DOCUMENTS AND SKETCHES RELATING TO THE EARLY HISTORY OF
COLLECTED AND ARRANGED BY RUSSELL S. TAFT, ESQ.
much be said about
For history and song,
Much to be written yet, and much
That has been written wrong."
origin of the name of
The charter was granted by the province of New Hampshire on the 7th of June, A. D. 1763, and was in the form used by the province in granting townships at that time; the admeasurement, according to the charter, was 23,040 acres, of which an allowance was made for "highways, ways and unimprovable lands by rocks, ponds, mountains and rivers, 1,040 acres free," and said town was
"Butted and bounded as follows, viz.: Beginning at the southerly or southwest side
of French or Onion river, so called at the mouth of said river, thence running up by said river until it comes to a place that is 10 miles upon a straight line from the mouth of the river aforesaid, then runs upon a line perpendicular to the aforesaid 10 miles line southerly so far as that a line to Lake Champlain, parallel to the 10 miles line aforesaid, will, within the lines and the shore of the said lake, contain 6 miles square."
The inhabitants, as soon as there should be 50 families, were granted the privilege of holding two fairs annually, and also of keeping a market on one or more days in each week as might be thought most advantageous to them.
The grantees were required to improve 5 acres of land for each 50 acres owned by them, within the next 5 years after said grant, to reserve for the government all white and other pine trees fit for masting the Royal Navy; to reserve near the centre of the town a tract of land for town lots of one acre for each grantee; and to pay one ear of corn annually, if lawfully demanded, for the space of 10 years, and after said 10 years the sum of one shilling, proclamation money, for every 100 acres owned, settled or possessed.
The names of the grantees were: Samuel Willis, Tunis Wortman, Thomas Dickson, John Willis ye 3d, Stephen Willis, Daniel Bowne, Thomas Cheshire, Jr., John Birdsall, Benjamin Townsend, Thomas Youngs, Samuel Jackson, Gilbert Weeks, Zebd Seaman, Jur, John Whitson, William Kirbee, Joseph Udell, John Wright, Jur, Abraham Van Wick, Minne Suydam, Jacobus Suydam, Edmund Weeks, Nicholas Townsend, Samuel Van Wyck, John Willis, Jr., Thomas Alsop, Thomas Pearsall, Jr., William Frost, Senr, Thomas Frost, William Frost, Jr., Penn Frost, Zebulon Frost, William Cock, Thomas Van Wick, Harmon Lefford, Thomas Jackson, Thomas Udell, John Wright March, Daniel Voorhees, Joseph Denton, George Pearsall, John Wortman, Jur, Benjamin Birdsall, John Birdsall, Jr., Jacob Kirbee, Benja Fish, Lawrence Fish, John Whitson the 3d, Nathanl Fish, Richard Seaman, Morris Seaman, Jona Pratt, Nathanl Seaman, Jr., Richd Jackson, Jr., Solomon Seaman, Israel Seaman, Jacob Seaman, Senr, Jacob Seaman, Richard Ellison, Jur, Richard Ellison, Third, Samuel Averhill, The Honble Jno Temple, Theodore Atkinson, M. Hunting Wentworth, Henry Sherburn, Eleazer Russell, Esq., and Andrew Clarkson. 66 rights.
His excellency Benning Wentworth, Esquire, a tract of land to contain 500 acres as marked B. W. in the plan, which is to be accounted two of the within shares.
One whole share for the incorporated society for the propagation of the gospel in foreign parts.
One share for the Glebe for the church of England, as by law established.
One share for the first settled minister of the gospel.
And one share for the benefit of a school in said town. Making in all 72 shares or rights of land of 320 acres each.
FIRST PROPRIETORS' MEETINGS.
The following is a copy of the first proprietors' meeting:
Then the Proprietors of the Township of Burlington (a Township lately granted under the great seal of the Province of Newhampshier now in the Province of New York), met according to a Legal Warning in the Connecticut Current at the dwelling house of Capt. Samuel Morris, Innholder in Salisbury in Litchfield county and Colony of Connecticut.
11y Voted that Col. Thomas Chittenden be moderator for this meeting.
21y Voted That Ira Allen shall be Proprietor's Clerk for said Township.
31y That this meeting be adjourned to the 24th day of Instant March, at nine o'clock, to be held at this place.
IRA ALLEN, Proprietor's Clerk.
March the 24 Day A. D. 1774.
Then the meeting was opened according to adjournment.
1ly Voted, That Whereas, Ethan Allen, Remember Baker, Heman Allen, Zimri Allen, and Ira Allen known by the name of the Onion River Company, who are Proprietors in this Township of Burlington on said River (a Township lately granted by the Governor and Counsel of Newhampshier and is now in the Province of New York) have expended large sums of money in cutting a road through the woods from Castleton to said River seventy miles, and clearing off encamberments from the said lands in them parts, clearing and cultivating and settling some of these lands and keeping possession which by us is viewed as a great advantage towards the settlement of these lands in general, especially the Township of Burlington.
Whereas, The said Ethan Allen, Remember Baker, Heman Allen, Zimri Allen and Ira Allan have laid out fifteen, hundred acre lots in said Township bounding on said river. Therefore in consideration of these services
done by them, in consideration of their settlement of five families on said lots with those that are already on, and girdling five acres on each one hundred acre lot in two years from the first day of June next, improving same.
It is voted; if proper Survey bills be exhibited to the Proprietor's Clerk of said Town and recorded in this Book by the first day of June next the said lots are confirmed to them as so many acres of their rights and shares in said Township said fifteen lots are to be laid seventy rods wide on the river.
2ly Voted that each proprietor have liberty at his own cost to pitch and lay out to himself one hundred acres on one whole right or share that they own in said town, said lots to be laid out not less than seventy rods wide, exclusive of what hath already been granted to be laid in said town. Provided, they clear and girdle five acres to said right within two years from the time said lots are laid out.
3ly Voted that there shall be for each one hundred acres to be
laid in the town of
4ly Voted. That the Proprietors Clerk shall record all deeds of sale and Survey Bills of land in said Burlington that shall be offered to him if paid a reasonable reward therefor, and that the survey first recorded or received to record shall stand good without regard to the dates of said survey Bills.
5ly Voted, that Ira Allen shall be a Surveyor to lay out said town.
Voted, that this meeting be adjourned to Fortfradreck
in Colchester on
IRA ALLEN, Proprietor's Clerk.
Fortfradreck, June 6 Day, A. D. 1774, then this meeting was opened according to adjournment.
1ly Voted That this meeting be adjourned to the first Monday in July next at ten o'clock in the fore noon to be held at this place.
IRA ALLEN, Proprietor's Clerk.
Fortfradreck, July 3d, 1774, Then this meeting was opened according to adjournment.
1ly Voted, that this meeting be adjourned to the 25 day of Instant July at ten o'clock in the fore noon to be held at this place.
IRA ALLEN, Proprietor's Clerk.
Fortfradreck July 25 Day, A. D. 1774. Then this meeting was opened according to adjournment.
1ly Voted, That each Proprietor or Proprietors may on their own cost and charges, survey and lay out to themselves all the rest of their right or rights, that is not laid out, in one or more pieces, one hundred acres shall not be narrower than seventy rods, and if any be laid in Biger or lessor quantities it shall not be narrower than in proportion to one hundred acres being seventy rods wide and to turn on square angles and whene there is a piece left between lots or the town line it shall not be narrower than seventy rods in width.
2ly Voted, That Ira Allen shall survey and lay out all the public rights in this town on the proprietor's expense and return all the survey bills to the Proprietors clerk of said Town.
3ly Voted, That this meeting be adjourned to the 3d day of October next to be held at this place.
IRA ALLEN, Proprietor's Clerk.
Fortfradreck, October 2, 1774, Then this meeting was opened according to adjournment.
1ly Voted, That this meeting be adjourned to the first Monday in May next to be held at this place.
IRA ALLEN, Proprietor's Clerk.
Fortfradreck, May 1st, 1775.
Then this meeting was opened according to adjournment.
1ly Voted, That this meeting be adjourned to the first Monday of September next to be held at the same place.
IRA ALLEN, Proprietor's Clerk.
In this abrupt manner the records end, the cause no doubt being that the settlers were called away to take part in the patriotic struggle then just begun at Lexington on the 19th of the previous month. Immediately afterwards the attempt to take Ticonderoga and Crown Point was made, and Ethan Allen who was at Bennington hastened to send northward for Remember Baker and Seth Warner, who were at the fort at Winooski at that time, to join him; this they did in time to take part in the expedition against the two forts on the west side of the lake. Col. Warner heading the party which captured Crown Point; this was ten days after the last meeting at Fort Frederick, and from this time forward their activity in the war required their presence in other places, and their attention to other pursuits; and the proceedings of the proprietors of the township for the time ceased.
EARLY OWNERS OF LANDS,
The Allen brothers and Remember Baker, within a few years after the granting of the charter of Burlington, under the title of the Onion River Land company became the owners, by purchase of original grantees, of a large portion of the lands in the vicinity of Onion river and caused them to be surveyed; Ira Allen subsequently became the proprietor of most of these lands. It is somewhat difficult for an impartial observer to decide which party had the best claim to the title land jobber, the Yorkers or the persons composing the company known sometime by the name of the Allen-Baker company, and at others by that of the Onion River company, as scarcely a town from Pownal to Highgate but that the latter were the owners of large tracts of land embraced within its limits, and in some instances almost the entire township. The indomitable and persevering energy of the Allen family was more than a match for those claiming under the New York grants, and they became possessed of the title of fully one third of the land between Lake Champlain and the Green mountains; five-sevenths of the town of Burlington belonged at, different times to Ira Allen. The following are instances of the amount of land owned and conveyed at that period by him; 721 acres of land in the northeast corner of the town known by the name of Lane's bow, and being the intervale above the High bridge, was bought by Samuel Lane of Ira Allen on the 2d day of February, 1778.*
On the 13th day of March, 1794, Ira Allen executed a mortgage deed to John Coffin Jones of Boston, Mass., in consideration of $7,500, in which the lands are described as follows, viz., "beginning at the northwest corner of John Knickerbacor, Esqrs. land, being a stake and stones near Onion river, about 40 rods below the bridge at the narrows; then south 30° west about 2 miles to the road from Peter Benedict, Esqs. to Burlington bay; then westerly about 1 mile and a half to the road leading from the falls to Shelburn; then northerly by said road to the college lands; then east by the college lands to the southeast corner thereof; then north 40 rods to the northeast corner; then west 200 rods to a stake and stones, the northwest corner of the College green; then north about 40 rods to the road leading from Allen's mills to the lake shore; then easterly by said road about 50 rods; then crossing said road about 50 rods west of Col. Stephen Pearls; then northerly on the east side of the road leading to the intervale or meadows, being about 1 mile to Onion river; then up the river as it tends to the bounds begun at, being more than 2 miles, including all the falls in Onion river against Colchester, mills, dwelling houses, &c."
Also on the 14th day of April, 1794, a mortgage deed to secure the payment of .£1,560 to Henry Newman of Boston, Mass., the premises being described as follows: "Beginning at the southwest corner of a 50 acre lot belonging to the University of Vermont; then running south half of a mile; then west about half a mile to the road leading from Burlington bay to Shelburn; then southerly by said road 3 miles; then east 504 rods; then northerly to the road leading from Williston to Burlington bay; then westerly by said road to the south line of said 50 acre lot; then westerly in the line of said lot to the bound begun at."
first surveys within the limits of the town of
Allen, during the same year, made surveys as follows: Colchester, September 28,
1772, two lots
Mr. Allen was engaged the greater part of the next two years in exploring and surveying this portion of the state. One of the lots surveyed in 1773 was numbered 83, which is the highest number of lots to be found among the surveys of that year. This marks the progress of surveying and shows that some time must have been spent by them here that year.
He surveyed the east line of the township
* Town Records, II, pp. 30, 72, 83.
in July, 1773. The northeast corner, he says in his journal,
is a "dry hemlock tree, marked B. W., and several other letters."
This corner was the northeast corner of the 500 acre tract belonging to Gov.
Wentworth, and is now in the town of
"Munites of travising the lake
from the N. W. corner of
first settler who came into
Phelix Powell, Dr.
To 1 Pocket compass, £0 3
" 250 Eight penny Nodes, 0 3
" 1 Pocket compass.
" 11 days work of Sleeper."
And on the next page the following item:
"When Powell went to Mill he had 2 half Joes and 1 Pistole I have had Ten Dollars."
nearest mills at that time were those at
the 22d day of October, 1774, Mr. Powell bought of Samuel Averill of
land, in addition to the village lots consisted of three 103 acre lots,
occupying the whole of Appletree point, and running
northerly nearly to Onion river. Mr. Powell
subsequently cleared a portion of the land on the point and erected a log
house, but afterwards removed to Manchester in Bennington county, and on the
19th day of August, 1778, in consideration of £190, sold his right of land to
James Murdock, of Saybrook, Conn.; the deed is
recorded on page 4, vol. 2, of the town records, and describes the land as
"1 full share or right of land lying in the town of Burlington on Onion
river, in the state of Vermont, which right was granted by Gov. Wentworth to
Samuel Averill; the pitch is made on a place commonly called Apple Tree point,
where there are about 5 acres of land under improvement with a log house upon
In November, 1774, Stephen Lawrence of Sheffield, Mass., bought of Remember Baker lot No. 10, on Onion river, and during the same year contracts were made by John Chamberlin, Ephraim Wheeler, Stephen Clap, Ichabod Nelan, Benjamin Wate, for the purchase of lands in Burlington, of different members of the Allen family with a view to their settlement, but little was done by them before all were compelled to leave.
next settlement was commenced by Lemuel Bradley and others. In 1774 and 1775
clearings were made in the northerly parts of the town on the intervale and near the falls opposite the Allen settlement
* Town Rec., vol. II, p. 201.
terly retreat from Canada of Maj.-Gen. Sullivan (in command of
the American army), in June and July of that year. This movement left the
frontiers north of Ticonderoga unprotected, and was the immediate cause of the
desertion of all the settlements, including
great reason, no doubt, which contributed to the rapid settling of these towns,
just prior to the Revolution, was the desire on the part of those emigrating to
this state from Massachusetts and Connecticut, of avoiding, as far as possible,
the contentions and strife then existing in the southern portion of the grants,
arising from the conflicting claims of New York and New Hampshire, and many, no
doubt, in Bennington county, were well pleased to escape the turmoils and skirmishes, in which they had for years been
engaged, by diving still deeper into an open and unprotected wilderness. The
SECOND PROPRIETORS' MEETING.
The proprietors met and voted, 1st His Excellency Thomas Chittenden, Moderator. 2ly Ira Allen, Clerk, and 31y Ira Allen, Treasurer, 41y to examine the proceedings of the former Proprietors' Meetings.
5ly Voted, That on examining the former proceedings of the proprietors, and considering the peculiar situation of the towns and New Hampshire grants, being claimed by New York, and experience in defending, &c., and the proceedings appearing consonant with the laws and usages of the government of New Hampshier and the proceedings of the people of the New Hampshier grants before the late Revolution, we do therefore hereby ratify and confirm all the votes and proceedings
of the several proprietors meetings as heretofore recorded in this book (1st vol. Proprietors' Records,) respecting the division of lands, recording of survey bills and every other matter and thing, as fully and amply as though said proprietors meetings had been held under the present law and custome of this state.
61y Voted Future Meetings to be called by the Clerk by notice in News Papers in which legal notices are inserted upon application by one six teenth of the proprietors.
Adjourned sine die.
the close of the war with
The records of the early marriages and deaths in this town are quite meager. The first marriage on record is in the following words:
"Samuel Hitchcock and Lucy Caroline (daughter of Gen. Ethan Allen), married May 26th 1789.
The first births recorded are as follows:
Loraine Allen Hitchcock, daughter of "Samuel and Lucy C. Hitchcock born June 5th 1790."
"John Van Sicklin Jr son to John Van Sicklin and Elizabeth Van Sicklin was born June 11th 1790."
John Cadles Doxey, son of John Doxey, was born February 22 1788, but his birth is not on record.
The first town meeting on record is in the following words:
Town Meeting legally warned and held in
3d Stephen Lawrence, Fradk Saxton, Samuel Allen, Selectmen.
4 Voted Job Boynton, Constable, sworn.
5 Voted Stephen Lawrence, David Perigo, Capt. John Collins, Surveyors of Highways, sworn.
6 Voted Stephen Lawrence, Esq., Job Boynton, Samuel Lane, Esq., Listors sworn.
8 Voted that Frederick Saxton's Barn and yard be a pound for said town the ensuing year.
10 Voted To raise a tax of 2d on the pound for the purpose to purchase town books.
12 Voted To raise a tax of 2d on the pound for the purpose of repairing the highways and building bridges in said town.
13 Voted Job Boynton Collector of the afd tax.
14 Voted that this meeting be adjourned to the first Monday in May next at 2 o'clock afternoon.
This meeting was opened according adjournment.
Voted that Job Boynton collect only 1d on the pound of the 2d tax and the same be laid on the highways.
Voted to adjourn this meeting without day.
Bostwick, now living in Hinesburg, some 94
years of age, says that when he first came to
logs fastened to the shore of the lake was the
beginning of the old wharf. Lumbermen had temporary huts in the vicinity of the
square, which was covered with bushes and shrubbery with now and then a pine
tree. Some small houses were scattered along at the head of
In the year 1794 the persons named below were acting as follows:
John Fay, Elnathan Keyes, attorneys practising in the county court.
John Fay, postmaster.
few years after the settlement of the town until nearly 1800 the highway
running easterly from Burlington bay passing the falls at Winooski, the High
bridge, then across the mouth of Muddy run and through the north part of
Williston, past the settlement of Gov. Chittenden, was intersected at the High
bridge or Narrows (sometimes called), by the road from Hinesburg, which passed
through the east part of this town on the present. location
All drank as 'twere their mothers' milk, and not a man afraid.
Thus carefully were the customs of the ancient Puritans preserved men who believed in making their hearts bold and their arms strong upon all important occasions by ample preparations of meat and wine, together with certain articles imported from their fatherland, in stone jugs, a free and abundant use of which resulted in the sachem's learning
The rule he taught to kith and kin,
"Run from the white man when you find he smells of
love for the said
More interesting than anything that can be collected from old records and manuscripts and the hearsay of old settlers taken down by third persons, is the statement made by the venerable Horace Loomis, in July, 1860, of his recollections of Burlington. No person living has had better opportunities of knowing what has taken place here in its earlier days, and none were here as early as he, who has continued a resident of the place until the present.
One of the few whose memory reaches back to the "times long past over which the twilight of uncertainty has already thrown its shadows, and the night of forgetfulness is about to descend for ever."
He came to the state when the town was new,
When the lordly pine and the hemlock grew
In the place where the court house stands.
When the stunted ash and the alder black,
The slender fir and the tamarack,
Stood thick on the meadow lands.
says: "I was born in Sheffield, Berkshire county,
my father's family I moved up to Burlington, Vermont, where we arrived on the
17th day of February, 1790, at 12 o'clock at old John Collins's, who lived in a
building on the site of the brick house of John Pomeroy, on Water street, and
after waiting about half an hour for some flip we took up our residence
in a log house which stood just east of Luther Loomis's store, on what is now
Pearl street, where we lived until the latter part of November of the same
year, when we moved into the house at present occupied by Edward C. Loomis,*
which was raised on the 8th day of July of the same year. All the people that
could be got from Shelburne, Essex, Colchester and
we came to
Weeks farm. Barty Willard moved here the second year afterward. Peter Benedict lived at the old Eldredge place. Samuel Allen lived on the hill this side of Muddy Brook. John Doxey lived where Alexander Ferguson now lives, about half a mile south of the Eldredge place. There was quite a little settlement of the Frenches and others in that part of the town, which was set off to Williston. Nathan Smith lived on the Fish farm, and John Van Sicklin lived on the farm which his son now owns. A man by the name of Marvin lived under the hill just this side of John Van Sicklin. Avery, that framed my father's house, lived at the falls. Nahum Baker lived with him, and helped to frame the house.
William Coit lived in Colchester, at Ira Allen's, and the next year built a house on the corner of Water and South streets, on which was built Court House square, facing to the south, and was afterwards, about 1802, sold to Amos Bronson, and by him moved to the north side of the square, and was long occupied by Bronson, Arza Crane, John Howard, Newton Hayes, successively, and afterwards by John Howard as a hotel. The first jail was built of timber on the corner of Church and College streets, and was afterwards moved to its present site. The college was built, or the walls put up and covered in 1802. The old president's house was built some 2 or 3 years before. The first school-house built in town or village was built just east of the convent, and taught by one Nathaniel Winslow; I went there to school about ten days and could learn nothing from him.
wild animals in the country when we came here were bears, deer and sable; no
gray or black squirrels, till 3 or 4 years after; now and then a stray wolf
from the other side of the lake was seen, but wolves were not resident here;
the other animals mentioned were abundant. I knew a man, Jim Ward, who sent 100
skins of the sable to
Pearl came from the Grand Isle about the
year 1794, and moved into the house now standing and occupied by Mrs. Alvin
Foote, at the head of
Pearl had been a merchant and failed, in
the gentlemen's cabin and stepping up to the bar gave a free
rap with his fist. His peculiar manner and free and easy mode were noticed by
those around him and particularly by a company of young
Col. Pearl was a large and portly man, and although rather clumsy, had a fine and imposing presence, a genial and benevolent look, and a courtly and unfaltering manner in any company, and under all circumstances. He was in fact one of "nature's noblemen," and though he died in reduced circumstances, he was universally respected and beloved, as was attested at his funeral, which was attended by a large concourse of his neighbors and friends from this and the adjoining towns. He died on the 21st November, 1816, aged 69.
are moreover indebted to G. B. Sawyer, Esq., of this village, for the following
information in regard to Col. Pearl and other early and deceased citizens of
Pearl. There never was another such a
man. He had such an extraordinary power to please, he
commanded and charmed men, women and children. His great characteristics were
sense, wit and benevolence. An old friend could never pass by his door unhailed We united conspicuously
majesty and beauty of form and countenance, and as he stood in his porch, his
tall, large, magnificent form looked like a colossus. He was a large and
beneficent landholder, with that wonderful tact of distribution, that while his
divisions made others rich, they did not impoverish him. He was a captain at
Pearl, brother of Stephen, was shrewd and
smart, somewhat like his brother. He was judge of probate of Alburgh district (see
Sawyer, born in 1762, was the youngest son of Col. Ephraim Sawyer of
Sawyer, the son, was at the taking of
L. Sawyer, son of James Sawyer, graduated at
Frederick Augustus Sawyer, 1st lieutenant
of the 11th
Of Capt. Horace B. Sawyer, son of James Sawyer, honorable mention is already made, in the Chittenden County Military Chapter, and a biographic sketch may be found under the head of Burlington Biography. Ed.
F. Sawyer, son of James Sawyer, entered the
navy with Com. McDonough as private secretary. He was a purser when he died, in
1852, on the
Robinson, a native of Dutchess county, N. Y., represented
Lawrence, was a merchant and a son of one of the first settlers in
town. He was buried near the site of the
Thomas, Ephraim and Samuel Mills, three brothers, came here in connection with the Burlington Sentinel (then the Northern Sentinel). They were always editors and postmasters, and though thorough democrats, pretty clever fellows.
Elnathan Keyes, a prominent lawyer of the early times, was a man of powerful mind and ability; an honored and distinguished citizen of the town, county and state.
C. Harrington, was another
C. Thompson, a Rhode Islander by birth, came to
son of Priest Farrand of Canaan, Conn., the clergyman
wit of Sprague's Annals of the American Pulpit, first settled in
Loomis, the most brilliant man the town
ever produced, graduated at
Moody was a native of
Dr. Robert Coit, a respectable physician, was an amiable, moderate man.
Foote, an Episcopal clergyman in
Dr. Truman Powell, a cotemporary with with Dr. J. N. Pomeroy, had a large practice for many years.
Staniford, a native of
Daniel Hurlburt, was a rough, hard, powerful, in body and mind, man. The man to build bridges, the Burlington college, the turnpikes, to get out a raft for Quebec, and to help build up a country a type of man passed from among us the men who converted Vermont from a wilderness into what it is.
George Moore, who built the factory at
Winooski falls, was a worthy and substantial business man. His widow and son still reside here.
E. T. Englesby, who lived and died in Burlington and inherited and made a good deal of money, was for many years president of the Burlington bank, and one of the leading business men of the village.
PRINCE EDWARD IN BURLINGTON IN 1793.
From Recollections of Horace Loomis.
BY J. N. POMEROY, ESQ.
recent visit of the Prince of Wales to this country has awakened an interest in
the facts and incidents of the tour of his grandfather Prince Edward,
afterwards Duke of Kent through the
prince arrived in the afternoon with thirteen carryalls and sleighs, and left
the third day after before noon. He had two aids and two body guards, a cook
and a lady. His body guards slept by his door, and his cook prepared the
provisions which they had brought with them. He parted with his lady or
mistress at this place she going to
the early settlers of the town was Col. Stephen Keyes, a gentleman of the old
school, who wore a cocked hat, kept a hotel on
but its best and largest north room, kept in the nicest order, with its clean sanded floor, was not an uninviting place for British officers to dine, and particularly on such a dinner as the colonel never failed to set for gentlemen. The officers with their dogs went in to dinner, and they soon began to feed them on the floor; the colonel looked upon it as an indignity, and bringing in a brace of loaded pistols, laid them formally on the table, and denouncing the conduct of the officers, swore he would protect the respectability of his house and was ready to do it.
FIRST FREEMEN'S MEETING.
The first freemen's meeting on record was held at the house of Benjamin Adams on the first Tuesday of September, A. D. 1794, for the election of state officers and councillors. The vote for governor was as follows: Isaac Tichenor, 23; Thomas Chittenden, 17; Ira Allen, 3; Nathaniel Niles, 1.
The first election for representative to congress (on record) was held at the same place on the last Tuesday of December in the same year. The following persons had the number of votes annexed respectively to their names: Israel Smith, 7; Isaac Tichenor, 7; Matthew Lyon, 4; Wm. C. Harrington, 2; Nathaniel Chipman, 1; Noah Smith, 1.
LAST PROPRIETORS' MEETING.
On the 11th day of June, 1798, the proprietors of the town met (according to an advertisement in the papers published in Bennington, Rutland, and Windsor, which notice was issued by a justice of the peace at the request of one sixteenth part of the proprietors) at the Court house in said town and made choice of the following officers: Gideon Ormsby, chairman; Wm. C. Harrington, clerk; Zacheus Peaslee, treasurer; Stephen Pearl, collector.
William Coit, Stephen Pearl and Zacheus Peaslee were chosen a committee to examine the old surveys and make further ones, and also to make a division of the lands, and also to ascertain what rights had been owned by Ira Allen, as Allen had avoided mentioning the names of his grantors in his deeds to the settlers. On the 16th, 17th, 18th, 19th and 20th days of June the division of lands was made, which is on file and record in the town clerk's office, and which prevails at the present day.
The first volume of the Proprietors' Records of this town is now in the possession of Mr. Henry Stevens.
At an adjourned meeting held on the 26th day of the same June it was voted, "That two acres and one-half of land whereon the court house and goal are built in said Burlington, shall be and is hereby set off for the use of the publick for the erecting of all necessary county and town buildings for publick use." The town and county buildings have since been built upon place named and some private rights have been acquired in the northeasterly portion where Strong's block is situated.
1802. The legislature of the state held session at Burlington in this year, but besides a quarrel in the house of representatives over the speech of the governor, which occurrence was quite frequent in those days, but little business of importance was transacted, a thing not altogether unknown in legislative bodies of the present day.
Statutes of the state passed in 1797 and 1801 authorized the inhabitants of
the towns of this state to form themselves into religious societies and levy a
tax upon all persons residing in town unless they filed certain certificate in
the town clerk's office. Accordingly at the request of 7 freeholders a meeting
was warned and held on the 15th day of June, 1805, when 25 voters being
present, they formed themselves into a society by a unanimous vote, by the name
of the First Society for Social and Public Worship in the Town of
The protest necessary for parties to sign to avoid taxation was in form similar to the following, which is the first on record:
may certify that I do not agree in the religious sentiments with the majority
of the inhabitants of the town of
Received and recorded March 24, 1806.
JR. GEO. ROBINSON, Town Clerk."
The laws relating to taxation were repealed in consequence of the recommendation of the council of censors.
At the September term, 1813, of the Chittenden county court, the town was found guilty of not keeping in repair the road from the College green to the bay, now called Main street, and was fined $600, and John Johnson was appointed to superintend the expenditure of the same On the 30th day of December following the town voted to lay a tax of 3 cents on a dollar to meet said sum.
A reference to those transactions connected with the war which took place within our own borders, is all we shall attempt here. The non-intercourse "act of congress" and kindred measures, caused considerable feeling in this section of the country, and led to those smuggling expeditions so frequent at that time, which often resulted in bloodshed, the most serious of which has been noticed by Judge Reed in the history of Chittenden county. Perhaps nothing can be laid before the historical reader more fully showing the spirit and feeling of the people at that time than the following which, as it is not in print elsewhere (to my knowledge), I deem proper to insert here:
Supplement to the
The following resolutions having been received too late for insertion in the Centinel of this day, we have thought proper to issue them in a supplement.
At a meeting of the inhabitants of the town of
Daniel Farrand, Esq., chosen Moderator.
Voted, That a committee of five be chosen, to draw up and present to the meeting, for the consideration of the inhabitants, certain resolutions to be adopted upon the subject of the embargo.
Thereupon, Samuel Hitchcock, Elnathan Keyes, Daniel Farrand, David Russell and Stephen Pearl, Esquires, were chosen of that committee.
The meeting then adjourned one hour, at which time, the meeting being opened, the committee reported the following resolutions which were read and adopted UNANIMOUSLY.
That the ultimate end of all legitimate government is
the preservation of the nation, securing to the members of it personal safety,
and the peaceable possession and enjoyment of property and reputation. These
objects are so clearly and explicitly delineated in the constitution of this
and of the
Resolved, That it is the right and the indispensable duty of the citizens of the United States, at all times, to watch with vigilance and attention, every attack upon the constitution of our government, whether made by those who govern, or those who are destined to obey.
Resolved, As the sense of this meeting, that some of the late measures of the general government, present sufficient cause of alarm to all considerate men, to be at their post, & ready to repel with manly firmness every violation of our rights as citizens and freemen.
That a review of these measure fills the mind with surprise and regret,
inasmuch as Congress, under a pretence of saving our commerce from
depredations, have totally destroyed it, by laying an embargo, and fortifying it
with additional acts, until it amounts to almost a non-intercourse with all
foreign nations. And we have seen with increasing surprise and indignation, the
proclamation of the President, declaring this section of the
the 11th article of our Bill of Rights, it is declared, "that the people
have a right to hold themselves, their houses, papers and possessions, free
from search or seizure, and therefore, warrants without oath or affirmation
first made, affording sufficient foundation for them, and whereby any officer
or messenger may be commanded to search suspected places, or to seize any
person or persons, his, her or their property, not particularly described, are
contrary to that right and ought not to be granted." These sacred and
inviolable rights are farther confirmed and guaranteed by the 6th section of
the amendments to the constitution of the
papers & effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized." By the act aforesaid, the powers vested in the President and those in subordination to him, are totally incompatible with those rights, & a direct attack on our once boasted happy constitution.
Resolved, That in our opinion, these measures are dictated, not by the free voice of the respectable part of the community, but by the temporizing policy of men, whom we have reason to fear, are devoted to the intrigues of some foreign power.
Resolved, That the spirited opposition to the passage of the above law, by the minority in Congress, is a sure pledge of their patriotism and merits the unqualified approbation of all friends to the independence of our common country.
Resolved, That the oath to support the constitution of the United States, impels every free man taking the same, to use all lawful means to suppress the usurpation imposed by the above law; and while we pledge ourselves to support with our lives and fortunes the constitution of our own state and of the United States and the laws made pursuant thereto, we deem it proper to declare, and we do most solemnly declare, that in the opinion of this meeting, the powers vested in the executive officers to carry the above act into execution, are hostile to civil liberty, and a violation of some of the fundamental principles of that government, which cost so much blood and treasure to obtain.
That in our opinion, from the public documents which
we have seen, our differences with
Resolved, That it be expedient to consult with our fellow citizens of this and the neighboring States, upon such measures, as shall be most likely to relieve us from these evils, and that a committee of correspondence be chosen for that purpose.
Resolved, That Daniel Farrand, Samuel Hitchcock and David Russel, Esquires, be the above committee.
STEPHEN PEARL, DANIEL FARRAND,
NATHAN SMITH, Selectmen. Moderator.
A true transcript from the Records.
Attest, GEO. ROBINSON,
The military authorities took possession of the college buildings and used them for an arsenal and for barracks.
1813 the public stores at
brigade of Vermonters being drafted were disbanded at
were thrown up on the lake shore in the northwest part of the village near the
From the close of the war in 1815, Bur‑
lington progressed quite rapidly until 1840, when, from being one of the smallest towns in the state, as was the case at the first census, she was the first in population and wealth; which position she has since always maintained. The completion of the canal from Albany to Whitehall, and the introduction of steamboats upon Lake Champlain, gave Burlington, with its spacious bay, the breakwater in front and its ample wharfing grounds, quite a prominent commercial position; and for a long time until the completion of the railways the merchandize for the northern, northeastern and central portion of the state, and the products of the same districts on their way to markets, passed generally through the hands of the Burlington merchants, among whom might be named Messrs. Deming, Doolittle, Howard, Englesby, Follett, the Bradleys, Pecks, Mayo, Peterson, Walker and others.
construction of the rail roads (centering at
With occasional political contests, the excitement caused by the visit of some distinguished stranger like President Monroe in 1817, Gen La Fayette in 1825, the Angel Gabriel in 1854 (who disturbed good catholics by preaching in the streets on Sundays against the church of Rome), the feeling caused by the Canadian rebellion, the Bolton and our fratricidal war now going on, the celebration over some pioneer mechanic shop or a rail road, nothing of note has occurred to vary the monotony of every day business transactions. In her religious, educational, financial and business institutions she has fully kept pace with the rest of the land; while her citizens have been distinguished; representing our nation abroad and in all positions at home, on the bench, at the bar, and in the hall of legislation; while the blood of her sons has reddened many a battle field in defence of their country's flag.
[There has never been but one instance of capital punishment in the county, viz: that of Dean, the smuggler in the affair of the Black Snake, noticed by Hon. David Reed* in the County Chapter, and which is described in the following doggerel ballad written at the time the authorship unknown contributed to this magazine by Hon. Harvey Munsill of Bristol, Addison county:
In the year eighteen hundred and eight,
Embargo Law in
Did so enrage our furious Feds
They would cross the line or loose their heads.
Our rulers meant to be obeyed,
And sent some men to stop the trade;
Some of our soldiers did combine
In arms, to guard the northern line.
A smuggling set in the Black Snake,
Resolved to sail upon the lake,
They armed themselves to fight their way,
And thus they thought to win the day.
The men who laid this smuggling plot,
And many more, who were not clever,
Spread out their sails on Onion river,
All for to load their boat again,
And then to sail across the line;
But soldiers were so well agreed,
Their plan did not so well succeed.
Our officers found where she lay,
The orders were, take her away;
The Revenue was then sent on,
Commanded by one Farrington.
And when this smuggling rebel crew,
Heard of the boat, the Revenue,
Unto the house of Joy's they went,
And there one night in private spent.
There each agreed upon a man,
And Mudgett took the sole command;
He, like a tory, or a friend,
The lives of many meant to end.
To carry on this wicked deed,
With a large gun they did proceed,
And by the Snake they made a stand,
To guard the same stood on the land.
Then Farrington sailed from the lake,
And thus he to the rebels spake,
"Orders I have to take the Snake,
And all the smugglers on the lake."
This raised their blood, to arms they flew,
For to keep off the Revenue,
And execute this wicked deed,
That did from rebels hearts proceed.
Then Mudgett gave the threatening word,
To all the men that was on board,
"The first that steps into the Snake,
A lifeless corpse of him I will make."
But Farrington feared not his threats,
Into the smuggler boat he steps;
There, like a warrior bold and brave,
His blood and honor thought to save.
Now let us turn and view the scheme,
And who begun this bloody scene;
The crimson blood of Drake did spill.
With hearts unfeeling they went then,
To spill the blood of honest men
* Vide page 486
Ormsby and Marsh then prostrate fell,
Before these wicked imps of hell,
And bold and warlike Farrington,
His crimson blood they caused to run.
These men were tried all for the same crime,
Why not alike their sentence find;
Dean was sentenced to the halter,
The rest convicted of manslaughter. Ed.]
The boundaries of the town was a matter which received considerable attention in early years. The easterly line was changed in 1797, when the legislature annexed all that part of the town lying east of Muddy brook to Williston, making a natural boundary on all sides but the south which line was run by William Colt, Esq., surveyor in 1798.
EARLY BUSINESS MEN.
the merchants the following are the names of the earlier: Grant, Stephen
Keyes, Zacheus Peaslee, Thaddeus Tuttle, E. T. Englesby,
Wm. F. Pell & Co., Herring & Fitch, Newell & Russell; Moses Jewett,
saddler; Nehemiah Hotchkiss, tailor; J.
Attorneys. Samuel Hitchcock, William C. Harrington, John Fay, Elnathan Keyes, Daniel Farrand, Phinehas Lyman, Moses Fay, Stephen Mix Mitchell, George Robinson, C. P. Van Ness, Charles Adams, Warren Loomis, James L. Sawyer, Timothy Follett, John N. Pomeroy, Henry Hitchcock, Charles H. Perrigo, Isaac Warner, John C. Thompson, Gamaliel B. Sawyer, George Peaselee, Seneca Austin, George P. Marsh, Alvan Foote, A. W. Hyde, Davis Stone, Sanford Gadcomb, Jason Chamberlin, Wm. A. Griswold, John B. Richardson, Luman Foote, Benjamin F. Bailey, Wm. Brayton, Amos Blodgett, Henry Leavenworth.
Physicians, in the order of time in which they resided here: John Pomeroy, Fletcher, Jabez Penniman, James Root, Mathew Cole, Bostwick, John Perrigo, Truman Powell, Elijah D. Harmon, Sackett, Capius F. Pomeroy, Arthur L. Porter, Nathaniel R. Smith, Joseph Marsh, Leonard Marsh, Wm. Atwater, B. J. Heineberg, Horace Hatch, John A. Ward,* W. A. Tracy, H. H. Atwater, H. H. Langdon, Thomas Bigalow,* John M. Knox, George W. Ward, Matthew Cole, Nathan Ward, Dorion,§ Lagotte,§ A. Contant,§ S. W. Thayer, jr., N. H. Ballou, W. Carpenter, B. W. Carpenter.
King kept the first hotel on
Howard house was kept for a long time on the north side of Court House square.
A tavern was kept for about 50 years at the junction of the Winooski turnpike and the High bridge and Hinesburgh road, called the Eldredge place, and about one half mile east of the Eldredge place a tavern was kept by Major Ebenezer Brown, and one also about 2 miles south of the village on the Shelburne road.
American hotel, south side of the square, corner Shelburne and
Howard hotel, south corner Shelburne and main streets.
PUBLIC WHIPPING POST.
This institution which was required under our early laws was located about 100 feet west of the Court house on the square, it being a huge pine tree some 80 feet high, a pine was probably selected from the fact that that tree flourished in our coat of arms.
Although the lists of the town are very inaccurate, varying considerably under the same circumstances, and made at different times, according to different valuations, yet they present data from which the relative prosperity of the town can be presumed. The following is a copy of the first list on file:
Arastus Woolcut, £6 John Doxey, £10; Alexander Davidson, £9; Joel Fairchild, £9; Antoney Coffey, £9; Jabiz Allen, £15; Barney Spear, £6; Joel Harvey, £9; Barzillia Spear, £6; Nat Allen, £10.10; Dearing Spear,
In the army.
Now in practice.
§ French physician.
£11; Nathan Lockwood, £10; David Perigo, £18; Philo Castle, £6; Daniel Fairchild, £6; Reuben Lockwood, £10; Daniel Castle, £11; Reuben Hurlbut, £26; General Ethan Allen, £16; Rufus Perigo, £9; Elisha Lane, £15; Richard Spear, £30; Colonel Fred. Saxton, £65; Samuel Lane, £32; Captain John Collins, £45; Stephen Lawrence, £89.10; Col. Ira Allen, £5; Samuel Allen, £19.10; Samuel Lane, jr., £12; John Favil, £12; Stephen Fairchild, jr., £15; Esquire John White, £19; Josiah Averil, £12; Stephen Fairchild, £32; Job Boynton, £12; Jack Johnson, £6; James Barney, £6; Isaac Pitcher, £9; Ceasor Allen, £6; Jona Butterfield, £9. Total £662.10.
This is a true copy of the original.
Test. STEPHEN LAWRENCE,
Test. JOB BOYNTON, Listers.
The list of the town in early years was based upon the following valuation:
Polls, £6;* $20: an ox, £3; $10: 3 years' old cattle, £2; $6.50: 2 years' old cattle, £1; $5: yearling cattle, £Ύ: stock horses, £20; $150: 3 years' old horses and upward, £4; $13.50: 2 years' old horses £2; $6.50: yearling horses, £1; $3.50: improved land per acre, £½; $1.75: money and debts, 20 per cent; 6 per cent: clocks, $10: gold watches, $10: silver watches, $5: houses valued $1,000, 2 per cent: houses valved over $1,1100, 3 per cent. Professional men, merchants, and traders discretionary.
The following are lists for yours named under the above valuation:
1787, £662.10; 1788, £1,461.2; 1789, £1,148.16; 1790, £1,371.14; 1791, £1,258; 1792, £1,555.10; 1794, £1,932.15; 1795, £2,168.15; 1796, £2,548; 1800, $10,480.25; 1802, $11,896,66; 1804, $17,740.43; 1806, $15,840.
The following are the amount of lists for the years named:
Polls 1797, 116; 1799, 144; 1801, 151; 1803, 156; 1814, 280; 1817, 185.
Amount at $20 each 1797, $2,320; 1799, $2,880; 1801, $3,020; 1803, $3,120; 1814, $5,600; 1817, $3,700.
Improved land, acres 1797, 868Ό; 1799, 1,064½; 1801, 1,341; 1803, 1,588Ύ; 1814, 2,921½; 1817, 3,207½.
Amount at $1.75 per acre 1797, $1,519; 1799, $1,862; 1801, $2,346; 1803, $2,780; 1814, $5,112; 1817, $5,613.
Houses, 2 and 3 per cent, valuation 1797, $409; 1799, $393; 1801, $436; 1803, $737; 1814, $1,953; 1817, $1,943.
Other property and assessments 1797, $4,635; 1799, $5,432; 1801, $6,157; 1803, $5,012; 1814, $12,174; 1817, $9,377.
Total 1797, $8,884; 1799, $10,568; 1801, $11,959; 1803, $11,842; 1814, $24,840; 1817, $20,633.
Militia polls exempt 1797, 92; 1799, 80; 1801, 46; 1803, 92.
Cavalry horses exempt 1797, 6; 1799, 6; 1801, 3; 1803, 2.
Valuation for the years named below:
Number of polls 1842, 699; 1843, 615; 1845, 689; 1847, 767; 1850, 979; 1855, 772; 1860, 1,095; 1862, 967.
Amount of list at $2 each 1842, $699; 1843, 1,230; 1845, $1,378; 1847, $1,534; 1850, $1,958; 1855, $1,544; 1860, $2,190; 1862, $1,934.
Real estate valued 1842, $977,856; 1843, $982,117; 1845, $1,057,243; 1847, $1,190,614; 1850, $1,338,106; 1855, $1,604,398; 1860, $1,158,923; 1862, $1,076,303.
Personal estate valued 1842, $509,148; 1843, $457,940; 1845, $413,734; 1847, $392,909; 1850, $641,263; 1855, $717,188; 1860, $811,671; 1862, $732,412.
Polls were set in the list in 1842 at $1 each.
PAUPERS AND THEIR SUPPORT.
Rattle his bones over the stones,
He's only a pauper, whom nobody owns.
That open hospitality which prevails in countries thinly settled, especially those of an agricultural character, a marked characteristic of the early Vermonters, soon after the first settlements led to the establishment of laws providing for the support, by the public, of those persons "naturally wanting of understanding," or who "by the providence of God, by age, sickness or otherwise should become poor and impotent or unable to provide for themselves."
An elaborate statute was passed by the general assembly of the state in March, 1787, of which one section reads as follows:
"That each town in this state shall take care of, support and maintain their own poor," the statute also gives suitable directions in all matter relating to poor persons.
1809. The first year in which the expenses of the poor in Burlington can with accuracy be ascertained is that ending with the annual March meeting, A. D. 1809, when the account of the overseer of the poor which he presented to the town for payment, being the sums he had expended the previous year in supporting the poor, amounted to $47.64.
1816. At a special town meeting held on
* Acts passed in 1791.
the 19th day of Oct. A. D. 1816, it was voted to appoint a committee of two to examine and report upon the propriety of building or hiring a building for a work house to report at the adjourned meeting and thereupon voted that Henry Mayo and Lemuel Page be said committee. The committee reported at the adjourned meeting held four days later: "That four rooms in the high barracks can be rented for a small rent, that the rooms above mentioned will require but little repairs to make them suitable for the business. At present no water can be procured for the use of the rooms short of the lake. Your committee consider the above named room, by far, the most eligible for the purpose of a work house that can at present be obtained," which report was read and accepted.
It was then voted, "That the overseers of the poor be a committee to hire the high barracks upon the best terms in their power to be occupied as a work house."
Voted, "That John Pomeroy, David Russell and Nathaniel Mayo be a committee to draw up rules, orders and regulations for said work house."
1817. The succeeding spring it was ascertained that the expenses of the poor department were becoming large, being for that year nearly $1,000, and treble the expenses of the preceding year, and the committee appointed to settle the account of the overseers, speak as follows:
"The committee regret the necessity which has produced such an unexampled expenditure for the support of the poor during the last year humanity as well as duty bid us to consider the misfortunes of the necessitous, but the expenses incurred in their support are enormous and we ought to retrench them as far as possible."
1821. At the annual meeting in 1821 the selectmen and overseers of the poor were appointed a committee to make the necessary inquiries whether a convenient and proper house could be procured for a house of correction and work house for the poor, and on what terms; and if any could be procured to make such rules for the regulation of the same as they should think proper and were ordered to report at an adjourned meeting, and subsequently at said adjourned meeting they were authorized to procure such a place, and a set of rules and regulations were adopted for the government of the same, which provided for the appointment of a superintendent or keeper, and power was given him "to fetter, shackle or whip, not exceeding twenty stripes, any person confined therein who does not perform the labor assigned him or her, or is refractory or disobedient to the lawful commands," and also "that no person so confined shall be permitted the use of any ardent spirits unless the physician who may be employed to attend on any person so confined and sick shall deem the same necessary for the health of such person."
This establishment was kept up for two years and then abandoned.
The following extract is from the report of the overseers in 1824:
1824. "The beneficial effects which resulted in consequence of the establishment of a poor house and house of correction in 1821 were sensibly felt the ensuing year, by diminishing the poor account and ridding the town of a worthless population. The want of an establishment of this kind, the past season, has had a contrary effect, it has produced an influx of idle and disorderly persons within the village limits, who must eventually become chargeable to the town. The gratuitous aid afforded by the sheriff of the county by furnishing a secure place for such disorderly persons as have been thrown upon our hands the past year, has been of much service, and we cannot close this report without indulging a hope that the town will at their present meeting, adopt such measures for the erection of a permanent poor house and house of correction, which will prove a home to the unfortunate and deserving, a terror to the dissolute and idle, relieve the labors of those who succeed as well as lessen the annual expenses of the poor.
"George Moore, N. B. Haswell, overseers of the poor."
At the same meeting the following resolution was passed:
Resolved, That it is expedient to build or purchase a work house and house of correction and that a committee of five persons be appointed to prepare a plan, make an estimate of the expense of the same, and make report of their doings at an adjourned meeting, and Luther Loomis, George Moore, Nathan B. Haswell, Henry Thomas and John Van Sicklin, Jr., were appointed such a committee, and on the 5th day of April, the same year the committee reported that a suitable and convenient house with two acres and a half of land in a central situation, with a good well of water, could be procured for $800, and that the necessary and suitable repairs would cost about $50, and they recommended the purchase of the same.
The report was adopted and the sums recommended were voted.
the 9th day of April, the same year Charles Adams deeded to the town the
premises referred to in the report above named, being the north half of that
part of 5 acre lots No. 1 and 2, which lies between College and
1831. The poor of the town increasing it was soon found that the house did not meet the wants which the exigencies of the department required. At the town meeting in 1831, a committee was appointed on the subject of the poor house and pest house, and were ordered to make a report at an adjourned meeting; at which meeting they recommended the purchase of a suitable farm with buildings, to be converted into a poor house and house of correction, and on which may be erected a pest house, and that the premises then owned by the town and used as a poor house be sold; that a committee be appointed to ascertain what the poor house might be sold for, and for what sum a suitable farm might be purchased, and to make a report at an adjourned meeting.
1833. In 1833 a committee was appointed on the subject of a poor house, house of correction and pest house; but they not having such knowledge of the subject as would enable them to present any definite plan, recommended that a committee be appointed and they visit similar establishments in other places, prepare plans and make estimates of the cost.
At almost every town meeting for a number of years the subject of the poor house was extensively discussed. The agitation generally ended in the appointment of a committee who would almost invariably report that in their opinion a committee should be appointed to investigate the matter, which last named committee would generally never be heard from.
1836. In the year 1836 the selectmen were appointed a committee to investigate the expediency of purchasing a farm upon which necesssary buildings for the use of the poor might be erected, and were ordered to report at an adjourned meeting to be held on the first Monday of May following.
The day came and they reported that ten farms had been offered to them at various prices, but they had no opinion themselves upon the subject, and following the invariable rule in such cases recommended that a committee be appointed to investigate the subject thoroughly; and accordingly a committee of three were chosen to act with the selectmen in the purchase of a farm, and a tax of four cents on the dollar was voted to pay for the same. This committee, unlike its predecessors, acted in the matter, and on the 27th day of September, 1836, reported to a town meeting held on that day, that they had purchased the farm of Frederick Purdy, lying 2½ miles south of the village, on the Shelburne road, for the sum of $2000.
1837. This measure did not seem to have the desired effect of lessening expenses, as the following extract from the records the following spring will show:
"On motion of G. B. Sawyer, Esq., a committee was appointed to investigate and report to the town at the next adjourned town meeting the causes of the increased number of paupers and increased expenses of the poor for the last two years." No trace of their report can be found.
This farm contains about 70 acres of land, and with the improvements since made is used for the support and accommodation of the poor, under the charge of a superintendent employed by the town.
1859 The building on the farm becoming somewhat dilapidated, at the March meeting in 1859, it was voted that the selectmen, overseer of the poor and Dr. W. C. Hickok, be authorized to take immediate measures to rebuild or repair the building on the poor farm, so that they might be permanently adapted to the proper and convenient care of the poor of the town, provided that the expense thereof should not exceed $4,000.
The following extract from the report of the selectmen, made the following spring, indicates the progress of the matter:
"New Poor House.
"In accordance with the vote of the town at the last March meeting, your committee have erected and completed a new poor house, on your farm. The building is of brick, 48 by 48, two stories, with a basement; the walls are twelve inches, with an air space, or double, as they are termed. The building will conveniently accommodate 75 persons; is well lighted, perfectly ventilated, easily warmed; is convenient in its arrangements, plain in finish, substantial and good, and cost $3,825.23.
"The house contains two water closets, designed for the use of the old and infirm. The cost of these with the necessary traps, fixtures, and large tile drain, added to the cost of the house some $300 or $400 but the convenience of them is almost beyond value, in such a house.
"We also moved the old store, as it is termed, around to the new house, and have finished up the same, and made of it a good wood shod and carriage house, which, of course, was much needed. We have also provided two good cisterns, a well, and new furniture, &c., the cost of all which you will find detailed in the orders of the selectmen. The amount of these expenditures is $685.41."
generous policy towards the poor is evidence of an enlightened civilization,
Statement of the Expense of the Poor Department.
For most of the years from 1809 to 1862 inclusive, being for years ending at the annual March meeting: 1809, $47.64; 1810, $132.90; 1816, 323.96; 1817, $964.17; 1818, $1,257.16; 1821, $445.80; 1822, $341.38; 1823, $707.55; 1824, $418.50; 1825, $427.85; 1826, $436.80; 1828, $866.06; 1829, $913.31; 1833, $886.86; 1834, $1,197.24; 1835, $851.89; 1836, $1,084.53; 1837, $1,813.24; 1838, $2,200; 1839, $1,350; 1840, $1,509.80; 1841, $1,520.57; 1842, $1,479.97; 1843, $1,764.82; 1844, $1,474.61; 1845, $1,537.60; 1846, $1,130.70; 1847, $1,740.84; 1848, $4,055.52; 1849, $3,158.08; 1850, $3,202.77; 1851, $3,699.58; 1852, $4,126.62; 1853, $2,931.98; 1854, $2,563.72; 1855, $2,973.29; 1856, $3,043.88; 1857, $2,571.22; 1858, $3,211.56; 1859, $3,068.40; 1860, $2,096.73; 1861, $2,286.88; 1862, $2,052.35.
1828 John Q. Adams, 308; Andrew Jackson, 332.
1832 Andrew Jackson, 201; Wm. Wirt, 183.
1836 Martin Van Buren, 293; William H. Harrison, 272.
1840 William H. Harrison, 386; Martin Van Buren, 272; Abolition vote, 6.
1844 Henry Clay, 451; James K. Polk, 392; James G. Birney, 21.
1848 Zachary Taylor, 593; Lewis Cass, 255; Martin Van Buren, 176.
1852 Franklin Pierce, 292; Winfield Scott, 509; John P. Hale, 63.
1856 James Buchanan, 246; John C. Fremont, 592; Millard Fillmore, 26; Abolition vote, 4.
1860 Abraham Lincoln, 608; John C. Breckenridge, 44; Stephen A. Douglas, 231; John Bell, 15; Abolition vote, 2.
ATTEMPT TO ORGANIZE THE TOWN INTO A CITY.
An application was made to the selectmen by several freeholders, in the fall of A. D. 1852, requesting them to warn a meeting of the legal voters of the town, to see if the town would make application to the legislature for an act to incorporate the whole or a part of the town into a city, with power to elect a representative to the legislature and proper powers for the good government and well being of the city; such a meeting was held on the 7th day of October in that year, and the following resolution introduced by Lyman Cummings:
"Resolved, That it is expedient to incorporate a part of the town of Burlington into a city, with proper boundaries, and suitable provisions," and that a committee be appointed to carry the resolutions into effect, with an amendment recommending that the proposed city embrace the whole instead of a part of the town, was referred to a committee of five, composed of Geo. W. Benedict, Timothy Follett, John Van Sicklin, D. W. C. Clark and William Weston, with instructions to report at an adjourned meeting to be held on the 12th instant, following, "a bill to incorporate part or all of the present town of Burlington as a city."
At the adjourned meeting the committee presented a written report, recommending the adoption of said resolution in the form in which the same was first introduced, and also a draught of a bill to incorporate the "city of Burlington," and said resolution was adopted, the vote being taken by ballots, there being in the affirmative 169, and in the negative 63; and a committee of 7 persons were appointed under said resolution.
legislature in session at that time passed an act incorporating the village
part of the town and that portion of the town lying north of the village as a
city, and likewise an act chartering the
On the 21st day of January, A. D. 1853, a meeting of the legal voters, within the limits of the contemplated city, was held for the purpose of voting on the question,
whether they preferred a city or a village charter; and the ballots having been taken the result was as follows: for a village charter there were cast 273 votes; for a city charter, 233 votes.
the 7th day of February, 1853, a meeting of the legal voters within the
prescribed limits of the "
And thus ended the only attempt to incorporate the town or a portion of it as a city; many who voted for a village charter in preference to a city organizatIon were hostile to both, and those in favor of a city charter, thinking it was defeated by the "side show" of a village charter, opposed the latter, and thus both were defeated.
Samuel Lane, 1787 to 1794; Zacheus Peaslee, 1794 to 1804; Robert Peaslee, 1804 to 1805; George Robinson, 1805 to 1832; Chas. Russell, 1832 to 1847; Chalon F. Davy, 1847 to 1855; John B. Wheeler, 1855 to 1856; Samuel H. Reed, 1856 to 1859; Abner B. Lowry, 1859 (resigned); Brush M. Webb, 1859 (present incumbent).
Stephen Lawrence, 1787 to 1790; John Knickerbocker, 1790 to 1792; Samuel Lane, 1792 to 1793; Phinehas Loomis, 1793 to 1801; Zacheus Peaslee, 1801 to 1804; Sam'l. Hickok, 1804 to 1817; Horace Loomis, 1817 to 1822; John N. Pomeroy, 1822 to 1829; Nathan B. Haswell, 1829 to 1840; George B. Shaw, 1840 to 1841; William A. Griswold, 1841 to 1843; Alvan Foote, 1843 to 1851; C. F. Davy, 1851 to 1855; John D. Wheeler, 1855 to 1856; Samuel H. Reed, 1856 to 1859; Charles F. Ward, 1859 to 1860; Brush M. Webb, 1860, present incumbent.
With the years when elected:
Job Boynton, 1787; Stephen Lawrence, 1788, 1792; Elisha Lane, 1789,-90,-91; Isaac French, 1793; Benjamin Adams, 1794,-5,-6, 1801,-2; Lyman King 1797; Amos Browson, 1798; Ephraim Hurlbut, 1799; Mark Rice, 1800; Stephen Russell, 1803,-4; John Barry, 1805,-9; James Enos, 1810,-12; Moses Bliss, 1813,-8; Henry Noble, 1819,-20; Zenas Flagg, 1821,-2; Phineas Atwater, 1823, 1832; Hyman Lane, 1833, 1845; John Church, 1846; Isaac Sherwood, 1847,-51; S. W. Taylor, 1852, 1854; Samuel Huntington, 1854, present incumbent.
With the years when elected:
Stephen Lawrence, 1787; Frederick Saxton, 1787, '88, '89; Sam'l Allen, 1787; Sam'l Lane, 1788, 1791, '92; Job Bonyton, 1788, 1790; John Knickerbocker, 1789, '90, '91; Barnabas Bear, 1789; Daniel Castle, 1790; Daniel Hurlbut, 1791, 1793, '94, '95; Thomas Barney, 1792, '93, '94; William Coit, 1792, 1794, '95, 1801; Stephen Keyes, 1793, 1796; Peter Benedict, 1795, '96; Phinehas Loomis, 1796, 1799, 1800, 1802, '03; William C. Harrington, 1797, '98, '99, 1800, 1804, '05, 1807, '08, 1811; Stephen Pearl, 1797, '98, '99, 1804, '05, '06, '07, '08, 1811; Jason Comstock, 1797; Nathan Smith, 1798, 1802, '06, 07, '08, 1810, '11, '12, '13, '14, '15, '16; Zacheus Peaslee, 1801, '02, '03; Benjamin Adams, 1801; John Eldredge, 1803, '04, '05; Moses Catlin, 1806; Lyman King, 1809, '12, '13, '14; Daniel Farrand, 1809, '10, '12, '13, '16; Moses Robinson, 1809; Samuel Hickok, 1810, '23, '24, '25; Ozias Buell, 1814; Ebenezer T. Englesby, 1815, '30; Nathaniel Mayo, 1816, '26, '27; George Robinson, 1817, '18, '19, '20, '21, '22, '23, '24, '25, '26, '27, 28, '29, 30; Seth Pomeroy. 1815; Luther Loomis, 1817, '18, '19, '20, '22, '43; Alvan Foote, 1817, '18, '19, '20, '21, '22, '23, '24, '25, '26, '27, '28; Heman Lowry, 1821, '29, '35, '36, '37, '38, '39; John Van Sicklin, 1828, '57, '58; Burrell Lane, 1829, '30, '31, '32, '33, 34, '40, '41, '52; Samuel Nichols, 1831, '32, '33, '34, 35, '36, '37, '38, '39, '41, '42, '47, '48; George P. Marsh, 1831; Theodore Catlin, 1832; W. A. Griswold, 1833, '34, '35, '36, '37, '38, '39; Heman Allen, 1840; Noble Lovely, 1840; Bostwick Tousley, 1841, '42, '44; Samuel K. Isham, 1843; Timo. F. Strong, 1843; Wyllys Lyman, 1844, '45, '46; Harry Bradley, 1845, '46; John N. Pomeroy, 1847, '48, '55, '56, '57; Seth Morse, 1844, '45, '46, '49, '50, '51; Henry R. Stacy, 1847, '48, '49, '50, '51, '52; Weston, 1829, '50, '51, '52, '53; Elias Lyman, 1853; Henry Whitney, 1859, '54; Torrey E. Wales, 1854; Moses L. Church, 1854. '55, '56; L. G. Bigelow, 1855; John B. Wheeler, 1856, '67; Carolus Noyes, 1858, '59, '60, '61; Selding Patee, 1858, '59; Edward J. Fay, 1859, '60, '61; W. L. Strong, 1860; Russell S. Taft, 1861, '62; William G. Shaw, 1862; P. Hinman Catlin, 1862.
REPRESENTATIVES TO THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY.
William Coit, 1794; William C. Harrington, 1797, '98, 1802, '04, '06; Elnathan Keyes, 1796, '97, '99, 1800, '01; Thaddeus Tuttle, 1803; Stephen Pearl, 1805; George Robinson, 1807, '15, '22; Luther Loomis, 1816; Charles Adams, 1817, '24; C. P. Van Ness, 1818, '21; B. F. Bailey, 1825, '29; E. T. Englesby, 1723; Timo. Follett, 1830, '32; Sam'l. Nichols, 1833; Heman Allen, 1834; Nathan B. Haswell, 1835, '36; Harry Bradley, 1837, '38; Carlos Baxter, 1839, '40; W. A. Griswold, 1841; John Van Sicklin, 1842; Henry B. Stacy, 1843, '44, '51, '56; Charles Russell, 1845, '46; Wyllys Lyman, 1847; D. K. Pangborn, 1848, '49; Henry Leavenworth, 1850; Henry P. Hickok, 1852; E. C. Palmer, 1853; George F. Edmunds, 1854, '55, '57, '58, '59; Carolus Noyes, 1860, 61; Wm. G. Shaw, 1862.
Nathan Seymour, 84; David Russell, 82; Reuben Bostwick, 81; John Stacy, 79; Wm. Kilburne, 77; Stephen Russell, 75; Lydia Sawyer, 65; Alanson Adams, 48.
During the early part of the present century various ineffectual attempts were made in different parts of the state to establish banks of discount and deposit based upon a circulating currency, but paper money was in such bad repute, and the measure met with such a decided opposition from those who believed that "by introducing a more extensive credit the tendency of banks would be to palsy the vigor of industry and to stupefy the vigilance of economy, the only two honest, general and sure sources of wealth," that it was only after considerable effort and a great deal of clamor that the legislative and executive powers were induced to grant privileges of banking.
petition was presented to the assembly of the state at its session in
Westminster in 1803, for the establishment of a bank at Burlington, and a bill
passed by a vote of 93 to 83 granting the petitioners the privilege prayed for,
but was returned by Gov. Tichenor and council, non-concurred in, accompanied by
8 reasons against banking. A similar bill passed the house of
representatives in 1805, establishing a bank at
State Bank. In the year 1806 the
States Branch Bank. In 1830 a branch of the above bank
was established at
Farmers and Mechanics' Bank. This bank was chartered on the 4th day of November, A. D. 1834, and its charter extended by acts
passed on the 31st day of October, 1846, and Nov. 20, 1861, and
expires on the 1st day of January, 1885. Its capital is $100,000. Its banking
house is on the northeast corner of
Commercial Bank was chartered on the 8th day of
November, 1847, and its charter extended on the 19th day of Nov. 1861, and will
expire January 1, 1885. Capital $150,000. Banking house on
the north side of the Court House square. Presidents, in the order of
their election: Harry Bradley, Dan Lyon, L. E. Chittenden, Carolus Noyes.
Cashiers: Martin A. Seymour, Charles P. Hartt,
This bank had its charter granted on the 16th day of November, 1849, extended
20th November, 1861, and it will expire January 1st, 1886. It commenced
business on the east side of
Burlington Savings Bank. This institution was chartered by the legislature of this state in 1847, and commenced business in January, 1848. Its depositors number 299, having on deposit $34,203.88, with a surplus of $1,679.58. Henry Loomis, president; Charles F. Ward, secretary; William L Strong, treasurer.
D. 1819, a society existed in
were held here by the Chittenden County Agricultural society, in the years 1843
to 1848 inclusive, and one was advertised for 1849, but not held, and in 1857,
1858, and 1862. At these fairs the agricultural and mechanical products of the
county are exhibited; and in no respect are the fairs excelled by any in
A fair was held on the flat near the present residence of Oslo E. Pinney, about 1820, and an address delivered at the Court House square.
Of the Agricultural Productions of the Farming Portion of the Town, 1860.
No. of horses, 303; oxen, 66; milch cows, 687; other cattle, 378; sheep, 1,146; swine, 305; wheat, 2,651 bush.; rye, 2,855 bush.; Indian corn, 13,705 bush.; oats, 15,294 bush.; peas and beans 617 bush.; potatoes, 26,380 bush.; barley, 480 bush.; buckwheat, 1,759 bush.; grass seed, 10 bush.; wool, 5,270 lbs.; butter, 55,525 lbs.; cheese, 36,290 lbs.; honey, 1,330 lbs.; value of orchard products, $3,108; value of market garden products, $502; wine, 96 galls.; hay, 3,493 tons.
COURT HOUSES AND JAILS.
act passed by the legislature of the state in November, A. D. 1791,
The courts were first held in a room in the southeast part of the house of Capt. King, at Burlington bay, as it was then called, being the settlement at the lower end of Water street. The room used by the court was about 16 feet by 20. The portion of the room allotted to the judges was railed off with boards, somewhat similar in construction to a pigsty of the present day, and within, upon a slab, into which round poles had been inserted for legs, sat the justiciary of the county, Judge Isaac Tichenor of the supreme court, the then future governor of the state, presiding; near by the judges stood the sheriff.
At an adjourned meeting held on the 16th day of April, it was voted:
a committee of five be appointed to appropriate the subscriptions for building
a Court house in
And the following named persons were appointed:
Capt. Daniel Hurlbut, Col. Stephen Pearl, William Coit, Esq., Elnathan Keyes, Ira. Allen.
The annual meeting in March, 1796, was warned at the Court house.
The first county buildings were erected in
the summer following the above named meeting, at which time
the Court house was placed near the centre of Court House square, and the jail
near the northeast corner, on the ground now occupied by what is called
Strong's block. In 1798, Mr. King, for the purpose of officiating as jailor,
and also of keeping a tavern, erected a tavern house contiguous to the jail,
south of and connected with it. In 1802, another court house was erected on the
location of the one now existing, and about the same time the jail was
separated from Mr. King's tavern, and removed to the east side of Church
street, midway between Bank and Cherry streets. Mr. King, during the time he
occupied said tavern, and until about 1816, had a garden east of his tavern
house, upon what is now
Mr. King conveyed land as a site for the county jail, and received from the town a lease upon nominal rent of the ground covered by the tavern house, and also of a piece of ground parcel of the square whereon to erect an addition to his house, which arrangement was confirmed by an act of the Legislature in the year 1808.
The jail has been built of brick, on the site conveyed by Mr. King, is two stories high; a substantial edifice, well adapted to the wants of the numerous guests seeking accommodations there.
The court house erected in 1802, was destroyed by fire in 1828, and another was erected in its place, built of brick; it is 46 feet wide and 60 feet long, two stories high; the lower story is occupied for offices by the county clerk and sheriff, and for jury rooms; the upper story for a court room. Burlington united with the county in building the house, and paid $1,500 on condition of having the basement thereof to the sole and exclusive use of the town for town purposes; the town to have an interest of one fourth in the policy of insurance on the Court house, and to pay one fourth of the cost of insurance. The town occupied the basement until 1854, for town meetings, since which time it has been occupied by the town and fire district for housing fire engines and apparatus.
THE TOWN HALL.
The town erected the present town hall in the years 1853 and 1854; it is located on the north side of Main street, between Church street and Court House square, is 80 feet by 80; the basement is built of stone, and occupied for shops of various kinds; the two main stories of brick; the first story is used for offices, and the hall occupies the second story.
the 4th day of August, A. D. 1854, congress passed an act appropriating $40,000
for the erection of a Custom house, post-office, and rooms for the district
judge of the United States courts, at Burlington, Vt., and also enough to
purchase a location for the building. A site was selected on the southeast
The lower floor is occupied for the post office; the upper for the custom house and rooms for the district judge.
An appropriation was made by congress in 1855, of $35,000, for the erection of a marine hospital at Burlington, with a sum sufficient to purchase the land for a situation; a site was selected 2 miles south of the village on the west side of the Shelburne road, $1,750 being the consideration paid for it. It embraces ten acres of land and commands a fine view of the lake and village.
The building was commenced in 1856, and was finished in 1858. An additional appropriation was made in June, 1858, of $4,000, for fencing and grading the premises.
It is 2 stories high, with a basement; built very thoroughly, with ample and convenient rooms for the use intended.
not having been occupied for the purposes for which it was constructed when the
civil war with the south began, the military authorities went into possession
of it, and still occupy it as a hospital principally for
FREE AND ACCEPTED MASONS.
and Stephen Pearl, a charter was granted to them by the Grand Lodge of Vermont, constituting them a lodge of masons, by the name of Washington Lodge No. 7. Their lodge room, with all the furniture and records, was burned in June, 1828.
On the 4th day of February, 1846, the lodge was reorganized and was numbered 3. It owns a part of the building in which their rooms are located on the west side of Court House square. Present number of members, 126.
The following persons have successively been elected masters: , David Russell, James Sawyer, Joshua Isham, Geo. Robinson, Lemuel Page, Nathan B. Haswell, John S. Webster, L. B. Englesby, William G. Shaw, C. W. Woodhouse.
Green Mountain Lodge was organized in 1845. Their lodge room is in the third story of the building on the northeast corner of Church and College streets. There are about 73 members at present.
The present officers are as follows: Samuel Bigwood, N. G.; James Mitchell, V. G.; J. J. Duncklee, P. S.; Nelson White, R. S.; T. J. Blanchard, Treasurer.
manufacture of window glass in
Mill Company, Burlington Vt. This corporation is
located at Winooski falls, in
This company received its charter, A. D. 1845, and was organized the same year, Joseph D. Allen being its first president. The authorized capital stock was $25,000. The legislature of 1853 increased the capital stock to $75,000. Its present officers are: W. R. Vilas, president, which office he has held since 1852; Morillo Noyes, secretary and treasurer, offices held by him since 1847; Horace W. Barrett, foreman, a position faithfully filled by him since 1845.
Manufacturing was first begun in a wood building, known by the name of "the oil mill." It was situated on the west side of the highway, and near Catlin's grist-mill, both of which were very near the south end of the covered bridge.
On the night of Jan. 31, 1852, the gristmill was discovered to be in flames; the fire spreading with rapidity, soon communicated to the "oil mill" building, in which were the machinery and works of the Winooski Mill company. Both buildings were soon entirely consumed, and it was only by the resolute and efficient efforts of the fire department and citizens that the covered bridge was saved. The greater part of the machinery was destroyed.
Soon after the fire, and in the spring of 1852, the present site, some twenty rods above the bridge at Winooski, was purchased by the company, and they immediately erected the commodious and substantial stone and brick factory (45 by 103 feet), 3 stories in height, besides basement and attic. This, in connection with the wood factory already on the site, and 34 by 84 feet, afforded ample facilities for operating a large amount of machinery.
The total amount invested to the present time, in lands, water privileges, machinery and the necessary appurtenances, is nearly $60,000.
The machinery is of modern invention, combining all the practical improvements of mechanical skill and inventive ingenuity.
The weaving department contains 50 of Benjamin & Reynolds' patent looms, which can be worked with wonderful rapidity and success, far outstripping those of more ancient invention. They are so skillfully and harmoniously adjusted in every part, as to perform their tasks with surprising advantage and satisfaction. The whole machinery is capable of producing, annually, about as follows, viz.: 750,000 yards 4/4 brown sheetings; 600,000 yards satinet and flannel warps; 20,000 pounds batting.
The value of the above productions will
range from $85,000 to $110,000, according to the market value of the goods produced.
The amount paid for labor per year, to produce the above, would be about $16,000, giving employment to some 75 males and females.
PIONEER MECHANICS' SHOP.
Previous to the year 1850, all the manufacturing done in town, with the exception of the glass and cotton manufactures, was merely what the necessities of the people in this vicinity required, there being no establishment whose products reached a foreign market. The many facilities for manufacturing here, with the communication by water and rail with the large cities, caused the people to turn their attention in that direction.
On the 31st day of May, 1852, a number of citizens formed themselves into an association for the purpose of promoting the industrial interests of Burlington, under the name and style of the Pioneer Mechanics' Shop company, for the purpose of erecting a suitable building or buildings (on land donated to the company for that purpose, by Henry B. Stacy, Henry P. Hickok, Eliza W. Buell and Nathan B. Haswell), with steam engines and fixtures for running machinery in said building, the same to be rented to mechanics and manufacturer, in convenient allotments, in such manner as to facilitate and invite the introduction of new branches of mechanical and manufacturing industry. The capital of the company was $30,000, divided into shares of $25 each.
The legislature of the state granted a charter to the company in November, 1852. The first directors were Henry P. Hickok, Frederick Smith, T. R. Fletcher, Edward W. Peck, and Morillo Noyes.
1852 and 1853, the company erected a building, on the east side of Lake street,
of brick, 4 stories high, 400 feet long and 50 feet wide, divided into 4
apartments, each 100 feet long, with a heavy brick wall between each. The machinery in the shops being driven by two heavy engines in a
building just east of shops. The southerly half of the building was
rented by Cheney, Kilburn & Co., and occupied in getting out chair stock
for the chair manufacturers in
The northerly half of the building was rented to various parties, and occupied in the manufacture of sash, doors, blinds, furniture, machinery, &c. The corporation having borrowed money required in the completion of their buildings, over and above their capital, and given a mortgage of their lands and shops to secure the payment, being unable to pay the same, it was foreclosed, and the property of the corporation passed into the hands of Henry P. Hickok. The occupation of the shop was quite hazardous. Large quantities of shavings were made daily, and an immense amount of dry manufactured wood-work stored in the building, with turpentine and other materials for painting. Thus it was rendered unusually liable to take fire.
On the 2d day of April (fast day), 1858, the workmen of the shop being absent, it was discovered to be on fire near the south end, a strong southerly gale blowing at the same time; by 11 o'clock it was burned to the ground. Nothing of any consequence was saved from the fire, so rapid was its progress. The whole loss by the fire was estimated at $150,000.
The citizens of the town donating nearly $8,000 for its reconstruction, Mr. Lawrence Barnes purchased the ruins, and immediately erected 3 brick shops, 2 stories high, each 100 feet long and 50 feet wide.
shops, with others which have been erected adjoining, are occupied by
manufacturers of furniture, doors, sash, blinds, shoe lasts, boxes, axe helves,
wagon spokes, iron castings and machinery, a large part of which finds its way
to foreign markets. Large quantities of salt are prepared for culinary and
dairy purposes at the centre shop. A large steam planing
mill has been erected near the shops, at the foot of
The facilities for getting all kinds of lumber from the lumber yards in the vicinity, and maple and bass woods from the adjoining country, and water communication with New York city during half of the year, renders Burlington a very desirable point for all manufactures of wood. All the manufacturers here at present are from abroad, who have been attracted by the very superior advantages which the town possesses; and we may look hereafter for a more extended business of all branches of industrial pursuits.
About 1800, Daniel Staniford owned a distillery on the north side of Pearl street, near the present Winooski avenue, where he brewed ale, beer and porter; and if the advertisements of that day be correct, he also
manufactured a very excellent article of gin, of which tradition informs us that some of the inhabitants of this quiet village were fond.
distillery was operated nearer the head of
Farrar first built a pottery for the manufacture of earthenware, on the south
CATLIN'S FLOURING MILL
Is located on the river just below the bridge at Winooski falls. It is built of wood, 5 stories high, has 11 run of stone; 70,000 bushels of wheat can annually be turned into flour, while the plaster mill adjoining turns out about 500 tons of plaster.
very accurate map of the
The main streets running from east to west are as follows:
College street, running from the centre of College green to the lake.
These streets run through the entire village. The shorter streets, running in the same direction, beginning at the south, are:
street, between Church and
Prospect street, between Willard and Tuttle.
Bank street and
The streets running north and south, beginning at the lake shore, are:
Water street, running from the cove northerly, east of the battery, to the swamp north of the village.
Pine street, between
Maiden lane, from
High street, east of the College green.
Besides these there are a great number of short streets and lanes in different parts of the town.
The principal streets are 4 rods wide, laid out at right angles, intersecting each other at a distance of 20 rods; they are generally well graded, with good sidewalks, the sandy nature of the soil being favorable to the making of good roads. The old Winooski turnpike which for half a century was the great thoroughfare up the valley of the Winooski, leaves the village in an easterly direction from the south end of College green.
[We are indebted to Rev. H. P. Hickok for the following
additional information in regard to the streets of
few of the streets of
nant of his property. He chose the street on which he built, not more from the beauty of its prospect than its wild seclusion. His house, built with taste and furnished within with elegance, stood by itself, apart from other dwellings, yet commanded a view of mountains and river, lake and woods, which seemed to soothe the irritated mind of one driven rudely from his West Indian home.
house of Ira Allen was visible over the tree-tops at the right, and the old
Indian fields, then the farm of Ethan Allen, appeared, across the interval
woods, at the left. Mr. Goch remained on this spot
until the growing settlement brought him near neighbors, when he removed to a
still more wild and unfrequented place on the shores of the lake in the town of
Willard was long conspicuous as the wit and rhymer of
"P. L , an attorney at law,
The very best lawyer that ever I saw."
here he stopped, but being tendered another drink and pressed to complete his rhyme, went on thus:
"The only reason why I like him the best,
Is, that he has not got so much wit as the rest."
The lawyer is said to have had wit enough to join in the laugh raised at his expense, while Barty jogged on homeward.
He is said to have engaged a pair of cart wheels for Gov. C. The governor had been disappointed more than once, but Barty promised them without fail the next week. The wheels were done, and Friday of that week had come, when a stranger passing, offered his price and the money for those wheels. Barty was sore put to, how to manage another disappointment of the governor, and declined to let them go, but a sudden thought struck him. He would sell them on condition that the wheels were left with him until Monday; which was agreed to. Barty then placed the wheels side and side against the fence and set to work to make another pair, in hopes the governor would not call at the time appointed. But Saturday came and the governor rode up, pleased to see the wheels. Barty came out to receive his commendations, but rather seriously, "Governor," says he, "I have made the wheels, but I have made an awkward mistake with them," "What's that? " says the governor. "Why, don't you see, they are both off-wheels. You must wait another week give me time to make another wheel." The gratified customer assented, and Barty not only sold a second pair, but recovered somewhat his credit, which was suffering, for promptness.
Thaddeus Tuttle, an early merchant, dealt largely also in lands. He built what
was at the time and long afterwards, the most elegant residence in town. His
store stood at the corner of
Gideon King, from whom
Stephen Pearl built a spacious mansion at the head of
on the subject of streets, it may be noticed that the Winooski turnpike was
originally chartered to run from the lake shore to the interior by
Next, the yellow locust, was set, most zealously through all the streets. The locust proved, like the poplar, a beautiful tree and
a rapid grower, furnishing shade as well as beauty. In June, annually, its strings of white blossoms loaded the trees, perfuming the air, and the tree with its adornments became the pride of the town. But after a few years the borer commenced his ravages, and now the few trees on College green and its vicinity, of any size, alone remain to maintain its former pretensions.
The button-ball, a native tree, was extensively transplanted as the others failed, and grew to an enormous size, until the blight, which all over the land has visited the extremities of this tree, destroyed them here also.
trees depended on now are mostly native, many of which flourish, but most
conspicuous of all, the elm. Soon the place will be enshrouded by it, and
perhaps be likened to the Elm city of
One street receives it name from the locust, the handsomest trees of which are now elms.
White derives its name from the Calvinistic congregational church, which was long termed, until burnt, the old White church.
College street, from the college.
Lake street is so called from its proximity to the water side, while Water street above it, was once, before the filling process commenced, alone entitled to the appellation.
H. P. HICKOK.
[For name of
POPULATION, ETC., IN 1860.
Dwelling houses in town, 1,370; males, 3,695; females, 4,021: total, 7,716. Number of persons over 20 years of age, who can not read or write, 814. Born in Vermont, 4,518; Ireland, 1,098; Canada, 1,067; New York, 469; Massachusetts, 206; England, 82; New Hampshire, 68; Connecticut, 48; Germany, 27; Scotland, 43; Maine, 11; Ohio, 10; Illinois, 9; Pennsylvania, 9; New Jersey, 8; unknown, 7; France, 7; Rhode Island, 4; Missouri, 3; Michigan 3; Prussia, 3; Iowa, 2; Alabama, 2; South Carolina, 2; Wisconsin, 2; Minnesota, 1; California, 1; Sweden, 1; Virginia, 1; Delaware, 1; Georgia, 1; Wales, 1; at sea, 1.
Annual Products. According to the census, there were $352,675 capital engaged in manufacturing, exclusive of the gas company, the annual products being valued at $682,250.
THE LUMBER TRADE.
BY HENRY ROLFE, ESQ.
no branch of business presents the workings of the laws of trade or commerce in
a clearer light than the lumber trade of
this county was first settled, the inhabitants, like those of all new
settlements, had but few manufactures and those were of the rudest kind. They
were dependent upon Europe and the older colonies in this country for such
necessaries of life as could not be procured from the soil; and for those
necessaries they were compelled to pay in such products of the soil; but few of
them would bear the cost of transportation, the principal one of which was
lumber. In the dense growth that covered the earth the settlers found the oak,
the pine (both white and
the papers of Hon. Ira Allen, and from tradition, we learn that the first saw
mill in this vicinity was built by Ira Allen in 1786; and in connection with
his brother Levi Allen, who was then in the trade at
A noble band of men who filled their sphere of action creditably to themselves, and usefully to the society in which they lived. But they almost all have passed away. There are now living only the venerable Henry Boardman, who commenced business in 1797, in Colchester, Amos Boardman and David Bean in Illinois, and Joseph Clark, Esq., in Milton.
was a great undertaking in those days to go into the woods in the fall and
winter and cut and draw the masts, hew the square timber, get the deal logs to
the mill and in the spring saw the deals and collect it all into one great
raft, and go to
These men not only went into the woods themselves to get out lumber and take it to Quebec, but they bought large quantities of others who did business in this vicinity on a smaller scale men who, in addition to their agricultural labors, would get out what lumber they could but not enough to form a raft; thus a large portion of the people were directly interested in the lumber trade.
the year 1820, the Champlain canal was completed, opening communication with
Burdick and Messrs Follett and Bradley of Burlington, dealt largely in lumber,
and in connection with Samuel Brownell of Williston, carried on its manufacture
at the Little falls in the Winooski, between Williston
and Essex. They owned boats and shipped direct to
the past years the lumbermen of the eastern
of the Vermont Central and the
or steamer. No steamers were needed when the market was with
the course of the
first cargo of lumber that arrived here from the
The sales of this market in 1860, amounted to about 40,000,000 feet, and the sum paid out for labor in handling, sorting, piling and planing is about $40,000 per year.
did the projectors of our rail roads dream that within ten years after the
completion of their roads, almost every available space on their grounds at
lumber is brought here from the mills on the
BY R. S. TAFT, ESQ.
soon as the settlers of
1790. At the town meeting in March, 1790, it was voted that the town should be divided in school districts, and Col. Frederick Saxton, Capt. David Stanton and Daniel Hurlbut were appointed a committee to divide said town. At an adjourned meeting, held in September following, the committee reported that they had divided the town into 2 districts; one of them contained all the territory north of a line running from the cove south of the old wharf, easterly to the road from the falls on Onion river to Shelburne falls, and west of the northerly part of said last named road, the other comprised the territory east of the one first mentioned.
1795. At the annual meeting this year, it was voted, "that the south part of the town that is not considered in the other two districts be considered as a school district."
This year it was voted that the house lots at
1813. The districts increased in numbers until the year 1813, when they were 8 in number, Nos. 1, 2, and 8 being located in the village. It being found inconvenient to establish and maintain separate schools in them, and owing to the compact nature and situation of the 3 village districts, it was deemed that 1 school-house in the central part of the village would be more advantageous to the districts and more beneficial to the public, and it was voted that the districts be constituted and formed into one, to be known and designated by the name of the Village school district.
1815. The boundaries of the school districts being uncertain and indefinite, at a meeting held on the 28th day of April, 1815, John Johnson, Nathan Smith and George Robinson were appointed a committee to ascertain the lines of the several districts, They reported at a meeting held on the 12th of May following; the report was accepted and the districts established accordingly. This report contains the boundaries of 7 districts: The village district, bounded on
the south by the south lines of lots No. 160, 158, 164, 184, and the westerly half of lot No. 109 (being a line running easterly from the lake shore on the Seymour farm); on the east by a line running from the center of the south line of lot No. 109 northerly, east of the college grounds, to the river just east of the residence of John N. Pomeroy; on the west and north by the lake and river.
No. 1 includes the territory at the falls and 100 acre lots lying on the river and most of the 2 three acre lots adjoining the latter being the present districts No. 1 and 8. Nos. 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, identical nearly with the present districts of the corresponding numbers.
1816. In this year that part of the town northwest of the village was set off into a separate district and numbered 7.
1820. About 1820, district No. 8 was formed out of the territory near the High bridge, being the easterly end of district No. 1.
1829. In November of this year the village district was divided into 6 districts numbered 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14, with very much the same boundaries as at present, with the exception of the change made by the creation of districts numbered 15 and 16.
At a special town meeting held on the 3d day of
October, A. D. 1840, all that part of district No. 9 which lies north of
1853. And on the 21st day of November, 1853, school district No. 15 was divided by a line running from north to south through the centre of Champlain street, the portion lying east of the line to be numbered 16, the portion west retaining its original number (15).
A small portion of the southeast part of the town is annexed to school district No. 5 in Shelburne.
A Union school district was organized on the 28th day of December, 1849, composed of districts Nos. 10, 12, 13, 14 and 15. Only scholars in the higher branches of learning from the districts composing the Union district attend the school, which is equal in all respects to the best acadamies in the state. Each school district is possessed of a good school house, where from 6 to 10 months' school has usually been kept each year.
Is located in the old academy buildings, on the northwest corner of College and Willard streets.
Table containing the number of scholars between the ages of 4 and 18, during the years named: 1805, 376; 1806, 441; 1810, 580; 1813, 570.
Was incorporated on the 22d October, 1829, and occupied the, building erected for that purpose on the corner of Willard and College streets, flourishing under its several preceptors, until the Union school was organized, which took the place of the High school, and has since occupied the High school building.
R. S. T.
STATE TEACHERS' ASSOCIATION,
State Teachers' association (annual) was held in