VHG Burlington, Chittenden County, Vt.



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"There's much be said about Vermont

For history and song,

Much to be written yet, and much

That has been written wrong."





The origin of the name of Burlington is not certainly known, but was likely derived from the Burling family of Westchester county, in the state of New York. The Burlings were extensive land holders in the several towns chartered at the same time with Burlington, and though not original grantees of that town, yet they owned several tracts of land in it acquired after the charter was granted. They were grantees in several of the towns in the vicinity of Burlington. Colchester was granted to Edward Burling and sixty-six others, among whom were ten of that name, from this fact it is supposed by many, that the name was intended for Colchester, which lies on the opposite side of Winooski river, and that by some clerical error the name of Burlington was given to this town instead of that. If this be true, no doubt the name of Williston was intended for Burlington as it was chartered on the same day with Burlington, which was granted to Samuel Willis and others there being four of that name among the grantees. There were six of the name of Burling among the grantees of Ferrisburgh, and Huntington was chartered on the same day with Burlington to Edward Burling and others. The fact that their name occurs so frequently among the grantees in the early charters is sufficient to justify the belief that the name was derived from them, and it was originally intended, no doubt, for the town to which it was applied.




The charter was granted by the province of New Hampshire on the 7th of June, A. D. 1763, and was in the form used by the province in granting townships at that time; the admeasurement, according to the charter, was 23,040 acres, of which an allowance was made for "highways, ways and unimprovable lands by rocks, ponds, mountains and rivers, 1,040 acres free," and said town was

"Butted and bounded as follows, viz.: Beginning at the southerly or southwest side




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of French or Onion river, so called at the mouth of said river, thence running up by said river until it comes to a place that is 10 miles upon a straight line from the mouth of the river aforesaid, then runs upon a line perpendicular to the aforesaid 10 miles line southerly so far as that a line to Lake Champlain, parallel to the 10 miles line aforesaid, will, within the lines and the shore of the said lake, contain 6 miles square."

The inhabitants, as soon as there should be 50 families, were granted the privilege of holding two fairs annually, and also of keeping a market on one or more days in each week as might be thought most advantageous to them.

The grantees were required to improve 5 acres of land for each 50 acres owned by them, within the next 5 years after said grant, to reserve for the government all white and other pine trees fit for masting the Royal Navy; to reserve near the centre of the town a tract of land for town lots of one acre for each grantee; and to pay one ear of corn annually, if lawfully demanded, for the space of 10 years, and after said 10 years the sum of one shilling, proclamation money, for every 100 acres owned, settled or possessed.

The names of the grantees were: Samuel Willis, Tunis Wortman, Thomas Dickson, John Willis ye 3d, Stephen Willis, Daniel Bowne, Thomas Cheshire, Jr., John Birdsall, Benjamin Townsend, Thomas Youngs, Samuel Jackson, Gilbert Weeks, Zebd Seaman, Jur, John Whitson, William Kirbee, Joseph Udell, John Wright, Jur, Abraham Van Wick, Minne Suydam, Jacobus Suydam, Edmund Weeks, Nicholas Townsend, Samuel Van Wyck, John Willis, Jr., Thomas Alsop, Thomas Pearsall, Jr., William Frost, Senr, Thomas Frost, William Frost, Jr., Penn Frost, Zebulon Frost, William Cock, Thomas Van Wick, Harmon Lefford, Thomas Jackson, Thomas Udell, John Wright March, Daniel Voorhees, Joseph Denton, George Pearsall, John Wortman, Jur, Benjamin Birdsall, John Birdsall, Jr., Jacob Kirbee, Benja Fish, Lawrence Fish, John Whitson the 3d, Nathanl Fish, Richard Seaman, Morris Seaman, Jona Pratt, Nathanl Seaman, Jr., Richd Jackson, Jr., Solomon Seaman, Israel Seaman, Jacob Seaman, Senr, Jacob Seaman, Richard Ellison, Jur, Richard Ellison, Third, Samuel Averhill, The Honble Jno Temple, Theodore Atkinson, M. Hunting Wentworth, Henry Sherburn, Eleazer Russell, Esq., and Andrew Clarkson. 66 rights.

His excellency Benning Wentworth, Esquire, a tract of land to contain 500 acres as marked B. W. in the plan, which is to be accounted two of the within shares.

One whole share for the incorporated society for the propagation of the gospel in foreign parts.

One share for the Glebe for the church of England, as by law established.

One share for the first settled minister of the gospel.

And one share for the benefit of a school in said town. Making in all 72 shares or rights of land of 320 acres each.




The following is a copy of the first proprietors' meeting:

Salisbury, March 23d, 1774.

Then the Proprietors of the Township of Burlington (a Township lately granted under the great seal of the Province of Newhampshier now in the Province of New York), met according to a Legal Warning in the Connecticut Current at the dwelling house of Capt. Samuel Morris, Innholder in Salisbury in Litchfield county and Colony of Connecticut.

11y Voted that Col. Thomas Chittenden be moderator for this meeting.

21y Voted That Ira Allen shall be Proprietor's Clerk for said Township.

31y That this meeting be adjourned to the 24th day of Instant March, at nine o'clock, to be held at this place.

IRA ALLEN, Proprietor's Clerk.


March the 24 Day A. D. 1774.

Then the meeting was opened according to adjournment.

1ly Voted, That Whereas, Ethan Allen, Remember Baker, Heman Allen, Zimri Allen, and Ira Allen known by the name of the Onion River Company, who are Proprietors in this Township of Burlington on said River (a Township lately granted by the Governor and Counsel of Newhampshier and is now in the Province of New York) have expended large sums of money in cutting a road through the woods from Castleton to said River seventy miles, and clearing off encamberments from the said lands in them parts, clearing and cultivating and settling some of these lands and keeping possession which by us is viewed as a great advantage towards the settlement of these lands in general, especially the Township of Burlington.

Whereas, The said Ethan Allen, Remember Baker, Heman Allen, Zimri Allen and Ira Allan have laid out fifteen, hundred acre lots in said Township bounding on said river. Therefore in consideration of these services




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done by them, in consideration of their settlement of five families on said lots with those that are already on, and girdling five acres on each one hundred acre lot in two years from the first day of June next, improving same.

It is voted; if proper Survey bills be exhibited to the Proprietor's Clerk of said Town and recorded in this Book by the first day of June next the said lots are confirmed to them as so many acres of their rights and shares in said Township said fifteen lots are to be laid seventy rods wide on the river.

2ly Voted that each proprietor have liberty at his own cost to pitch and lay out to himself one hundred acres on one whole right or share that they own in said town, said lots to be laid out not less than seventy rods wide, exclusive of what hath already been granted to be laid in said town. Provided, they clear and girdle five acres to said right within two years from the time said lots are laid out.

3ly Voted that there shall be for each one hundred acres to be laid in the town of Burlington one hundred and three acres laid, which three acres shall be improved for the use of said town for public highways if needed in the most convenient place of said lot.

4ly Voted. That the Proprietors Clerk shall record all deeds of sale and Survey Bills of land in said Burlington that shall be offered to him if paid a reasonable reward therefor, and that the survey first recorded or received to record shall stand good without regard to the dates of said survey Bills.

5ly Voted, that Ira Allen shall be a Surveyor to lay out said town.

6ly Voted, that this meeting be adjourned to Fortfradreck in Colchester on Onion River, to be held on the first Monday in June next at two o'clock in the afternoon.

IRA ALLEN, Proprietor's Clerk.


Fortfradreck, June 6 Day, A. D. 1774, then this meeting was opened according to adjournment.

1ly Voted That this meeting be adjourned to the first Monday in July next at ten o'clock in the fore noon to be held at this place.

IRA ALLEN, Proprietor's Clerk.


Fortfradreck, July 3d, 1774, Then this meeting was opened according to adjournment.

1ly Voted, that this meeting be adjourned to the 25 day of Instant July at ten o'clock in the fore noon to be held at this place.

IRA ALLEN, Proprietor's Clerk.


Fortfradreck July 25 Day, A. D. 1774. Then this meeting was opened according to adjournment.

1ly Voted, That each Proprietor or Proprietors may on their own cost and charges, survey and lay out to themselves all the rest of their right or rights, that is not laid out, in one or more pieces, one hundred acres shall not be narrower than seventy rods, and if any be laid in Biger or lessor quantities it shall not be narrower than in proportion to one hundred acres being seventy rods wide and to turn on square angles and whene there is a piece left between lots or the town line it shall not be narrower than seventy rods in width.

2ly Voted, That Ira Allen shall survey and lay out all the public rights in this town on the proprietor's expense and return all the survey bills to the Proprietors clerk of said Town.

3ly Voted, That this meeting be adjourned to the 3d day of October next to be held at this place.

IRA ALLEN, Proprietor's Clerk.


Fortfradreck, October 2, 1774, Then this meeting was opened according to adjournment.

1ly Voted, That this meeting be adjourned to the first Monday in May next to be held at this place.

IRA ALLEN, Proprietor's Clerk.


Fortfradreck, May 1st, 1775.

Then this meeting was opened according to adjournment.

1ly Voted, That this meeting be adjourned to the first Monday of September next to be held at the same place.

IRA ALLEN, Proprietor's Clerk.


In this abrupt manner the records end, the cause no doubt being that the settlers were called away to take part in the patriotic struggle then just begun at Lexington on the 19th of the previous month. Immediately afterwards the attempt to take Ticonderoga and Crown Point was made, and Ethan Allen who was at Bennington hastened to send northward for Remember Baker and Seth Warner, who were at the fort at Winooski at that time, to join him; this they did in time to take part in the expedition against the two forts on the west side of the lake. Col. Warner heading the party which captured Crown Point; this was ten days after the last meeting at Fort Frederick, and from this time forward their activity in the war required their presence in other places, and their attention to other pursuits; and the proceedings of the proprietors of the township for the time ceased.




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The Allen brothers and Remember Baker, within a few years after the granting of the charter of Burlington, under the title of the Onion River Land company became the owners, by purchase of original grantees, of a large portion of the lands in the vicinity of Onion river and caused them to be surveyed; Ira Allen subsequently became the proprietor of most of these lands. It is somewhat difficult for an impartial observer to decide which party had the best claim to the title land jobber, the Yorkers or the persons composing the company known sometime by the name of the Allen-Baker company, and at others by that of the Onion River company, as scarcely a town from Pownal to Highgate but that the latter were the owners of large tracts of land embraced within its limits, and in some instances almost the entire township. The indomitable and persevering energy of the Allen family was more than a match for those claiming under the New York grants, and they became possessed of the title of fully one third of the land between Lake Champlain and the Green mountains; five-sevenths of the town of Burlington belonged at, different times to Ira Allen. The following are instances of the amount of land owned and conveyed at that period by him; 721 acres of land in the northeast corner of the town known by the name of Lane's bow, and being the intervale above the High bridge, was bought by Samuel Lane of Ira Allen on the 2d day of February, 1778.*

On the 13th day of March, 1794, Ira Allen executed a mortgage deed to John Coffin Jones of Boston, Mass., in consideration of $7,500, in which the lands are described as follows, viz., "beginning at the northwest corner of John Knickerbacor, Esqrs. land, being a stake and stones near Onion river, about 40 rods below the bridge at the narrows; then south 30° west about 2 miles to the road from Peter Benedict, Esqs. to Burlington bay; then westerly about 1 mile and a half to the road leading from the falls to Shelburn; then northerly by said road to the college lands; then east by the college lands to the southeast corner thereof; then north 40 rods to the northeast corner; then west 200 rods to a stake and stones, the northwest corner of the College green; then north about 40 rods to the road leading from Allen's mills to the lake shore; then easterly by said road about 50 rods; then crossing said road about 50 rods west of Col. Stephen Pearls; then northerly on the east side of the road leading to the intervale or meadows, being about 1 mile to Onion river; then up the river as it tends to the bounds begun at, being more than 2 miles, including all the falls in Onion river against Colchester, mills, dwelling houses, &c."

Also on the 14th day of April, 1794, a mortgage deed to secure the payment of .£1,560 to Henry Newman of Boston, Mass., the premises being described as follows: "Beginning at the southwest corner of a 50 acre lot belonging to the University of Vermont; then running south half of a mile; then west about half a mile to the road leading from Burlington bay to Shelburn; then southerly by said road 3 miles; then east 504 rods; then northerly to the road leading from Williston to Burlington bay; then westerly by said road to the south line of said 50 acre lot; then westerly in the line of said lot to the bound begun at."




The first surveys within the limits of the town of Burlington, were made in the year 1772. The following, relating to them, is taken from the Field Journal of Ira Allen, No. 7, and entitled: "Salisbury. January 4, 1773. | A Journal of Surveys Made | In the Preseeding Year, by | Ira Allen, | Surveyor. | It Being the first of My Surveying." |

Burlington surveys, September 30, 1772. Then began the survey of No. 1 and 2. Began about Ύ mile below the Lore falls on a buttonwood tree, marked No. 1, I. A.; then W. 10° S. 32 rods; then N. 10 W. 100 rods; then E. 10° N. 4 rods to a bass tree, stands on the bank of the river. No 1.

"Lot No 2. Begins at the N. westerly corner of No 1 at a bass tree; then W. 10° S. 56 rods; then north 10° W. 100 rods to a soft maple tree. No 2 stands on ye bank of the river."

Mr. Allen, during the same year, made surveys as follows: Colchester, September 28, 1772, two lots Bolton, October 14, 1772, nine lots, Castleton and Poultney in November and December, 1772.

Mr. Allen was engaged the greater part of the next two years in exploring and surveying this portion of the state. One of the lots surveyed in 1773 was numbered 83, which is the highest number of lots to be found among the surveys of that year. This marks the progress of surveying and shows that some time must have been spent by them here that year.

He surveyed the east line of the township


* Town Records, II, pp. 30, 72, 83.




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in July, 1773. The northeast corner, he says in his journal, is a "dry hemlock tree, marked B. W., and several other letters." This corner was the northeast corner of the 500 acre tract belonging to Gov. Wentworth, and is now in the town of Williston, and still called the Governor's Right.

Allen marked "Burlington" and "Williston," as he says, "at learge," "on a beech tree near the hemlock." On a tree at the southeast corner of the town he marked (Burlington, July 16, 1773, Ira Allen). He also surveyed the west line of the town. The survey is commenced thus:

"Munites of travising the lake from the N. W. corner of Burlington, which is at the mouth of Onion river to the next large brook to the river Leplote. The corner is a soft maple tree, and is wrote on it (Burlington, August 11, 1773, Ira Allen)."




The first settler who came into Burlington was Felix Powell, in the year 1773. Frequent reference is made to him by Ira Allen, in his journals of surveys. In one of his journals is the following item of account:


            "Burlington, November 10, 1773.

Phelix Powell, Dr.

To 1 Pocket compass,                              £0 3

  "         250 Eight penny Nodes,                 0 3

  "         Beefe.

  "         Beefe.

  "         1 Pocket compass.

  "         11 days work of Sleeper."


And on the next page the following item:

"When Powell went to Mill he had 2 half Joes and 1 Pistole — I have had Ten Dollars."

The nearest mills at that time were those at New Haven, on the Lower falls in Otter creek, where Vergennes was subsequently located.

On the 22d day of October, 1774, Mr. Powell bought of Samuel Averill of Litchfield, Conn., in consideration of £30, a tract of land in Burlington. The deed describes Powell as of "Burlington county of Charlotte, and Province of New York, and the land as: All that one full right or share of land in the township of Burlington on Onion river, in the province of New York, granted under the great seal of the province of New Hamphire, which share I have as an original grantee." *

This land, in addition to the village lots consisted of three 103 acre lots, occupying the whole of Appletree point, and running northerly nearly to Onion river. Mr. Powell subsequently cleared a portion of the land on the point and erected a log house, but afterwards removed to Manchester in Bennington county, and on the 19th day of August, 1778, in consideration of £190, sold his right of land to James Murdock, of Saybrook, Conn.; the deed is recorded on page 4, vol. 2, of the town records, and describes the land as "1 full share or right of land lying in the town of Burlington on Onion river, in the state of Vermont, which right was granted by Gov. Wentworth to Samuel Averill; the pitch is made on a place commonly called Apple Tree point, where there are about 5 acres of land under improvement with a log house upon it. Burlington was recognized by the first meeting of the proprietors, as in the province of New York, this was in 1774, and also in the deed from Averill to Powell, before mentioned; but in the deed from Powell to Murdock, it is stated to be in the state of Vermont. The state government had then been lately organized, and down to this event the settlers generally supposed that they were within the jurisdiction of New York, but claimed the validity of the titles under New Hampshire. This the New York authorities would not admit, and thus the troubles arose, which resulted in the independence of Vermont. If New York had acknowledged the grants made by Gov. Wentworth of New Hampshire, Vermont would to day have probably formed a portion of the Empire State.

In November, 1774, Stephen Lawrence of Sheffield, Mass., bought of Remember Baker lot No. 10, on Onion river, and during the same year contracts were made by John Chamberlin, Ephraim Wheeler, Stephen Clap, Ichabod Nelan, Benjamin Wate, for the purchase of lands in Burlington, of different members of the Allen family with a view to their settlement, but little was done by them before all were compelled to leave.

The next settlement was commenced by Lemuel Bradley and others. In 1774 and 1775 clearings were made in the northerly parts of the town on the intervale and near the falls opposite the Allen settlement in Colchester, and buildings were erected. In the fall of 1775 a portion of the inhabitants retreated southerly to the more settled portions of the state, while others passed the winter at the block fort in Colchester, but all soon afterwards left in consequence of the troubles with Great Britain, then existing in the colonies. The final abandonment of the town took place in the summer of 1776, after the mas


* Town Rec., vol. II, p. 201.




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terly retreat from Canada of Maj.-Gen. Sullivan (in command of the American army), in June and July of that year. This movement left the frontiers north of Ticonderoga unprotected, and was the immediate cause of the desertion of all the settlements, including Burlington, north of Rutland county. The town was represented by Mr. Lemuel Bradley in the first general convention held in Vermont, composed of delegates from the different towns in the state, at the inn of Cephas Kent at Dorset in Bennington county, on the 25th day of September, 1776, one session of the convention having been previously held at the same place on the 24th day of July in the same year, of which no records exist. Mr. Bradley's name does not appear in the list of those present at the subsequent session in January, 1777, at Westminster, when the territory known as the New Hampshire grants was declared a free and independent jurisdiction or state by the name of New Connecticut alias Vermont. No one remained in town from this time to the close of the war. At this period there were but few settlements in Chittenden county. A few families had settled in Shelburne in 1770 (Has. Hist., 303) but they held under the New York claimants and were permitted to remain as long as they were peaceable, with leave to use their option as to purchasing under the New Hampshire titles (Allen's Hist., 42). In the autumn of the same year Col. Allen and Capt. Baker found and took prisoners a surveying party (accompanied by 13 Indians) under one Capt. Stevens from New York, who were surveying under the authority of that state in Burlington and Colchester near the falls at Winooski; they were released on promising not to return. To guard this portion of the grants from the inroads and settlements of the New Yorkers, the Allen and Baker families erected a block fort at the falls in Colchester, with 32 port holes in the upper story, and well provided with implements of war; thus determined were the settlers to resist the claims of the most powerful colony in America. Col. Thomas Chittenden had commenced a settlement in Williston, and the towns of Jericho and Richmond were settled at the same time; but all the settlements were abandoned in 1776, and none again attempted until the close of the war.

One great reason, no doubt, which contributed to the rapid settling of these towns, just prior to the Revolution, was the desire on the part of those emigrating to this state from Massachusetts and Connecticut, of avoiding, as far as possible, the contentions and strife then existing in the southern portion of the grants, arising from the conflicting claims of New York and New Hampshire, and many, no doubt, in Bennington county, were well pleased to escape the turmoils and skirmishes, in which they had for years been engaged, by diving still deeper into an open and unprotected wilderness. The distance to Albany, from whence most of the New York opposition arose, together with the fact that it is one of fairest portions of the state, were the reasons of so many emigrating to this county during that period. The route by which the settlers came to Burlington was by the lake, or the road cut by Col. and Lieut. Allen and Capt. Baker in the year 1772, from Castleton to Colchester; this road crossed the Otter creek near the saw mill at the lower falls belonging to Mr. Pangburn, where the city of Vergennes was subsequently located, and from thence to the falls in the Laplot river at what is now called Shelburne falls in Shelburne, and from thence in a direct course to the falls at Winooski; this road with the block forts near Vergennes and at Winooski, was quite a protection to the Vermontese as they are styled in some of the earlier histories of the state.




The proprietors of Burlington were warned to meet at Noah Chittenden's dwelling house in Arlington, Vermont, on the 29th day of January, 1781. The notice is dated Sunderland, November 21st, 1780, and signed Ira Allen, Assistant, and was published in the Connecticut Courant. The notice stated the business of the meeting to be 1st "to choose a moderator; 2dly a clerk; 3dly to make and establish such divisions of lands as may then be agreed on and to transact any other business.

The proprietors met and voted, 1st His Excellency Thomas Chittenden, Moderator. 2ly Ira Allen, Clerk, and 31y Ira Allen, Treasurer, 41y to examine the proceedings of the former Proprietors' Meetings.

5ly Voted, That on examining the former proceedings of the proprietors, and considering the peculiar situation of the towns and New Hampshire grants, being claimed by New York, and experience in defending, &c., and the proceedings appearing consonant with the laws and usages of the government of New Hampshier and the proceedings of the people of the New Hampshier grants before the late Revolution, we do therefore hereby ratify and confirm all the votes and proceedings




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of the several proprietors meetings as heretofore recorded in this book (1st vol. Proprietors' Records,) respecting the division of lands, recording of survey bills and every other matter and thing, as fully and amply as though said proprietors meetings had been held under the present law and custome of this state.

61y Voted Future Meetings to be called by the Clerk by notice in News Papers in which legal notices are inserted upon application by one six teenth of the proprietors.

Adjourned sine die.




From the close of the war with Great Britain, the town was rapidly settled. In 1783, Stephen Lawrence, who 9 years before purchased a tract of land here, moved his family into town. John Doxey, Frederick Saxton and John Collins came the same year, and at the taking of the first census in 1791, the population amounted to 332 — Burlington was then the 95th in point of numbers in the state —  and in 1800 to 815; it was then the 71st. John Doxey settled upon the intervale, north of the village, but his settlement was submerged by an overflow of the river, and he removed to one hundred acre lot No. 145 on the road now running from the High bridge to Hinesburg, near the present residence of Alexander Ferguson. Stephen Lawrence, Samuel Lane and John Knickerbocker settled near the High Bridge. John Collins, Job Boynton, Mr. King and Mr. Keyes at the lake on lots Nos. 11-15, and settlements were soon formed at the head of Pearl street. The Loomis family and Frederick Saxton were early settlers at that place. Jonathan Hart, Zachariah Hart, Philip Walker, Isaac French, Jeremiah French and John Downer settled quite early in that part of Burlington east of Muddy run (as it was then called), which was subsequently annexed to Williston. Timothy Titus settled at Muddy Brook, and erected the first saw mill built in town, just above the road leading from Burlington to Williston, at the point where the road crosses that stream; this mill was built previous to 1788. Isaac Webb was one of the first settlers in the south part of the town. John Van Sicklin settled in the southeast portion of the town. The names of the early surveyors employed in this town were Thomas Butterfield, William Coit, Caleb Henderson, Ira Allen, Nahum Baker, Nathaniel Allen, Abel Waters and Edward Allen.

The records of the early marriages and deaths in this town are quite meager. The first marriage on record is in the following words:

"Samuel Hitchcock and Lucy Caroline (daughter of Gen. Ethan Allen), married May 26th 1789.


The first births recorded are as follows:

Loraine Allen Hitchcock, daughter of "Samuel and Lucy C. Hitchcock born June 5th 1790."

"John Van Sicklin Jr son to John Van Sicklin and Elizabeth Van Sicklin was born June 11th 1790."

John Cadles Doxey, son of John Doxey, was born February 22 1788, but his birth is not on record.


The first town meeting on record is in the following words:


At a Town Meeting legally warned and held in Burlington on the 19th day of March 1787.

1st Voted Samuel Lane, Esq., Moderator.

2d Voted Samuel Lane, Esq., Town Clerk.

3d Stephen Lawrence, Fradk Saxton, Samuel Allen, Selectmen.

4 Voted Job Boynton, Constable, sworn.

5 Voted Stephen Lawrence, David Perigo, Capt. John Collins, Surveyors of Highways, sworn.

6 Voted Stephen Lawrence, Esq., Job Boynton, Samuel Lane, Esq., Listors sworn.

7 Voted Samuel Lane, Jr., David Perigo, Fence Viewers sworn.

8 Voted that Frederick Saxton's Barn and yard be a pound for said town the ensuing year.

9 Voted Frederick Saxton be key keeper.

10 Voted To raise a tax of 2d on the pound for the purpose to purchase town books.

11 Voted Stephen Lawrence Town Treasurer.

12 Voted To raise a tax of 2d on the pound for the purpose of repairing the highways and building bridges in said town.

13 Voted Job Boynton Collector of the afd tax.

14 Voted that this meeting be adjourned to the first Monday in May next at 2 o'clock afternoon.

This meeting was opened according adjournment.

Voted that Job Boynton collect only 1d on the pound of the 2d tax and the same be laid on the highways.

Voted to adjourn this meeting without day.





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Erastus Bostwick, now living in Hinesburg, some 94 years of age, says that when he first came to Burlington, some time previous to 1791, there were but three houses at the village or bay as it was then called; they were situated near the foot of Water street. Capt. Job Boynton lived in a large frame house low on the ground. Capt. King kept tavern at the northeast corner of King and Water streets, a two story house with a kitchen in the rear; it was at this house that the courts for Chittenden county were held for a few years after Burlington was made a shire town. Capt. John Collins lived in a frame house near the present corner of Water and King streets. Grant, a Scotchman or Englishman, a gentleman-like man, was engaged in mercantile business in a small one roomed log store; he kept cloths, groceries, &c., for sale.

A few logs fastened to the shore of the lake was the beginning of the old wharf. Lumbermen had temporary huts in the vicinity of the square, which was covered with bushes and shrubbery with now and then a pine tree. Some small houses were scattered along at the head of Pearl street and from thence to the falls, where Ira Allen lived in a huge two story house. There were at this time 332 inhabitants in town, there being 6 towns in the county with larger population; the inhabitants were quite evenly distributed through the different parts of the town.

In the year 1794 the persons named below were acting as follows:

John Fay, Elnathan Keyes, attorneys practising in the county court.

Samuel Lane, William Coit, justices of the peace.

John Fay, postmaster.

For a few years after the settlement of the town until nearly 1800 the highway running easterly from Burlington bay passing the falls at Winooski, the High bridge, then across the mouth of Muddy run and through the north part of Williston, past the settlement of Gov. Chittenden, was intersected at the High bridge or Narrows (sometimes called), by the road from Hinesburg, which passed through the east part of this town on the present. location of Fourth street. Capt. Daniel Hurlburt first ran a road from the south side of the college grounds to the tavern stand of Peter Benedict, afterwards known as the Eldredge place, on the corner of the road from the High bridge to Hinesburg and the Winooski turnpike; the location of this road, forming afterwards the western end of the Winooski turnpike, was very zealously opposed by the residents at the High bridge and the falls, as the travel from Hinesburg way would be diverted in consequence of it from past those places; but the shorter distance commended itself to the early settlers, and more especially to the owners of lands upon the new route, and opposition was of no avail. The location of the road was esteemed a matter of so much importance, that when the party locating it reached Mr. Benedict's, Capt. Hurlburt, who like a good christian and follower of Timothy, "took a little wine for the stomach's sake," immediately ordered a large quantity of that precious, refreshing and invigorating beverage commonly called Old Jamaica, to be distributed among the crowd; and if the testimony of those present upon that occasion can be believed, like Miles Standish's men-at-arms,


All drank as 'twere their mothers' milk, and not a man afraid.


Thus carefully were the customs of the ancient Puritans preserved — men who believed in making their hearts bold and their arms strong upon all important occasions by ample preparations of meat and wine, together with certain articles imported from their fatherland, in stone jugs, a free and abundant use of which resulted in the sachem's learning


The rule he taught to kith and kin,

"Run from the white man when you find he smells of Hollands gin! "


The love for the said Jamaica, acquired upon that occasion at Peter Benedict's, has been carefully handed down by the inhabitants in the vicinity, even to the present generation. The road from the college grounds no doubt would have run more to the south, reaching the Hinesburg road nearer St. George, and thus by abridging the distance accommodating the people in that direction more, were it not for a very vehement desire on the part of the settlers to pass and repass the aforenamed tavern of Mr. Benedict, of which privilege they would have been deprived had the road run south of its present location.

More interesting than anything that can be collected from old records and manuscripts and the hearsay of old settlers taken down by third persons, is the statement made by the venerable Horace Loomis, in July, 1860, of his recollections of Burlington. No person living has had better opportunities of knowing what has taken place here in its earlier days, and none were here as early as he, who has continued a resident of the place until the present.




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One of the few whose memory reaches back to the "times long past over which the twilight of uncertainty has already thrown its shadows, and the night of forgetfulness is about to descend for ever."


He came to the state when the town was new,

When the lordly pine and the hemlock grew

In the place where the court house stands.

When the stunted ash and the alder black,

The slender fir and the tamarack,

Stood thick on the meadow lands.


He says: "I was born in Sheffield, Berkshire county, Massachusetts, on the 15th day of January, 1775, was the oldest of 6 children who grew up to man and womanhood. My father was a shoemaker and tanner and currier. I went to the common schools of the time until I was fourteen years of age, that is, when I was small, all the time, and when larger, during the winter; when I was twelve years of age I was sent to school to Sharon, about 16 miles from Shefield; it was in winter; stayed there about a week, but being homesick I packed up my clothes and about the time school went in, took my leave for home on foot, had a hard time of it, it was very cold but I would not stop until I got home, which was about nine o'clock P. M. The folks found no fault, but I was embarrassed and wanted to go back, which I did in about a fortnight and that was the first and last time I was homesick.

"With my father's family I moved up to Burlington, Vermont, where we arrived on the 17th day of February, 1790, at 12 o'clock at old John Collins's, who lived in a building on the site of the brick house of John Pomeroy, on Water street, and after waiting about half an hour for some flip we took up our residence in a log house which stood just east of Luther Loomis's store, on what is now Pearl street, where we lived until the latter part of November of the same year, when we moved into the house at present occupied by Edward C. Loomis,* which was raised on the 8th day of July of the same year. All the people that could be got from Shelburne, Essex, Colchester and Burlington, were present at the raising; we had a good time, plenty of St. Croix rum, a barrel of which my father brought from Sheffield. I forgot to say that we moved up in five sleighs; we stopped in Lenox the first night, the next night at Williamstown, the next night near Granville, the next day we struck Lake Champlain, and stopped near Crown point, then traveled on the lake to Charlotte, where we put up with Mr. Grant, the next day we arrived at Burlington. It took some time to get all the children ready with Old Jenny the negro woman in the morning.

When we came to Burlington, there were on what is now Water and King streets but four buildings. Capt. Boynton's on what is now the southeast corner of Water and King streets; Collins, as above stated; Captain Gideon King's on the northeast corner of Water and King streets, and a blacksmith shop a little north of and opposite the Collins place. Col. Frederick Saxton had made a beginning of the old Pearl house, in 1789, where he lived when we came here, having sold out to my father the log house and 20 acres of land. Daniel Hurlbut lived in a log house near the site of the Samuel Reed house, now occupied by A. C. Spear, at the head of College street, on the College green. Benjamin Boardman lived in a log house, a little north of the brick house on the interval farm of J. N. Pomeroy, occupied by J. Storrs. Mr. Spear, either Dearing or his father, lived in a log house on the interval near the river, on land now owned by Philo Doolittle. There was a house on the Ethan Allen farm occupied by a Mr. Ward. There was also a log house on the Bradley farm occupied by Moses Blanchard. There were a number of little plank and log houses at the falls, and among the occupants were Judson; and Mr. Spafford was lumbering there, and William Munson was tending the saw-mill, and James Hawley tended the grist-mill, such as it was. Alexander Davidson lived on the shore opposite the Theodore Catlin place. A man by the name of Lockwood lived above the falls, near what since is called the Rolling place, near the foot of the hill, afterwards occupied by Dr. Fletcher. Daniel Castle lived about half a mile east of Davidson's. There was a shanty on the site of J. N. Pomeroy's red farm house, built by a Frenchman by the name of Montι, which he had occupied while he was getting out masts and rolling them into the river at the Rolling place on the hill above, where the brick house of J. N. Pomeroy stands. Under the hill where Eliab Forbes lived, near the High bridge, Stephen Lawrence and his mother lived. John Knickerbocker boarded with Joel Harvey, who with his family lived near the present site of Geo. B. DeForest's house on Tuttle street. Elisha Lane lived on a part of what was afterwards my father's farm, above the High bridge on the interval, he bought out Elisha, Samuel, and Samuel Lane, jr., who lived on the land when we came. Jock Winchell and Barty Willard lived over the river on the Stanton and


* Corner of Pearl and Williams street.




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Weeks farm. Barty Willard moved here the second year afterward. Peter Benedict lived at the old Eldredge place. Samuel Allen lived on the hill this side of Muddy Brook. John Doxey lived where Alexander Ferguson now lives, about half a mile south of the Eldredge place. There was quite a little settlement of the Frenches and others in that part of the town, which was set off to Williston. Nathan Smith lived on the Fish farm, and John Van Sicklin lived on the farm which his son now owns. A man by the name of Marvin lived under the hill just this side of John Van Sicklin. Avery, that framed my father's house, lived at the falls. Nahum Baker lived with him, and helped to frame the house.

William Coit lived in Colchester, at Ira Allen's, and the next year built a house on the corner of Water and South streets, on which was built Court House square, facing to the south, and was afterwards, about 1802, sold to Amos Bronson, and by him moved to the north side of the square, and was long occupied by Bronson, Arza Crane, John Howard, Newton Hayes, successively, and afterwards by John Howard as a hotel. The first jail was built of timber on the corner of Church and College streets, and was afterwards moved to its present site. The college was built, or the walls put up and covered in 1802. The old president's house was built some 2 or 3 years before. The first school-house built in town or village was built just east of the convent, and taught by one Nathaniel Winslow; I went there to school about ten days and could learn nothing from him.

The wild animals in the country when we came here were bears, deer and sable; no gray or black squirrels, till 3 or 4 years after; now and then a stray wolf from the other side of the lake was seen, but wolves were not resident here; the other animals mentioned were abundant. I knew a man, Jim Ward, who sent 100 skins of the sable to Boston 1 year. 3 bears were killed near where the oollege stands; they destroyed much corn on the intervale, and were common all over town; there were also in the country beavers, otters and minks, not abundant; beavers were here as late as 1820. There were no rats here until they were brought from St. Johns, in the old horse boat, by Gid. King; muskrats were abundant. There were a plenty of salmon in the Winooski river; they barrelled them at the falls; they were caught here as late as 1809 or 1810 with a scoop net.

Stephen Pearl came from the Grand Isle about the year 1794, and moved into the house now standing and occupied by Mrs. Alvin Foote, at the head of Pearl street, which was built by Frederick Saxton in the fall of the year 1789. Saxton, Stackhouse, Burt, Willard, Jock Winchell and Stephen Lawrence came here in June, 1783. Three of them built a shanty near the spring just above Mr. Sidney Barlow's in Maria Loomis' lot, and Saxton built a log house just above the site of Luther Loomis' store, where Phineas Loomis, first lived in this town with his family, and afterwards Isaac Webb in 1791, and last Dr. John Pomeroy, who lived there from the spring to the fall of 1792.

Stephen Pearl had been a merchant and failed, in Pawlet, Vt.; when he moved to the Grand Isle. He was made sheriff of Chittenden county, of which Grand Isle was then a part, about the time he came to Burlington; and continued sheriff for many years thereafter. He bargained for the place which he went into, and for 50 acres of intervals with Ira Allen — which place he occupied until his decease. He owned a large tract of land on the intervale, and was a large farmer, and a good one. For about three years he was a merchant, which, with his generous habits, was long enough to use up about one half of his property. For many years he was a justice of the peace — until in fact, he was too infirm to attend to its duties. As a magistrate, in the trial of causes, he gave general satisfaction — founding his decision on his own sense of right, without paying too much attention to the plea of the lawyers. He was frequently elected selectman of the town. His hospitality was unbounded, as were his social qualities. This latter was his weak point. His house was always the home of the friendless, and was always visited by distinguished strangers from within and without the state, where they were entertained at a plain but generous board, presided over by Mrs. Pearl, who fully responded to and sustained the kindly hospitalities and courtesies of her husband. The following among many other anecdotes of the colonel, may perhaps be worth preserving, as illustrative of his character: On his first trip to New York for goods, in the hot season of the year, after a short visit to his old friend Jemmy Caldwell of Albany, with whom he breakfasted or dined, or both, he started for the steamboat in his shirt, sleeves, carrying his coat upon his arm. This was his first trip in a steamboat. On going on board he shortly found his way to




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the gentlemen's cabin and stepping up to the bar gave a free rap with his fist. His peculiar manner and free and easy mode were noticed by those around him and particularly by a company of young Albany merchants on their way to New York; and they thought to have a little sport with the free old gentleman, at his expense. The colonel was not long in perceiving by their motions and officiousness their intentions. One came up and enquired where he was from? Another, what was his name? The colonel rose and spreading his hands in an expressive manner peculiar to himself, said, "my name is Stephen Pearl — I am from Burlington, Vermont, and now, I should like know who you are skipping about here like mites in cheese?" This was enough — the bar-keeper came — they had a joyous time down the river and were ever afterwards friends.

Col. Pearl was a large and portly man, and although rather clumsy, had a fine and imposing presence, a genial and benevolent look, and a courtly and unfaltering manner in any company, and under all circumstances. He was in fact one of "nature's noblemen," and though he died in reduced circumstances, he was universally respected and beloved, as was attested at his funeral, which was attended by a large concourse of his neighbors and friends from this and the adjoining towns. He died on the 21st November, 1816, aged 69.

We are moreover indebted to G. B. Sawyer, Esq., of this village, for the following information in regard to Col. Pearl and other early and deceased citizens of Burlington:

Stephen Pearl. — There never was another such a man. He had such an extraordinary power to please, he commanded and charmed men, women and children. His great characteristics were sense, wit and benevolence. An old friend could never pass by his door unhailed We united conspicuously majesty and beauty of form and countenance, and as he stood in his porch, his tall, large, magnificent form looked like a colossus. He was a large and beneficent landholder, with that wonderful tact of distribution, that while his divisions made others rich, they did not impoverish him. He was a captain at Bunker Hill, and a major (I think) when he came out of the Revolution. He was a colonel in Rutland county militia, and present at the "Rutland Shay's Rebellion." The records of Burlington while he was town clerk, labeled Stephen Pearl's Book of Truth, in his round, good old fashioned hand, are themselves a fair memorial of his handsome and original way of doing whatever he undertook. Col. Pearl left no family.

Timothy Pearl, brother of Stephen, was shrewd and smart, somewhat like his brother. He was judge of probate of Alburgh district (see County Chapter). Stephen Pearl, a merchant in Boston, is grandson of Timothy,

Col. James Sawyer, born in 1762, was the youngest son of Col. Ephraim Sawyer of Lancaster, Mass., who with his 4 sons, served in the war of the Revolution, and were regular officers in the army. The father, Col. Ephraim Sawyer, commanded the Worcester county regiment at the battle of Bunker Hill, and at the battles of Saratoga in 1771. After which he retired from service, but continued to support his sons there.

James Sawyer, the son, was at the taking of Yorktown, and at the storming of the redoubt (put up to protect the wings). He was an officer in the Massachusetts line. He was at the side of Col. Alexander Hamilton. to whose regiment of light infantry he belonged. After the Revolution he came to Rutland and lived 4 years. At the Rutland Shay's rebellion, he commanded the cavalry, and rendered important services in suppressing that outbreak. From Rutland he removed to Brandon, where he remained 6 years, and removed to Burlington in 1796, where the first 2 years he was a merchant; and for 6 years thereafter, sheriff of the county; he succeeded Col. Pearl as sheriff. Col. Pearl, Col. Sawyer, Mr. Daniel Staniford, Heman Lowrey, Heman Allen of Colchester, and Gen. Davis of Milton, were the sheriffs in succession for 50 years. Mr. Sawyer married, in 1791, Lydia Foster of Clarendon. They had 7 children. Mr. Sawyer died in Burlington, in 1827. When Lafayette visited Burlington, he with others, who came to grasp the hand of their distinguished guest, passed up in silence, but the Roman nose and marked countenance, though it had been 42 years since they had met, were instantly recognized by the general, who saluted him without hesitation by his military title and name, remarking: "Time has made some changes with us all, Sir."

James L. Sawyer, son of James Sawyer, graduated at Burlington (the Vermont University) in 1806; then the youngest person who had ever graduated at this college. He was a lawyer by profession, went to New York in 1829, where he spent the remainder of his life; and died in 1850

Frederick Augustus Sawyer, 1st lieutenant




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of the 11th Vermont regiment, in the war of 1812, son of James Sawyer, was as much of a soldier as any man I ever saw. He graduated at the Vermont University just before the war, and entered the army as an ensign, was in the battles of Chrystlers fields, Chippewa, Bridgewater, and in the defense of and sortie from Fort Erie. His regiment was 6 years after the war at Plattsburgh, N. Y. In 1819, he resigned his commission, came out of the army with a high reputation, returned to Burlington, and died here in 1831.

Of Capt. Horace B. Sawyer, son of James Sawyer, honorable mention is already made, in the Chittenden County Military Chapter, and a biographic sketch may be found under the head of Burlington Biography. — Ed.

George F. Sawyer, son of James Sawyer, entered the navy with Com. McDonough as private secretary. He was a purser when he died, in 1852, on the Cumberland frigate, recently destroyed by the Merrimac. He understood many languages, and was in the navy 28 years.

George Robinson, a native of Dutchess county, N. Y., represented Burlington more than 15 years, in the Vermont legislature. He was a man of boundless wit and humor, universally respected and beloved, an able lawyer and advocate, states attorney, judge of probate, grand master of masons of the state, always selectman; one whom the people could not get along without, held all the offices in town. He died abroad. His family are all dead but one son; one was lost at sea; none remain in Burlington.

Stephen Lawrence, was a merchant and a son of one of the first settlers in town. He was buried near the site of the monument of Ethan Allen.

Thomas, Ephraim and Samuel Mills, three brothers, came here in connection with the Burlington Sentinel (then the Northern Sentinel). They were always editors and postmasters, and though thorough democrats, pretty clever fellows.

Elnathan Keyes, a prominent lawyer of the early times, was a man of powerful mind and ability; an honored and distinguished citizen of the town, county and state.

Col. Wm. C. Harrington, was another Burlington lawyer of the early times; an able strong-minded lawyer of the old school. He died in 1814. His family are all gone.

Hon. John C. Thompson, a Rhode Islander by birth, came to Vermont and married a Miss Patrick of Windsor, and first settled in Hartland, Vt., where he practised law several years before he removed to Burlington. At Burlington he soon fell into a large practice, and became one of the most prominent and able men of the state. He was appointed judge of the supreme court and died within a year, in 1832, aged 42. His family are all gone.

Daniel Farrand, the son of Priest Farrand of Canaan, Conn., the clergyman wit of Sprague's Annals of the American Pulpit, first settled in Vermont at Windsor, where he was their representative to the legislature, and speaker of the house. He afterwards came to Burlington, and in 1813 was appointed a judge of the supreme court with Nathaniel Chipman and Jonathan H. Hubbard of Windsor. He was a man of vast learning, who inherited his father's wit, sarcasm and talent. He was a graduate of Yale.

Warren Loomis, the most brilliant man the town ever produced, graduated at Burlington college in the first class, 1804, and died when only about 37. He was an advocate and lawyer.

Dr. Robert Moody was a native of Ireland, and graduated and studied medicine before he came to America. He studied with Dr. Powell of Burlington, merely to get admitted here to practice; which was soon accomplished. He married the widow of George Harrington, son of Hon. Wm. C. Harrington, and was, till the time of his death, which was occasioned by his being thrown from his carriage, a skillful and successful practioner, some 12 or 15 years.

Dr. Robert Coit, a respectable physician, was an amiable, moderate man.

Rev. Luman Foote, an Episcopal clergyman in Michigan, a younger brother of the late Hon. Alvin Foote of this town, graduated here in 1818. He was the first editor of the Free Press.

Dr. Truman Powell, a cotemporary with with Dr. J. N. Pomeroy, had a large practice for many years.

Daniel Staniford, a native of Bennington, came here when about the age of 30. He had previously spent some 9 years in North Carolina. He came here as a merchant and was in trade awhile. He succeeded, as has been before stated, Col. Sawyer as county sheriff.

Daniel Hurlburt, was a rough, hard, powerful, in body and mind, man. The man to build bridges, the Burlington college, the turnpikes, to get out a raft for Quebec, and to help build up a country — a type of man passed from among us — the men who converted Vermont from a wilderness into what it is.

George Moore, who built the factory at




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Winooski falls, was a worthy and substantial business man. His widow and son still reside here.

E. T. Englesby, who lived and died in Burlington and inherited and made a good deal of money, was for many years president of the Burlington bank, and one of the leading business men of the village.




From Recollections of Horace Loomis.




The recent visit of the Prince of Wales to this country has awakened an interest in the facts and incidents of the tour of his grandfather Prince Edward, afterwards Duke of Kent through the Canadas, Vermont and Massachusetts, some 70 years ago. He came from Quebec in February, 1793, where for sometime he had had command of a regiment. His trip through the country was accomplished in carryalls and sleighs. His first stopping place in the states was at Chazy or Champlain in New York — thence on the ice to the Grand Isle, where he stopped the night preceding his arrival at Burlington, Vt., — a courier had been sent on to Burlington to make the necessary preparation for his accommodation. There were not over seven framed houses in the whole village at that time, the forest being almost unbroken, except on Water street, and the road leading easterly to the falls through what is now Pearl street, and to the north. The selection was not difficult when in fact, there was but one house of sufficient size to accommodate so large a company — that house was a large oak framed two story dwelling house just completed, and occupied by Phineas Loomis and family, and which yet stands on the corner of Pearl and Williams streets, and is occupied and owned by his grandson Edward C. Loomis; through whose taste it has been modernized and embellished so that, notwithstanding its low stories and steep roof, it presents a very pleasing appearance.

The prince arrived in the afternoon with thirteen carryalls and sleighs, and left the third day after before noon. He had two aids and two body guards, a cook and a lady. His body guards slept by his door, and his cook prepared the provisions which they had brought with them. He parted with his lady or mistress at this place — she going to New York and he to Boston. They always conversed in French. He was very kind in his attention to her in parting —  she was fixed nicely in the sleigh with an abundance of fur robes, the prince tucked up the robes and placed the large dog at her feet — they parted very affectionately, to meet, as was understood, in the West Indies. A little incident occurred in the passing of the prince and his lady from the house to the sleigh, which illustrates somewhat the character and personnel of the prince — an awkward, but stout fellow, was standing in the path, and not readily giving room for the prince and his lady to pass — the prince advanced and taking him up bodily set him on one side in the snow. He changed his teamsters at this place, dismissing those who brought him, to return to Canada. Frederick Saxton, Abram Stevens, Jira Isham and Jason Comstock and one other of the neighboring farmers, took the prince and party on to Boston. The prince seemed quite worried while here, but it was a common saying of those who carried him to Boston, that he was a jolly companion, faring as they did, and enjoying the pork and beans and nutcakes and cheese as well as any of them.

Among the early settlers of the town was Col. Stephen Keyes, a gentleman of the old school, who wore a cocked hat, kept a hotel on Water street, and was collector for the district of Vermont. He proposed to pay his respects to the Prince, and with several young gentlemen of the village, made a call in the evening. Col. Keyes introduced himself to the prince, and then stated that he had brought with him some young gentlemen of the law, and merchants, who wished to pay their respects to him. Among those young gentlemen were Elnathan Keyes, Joshua Stanton, Levi Henre and Zaccheus Peaslee. They were severally presented and the Prince respectfully bowed to each. This was apparently the commencement of a pleasant evening entertainment, it opened auspiciously if not flatteringly to the colonel and party, but what must have been their dismay, when the prince and his aids very informally and abruptly retired to their own apartments without deigning an apology or an explanation. The colonel could not brook this, and in unmeasured terms and unchosen phrases vented his indignation, and among the mildest of his expressions said the prince was "no gentleman." At the risk of making the colonel instead of the prince the hero of the tale, an anecdote of the colonel should be told, which will illustrate the effect which this rebuff was likely to produce. Two or three British officers, with their dogs, stopped at the hotel kept by the colonel. It was a humble house,




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but its best and largest north room, kept in the nicest order, with its clean sanded floor, was not an uninviting place for British officers to dine, and particularly on such a dinner as the colonel never failed to set for gentlemen. The officers with their dogs went in to dinner, and they soon began to feed them on the floor; the colonel looked upon it as an indignity, and bringing in a brace of loaded pistols, laid them formally on the table, and denouncing the conduct of the officers, swore he would protect the respectability of his house and was ready to do it.




The first freemen's meeting on record was held at the house of Benjamin Adams on the first Tuesday of September, A. D. 1794, for the election of state officers and councillors. The vote for governor was as follows: Isaac Tichenor, 23; Thomas Chittenden, 17; Ira Allen, 3; Nathaniel Niles, 1.

The first election for representative to congress (on record) was held at the same place on the last Tuesday of December in the same year. The following persons had the number of votes annexed respectively to their names: Israel Smith, 7; Isaac Tichenor, 7; Matthew Lyon, 4; Wm. C. Harrington, 2; Nathaniel Chipman, 1; Noah Smith, 1.




On the 11th day of June, 1798, the proprietors of the town met (according to an advertisement in the papers published in Bennington, Rutland, and Windsor, which notice was issued by a justice of the peace at the request of one sixteenth part of the proprietors) at the Court house in said town and made choice of the following officers: Gideon Ormsby, chairman; Wm. C. Harrington, clerk; Zacheus Peaslee, treasurer; Stephen Pearl, collector.

William Coit, Stephen Pearl and Zacheus Peaslee were chosen a committee to examine the old surveys and make further ones, and also to make a division of the lands, and also to ascertain what rights had been owned by Ira Allen, as Allen had avoided mentioning the names of his grantors in his deeds to the settlers. On the 16th, 17th, 18th, 19th and 20th days of June the division of lands was made, which is on file and record in the town clerk's office, and which prevails at the present day.

The first volume of the Proprietors' Records of this town is now in the possession of Mr. Henry Stevens.

At an adjourned meeting held on the 26th day of the same June it was voted, "That two acres and one-half of land whereon the court house and goal are built in said Burlington, shall be and is hereby set off for the use of the publick for the erecting of all necessary county and town buildings for publick use." The town and county buildings have since been built upon place named and some private rights have been acquired in the northeasterly portion where Strong's block is situated.




1802. — The legislature of the state held session at Burlington in this year, but besides a quarrel in the house of representatives over the speech of the governor, which occurrence was quite frequent in those days, but little business of importance was transacted, a thing not altogether unknown in legislative bodies of the present day.




1805. — Statutes of the state passed in 1797 and 1801 authorized the inhabitants of the towns of this state to form themselves into religious societies and levy a tax upon all persons residing in town unless they filed certain certificate in the town clerk's office. Accordingly at the request of 7 freeholders a meeting was warned and held on the 15th day of June, 1805, when 25 voters being present, they formed themselves into a society by a unanimous vote, by the name of the First Society for Social and Public Worship in the Town of Burlington.

The protest necessary for parties to sign to avoid taxation was in form similar to the following, which is the first on record:


"This may certify that I do not agree in the religious sentiments with the majority of the inhabitants of the town of Burlington.


Received and recorded March 24, 1806.

JR. GEO. ROBINSON, Town Clerk."


The laws relating to taxation were repealed in consequence of the recommendation of the council of censors.




At the September term, 1813, of the Chittenden county court, the town was found guilty of not keeping in repair the road from the College green to the bay, now called Main street, and was fined $600, and John Johnson was appointed to superintend the expenditure of the same On the 30th day of December following the town voted to lay a tax of 3 cents on a dollar to meet said sum.




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A reference to those transactions connected with the war which took place within our own borders, is all we shall attempt here. The non-intercourse "act of congress" and kindred measures, caused considerable feeling in this section of the country, and led to those smuggling expeditions so frequent at that time, which often resulted in bloodshed, the most serious of which has been noticed by Judge Reed in the history of Chittenden county. Perhaps nothing can be laid before the historical reader more fully showing the spirit and feeling of the people at that time than the following which, as it is not in print elsewhere (to my knowledge), I deem proper to insert here:


Supplement to the Vermont Centinel.


Burlington, Feb. 3, 1809.

The following resolutions having been received too late for insertion in the Centinel of this day, we have thought proper to issue them in a supplement.




At a meeting of the inhabitants of the town of Burlington, in the county of Chittenden, and state of Vermont, held on the second day of February inst., pursuant to warning, for the purpose of deliberating upon the present alarming situation of our country.

Daniel Farrand, Esq., chosen Moderator.

Voted, That a committee of five be chosen, to draw up and present to the meeting, for the consideration of the inhabitants, certain resolutions to be adopted upon the subject of the embargo.

Thereupon, Samuel Hitchcock, Elnathan Keyes, Daniel Farrand, David Russell and Stephen Pearl, Esquires, were chosen of that committee.

The meeting then adjourned one hour, at which time, the meeting being opened, the committee reported the following resolutions which were read and adopted UNANIMOUSLY.

Resolved, That the ultimate end of all legitimate government is the preservation of the nation, securing to the members of it personal safety, and the peaceable possession and enjoyment of property and reputation. These objects are so clearly and explicitly delineated in the constitution of this and of the United States, that whenever the citizens are oppressed by the measures of government, it furnishes strong ground to believe that it arises from the weakness or wickedness of those in whom the powers of government are vested.

Resolved, That it is the right and the indispensable duty of the citizens of the United States, at all times, to watch with vigilance and attention, every attack upon the constitution of our government, whether made by those who govern, or those who are destined to obey.

Resolved, As the sense of this meeting, that some of the late measures of the general government, present sufficient cause of alarm to all considerate men, to be at their post, & ready to repel with manly firmness every violation of our rights as citizens and freemen.

Resolved, That a review of these measure fills the mind with surprise and regret, inasmuch as Congress, under a pretence of saving our commerce from depredations, have totally destroyed it, by laying an embargo, and fortifying it with additional acts, until it amounts to almost a non-intercourse with all foreign nations. And we have seen with increasing surprise and indignation, the proclamation of the President, declaring this section of the Union in a state of insurrection and conspiracy against law, in consequence of an attempt of a few individuals to evade those laws. And to add insult to injury, armed troops have been stationed among us, in a time of profound peace, to the terror of many of our good & peaceable citizens. But all these grievances have been borne, hoping & believing that the constitution of our country would be respected, and redress had through the laws. But instead of relief, to our astonishment we have seen a law of Congress, approved by the President of the United States, the 9th of January last, which we can view in no other light than a systematic attack upon some of our most sacred rights, as secured to us by the constitution of this and the U. States.

By the 11th article of our Bill of Rights, it is declared, "that the people have a right to hold themselves, their houses, papers and possessions, free from search or seizure, and therefore, warrants without oath or affirmation first made, affording sufficient foundation for them, and whereby any officer or messenger may be commanded to search suspected places, or to seize any person or persons, his, her or their property, not particularly described, are contrary to that right and ought not to be granted." These sacred and inviolable rights are farther confirmed and guaranteed by the 6th section of the amendments to the constitution of the United States, which also declares that "the right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses,




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papers & effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized." By the act aforesaid, the powers vested in the President and those in subordination to him, are totally incompatible with those rights, & a direct attack on our once boasted happy constitution.


Resolved, That in our opinion, these measures are dictated, not by the free voice of the respectable part of the community, but by the temporizing policy of men, whom we have reason to fear, are devoted to the intrigues of some foreign power.


Resolved, That the spirited opposition to the passage of the above law, by the minority in Congress, is a sure pledge of their patriotism and merits the unqualified approbation of all friends to the independence of our common country.


Resolved, That the oath to support the constitution of the United States, impels every free man taking the same, to use all lawful means to suppress the usurpation imposed by the above law; and while we pledge ourselves to support with our lives and fortunes the constitution of our own state and of the United States and the laws made pursuant thereto, we deem it proper to declare, and we do most solemnly declare, that in the opinion of this meeting, the powers vested in the executive officers to carry the above act into execution, are hostile to civil liberty, and a violation of some of the fundamental principles of that government, which cost so much blood and treasure to obtain.


Resolved, That in our opinion, from the public documents which we have seen, our differences with Great Britain might have been settled by fair negotiation, had our administration been so disposed; and that we deprecate war with that nation, as an evil next in magnitude to those which we now suffer.


Resolved, That it be expedient to consult with our fellow citizens of this and the neighboring States, upon such measures, as shall be most likely to relieve us from these evils, and that a committee of correspondence be chosen for that purpose.


Resolved, That Daniel Farrand, Samuel Hitchcock and David Russel, Esquires, be the above committee.


STEPHEN PEARL,                     DANIEL FARRAND,

NATHAN SMITH, Selectmen.           Moderator.


A true transcript from the Records.


Town Clerk.


War being declared, Burlington at once became a point of considerable interest. Troops were stationed here under the command of Gen. Macomb, and Gen. Wade Hampton with 4,000 men occupied the town in 1813; troops also encamped in the easterly part of the town. Col. Clark went from Burlington with 102 men and attacked a British force at St. Armand, killed 9, wounded 14 and took 101 prisoners, and brought them to Burlington.

The military authorities took possession of the college buildings and used them for an arsenal and for barracks.

In 1813 the public stores at Plattsburgh were removed to Burlington, the enemy threatening the place. Their fleet came up the lake and fired a few shot at this town but soon retired when cannon on the shore commenced playing upon them. A shoemaker, who was here at the time, but now in Illinois, once told me that Com. McDonough was shaving himself, when the British were firing at the town, that a cannon ball struck the house he was in and fell on a bureau in front of him. "By G—," says he, "I'll pay you for this some time." All who have heard of his victory at Plattsburgh know whether he kept his word. During the latter part of the summer a fleet was completed carrying 48 guns, which sailed from Burlington and offered the enemy battle, but they skedaddled into Canada.

A brigade of Vermonters being drafted were disbanded at Plattsburgh and ordered home.

Embankments were thrown up on the lake shore in the northwest part of the village near the foot of Pearl street, now called the Battery, and barracks were built running from Pearl street to North street. Cannon balls are frequently found in the banks of the lake near by. There are many houses in the village at the present time which were a part of the old barracks, the buildings on the north side of Pearl street, at the head of Pine street and St. Pauls street, were formerly a part of them. At the battle of Plattsburgh all able bodied men in this vicinity crossed the lake and did good service. Atthough many held the opinion that the war was unnecessarily begun, yet when begun were united to a man in its vigorous prosecution.

From the close of the war in 1815, Bur‑




                                                     BURLINGTON.                                          503


lington progressed quite rapidly until 1840, when, from being one of the smallest towns in the state, as was the case at the first census, she was the first in population and wealth; which position she has since always maintained. The completion of the canal from Albany to Whitehall, and the introduction of steamboats upon Lake Champlain, gave Burlington, with its spacious bay, the breakwater in front and its ample wharfing grounds, quite a prominent commercial position; and for a long time until the completion of the railways the merchandize for the northern, northeastern and central portion of the state, and the products of the same districts on their way to markets, passed generally through the hands of the Burlington merchants, among whom might be named Messrs. Deming, Doolittle, Howard, Englesby, Follett, the Bradleys, Pecks, Mayo, Peterson, Walker and others.

The construction of the rail roads (centering at Burlington) about 1850, made a somewhat marked change in the town, both in its commercial business as well as in manufacturing which has sprung up at the lake, and the lumber trade matters which will be noticed elsewhere.

With occasional political contests, the excitement caused by the visit of some distinguished stranger like President Monroe in 1817, Gen La Fayette in 1825, the Angel Gabriel in 1854 (who disturbed good catholics by preaching in the streets on Sundays against the church of Rome), the feeling caused by the Canadian rebellion, the Bolton and our fratricidal war now going on, the celebration over some pioneer mechanic shop or a rail road, nothing of note has occurred to vary the monotony of every day business transactions. In her religious, educational, financial and business institutions she has fully kept pace with the rest of the land; while her citizens have been distinguished; representing our nation abroad and in all positions at home, on the bench, at the bar, and in the hall of legislation; while the blood of her sons has reddened many a battle field in defence of their country's flag.


[There has never been but one instance of capital punishment in the county, viz: that of Dean, the smuggler in the affair of the Black Snake, noticed by Hon. David Reed* in the County Chapter, and which is described in the following doggerel ballad written at the time — the authorship unknown — contributed to this magazine by Hon. Harvey Munsill of Bristol, Addison county:


In the year eighteen hundred and eight,

The Embargo Law in Vermont state,

Did so enrage our furious Feds

They would cross the line or loose their heads.

Our rulers meant to be obeyed,

And sent some men to stop the trade;

Some of our soldiers did combine

In arms, to guard the northern line.

A smuggling set in the Black Snake,

Resolved to sail upon the lake,

They armed themselves to fight their way,

And thus they thought to win the day.

The men who laid this smuggling plot,

Was Sheffield, Mudgett, Dean and Mott,

And many more, who were not clever,

Spread out their sails on Onion river,

All for to load their boat again,

And then to sail across the line;

But soldiers were so well agreed,

Their plan did not so well succeed.

Our officers found where she lay,

The orders were, take her away;

The Revenue was then sent on,

Commanded by one Farrington.

And when this smuggling rebel crew,

Heard of the boat, the Revenue,

Unto the house of Joy's they went,

And there one night in private spent.

There each agreed upon a man,

And Mudgett took the sole command;

He, like a tory, or a friend,

The lives of many meant to end.

To carry on this wicked deed,

With a large gun they did proceed,

And by the Snake they made a stand,

To guard the same stood on the land.

Then Farrington sailed from the lake,

And thus he to the rebels spake,

"Orders I have to take the Snake,

And all the smugglers on the lake."

This raised their blood, to arms they flew,

For to keep off the Revenue,

And execute this wicked deed,

That did from rebels hearts proceed.

Then Mudgett gave the threatening word,

To all the men that was on board,

"The first that steps into the Snake,

A lifeless corpse of him I will make."

But Farrington feared not his threats,

Into the smuggler boat he steps;

There, like a warrior bold and brave,

His blood and honor thought to save.

Now let us turn and view the scheme,

And who begun this bloody scene;

It was Sheffield, with his Indian skill,

The crimson blood of Drake did spill.

With hearts unfeeling they went then,

To spill the blood of honest men


* Vide page 486




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Ormsby and Marsh then prostrate fell,

Before these wicked imps of hell,

And bold and warlike Farrington,

His crimson blood they caused to run.

These men were tried all for the same crime,

Why not alike their sentence find;

Dean was sentenced to the halter,

The rest convicted of manslaughter. — Ed.]





The boundaries of the town was a matter which received considerable attention in early years. The easterly line was changed in 1797, when the legislature annexed all that part of the town lying east of Muddy brook to Williston, making a natural boundary on all sides but the south which line was run by William Colt, Esq., surveyor in 1798.




Among the merchants the following are the names of the earlier: — Grant, Stephen Keyes, Zacheus Peaslee, Thaddeus Tuttle, E. T. Englesby, Wm. F. Pell & Co., Herring & Fitch, Newell & Russell; Moses Jewett, saddler; Nehemiah Hotchkiss, tailor; J. Storrs, painter; Justus Warner, cabinet-maker; Wm. Bryant, shoemaker; Daniel Wilder, joiner.

Attorneys. — Samuel Hitchcock, William C. Harrington, John Fay, Elnathan Keyes, Daniel Farrand, Phinehas Lyman, Moses Fay, Stephen Mix Mitchell, George Robinson, C. P. Van Ness, Charles Adams, Warren Loomis, James L. Sawyer, Timothy Follett, John N. Pomeroy, Henry Hitchcock, Charles H. Perrigo, Isaac Warner, John C. Thompson, Gamaliel B. Sawyer, George Peaselee, Seneca Austin, George P. Marsh, Alvan Foote, A. W. Hyde, Davis Stone, Sanford Gadcomb, Jason Chamberlin, Wm. A. Griswold, John B. Richardson, Luman Foote, Benjamin F. Bailey, Wm. Brayton, Amos Blodgett, Henry Leavenworth.

Physicians, in the order of time in which they resided here: John Pomeroy, —— Fletcher, Jabez Penniman, James Root, Mathew Cole, —— Bostwick, John Perrigo, Truman Powell, Elijah D. Harmon, —— Sackett, Capius F. Pomeroy, Arthur L. Porter, Nathaniel R. Smith, Joseph Marsh, Leonard Marsh, Wm. Atwater, B. J. Heineberg, Horace Hatch, John A. Ward,* W. A. Tracy, H. H. Atwater,† H. H. Langdon,‡ Thomas Bigalow,* † John M. Knox,† George W. Ward, Matthew Cole,† Nathan Ward, —— Dorion,§ —— Lagotte,§ A. Contant,§ S. W. Thayer, jr.,† N. H. Ballou, W. Carpenter,† B. W. Carpenter.‡




Gideon King kept the first hotel on Water street, afterwards the house was opened on the square by Mr. King, afterwards kept by Mr. Thomas in the building now called Strong's block.

The Howard house was kept for a long time on the north side of Court House square. The Green Mountain house, afterwards called the Pearl Street house, at the head of Pearl street. The place latterly called the Omnium Gatherum, on the corner of Pine and Pearl streets.

A tavern was kept for about 50 years at the junction of the Winooski turnpike and the High bridge and Hinesburgh road, called the Eldredge place, and about one half mile east of the Eldredge place a tavern was kept by Major Ebenezer Brown, and one also about 2 miles south of the village on the Shelburne road.

Present Hotels. — American hotel, south side of the square, corner Shelburne and Main streets.

Howard hotel, south corner Shelburne and main streets.

Central house, Church street, between Bank and Cherry, opposite the jail.

Stanton house, northwest corner of Church and Cherry streets.

Lake house and Champlain hotel, Water street.




This institution which was required under our early laws was located about 100 feet west of the Court house on the square, it being a huge pine tree some 80 feet high, a pine was probably selected from the fact that that tree flourished in our coat of arms.




Although the lists of the town are very inaccurate, varying considerably under the same circumstances, and made at different times, according to different valuations, yet they present data from which the relative prosperity of the town can be presumed. The following is a copy of the first list on file:


Burlington Grand List for the Year 1787.


Arastus Woolcut, £6 John Doxey, £10; Alexander Davidson, £9; Joel Fairchild, £9; Antoney Coffey, £9; Jabiz Allen, £15; Barney Spear, £6; Joel Harvey, £9; Barzillia Spear, £6; Nat Allen, £10.10; Dearing Spear,


* Homeopathic.

‡ In the army.

† Now in practice.

§ French physician.




                                                     BURLINGTON.                                          505


£11; Nathan Lockwood, £10; David Perigo, £18; Philo Castle, £6; Daniel Fairchild, £6; Reuben Lockwood, £10; Daniel Castle, £11; Reuben Hurlbut, £26; General Ethan Allen, £16; Rufus Perigo, £9; Elisha Lane, £15; Richard Spear, £30; Colonel Fred. Saxton, £65; Samuel Lane, £32; Captain John Collins, £45; Stephen Lawrence, £89.10; Col. Ira Allen, £5; Samuel Allen, £19.10; Samuel Lane, jr., £12; John Favil, £12; Stephen Fairchild, jr., £15; Esquire John White, £19; Josiah Averil, £12; Stephen Fairchild, £32; Job Boynton, £12; Jack Johnson, £6; James Barney, £6; Isaac Pitcher, £9; Ceasor Allen, £6; Jona Butterfield, £9. Total £662.10.

This is a true copy of the original.

Test.                                       STEPHEN LAWRENCE,

Test.                                      JOB BOYNTON, Listers.


The list of the town in early years was based upon the following valuation:


Polls, £6;* $20:† an ox, £3; $10: 3 years' old cattle, £2; $6.50: 2 years' old cattle, £1; $5: yearling cattle, £Ύ: stock horses, £20; $150: 3 years' old horses and upward, £4; $13.50: 2 years' old horses £2; $6.50: yearling horses, £1; $3.50: improved land per acre, £½; $1.75: money and debts, 20 per cent; 6 per cent: clocks, $10: gold watches, $10: silver watches, $5: houses valued $1,000, 2 per cent: houses valved over $1,1100, 3 per cent. Professional men, merchants, and traders — discretionary.


The following are lists for yours named under the above valuation:

1787, £662.10; 1788, £1,461.2; 1789, £1,148.16; 1790, £1,371.14; 1791, £1,258; 1792, £1,555.10; 1794, £1,932.15; 1795, £2,168.15; 1796, £2,548; 1800, $10,480.25; 1802, $11,896,66; 1804, $17,740.43; 1806, $15,840.


The following are the amount of lists for the years named:

Polls — 1797, 116; 1799, 144; 1801, 151; 1803, 156; 1814, 280; 1817, 185.

Amount at $20 each — 1797, $2,320; 1799, $2,880; 1801, $3,020; 1803, $3,120; 1814, $5,600; 1817, $3,700.

Improved land, acres — 1797, 868Ό; 1799, 1,064½; 1801, 1,341; 1803, 1,588Ύ; 1814, 2,921½; 1817, 3,207½.

Amount at $1.75 per acre — 1797, $1,519; 1799, $1,862; 1801, $2,346; 1803, $2,780; 1814, $5,112; 1817, $5,613.

Houses, 2 and 3 per cent, valuation — 1797, $409; 1799, $393; 1801, $436; 1803, $737; 1814, $1,953; 1817, $1,943.

Other property and assessments — 1797, $4,635; 1799, $5,432; 1801, $6,157; 1803, $5,012; 1814, $12,174; 1817, $9,377.

Total — 1797, $8,884; 1799, $10,568; 1801, $11,959; 1803, $11,842; 1814, $24,840; 1817, $20,633.

Militia polls exempt — 1797, 92; 1799, 80; 1801, 46; 1803, 92.

Cavalry horses exempt — 1797, 6; 1799, 6; 1801, 3; 1803, 2.


Valuation for the years named below:

Number of polls — 1842, 699; 1843, 615; 1845, 689; 1847, 767; 1850, 979; 1855, 772; 1860, 1,095; 1862, 967.

Amount of list at $2 each — 1842, $699; 1843, 1,230; 1845, $1,378; 1847, $1,534; 1850, $1,958; 1855, $1,544; 1860, $2,190; 1862, $1,934.

Real estate valued — 1842, $977,856; 1843, $982,117; 1845, $1,057,243; 1847, $1,190,614; 1850, $1,338,106; 1855, $1,604,398; 1860, $1,158,923; 1862, $1,076,303.

Personal estate valued — 1842, $509,148; 1843, $457,940; 1845, $413,734; 1847, $392,909; 1850, $641,263; 1855, $717,188; 1860, $811,671; 1862, $732,412.

Polls were set in the list in 1842 at $1 each.




Rattle his bones over the stones,

He's only a pauper, whom nobody owns.


That open hospitality which prevails in countries thinly settled, especially those of an agricultural character, a marked characteristic of the early Vermonters, soon after the first settlements led to the establishment of laws providing for the support, by the public, of those persons "naturally wanting of understanding," or who "by the providence of God, by age, sickness or otherwise should become poor and impotent or unable to provide for themselves."

An elaborate statute was passed by the general assembly of the state in March, 1787, of which one section reads as follows:

"That each town in this state shall take care of, support and maintain their own poor," the statute also gives suitable directions in all matter relating to poor persons.

1809. — The first year in which the expenses of the poor in Burlington can with accuracy be ascertained is that ending with the annual March meeting, A. D. 1809, when the account of the overseer of the poor which he presented to the town for payment, being the sums he had expended the previous year in supporting the poor, amounted to $47.64.

1816. — At a special town meeting held on


* Acts passed in 1791.                                

† In 1797.





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the 19th day of Oct. A. D. 1816, it was voted to appoint a committee of two to examine and report upon the propriety of building or hiring a building for a work house to report at the adjourned meeting — and thereupon voted that Henry Mayo and Lemuel Page be said committee. The committee reported at the adjourned meeting held four days later: "That four rooms in the high barracks can be rented for a small rent, that the rooms above mentioned will require but little repairs to make them suitable for the business. At present no water can be procured for the use of the rooms short of the lake. Your committee consider the above named room, by far, the most eligible for the purpose of a work house that can at present be obtained," which report was read and accepted.

It was then voted, "That the overseers of the poor be a committee to hire the high barracks upon the best terms in their power to be occupied as a work house."

Voted, "That John Pomeroy, David Russell and Nathaniel Mayo be a committee to draw up rules, orders and regulations for said work house."

1817. — The succeeding spring it was ascertained that the expenses of the poor department were becoming large, being for that year nearly $1,000, and treble the expenses of the preceding year, and the committee appointed to settle the account of the overseers, speak as follows:

"The committee regret the necessity which has produced such an unexampled expenditure for the support of the poor during the last year humanity as well as duty bid us to consider the misfortunes of the necessitous, but the expenses incurred in their support are enormous and we ought to retrench them as far as possible."

1821. — At the annual meeting in 1821 the selectmen and overseers of the poor were appointed a committee to make the necessary inquiries whether a convenient and proper house could be procured for a house of correction and work house for the poor, and on what terms; and if any could be procured to make such rules for the regulation of the same as they should think proper and were ordered to report at an adjourned meeting, and subsequently at said adjourned meeting they were authorized to procure such a place, and a set of rules and regulations were adopted for the government of the same, which provided for the appointment of a superintendent or keeper, and power was given him "to fetter, shackle or whip, not exceeding twenty stripes, any person confined therein who does not perform the labor assigned him or her, or is refractory or disobedient to the lawful commands," and also "that no person so confined shall be permitted the use of any ardent spirits unless the physician who may be employed to attend on any person so confined and sick shall deem the same necessary for the health of such person."

This establishment was kept up for two years and then abandoned.

The following extract is from the report of the overseers in 1824:

1824. — "The beneficial effects which resulted in consequence of the establishment of a poor house and house of correction in 1821 were sensibly felt the ensuing year, by diminishing the poor account and ridding the town of a worthless population. The want of an establishment of this kind, the past season, has had a contrary effect, it has produced an influx of idle and disorderly persons within the village limits, who must eventually become chargeable to the town. The gratuitous aid afforded by the sheriff of the county by furnishing a secure place for such disorderly persons as have been thrown upon our hands the past year, has been of much service, and we cannot close this report without indulging a hope that the town will at their present meeting, adopt such measures for the erection of a permanent poor house and house of correction, which will prove a home to the unfortunate and deserving, a terror to the dissolute and idle, relieve the labors of those who succeed as well as lessen the annual expenses of the poor.

"George Moore, N. B. Haswell, overseers of the poor."

At the same meeting the following resolution was passed:

Resolved, That it is expedient to build or purchase a work house and house of correction and that a committee of five persons be appointed to prepare a plan, make an estimate of the expense of the same, and make report of their doings at an adjourned meeting, and Luther Loomis, George Moore, Nathan B. Haswell, Henry Thomas and John Van Sicklin, Jr., were appointed such a committee, and on the 5th day of April, the same year the committee reported that a suitable and convenient house with two acres and a half of land in a central situation, with a good well of water, could be procured for $800, and that the necessary and suitable repairs would cost about $50, and they recommended the purchase of the same.




                                                     BURLINGTON.                                          507


The report was adopted and the sums recommended were voted.

On the 9th day of April, the same year Charles Adams deeded to the town the premises referred to in the report above named, being the north half of that part of 5 acre lots No. 1 and 2, which lies between College and Main street.

1831. — The poor of the town increasing it was soon found that the house did not meet the wants which the exigencies of the department required. At the town meeting in 1831, a committee was appointed on the subject of the poor house and pest house, and were ordered to make a report at an adjourned meeting; at which meeting they recommended the purchase of a suitable farm with buildings, to be converted into a poor house and house of correction, and on which may be erected a pest house, and that the premises then owned by the town and used as a poor house be sold; that a committee be appointed to ascertain what the poor house might be sold for, and for what sum a suitable farm might be purchased, and to make a report at an adjourned meeting.

1833. — In 1833 a committee was appointed on the subject of a poor house, house of correction and pest house; but they not having such knowledge of the subject as would enable them to present any definite plan, recommended that a committee be appointed and they visit similar establishments in other places, prepare plans and make estimates of the cost.

At almost every town meeting for a number of years the subject of the poor house was extensively discussed. The agitation generally ended in the appointment of a committee who would almost invariably report that in their opinion a committee should be appointed to investigate the matter, which last named committee would generally never be heard from.

1836. — In the year 1836 the selectmen were appointed a committee to investigate the expediency of purchasing a farm upon which necesssary buildings for the use of the poor might be erected, and were ordered to report at an adjourned meeting to be held on the first Monday of May following.

The day came and they reported that ten farms had been offered to them at various prices, but they had no opinion themselves upon the subject, and following the invariable rule in such cases recommended that a committee be appointed to investigate the subject thoroughly; and accordingly a committee of three were chosen to act with the selectmen in the purchase of a farm, and a tax of four cents on the dollar was voted to pay for the same. This committee, unlike its predecessors, acted in the matter, and on the 27th day of September, 1836, reported to a town meeting held on that day, that they had purchased the farm of Frederick Purdy, lying 2½ miles south of the village, on the Shelburne road, for the sum of $2000.

1837. — This measure did not seem to have the desired effect of lessening expenses, as the following extract from the records the following spring will show:

"On motion of G. B. Sawyer, Esq., a committee was appointed to investigate and report to the town at the next adjourned town meeting the causes of the increased number of paupers and increased expenses of the poor for the last two years." No trace of their report can be found.

This farm contains about 70 acres of land, and with the improvements since made is used for the support and accommodation of the poor, under the charge of a superintendent employed by the town.

1859  — The building on the farm becoming somewhat dilapidated, at the March meeting in 1859, it was voted that the selectmen, overseer of the poor and Dr. W. C. Hickok, be authorized to take immediate measures to rebuild or repair the building on the poor farm, so that they might be permanently adapted to the proper and convenient care of the poor of the town, provided that the expense thereof should not exceed $4,000.

The following extract from the report of the selectmen, made the following spring, indicates the progress of the matter:


"New Poor House.

"In accordance with the vote of the town at the last March meeting, your committee have erected and completed a new poor house, on your farm. The building is of brick, 48 by 48, two stories, with a basement; the walls are twelve inches, with an air space, or double, as they are termed. The building will conveniently accommodate 75 persons; is well lighted, perfectly ventilated, easily warmed; is convenient in its arrangements, plain in finish, substantial and good, and cost $3,825.23.

"The house contains two water closets, designed for the use of the old and infirm. The cost of these with the necessary traps, fixtures, and large tile drain, added to the cost of the house some $300 or $400 but the convenience of them is almost beyond value, in such a house.




508                              VERMONT HISTORICAL MAGAZINE.


"We also moved the old store, as it is termed, around to the new house, and have finished up the same, and made of it a good wood shod and carriage house, which, of course, was much needed. We have also provided two good cisterns, a well, and new furniture, &c., the cost of all which you will find detailed in the orders of the selectmen. The amount of these expenditures is $685.41."

If a generous policy towards the poor is evidence of an enlightened civilization, certainly Burlington can take her position in the first rank of civilized communities. Situated as she is, in direct communication with the cities, and being the gate through which emigrating paupers pass in their annual peregrinations, it is no wonder that an immense influx of pauper population annually takes place.


Statement of the Expense of the Poor Department.


For most of the years from 1809 to 1862 inclusive, being for years ending at the annual March meeting: 1809, $47.64; 1810, $132.90; 1816, 323.96; 1817, $964.17; 1818, $1,257.16; 1821, $445.80; 1822, $341.38; 1823, $707.55; 1824, $418.50; 1825, $427.85; 1826, $436.80; 1828, $866.06; 1829, $913.31; 1833, $886.86; 1834, $1,197.24; 1835, $851.89; 1836, $1,084.53; 1837, $1,813.24; 1838, $2,200; 1839, $1,350; 1840, $1,509.80; 1841, $1,520.57; 1842, $1,479.97; 1843, $1,764.82; 1844, $1,474.61; 1845, $1,537.60; 1846, $1,130.70; 1847, $1,740.84; 1848, $4,055.52; 1849, $3,158.08; 1850, $3,202.77; 1851, $3,699.58; 1852, $4,126.62; 1853, $2,931.98; 1854, $2,563.72; 1855, $2,973.29; 1856, $3,043.88; 1857, $2,571.22; 1858, $3,211.56; 1859, $3,068.40; 1860, $2,096.73; 1861, $2,286.88; 1862, $2,052.35.




Vote of Burlington for President of the United States — since electors were elected by the people:

1828 — John Q. Adams, 308; Andrew Jackson, 332.

1832 — Andrew Jackson, 201; Wm. Wirt, 183.

1836 — Martin Van Buren, 293; William H. Harrison, 272.

1840 — William H. Harrison, 386; Martin Van Buren, 272; Abolition vote, 6.

1844 — Henry Clay, 451; James K. Polk, 392; James G. Birney, 21.

1848 — Zachary Taylor, 593; Lewis Cass, 255; Martin Van Buren, 176.

1852 — Franklin Pierce, 292; Winfield Scott, 509; John P. Hale, 63.

1856 — James Buchanan, 246; John C. Fremont, 592; Millard Fillmore, 26; Abolition vote, 4.

1860 — Abraham Lincoln, 608; John C. Breckenridge, 44; Stephen A. Douglas, 231; John Bell, 15; Abolition vote, 2.




An application was made to the selectmen by several freeholders, in the fall of A. D. 1852, requesting them to warn a meeting of the legal voters of the town, to see if the town would make application to the legislature for an act to incorporate the whole or a part of the town into a city, with power to elect a representative to the legislature and proper powers for the good government and well being of the city; such a meeting was held on the 7th day of October in that year, and the following resolution introduced by Lyman Cummings:

"Resolved, That it is expedient to incorporate a part of the town of Burlington into a city, with proper boundaries, and suitable provisions," and that a committee be appointed to carry the resolutions into effect, with an amendment recommending that the proposed city embrace the whole instead of a part of the town, was referred to a committee of five, composed of Geo. W. Benedict, Timothy Follett, John Van Sicklin, D. W. C. Clark and William Weston, with instructions to report at an adjourned meeting to be held on the 12th instant, following, "a bill to incorporate part or all of the present town of Burlington as a city."

At the adjourned meeting the committee presented a written report, recommending the adoption of said resolution in the form in which the same was first introduced, and also a draught of a bill to incorporate the "city of Burlington," and said resolution was adopted, the vote being taken by ballots, there being in the affirmative 169, and in the negative 63; and a committee of 7 persons were appointed under said resolution.

The legislature in session at that time passed an act incorporating the village part of the town and that portion of the town lying north of the village as a city, and likewise an act chartering the village of Burlington with the power left to the town of adopting or rejecting either act.

On the 21st day of January, A. D. 1853, a meeting of the legal voters, within the limits of the contemplated city, was held for the purpose of voting on the question,




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whether they preferred a city or a village charter; and the ballots having been taken the result was as follows: for a village charter there were cast 273 votes; for a city charter, 233 votes.

On the 7th day of February, 1853, a meeting of the legal voters within the prescribed limits of the "village of Burlington," was held to vote on the acceptance or the rejection of the village charter, and the vote being taken there were cast for accepting the charter, 115 votes; for rejecting the charter, 200 votes.

And thus ended the only attempt to incorporate the town or a portion of it as a city; many who voted for a village charter in preference to a city organizatIon were hostile to both, and those in favor of a city charter, thinking it was defeated by the "side show" of a village charter, opposed the latter, and thus both were defeated.




Samuel Lane, 1787 to 1794; Zacheus Peaslee, 1794 to 1804; Robert Peaslee, 1804 to 1805; George Robinson, 1805 to 1832; Chas. Russell, 1832 to 1847; Chalon F. Davy, 1847 to 1855; John B. Wheeler, 1855 to 1856; Samuel H. Reed, 1856 to 1859; Abner B. Lowry, 1859 (resigned); Brush M. Webb, 1859 (present incumbent).




Stephen Lawrence, 1787 to 1790; John Knickerbocker, 1790 to 1792; Samuel Lane, 1792 to 1793; Phinehas Loomis, 1793 to 1801; Zacheus Peaslee, 1801 to 1804; Sam'l. Hickok, 1804 to 1817; Horace Loomis, 1817 to 1822; John N. Pomeroy, 1822 to 1829; Nathan B. Haswell, 1829 to 1840; George B. Shaw, 1840 to 1841; William A. Griswold, 1841 to 1843; Alvan Foote, 1843 to 1851; C. F. Davy, 1851 to 1855; John D. Wheeler, 1855 to 1856; Samuel H. Reed, 1856 to 1859; Charles F. Ward, 1859 to 1860; Brush M. Webb, 1860, present incumbent.




With the years when elected:

Job Boynton, 1787; Stephen Lawrence, 1788, 1792; Elisha Lane, 1789,-90,-91; Isaac French, 1793; Benjamin Adams, 1794,-5,-6, 1801,-2; Lyman King 1797; Amos Browson, 1798; Ephraim Hurlbut, 1799; Mark Rice, 1800; Stephen Russell, 1803,-4; John Barry, 1805,-9; James Enos, 1810,-12; Moses Bliss, 1813,-8; Henry Noble, 1819,-20; Zenas Flagg, 1821,-2; Phineas Atwater, 1823, 1832; Hyman Lane, 1833, 1845; John Church, 1846; Isaac Sherwood, 1847,-51; S. W. Taylor, 1852, 1854; Samuel Huntington, 1854, present incumbent.



With the years when elected:

Stephen Lawrence, 1787; Frederick Saxton, 1787, '88, '89; Sam'l Allen, 1787; Sam'l Lane, 1788, 1791, '92; Job Bonyton, 1788, 1790; John Knickerbocker, 1789, '90, '91; Barnabas Bear, 1789; Daniel Castle, 1790; Daniel Hurlbut, 1791, 1793, '94, '95; Thomas Barney, 1792, '93, '94; William Coit, 1792, 1794, '95, 1801; Stephen Keyes, 1793, 1796; Peter Benedict, 1795, '96; Phinehas Loomis, 1796, 1799, 1800, 1802, '03; William C. Harrington, 1797, '98, '99, 1800, 1804, '05, 1807, '08, 1811; Stephen Pearl, 1797, '98, '99, 1804, '05, '06, '07, '08, 1811; Jason Comstock, 1797; Nathan Smith, 1798, 1802, '06, 07, '08, 1810, '11, '12, '13, '14, '15, '16; Zacheus Peaslee, 1801, '02, '03; Benjamin Adams, 1801; John Eldredge, 1803, '04, '05; Moses Catlin, 1806; Lyman King, 1809, '12, '13, '14; Daniel Farrand, 1809, '10, '12, '13, '16; Moses Robinson, 1809; Samuel Hickok, 1810, '23, '24, '25; Ozias Buell, 1814; Ebenezer T. Englesby, 1815, '30; Nathaniel Mayo, 1816, '26, '27; George Robinson, 1817, '18, '19, '20, '21, '22, '23, '24, '25, '26, '27, 28, '29, 30; Seth Pomeroy. 1815; Luther Loomis, 1817, '18, '19, '20, '22, '43; Alvan Foote, 1817, '18, '19, '20, '21, '22, '23, '24, '25, '26, '27, '28; Heman Lowry, 1821, '29, '35, '36, '37, '38, '39; John Van Sicklin, 1828, '57, '58; Burrell Lane, 1829, '30, '31, '32, '33, 34, '40, '41, '52; Samuel Nichols, 1831, '32, '33, '34, 35, '36, '37, '38, '39, '41, '42, '47, '48; George P. Marsh, 1831; Theodore Catlin, 1832; W. A. Griswold, 1833, '34, '35, '36, '37, '38, '39; Heman Allen, 1840; Noble Lovely, 1840; Bostwick Tousley, 1841, '42, '44; Samuel K. Isham, 1843; Timo. F. Strong, 1843; Wyllys Lyman, 1844, '45, '46; Harry Bradley, 1845, '46; John N. Pomeroy, 1847, '48, '55, '56, '57; Seth Morse, 1844, '45, '46, '49, '50, '51; Henry R. Stacy, 1847, '48, '49, '50, '51, '52; Weston, 1829, '50, '51, '52, '53; Elias Lyman, 1853; Henry Whitney, 1859, '54; Torrey E. Wales, 1854; Moses L. Church, 1854. '55, '56; L. G. Bigelow, 1855; John B. Wheeler, 1856, '67; Carolus Noyes, 1858, '59, '60, '61; Selding Patee, 1858, '59; Edward J. Fay, 1859, '60, '61; W. L. Strong, 1860; Russell S. Taft, 1861, '62; William G. Shaw, 1862; P. Hinman Catlin, 1862.




Lemuel Bradley, 1776; Samuel Lane, 1788; Samuel Hitchcock, 1789, '90, '91, '92, '93;




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William Coit, 1794; William C. Harrington, 1797, '98, 1802, '04, '06; Elnathan Keyes, 1796, '97, '99, 1800, '01; Thaddeus Tuttle, 1803; Stephen Pearl, 1805; George Robinson, 1807, '15, '22; Luther Loomis, 1816; Charles Adams, 1817, '24; C. P. Van Ness, 1818, '21; B. F. Bailey, 1825, '29; E. T. Englesby, 1723; Timo. Follett, 1830, '32; Sam'l. Nichols, 1833; Heman Allen, 1834; Nathan B. Haswell, 1835, '36; Harry Bradley, 1837, '38; Carlos Baxter, 1839, '40; W. A. Griswold, 1841; John Van Sicklin, 1842; Henry B. Stacy, 1843, '44, '51, '56; Charles Russell, 1845, '46; Wyllys Lyman, 1847; D. K. Pangborn, 1848, '49; Henry Leavenworth, 1850; Henry P. Hickok, 1852; E. C. Palmer, 1853; George F. Edmunds, 1854, '55, '57, '58, '59; Carolus Noyes, 1860, 61; Wm. G. Shaw, 1862.




Residing in Burlington, 1840, with their ages:

Nathan Seymour, 84; David Russell, 82; Reuben Bostwick, 81; John Stacy, 79; Wm. Kilburne, 77; Stephen Russell, 75; Lydia Sawyer, 65; Alanson Adams, 48.




During the early part of the present century various ineffectual attempts were made in different parts of the state to establish banks of discount and deposit based upon a circulating currency, but paper money was in such bad repute, and the measure met with such a decided opposition from those who believed that "by introducing a more extensive credit the tendency of banks would be to palsy the vigor of industry and to stupefy the vigilance of economy, the only two honest, general and sure sources of wealth," that it was only after considerable effort and a great deal of clamor that the legislative and executive powers were induced to grant privileges of banking.

A petition was presented to the assembly of the state at its session in Westminster in 1803, for the establishment of a bank at Burlington, and a bill passed by a vote of 93 to 83 granting the petitioners the privilege prayed for, but was returned by Gov. Tichenor and council, non-concurred in, accompanied by 8 reasons against banking. A similar bill passed the house of representatives in 1805, establishing a bank at Burlington, but was likewise non-concurred in, and failed to become a law.

Vermont State Bank. — In the year 1806 the Vermont State bank was chartered, and in the subsequent year a branch of the same was established at Burlington, where it remained until the legislature ordered its removal to Woodstock in 1812. While the branch at Burlington was in operation the business was transacted by Samuel Hickok, Esq., cashier, in the banking rooms occupied by the bank in the building situated on the west side of Court House square, now owned in part by the masonic fraternity. The banking rooms were in the rear part of the northerly store in said building. By the original act establishing the branch, it was provided that the directors of the state bank, thirteen in number, chosen annually by the legislature, should assign three of their number to said branch, two of which should constitute a quorum to manage the prudential concerns of said branch. The two directors residing in this locality were William C. Harrington and Noah Chittenden, Esqs. The Burlington branch remained in operation until 1812, when the legislature ordered its removal to Woostock.

Bank of Burlington. — An application was made in 1816, for a branch at Burlington, and the matter was postponed after considerable discussion, to the next session of the legislature; but nothing was done until the session in 1818, when the Bank of Burlington was incorporated. It went into operation immediately afterwards, occupying a building on the north side of the square, and shortly afterwards their two story brick banking house on the southwest corner of Bank and Church streets, and has done a successful business down to the present time. Its charter has been extended at three different periods, by acts of the legislature, approved Nov. 5, 1830, Nov. 8, 1847, Nov. 20, 1861, and expires on the 1st day of January, 1884. Its capital is $150,000. The business is managed by a board of seven directors who choose a president and cashier. The following persons have been successively elected presidents: Cornelius P. Van Ness, E. T. Englesby, Philo Doolittle, Levi Underwood — and the following cashiers: Andrew Thompson, R. G. Cole.

United States Branch Bank. — In 1830 a branch of the above bank was established at Burlington, which continued in business until the expiration of the charter of the parent bank. The officers of the branch were: Heman Allen, president; Thomas Hockley, cashier. Their banking house was located on the northeast corner of College and St. Paul's streets.

Farmers and Mechanics' Bank. — This bank was chartered on the 4th day of November, A. D. 1834, and its charter extended by acts




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passed on the 31st day of October, 1846, and Nov. 20, 1861, and expires on the 1st day of January, 1885. Its capital is $100,000. Its banking house is on the northeast corner of St. Paul's and College streets. The presidents have been, John Peck, Frederick Fletcher and Torrey E. Wales. Cashiers, Thomas Beckley and Charles F. Warner.

The Commercial Bank was chartered on the 8th day of November, 1847, and its charter extended on the 19th day of Nov. 1861, and will expire January 1, 1885. Capital $150,000. Banking house on the north side of the Court House square. Presidents, in the order of their election: Harry Bradley, Dan Lyon, L. E. Chittenden, Carolus Noyes. Cashiers: Martin A. Seymour, Charles P. Hartt, Vernon P. Noyes.

Merchants' Bank. — This bank had its charter granted on the 16th day of November, 1849, extended 20th November, 1861, and it will expire January 1st, 1886. It commenced business on the east side of Water street, and afterwards removed to its present banking house on the north side of Court House square. Its capital Is $120,000. Presidents in the order of election: Timothy Follett, Albert L. Catlin, Henry P. Hickok. Cashiers: H. S. Noyes, Martin A. Seymour, Wm. J. Odell, Wm. L. Strong, Samuel M. Pope, C. W. Woodhouse (assistant).

Burlington Savings Bank. — This institution was chartered by the legislature of this state in 1847, and commenced business in January, 1848. Its depositors number 299, having on deposit $34,203.88, with a surplus of $1,679.58. Henry Loomis, president; Charles F. Ward, secretary; William L Strong, treasurer.




In A. D. 1819, a society existed in Burlington, called the Chittenden County society, for promoting agriculture and domestic manufactures, of which Martin Chittenden was president, and Charles Adams secretary, but whether any fairs were held by them is not known to the writer.

Fairs were held here by the Chittenden County Agricultural society, in the years 1843 to 1848 inclusive, and one was advertised for 1849, but not held, and in 1857, 1858, and 1862. At these fairs the agricultural and mechanical products of the county are exhibited; and in no respect are the fairs excelled by any in Vermont; from $200 to $600 are annually expended at these fairs in premiums.

A fair was held on the flat near the present residence of Oslo E. Pinney, about 1820, and an address delivered at the Court House square.




Of the Agricultural Productions of the Farming Portion of the Town, 1860.


No. of horses, 303; oxen, 66; milch cows, 687; other cattle, 378; sheep, 1,146; swine, 305; wheat, 2,651 bush.; rye, 2,855 bush.; Indian corn, 13,705 bush.; oats, 15,294 bush.; peas and beans 617 bush.; potatoes, 26,380 bush.; barley, 480 bush.; buckwheat, 1,759 bush.; grass seed, 10 bush.; wool, 5,270 lbs.; butter, 55,525 lbs.; cheese, 36,290 lbs.; honey, 1,330 lbs.; value of orchard products, $3,108; value of market garden products, $502; wine, 96 galls.; hay, 3,493 tons.




By an act passed by the legislature of the state in November, A. D. 1791, Burlington was made the shire town of the county of Chittenden, and has remained such to the present time.

The courts were first held in a room in the southeast part of the house of Capt. King, at Burlington bay, as it was then called, being the settlement at the lower end of Water street. The room used by the court was about 16 feet by 20. The portion of the room allotted to the judges was railed off with boards, somewhat similar in construction to a pigsty of the present day, and within, upon a slab, into which round poles had been inserted for legs, sat the justiciary of the county, Judge Isaac Tichenor of the supreme court, the then future governor of the state, presiding; near by the judges stood the sheriff.

"The town of Burlington, at the annual meeting in March, 1795, voted that Colonel Stephen Pearl, Peter Benedict, Col. Wm. C. Harrington, and Benjamin Adams, be a committee to hand round subscriptions for the Court house."

At an adjourned meeting held on the 16th day of April, it was voted:

"That a committee of five be appointed to appropriate the subscriptions for building a Court house in Burlington agreeable to law."

And the following named persons were appointed:

Capt. Daniel Hurlbut, Col. Stephen Pearl, William Coit, Esq., Elnathan Keyes, Ira. Allen.

The annual meeting in March, 1796, was warned at the Court house.

The first county buildings were erected in




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the summer following the above named meeting, at which time the Court house was placed near the centre of Court House square, and the jail near the northeast corner, on the ground now occupied by what is called Strong's block. In 1798, Mr. King, for the purpose of officiating as jailor, and also of keeping a tavern, erected a tavern house contiguous to the jail, south of and connected with it. In 1802, another court house was erected on the location of the one now existing, and about the same time the jail was separated from Mr. King's tavern, and removed to the east side of Church street, midway between Bank and Cherry streets. Mr. King, during the time he occupied said tavern, and until about 1816, had a garden east of his tavern house, upon what is now Church street, which garden extended southerly to the north line of the court house.

Mr. King conveyed land as a site for the county jail, and received from the town a lease upon nominal rent of the ground covered by the tavern house, and also of a piece of ground parcel of the square whereon to erect an addition to his house, which arrangement was confirmed by an act of the Legislature in the year 1808.

The jail has been built of brick, on the site conveyed by Mr. King, is two stories high; a substantial edifice, well adapted to the wants of the numerous guests seeking accommodations there.

The court house erected in 1802, was destroyed by fire in 1828, and another was erected in its place, built of brick; it is 46 feet wide and 60 feet long, two stories high; the lower story is occupied for offices by the county clerk and sheriff, and for jury rooms; the upper story for a court room. Burlington united with the county in building the house, and paid $1,500 on condition of having the basement thereof to the sole and exclusive use of the town for town purposes; the town to have an interest of one fourth in the policy of insurance on the Court house, and to pay one fourth of the cost of insurance. The town occupied the basement until 1854, for town meetings, since which time it has been occupied by the town and fire district for housing fire engines and apparatus.




The town erected the present town hall in the years 1853 and 1854; it is located on the north side of Main street, between Church street and Court House square, is 80 feet by 80; the basement is built of stone, and occupied for shops of various kinds; the two main stories of brick; the first story is used for offices, and the hall occupies the second story.




On the 4th day of August, A. D. 1854, congress passed an act appropriating $40,000 for the erection of a Custom house, post-office, and rooms for the district judge of the United States courts, at Burlington, Vt., and also enough to purchase a location for the building. A site was selected on the southeast corner of Main and Church streets, containing 2½ acres of land, for which $7,750 was paid. The construction of the building was commenced in the fall of 1855, and finished in the spring of A. D. 1857. In June, 1858, an appropriation was made of $4,000, for fencing, paving and grading the grounds and furnishing the building. It is made of brick, iron and stone, and is fire proof; only the doors, base-boards, and floors (which are laid on brick arches) are of wood.

The lower floor is occupied for the post office; the upper for the custom house and rooms for the district judge.




An appropriation was made by congress in 1855, of $35,000, for the erection of a marine hospital at Burlington, with a sum sufficient to purchase the land for a situation; a site was selected 2 miles south of the village on the west side of the Shelburne road, $1,750 being the consideration paid for it. It embraces ten acres of land and commands a fine view of the lake and village.

The building was commenced in 1856, and was finished in 1858. An additional appropriation was made in June, 1858, of $4,000, for fencing and grading the premises.

It is 2 stories high, with a basement; built very thoroughly, with ample and convenient rooms for the use intended.

It not having been occupied for the purposes for which it was constructed when the civil war with the south began, the military authorities went into possession of it, and still occupy it as a hospital principally for Vermont soldiers.




Washington Lodge No. 3. — On the 13th day day of October, A. D. 1795, upon the application of Ebenezer Marvin, Lemuel Bottum, Solomon Miller, John White, Stephen Keyes, Levi Allen, Amos Morrill, Samuel Mix, Joseph Griswold, Gordon King, Linus Atwater,




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and Stephen Pearl, a charter was granted to them by the Grand Lodge of Vermont, constituting them a lodge of masons, by the name of Washington Lodge No. 7. Their lodge room, with all the furniture and records, was burned in June, 1828.

On the 4th day of February, 1846, the lodge was reorganized and was numbered 3. It owns a part of the building in which their rooms are located on the west side of Court House square. Present number of members, 126.

The following persons have successively been elected masters: —— ——, David Russell, James Sawyer, Joshua Isham, Geo. Robinson, Lemuel Page, Nathan B. Haswell, John S. Webster, L. B. Englesby, William G. Shaw, C. W. Woodhouse.




Green Mountain Lodge — was organized in 1845. Their lodge room is in the third story of the building on the northeast corner of Church and College streets. There are about 73 members at present.

The present officers are as follows: Samuel Bigwood, N. G.; James Mitchell, V. G.; J. J. Duncklee, P. S.; Nelson White, R. S.; T. J. Blanchard, Treasurer.




The manufacture of window glass in Burlington was commenced in 1827, by the Champlain Glass company, which continued in business until the fall of 1834. Frederick Smith, with others, succeeded the company in the business, in 1834, and he with a change of partners continued the business until 1848, when the manufacture of glass ceased. The glass works were located between Water and Champlain streets, north of Smith's lane. The amount annually produced was from 8,000 to 12,000 boxes.




Winooski Mill Company, Burlington Vt. —  This corporation is located at Winooski falls, in Burlington, and its location for manufacturing and business purposes is most desirable. The water power is rarely equalled, there being an abundant supply of water, yielding the necessary power to propel a large amount of machinery. It is remarkably free from casualties. The breaking up of the ice in the winter and spring is attended with no serious consequences; nor is it subject to disastrous freshets, sweeping all before them. These are important safe­guards to the property.

This company received its charter, A. D. 1845, and was organized the same year, Joseph D. Allen being its first president. The authorized capital stock was $25,000. The legislature of 1853 increased the capital stock to $75,000. Its present officers are: W. R. Vilas, president, which office he has held since 1852; Morillo Noyes, secretary and treasurer, offices held by him since 1847; Horace W. Barrett, foreman, a position faithfully filled by him since 1845.

Manufacturing was first begun in a wood building, known by the name of "the oil mill." It was situated on the west side of the highway, and near Catlin's grist-mill, both of which were very near the south end of the covered bridge.

On the night of Jan. 31, 1852, the grist­mill was discovered to be in flames; the fire spreading with rapidity, soon communicated to the "oil mill" building, in which were the machinery and works of the Winooski Mill company. Both buildings were soon entirely consumed, and it was only by the resolute and efficient efforts of the fire department and citizens that the covered bridge was saved. The greater part of the machinery was destroyed.

Soon after the fire, and in the spring of 1852, the present site, some twenty rods above the bridge at Winooski, was purchased by the company, and they immediately erected the commodious and substantial stone and brick factory (45 by 103 feet), 3 stories in height, besides basement and attic. This, in connection with the wood factory already on the site, and 34 by 84 feet, afforded ample facilities for operating a large amount of machinery.

The total amount invested to the present time, in lands, water privileges, machinery and the necessary appurtenances, is nearly $60,000.

The machinery is of modern invention, combining all the practical improvements of mechanical skill and inventive ingenuity.

The weaving department contains 50 of Benjamin & Reynolds' patent looms, which can be worked with wonderful rapidity and success, far outstripping those of more ancient invention. They are so skillfully and harmoniously adjusted in every part, as to perform their tasks with surprising advantage and satisfaction. The whole machinery is capable of producing, annually, about as follows, viz.: 750,000 yards 4/4 brown sheetings; 600,000 yards satinet and flannel warps; 20,000 pounds batting.

The value of the above productions will




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range from $85,000 to $110,000, according to the market value of the goods produced.

The amount paid for labor per year, to produce the above, would be about $16,000, giving employment to some 75 males and females.




Previous to the year 1850, all the manufacturing done in town, with the exception of the glass and cotton manufactures, was merely what the necessities of the people in this vicinity required, there being no establishment whose products reached a foreign market. The many facilities for manufacturing here, with the communication by water and rail with the large cities, caused the people to turn their attention in that direction.

On the 31st day of May, 1852, a number of citizens formed themselves into an association for the purpose of promoting the industrial interests of Burlington, under the name and style of the Pioneer Mechanics' Shop company, for the purpose of erecting a suitable building or buildings (on land donated to the company for that purpose, by Henry B. Stacy, Henry P. Hickok, Eliza W. Buell and Nathan B. Haswell), with steam engines and fixtures for running machinery in said building, the same to be rented to mechanics and manufacturer, in convenient allotments, in such manner as to facilitate and invite the introduction of new branches of mechanical and manufacturing industry. The capital of the company was $30,000, divided into shares of $25 each.

The legislature of the state granted a charter to the company in November, 1852. The first directors were Henry P. Hickok, Frederick Smith, T. R. Fletcher, Edward W. Peck, and Morillo Noyes.

In 1852 and 1853, the company erected a building, on the east side of Lake street, of brick, 4 stories high, 400 feet long and 50 feet wide, divided into 4 apartments, each 100 feet long, with a heavy brick wall between each. The machinery in the shops being driven by two heavy engines in a building just east of shops. The southerly half of the building was rented by Cheney, Kilburn & Co., and occupied in getting out chair stock for the chair manufacturers in Massachusetts, and afterwards in the manufacture of chairs, finishing 600 daily.

The northerly half of the building was rented to various parties, and occupied in the manufacture of sash, doors, blinds, furniture, machinery, &c. The corporation having borrowed money required in the completion of their buildings, over and above their capital, and given a mortgage of their lands and shops to secure the payment, being unable to pay the same, it was foreclosed, and the property of the corporation passed into the hands of Henry P. Hickok. The occupation of the shop was quite hazardous. Large quantities of shavings were made daily, and an immense amount of dry manufactured wood-work stored in the building, with turpentine and other materials for painting. Thus it was rendered unusually liable to take fire.

On the 2d day of April (fast day), 1858, the workmen of the shop being absent, it was discovered to be on fire near the south end, a strong southerly gale blowing at the same time; by 11 o'clock it was burned to the ground. Nothing of any consequence was saved from the fire, so rapid was its progress. The whole loss by the fire was estimated at $150,000.

The citizens of the town donating nearly $8,000 for its reconstruction, Mr. Lawrence Barnes purchased the ruins, and immediately erected 3 brick shops, 2 stories high, each 100 feet long and 50 feet wide.

These shops, with others which have been erected adjoining, are occupied by manufacturers of furniture, doors, sash, blinds, shoe lasts, boxes, axe helves, wagon spokes, iron castings and machinery, a large part of which finds its way to foreign markets. Large quantities of salt are prepared for culinary and dairy purposes at the centre shop. A large steam planing mill has been erected near the shops, at the foot of College street, in which large quantities of lumber are dressed and prepared for market.

The facilities for getting all kinds of lumber from the lumber yards in the vicinity, and maple and bass woods from the adjoining country, and water communication with New York city during half of the year, renders Burlington a very desirable point for all manufactures of wood. All the manufacturers here at present are from abroad, who have been attracted by the very superior advantages which the town possesses; and we may look hereafter for a more extended business of all branches of industrial pursuits.




About 1800, Daniel Staniford owned a distillery on the north side of Pearl street, near the present Winooski avenue, where he brewed ale, beer and porter; and if the advertisements of that day be correct, he also




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manufactured a very excellent article of gin, of which tradition informs us that some of the inhabitants of this quiet village were fond.

Another distillery was operated nearer the head of Pearl street, by Loomis & Bradley. Samuel Hickok built a brewery on the west side of Champlain street, which was burned down. It was afterwards rebuilt by George Peterson, about 1837, who has occupied it ever since in manufacturing ale, usually about 1500 hundred barrels each year.





E. L. Farrar first built a pottery for the manufacture of earthenware, on the south side of Pearl street, between St. Paul's and Church streets. It was afterwards enlarged by Ballard & Brothers, and is now operated by O. L. & A. K. Ballard. They manufacture annually about $15,000 worth of ware of all varieties.




Is located on the river just below the bridge at Winooski falls. It is built of wood, 5 stories high, has 11 run of stone; 70,000 bushels of wheat can annually be turned into flour, while the plaster mill adjoining turns out about 500 tons of plaster.




A very accurate map of the village of Burlington was published in 1853 by Messrs. Presdee & Edwards of New York city.

The main streets running from east to west are as follows:

Main street, 6 rods wide, running from the south end of College green to the lake.

College street, running from the centre of College green to the lake.

Pearl street, named after Col. Pearl, from the north end of College green to the lake shore, and

North street, parallel with Pearl street, and north of it.

These streets run through the entire village. The shorter streets, running in the same direction, beginning at the south, are:

Spruce street and Adams street, between Shelburne and Union.

South street, between Water and Shelburne.

Maple street, between Church and Union.

Prospect street, between Willard and Tuttle.

King street, between Water and Church.

Bank street and Cherry street, between Water and Church.

Munroe street, between Water and George.

The streets running north and south, beginning at the lake shore, are:

Lake street, which is located west of the original bank of the lake on made land and wharfing.

Water street, running from the cove northerly, east of the battery, to the swamp north of the village.

Champlain street, next east of Water, running the same distance.

Pine street, between Pearl and South.

St. Paul's street, between Pearl and Main.

Shelburne street, continuation of St. Paul's from Main towards the town of Shelburne.

Church street, from Pearl to Adams.

White street, from College to Pearl, continued by Winooski avenue from Pearl to North, and thence in a northeasterly direction to the falls.

Union street, from College southerly.

Willard street, from Pearl southerly.

Williams street, from Pearl to Main.

Summit street, from Main southerly

George street, from Pearl northerly.

Locust street, from Pearl northerly,

Maiden lane, from Pearl northerly.

High street, east of the College green.

Green street, west of the College green.

Tuttle street, from the southwest corner of College green southerly.

Goch street, from the northwest corner of College green northerly.

Besides these there are a great number of short streets and lanes in different parts of the town.

The principal streets are 4 rods wide, laid out at right angles, intersecting each other at a distance of 20 rods; they are generally well graded, with good sidewalks, the sandy nature of the soil being favorable to the making of good roads. The old Winooski turnpike which for half a century was the great thoroughfare up the valley of the Winooski, leaves the village in an easterly direction from the south end of College green.


[We are indebted to Rev. H. P. Hickok for the following additional information in regard to the streets of Burlington: — Ed.]


But few of the streets of Burlington were named from persons resident upon them. Goch, Willard, Tuttle, King and Pearl, were severally among the early settlers, and resided on the streets which bear their names. Louis Goch was a German who had been a planter in Hayti. Driven thence in the time of the revolution that gave supremacy to the blacks, he seems to have sought seclusion to spend the remainder of his days and the rem




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nant of his property. He chose the street on which he built, not more from the beauty of its prospect than its wild seclusion. His house, built with taste and furnished within with elegance, stood by itself, apart from other dwellings, yet commanded a view of mountains and river, lake and woods, which seemed to soothe the irritated mind of one driven rudely from his West Indian home.

The house of Ira Allen was visible over the tree-tops at the right, and the old Indian fields, then the farm of Ethan Allen, appeared, across the interval woods, at the left. Mr. Goch remained on this spot until the growing settlement brought him near neighbors, when he removed to a still more wild and unfrequented place on the shores of the lake in the town of Georgia, where he built anew and passed the latter years of his life.

Barty Willard was long conspicuous as the wit and rhymer of Burlington. All crowded around to hear Barty express himself. As these were days of convivialty, and the men resorted to public places for news and pleasure, a wit like Barty was essential to the glee of the company. On such occasions he was singer as well as composer. Some of his witticisms are still repeated. Passing a store one day, he was hailed by a lawyer, who demanded a rhyme for the amusement of the company. Barty demurred, but after a drink he began with the name of his interrogator:


"P. —  L — , an attorney at law,

The very best lawyer that ever I saw."


here he stopped, but being tendered another drink and pressed to complete his rhyme, went on thus:


"The only reason why I like him the best,

Is, that he has not got so much wit as the rest."


The lawyer is said to have had wit enough to join in the laugh raised at his expense, while Barty jogged on homeward.

He is said to have engaged a pair of cart wheels for Gov. C. The governor had been disappointed more than once, but Barty promised them without fail the next week. The wheels were done, and Friday of that week had come, when a stranger passing, offered his price and the money for those wheels. Barty was sore put to, how to manage another disappointment of the governor, and declined to let them go, but a sudden thought struck him. He would sell them on condition that the wheels were left with him until Monday; which was agreed to. Barty then placed the wheels side and side against the fence and set to work to make another pair, in hopes the governor would not call at the time appointed. But Saturday came and the governor rode up, pleased to see the wheels. Barty came out to receive his commendations, but rather seriously, "Governor," says he, "I have made the wheels, but I have made an awkward mistake with them," "What's that? " says the governor. "Why, don't you see, they are both off-wheels. You must wait another week — give me time to make another wheel." The gratified customer assented, and Barty not only sold a second pair, but recovered somewhat his credit, which was suffering, for promptness.

Capt. Thaddeus Tuttle, an early merchant, dealt largely also in lands. He built what was at the time and long afterwards, the most elegant residence in town. His store stood at the corner of Main and Tuttle streets.

Capt. Gideon King, from whom King street received its name, was at an early day the principal sloop owner and navigator of the lake.

Col. Stephen Pearl built a spacious mansion at the head of Pearl street, where he administered law as a justice of the peace, and resided until his death. These men were all foremost men in their day; but they and their names have mostly passed away, except in connection with these streets.

While on the subject of streets, it may be noticed that the Winooski turnpike was originally chartered to run from the lake shore to the interior by Main street. Main street was and remains 1 rod wider than any other street, as the intended thoroughfare of this turnpike road. A better route was soon found through Pearl street, avoiding the steep ascent of the hill, and the proprietors of the road, in conjunction with the residents of Pearl street, procured an act of the legislature amending their charter and discontinuing the road at the College green. The effect of this movement was to throw the maintenance of Main street from the turnpike company upon the town — an expensive result.

The streets of Burlington have already been set with a variety of shade trees. The first species was the Lombardy poplar. This tall tree aspired, like the cypress of Mahomedan countries, offering but little shade. It became an object of dislike and neglect from an ugly worm that annually infested its leaves.

Next, the yellow locust,  was set, most zealously through all the streets. The locust proved, like the poplar, a beautiful tree and




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a rapid grower, furnishing shade as well as beauty. In June, annually, its strings of white blossoms loaded the trees, perfuming the air, and the tree with its adornments became the pride of the town. But after a few years the borer commenced his ravages, and now the few trees on College green and its vicinity, of any size, alone remain to maintain its former pretensions.

The button-ball, a native tree, was extensively transplanted as the others failed, and grew to an enormous size, until the blight, which all over the land has visited the extremities of this tree, destroyed them here also.

The trees depended on now are mostly native, many of which flourish, but most conspicuous of all, the elm. Soon the place will be enshrouded by it, and perhaps be likened to the Elm city of Connecticut for this tree and its shade, as well as for its literary society and privileges.

One street receives it name from the locust, the handsomest trees of which are now elms.

White derives its name from the Calvinistic congregational church, which was long termed, until burnt, the old White church.

Church street received its name from the unitarian church at its head.

St. Paul's street, from the Episcopal church.

College street, from the college.

Lake street is so called from its proximity to the water side, while Water street above it, was once, before the filling process commenced, alone entitled to the appellation.


[For name of Dorset street, see p. 182, No. II. — Ed.]





Dwelling houses in town, 1,370; males, 3,695; females, 4,021: total, 7,716. Number of persons over 20 years of age, who can not read or write, 814. Born in Vermont, 4,518; Ireland, 1,098; Canada, 1,067; New York, 469; Massachusetts, 206; England, 82; New Hampshire, 68; Connecticut, 48; Germany, 27; Scotland, 43; Maine, 11; Ohio, 10; Illinois, 9; Pennsylvania, 9; New Jersey, 8; unknown, 7; France, 7; Rhode Island, 4; Missouri, 3; Michigan 3; Prussia, 3; Iowa, 2; Alabama, 2; South Carolina, 2; Wisconsin, 2; Minnesota, 1; California, 1; Sweden, 1; Virginia, 1; Delaware, 1; Georgia, 1; Wales, 1; at sea, 1.

Annual Products. — According to the census, there were $352,675 capital engaged in manufacturing, exclusive of the gas company, the annual products being valued at $682,250.







Perhaps no branch of business presents the workings of the laws of trade or commerce in a clearer light than the lumber trade of Burlington and vicinity. Commerce is the exchanging of the products of one state or country for those of another. It may be simply bartering, or the products of one country may be sold for cash and that cash paid for the products of another. In either ease these products have to be transported from the place where grown or produced, to the country where they are consumed. It is this direction or way of transportation that presents itself as an object of study for the curious.

When this county was first settled, the inhabitants, like those of all new settlements, had but few manufactures and those were of the rudest kind. They were dependent upon Europe and the older colonies in this country for such necessaries of life as could not be procured from the soil; and for those necessaries they were compelled to pay in such products of the soil; but few of them would bear the cost of transportation, the principal one of which was lumber. In the dense growth that covered the earth the settlers found the oak, the pine (both white and Norway), largely to predominate. The market for this timber was in Europe, as there were no places in this country that could be reached by water where the prices would pay the cost of transportation. This well timbered section, lying upon the borders of the Champlain, had easy communication with the European markets. The lake with its outlet, the Sorel river, with the noble St. Lawrence, led directly to Quebec, the great shipping point for Europe. For 30 or 35 years after the trade commenced that was the only market for that valuable product.

From the papers of Hon. Ira Allen, and from tradition, we learn that the first saw mill in this vicinity was built by Ira Allen in 1786; and in connection with his brother Levi Allen, who was then in the trade at St. Johns, C. E., he opened a trade in Quebec. Among articles sent to that market was lumber, the product of the mills built at Winooski falls on Onion river. The first raft of oak timber taken to Quebec was owned by Stephen Mallett of Colchester, in 1794. The first raft of Norway pine by John Thorp




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of Charlotte, in 1796. In a few years a large trade in oak timber for ship building, Norway and white pine for masts and spars, square timber and deals sprang up. The names of the principal dealers who shipped lumber to the Quebec market that can be collected are: Ira Allen, Stephen Mallett, Benjamin Boardman, Henry Boardman, Amos Boardman, Ebenezer Allen, William B. Woods, Samuel Holgate, Judson Lamson, Joseph Clark, Thaddeus Tuttle, Mr. Catlin, Ezra Meech of Shelburne, Daniel Hurlbut, Nathaniel Blood of Essex, William Munson, William Hine, Hezekiah Hine, Jacob Rolfe, Allen Hacket, David Bean, Heman Allen of Colchester, James Miner, Samuel Holgate, Jr., of Milton, Major Lyman King of Burlington, Roswell Butler.

A noble band of men who filled their sphere of action creditably to themselves, and usefully to the society in which they lived. But they almost all have passed away. There are now living only the venerable Henry Boardman, who commenced business in 1797, in Colchester, Amos Boardman and David Bean in Illinois, and Joseph Clark, Esq., in Milton.

It was a great undertaking in those days to go into the woods in the fall and winter and cut and draw the masts, hew the square timber, get the deal logs to the mill and in the spring saw the deals and collect it all into one great raft, and go to Quebec. Almost 12 months were required to cut and collect a raft and get it into market. The principal place at which the lumber was collected was at Winooski falls; there it was rafted, and the men with their tents, provisions and cooking utensils on board, started on their long and tedious journey to Quebec.

These men not only went into the woods themselves to get out lumber and take it to Quebec, but they bought large quantities of others who did business in this vicinity on a smaller scale — men who, in addition to their agricultural labors, would get out what lumber they could but not enough to form a raft; thus a large portion of the people were directly interested in the lumber trade.

About the year 1820, the Champlain canal was completed, opening communication with New York city; that city being a better market with a better water route to reach it, the trade turned that way. Henry Boardman, William Hine, Hezekiah Hine, Jacob Rolfe, Amos Boardman, Joseph Clark, Roswell Butler and Nathaniel Blood, together with a few younger men, carried on the trade to New York and places on the Hudson river.

The old Quebec lumbermen rafted their lumber to New York in the same manner they previously did to Quebec, but a new way of transportation had grown up, the canal boat and schooner took the place of the raft. The new men who came into the business adopted the new ways.

Justus Burdick and Messrs Follett and Bradley of Burlington, dealt largely in lumber, and in connection with Samuel Brownell of Williston, carried on its manufacture at the Little falls in the Winooski, between Williston and Essex. They owned boats and shipped direct to Troy, Albany and New York. The rafting was kept until about the year 1835, and from that time until 1843 it was almost all carried by boats, at the latter date the trade had nearly or quite stopped, this section had ceased to produce, and apparently Burlington had seen the last of her lumber trade. The noble pines of the Winooski valley had disappeared, and the lumbermen had retired from business or had turned their attention to other pursuits.

During the past years the lumbermen of the eastern New England states had been competitors with ours for the European markets in like manner as both had been with the Canadian dealers. The eastern men soon met the same difficulty that our dealers had, the scarcity of material; their timber crop run short and the inexorable laws of trade demanded another source of supply.

The opening of the Vermont Central and the Rutland and Burlington rail roads, with their connections, furnished direct communication between the Canadas and the east, and that country had the supply that the eastern markets demanded. Burlington, in her capacious wharves for piling grounds, in her rail road connections with the eastern markets, and in her water communications with the south, offered superior facilities for a lumber depot, and was selected as the most advantageous point for transhipment from the boats to the cars; and her lumber trade thus revived and reestablished has become again her most important branch of trade; though she has ceased to become a producer; and her market is supplied from the Canadas and the west, in a pecuniary point of view the results to her are most flattering. The few Quebec dealers now living see the same kind of lumber brought over the same route by which they sent theirs to market, but instead of going by the slow course of the current or propelled by sails on the raft, it is brought up against the current by sail boat




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or steamer. No steamers were needed when the market was with the course of the Sorel and St. Lawrence, but steam and sail are brought into use to overcome the power of their tremendous currents.

The first cargo of lumber that arrived here from the Canadas for the eastern market was brought by L. G. Bigelow, Esq., in 1850. He associated with him in the business Enos Peterson, and they continued in trade until 1855. Messrs. C. Blodgett & Son, then of Waterbury, next commenced trade here, and are now in business. The St. Maurice Lumber company shipped their lumber here during the two or three years that their mills were in operation. In 1855, the Hunterstown Lumber company located their sales depot at this place; this company and Messrs. Blodgett & Son have mills in Canada and ship their lumber here for sale. In 1856, Lawrence Barnes, Esq., opened a yard here for the purchase and sale of lumber. He and his partners have added the planing and dressing of lumber to their business, and they are also the owners of the pioneer shops near the yards, in which are carried on the various branches of the manufacture of lumber.

The sales of this market in 1860, amounted to about 40,000,000 feet, and the sum paid out for labor in handling, sorting, piling and planing is about $40,000 per year.

Little did the projectors of our rail roads dream that within ten years after the completion of their roads, almost every available space on their grounds at Burlington would be lumbered up with boards and plank on their destined voyage to Europe, South America, California and the far off isles of the Pacific, but such is the fact.

The lumber is brought here from the mills on the Ottawa and St. Lawrence and their tributaries without sorting, and is here sorted to meet the requirements of the different markets.

If a ship at Boston, bound to Australia, needs a cargo of lumber, it is put into the cars at the planing mill, carried to Boston and unloaded direct from the cars to the vessel. If one for the West Indies calls for a load, it can be supplied with a cargo of rough boards with the same facility and dispatch. Every demand for pine lumber or any of its manufactures, whether rough, dressed, tongued and grooved, made into doors, sash, blinds or boxes, or even houses, ready made, can be furnished to order upon short notice. With the extension of the wharves (in progress at present) of the Vermont Central rail road company, Burlington has facilities for increasing her trade to a much larger extent than at present, and bids fair to be second only to Boston as a lumber mart in New England.







As soon as the settlers of Burlington were fairly established in their new homes and the first wants of a new country supplied, their attention was turned to the education of their children.

1790. — At the town meeting in March, 1790, it was voted that the town should be divided in school districts, and Col. Frederick Saxton, Capt. David Stanton and Daniel Hurlbut were appointed a committee to divide said town. At an adjourned meeting, held in September following, the committee reported that they had divided the town into 2 districts; one of them contained all the territory north of a line running from the cove south of the old wharf, easterly to the road from the falls on Onion river to Shelburne falls, and west of the northerly part of said last named road, the other comprised the territory east of the one first mentioned.

1795. — At the annual meeting this year, it was voted, "that the south part of the town that is not considered in the other two districts be considered as a school district."

1796. — This year it was voted that the house lots at Burlington bay be considered as a school district.

1813. — The districts increased in numbers until the year 1813, when they were 8 in number, Nos. 1, 2, and 8 being located in the village. It being found inconvenient to establish and maintain separate schools in them, and owing to the compact nature and situation of the 3 village districts, it was deemed that 1 school-house in the central part of the village would be more advantageous to the districts and more beneficial to the public, and it was voted that the districts be constituted and formed into one, to be known and designated by the name of the Village school district.

1815. — The boundaries of the school districts being uncertain and indefinite, at a meeting held on the 28th day of April, 1815, John Johnson, Nathan Smith and George Robinson were appointed a committee to ascertain the lines of the several districts, They reported at a meeting held on the 12th of May following; the report was accepted and the districts established accordingly. This report contains the boundaries of 7 districts: The village district, bounded on




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the south by the south lines of lots No. 160, 158, 164, 184, and the westerly half of lot No. 109 (being a line running easterly from the lake shore on the Seymour farm); on the east by a line running from the center of the south line of lot No. 109 northerly, east of the college grounds, to the river just east of the residence of John N. Pomeroy; on the west and north by the lake and river.

No. 1 includes the territory at the falls and 100 acre lots lying on the river and most of the 2 three acre lots adjoining the latter being the present districts No. 1 and 8. Nos. 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, identical nearly with the present districts of the corresponding numbers.

1816. — In this year that part of the town northwest of the village was set off into a separate district and numbered 7.

1820. — About 1820, district No. 8 was formed out of the territory near the High bridge, being the easterly end of district No. 1.

1829. — In November of this year the village district was divided into 6 districts numbered 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14, with very much the same boundaries as at present, with the exception of the change made by the creation of districts numbered 15 and 16.

1840. — At a special town meeting held on the 3d day of October, A. D. 1840, all that part of district No. 9 which lies north of Pearl street, was set off and organized into a school district numbered 15.

1853. — And on the 21st day of November, 1853, school district No. 15 was divided by a line running from north to south through the centre of Champlain street, the portion lying east of the line to be numbered 16, the portion west retaining its original number (15).

A small portion of the southeast part of the town is annexed to school district No. 5 in Shelburne.

A Union school district was organized on the 28th day of December, 1849, composed of districts Nos. 10, 12, 13, 14 and 15. Only scholars in the higher branches of learning from the districts composing the Union district attend the school, which is equal in all respects to the best acadamies in the state. Each school district is possessed of a good school house, where from 6 to 10 months' school has usually been kept each year.




Is located in the old academy buildings, on the northwest corner of College and Willard streets.

Table containing the number of scholars between the ages of 4 and 18, during the years named: 1805, 376; 1806, 441; 1810, 580; 1813, 570.






Was incorporated on the 22d October, 1829, and occupied the, building erected for that purpose on the corner of Willard and College streets, flourishing under its several preceptors, until the Union school was organized, which took the place of the High school, and has since occupied the High school building.

R. S. T.

Burlington, January, 1863.




[The State Teachers' association (annual) was held in Burlington the 16th, 17th and 18th of August, 1859, of which the Daily Free Press of August 20th following, says: "A fine assemblage from all parts of Vermont filled the Town hall for three days in succession. It was the largest gathering of the teachers of the state yet held, and a most successful and useful meeting." In said paper, by consulting the files, a full account, filling nearly 3 pages, may be found. At this meeting was made the first report of the Vermont School Journal —  (5 Nos. issued)  — viz: "that the enterprize has been equal to the task; and that the Journal has, at the end of five months a paying subscription that will insure them against any direct pecuniary loss for the first year." President Pease of the U. V. M. delivered the opening address. Rev. C. W. Cushing of Albany, N. Y., and Rev. F. T. Russell of New Britain, Conn., were also present, and addressed the association during its session. — Ed.]