indian find a refuge from the grasping and remorseless cupidュity of the white man? Pause where you are. Look long and well as to what you are doing.


Remember, that this act of Injustice and atrocious treachery may provoke the wrath of the Eternal, to inflict on this nation the woes he has denounced against the truce-breaker, and against him who moveth his neighbor's landmark!






THE Rt. Rev. JOHN PRENTISS HEWLEY HENSHAW, D. D. was born in Middletown, Conn. June 13, 1792; removed with his parents to Midュdlebury in 1800; at the age of 12, entered Midュdlebury college, and graduated at the age of 16. The following year he was a resident graduate at Harvard University, where, under the ministraュtions of the Rev. J. Hewley, he was received into the Protestant Episcopal church, and in gratitude to his spiritual teacher adopted the name of Hewley. His first converts to the faith of the church was in the family of his father. We next find him a lay reader in Sheldon, Fairュfield, and other neighboring towns, and doing good missionary service on the frontier of Vermont. On his 21st birthday he was admitted to deacon's orders, and soon after called to St. Ann's church, Brooklyn, N. Y. Two years after he formed a happy marriage with Miss Mary Gorham, of Bristol, R. I. with whom he lived 30 years, their longest separation but 2 weeks, the last of his life. On his 24th birthday he was admitted to priest's orders. In the spring of 1817, he accepted the rectorship of St. Peter's Church, Baltimore, in which he continued 26 years, during which time he baptised over 1,000, confirmed 500, and received as communicants 900. His free-school children numbered 6,000; his Sunday-school children 10,000. Aug. 10, 1843, he was instituted rector of Grace Church, R. I., and the day following in St. John's Church, Providence, was consecrated Bishop of the Rhode Island Diocese. While on a visiting tour to the churches in Maryland, accompanied by his youngest son, he died of apoplexy, at Urbana, July 20, 1850, at ス past 1 o'clock. "Just 24 hours before he had been in the pulpit preaching his last sermon, and the very hour of his death was his next appointment." But his work was done, and rest came.


"How well he fell asleep!

Like some grand river widening toward the sea,

Calmly and grandly, silently and deep,

Life joined eternity."


His funeral was first performed at St. Peter's Church, Baltimore, and afterwards in Grace Church. The Diocese of R. I. erected a beautiュful monument to his memory, on which is the following summary of his character: "As a THEOLOGIAN, he was sound; as a PREACHER, clear and earnest; as a PASTOR, faithful to the best interests of his flock; as a BISHOP, wise in counsel, and an example in word, in conversation, in charity, in faith, in piety." True, Bishop Henshaw was not born among our green hills, and died not in our midst; but from the age of 8 to 21, he mostly resided in Vermont, and ever regarded Middlebury as the cherished home of his youth. Here he did much to promote the interests of his church; here his father's family resided,* his aged parents died. And though he wrote several religious works much valued by his church, a woman must be excused when seュlecting a specimen from his writings, if she turns from the volumes of learned theology, and quotes instead an extract from a "home letter."


"PROVIDENCE, Dec. 10, 1849.

MY DEAR FRIEND AND BROTHER: On my return from Vermont, where I have been to enュgage in the last solemn rites of our religion over the remains of the best of mothers, I found your favor of Nov. 23d. My dear mother had reached the age of 79, without much visible impairment of her physical or intellectual powers. On Sunday, the 18th, she had received the Holy Communion with great satisfaction, and on the 25th, had enjoyed the pleasures of God's house at two full services. The 26th, after breakfast, according to her usual custom, she retired to her room for deュvotional reading; she heard her little grandュdaughter read a chapter in the Bible before going to school; one of my sisters also read to her in the course of the morning. She was at the front door about half-past 12 o'clock, and at a quarter before 1, my sister, Mrs. Whitney, went into her room to sit with her until dinner-time. My mother was seated in the same arm-chair in which my father died in 1825; the Bible and the prayer-book on the stand before her; her spectacles on; not a limb, feature, or muscle moved, perfectly lifelike, but her heart had ceased to beat, and an angel had kissed her soul away."