BY PROF. N. G. CLARK
The men who met to frame a constitution for the state of
At the time when this constitution was adopted, a little more than half of the townships had been chartered. But in the remaining one right was reserved "for the use of a seminary or college." By this means about 29,000 acres of land, scattered through some 120 townships and gores, but lying chiefly in the northern part of the state, were secured for a college, and eventually came into the possession of the University of Vermont, though much of this land proved of little value.
consequence of the sparse population and the unsettled condition of public
affairs, nothing beyond this general provision was accomplished for some years.
The attention of the public was at length aroused by the efforts of President
Wheelock in behalf of
early as 1785, Judge Paine offered to give £2,000 to be expended in the
erection of a suitable building for a college, if it should be located at
Williamstown, and endowed with the college lands. Soon after, Gen. Ira Allen
made an effort to secure the institution at
was at once organized, and in the following June, a square of 50 acres, then
covered with stately pine trees, was set off, on which to erect the college
buildings. Some delay arising from a difference of opinion between Gen. Allen
and the remainder of the corporation, nothing farther was done till October,
1793, when it was decided that "early in the next summer a house shall be
built on the college square for the use of the university." This was for a
preparatory school, and eventually for the house of the president. This
building, 48 feet in length, 37 in breadth, and 2 stories high known in later
years as "the old yellow house," and burned in 1844, was begun in
1794, and nearly completed the following year. At this juncture Gen. Allen, who
had been actively engaged in completing this building, and in preparing for a
college edifice, engaged in an unfortunate commercial speculation, which
seriously embarrassed him, and finally deprived the university
of a large part of his subscription. From this cause little more was
done to the building till 1798, when the work was resumed and completed. The
next year a farther subscription of £2,300, from the citizens of
standing peculiar trials and difficulties, was due in no small degree to his untiring efforts at one time felling the pine trees with his own hand to clear a place for the college buildings and superintending their erection, and again acting as sole instructor for some years.
From an article in the Vermont Sentinel of July, 1805, we learn that the college edifice had been erected "four stories high, 45 feet wide at each end, 95 feet in the middle formed by a projection of 15 feet in front, 15 feet in rear, 160 feet long, built of brick, of durable materials and excellent workmanship." The different college buildings had cost $24,391. For this large sum the college was dependent upon private liberality. The institution was now fairly begun, and the first class graduated in 1804. Four years after the number of paying students was 61 the largest number reached under the presidency of Mr. Sanders.
the first 6 years with the exception of a single term, all the instruction in
the college proper was given by the president. In 1807, Mr. James Dean, a
In 1809, Dr. John Pomeroy was appointed to the chair of anatomy and surgery. In 1811, Rev. Jason Chamberlain was elected professor of the Latin and Greek languages, and the Hon. Royall Tyler, professor of jurisprudence; and arrangements were made to fill, as soon as the funds would allow, a professorship of belles lettres, and one of chemistry and mineralogy, "whose duty it shall be to analyze at the charge of the institution, all fossils, minerals, &c., which may be discovered within the limits of this state." So liberal and comprehensive were the plans of the noble men who then had the superintendence of the institution numbering among them Samuel Hitchcock, Dudley Chase, Titus Hutchinson, Royall Tyler and William C. Bradley worthy compeers of the original founder, the generous, large-minded, but unfortunate Ira Allen.
plans failed of realization. The connection of the university with the state,
gave rise to political intrigues, and brought little aid to an embarrassed treasury. The establishment of a rival college
at Middlebury drew off students from the best portion of the field of the
university. The troubles with
It was reorganized in 1815, by the appointment of Rev. Samuel Austin, for 25 years a pastor of a congregational church at Worcester, Mass., as president; Rev. James Murdoch of Princeton, Mass., professor of languages; Rev. Ebenezer Burgess, professor of mathematics and natural philosophy; Jairus Kennan, professor of chemistry and mineralogy; and instruction was resumed. But, though the faculty possessed in an eminent, degree the confidence of the Christian public, both as teachers and religious men, the number of students was small. The attention of the young men and of the community had been turned elsewhere, and the faculty ere long became discouraged. Mr. Kennan died in about a year after his appointment, one officer left after another, till at last Dr. Austin resigned in 1821.
this time, the institution was kept from complete disorganization by the
efforts of Mr. Arthur L. Porter, recently appointed to the chair of chemistry.
Through his influence, Rev. Daniel Haskel, pastor of the Congregational church
Haskel broke down under the trial, and most of the
officers withdrew. Yet a second time, the same young man who had just before
saved the institution, found generous hearts and hands to aid him, and in the
course of three months, by the pledge of $8,300 from the inhabitants of
To the labors of President Marsh, aided by Profs. Benedict and Torrey, the university owes its essential character as an institution of learning and religion. Its course of study, which its varying board of instruction has sought to carry out, is substantially as it was originally matured by them; systematic, aiming at the harmonious presentation of different branches, in a way to secure the best mental and moral discipline, and to ground the student in the fundamental principles of the various departments of knowledge, including philology, science, philosophy, government and religion.
order the better to carry out his ideas of instruction, President Marsh
resigned the presidency in 1833, for the chair of intellectual and moral
philosophy, which he held till his death, in 1842. Rev. John Wheeler was
elected to succeed him as president, and continued in this post till Aug. 1848,
when he resigned. He was succeeded by Rev. Worthington Smith, who was elected
the following June, and entered on his duties at the next commencement. Upon the
failure of Dr. Smith's health in 1855, he resigned his place, and was succeeded
by the Rev. Calvin Pease,
In December, 1861, Dr. Pease tendered his resignation of the presidency, to take effect at the close of the half year, Feb. 1862, having accepted a call to a pastorate in Rochester, N. Y.; and the following September, Prof. Torrey was appointed president of the institution.
It must suffice to say of the successors of Dr. Marsh, that they have sought to administer the affairs of the university in accordance with the ideas we have indicated, as first elaborated and exemplified by him and his colleagues. The pecuniary embarrassments consequent on repeated reverses and trials they have severally sought to relieve, and with more or less success, by subscriptions from among the friends of the institution; and greater liberality in supplying its wants is now all that is needed to enable it to realize the beneficent purposes of its founders.
War has now a second time added to the embarrassments of the university, and reduced the number of its students; some of whom, dependent on their own efforts for means to prosecute their studies, have been obliged to withdraw, while others have heard the call of the country and taken up arms in its defence. About one-fifth of its entire number have engaged in the public service. Retrenchment has been necessary, and besides delaying to fill the office of president, the chair held by Prof. Hungerford has been suspended, and his duties distributed between Prof. Marsh of the academical, and Prof. Seeley of the medical department. Yet the second half of the college year, 18612, opens with better auspices. Means have been secured to make thorough repairs in the rooms occupied by the students, and a handsome library building, 2 stories high, 40 feet by 60, is in process of erection. Means for the latter had been secured, for the most part, by the efforts of President Pease.
The limited space allowed for this article, will not permit a detailed notice of the different men connected with the institution at different times, or of the various changes made from one department to another, as have been found most convenient for the ends of instruction. A passing notice of a few other men, and of the present organization, is all we can attempt.
Mr. F. N. Benedict was elected to the chair of mathematics in 1833, and continued in active service till 1854, when he was succeeded by Rev. McKendree Petty. The chair of natural philosophy was filled by Prof. Henry Chaney from 1838 to 1853, when the duties of this department were divided between the professors of mathematics and chemistry. In 1815 a new department of English literature was organized and placed under the care of Rev. W. G. T. Shedd.
When Prof. Shedd, in 1852, removed to Auburn Theological seminary, Rev. N. G. Clark was chosen to succeed him.
A tabular statement of the different departments and the officers in charge, with the time of their appointment, will present at a glance the present organization (Dec., 1862): Rev. Joseph Torrey, D. D., president and professor of intellectual and moral philosophy, 1842; Rev. N. G. Clark, professor of English literature and Latin, 1852; Rev. McKendree Petty (Williams'), professor of mathematics, 1854; Leonard Marsh, M. D., professor of natural history, 1857; Rev. M. H. Buckham, professor of Greek.
president, and Prof. Marsh are graduates of
university possesses a valuable library and philosophical apparatus. For this
purpose the sum of $14,000 was appropriated in 1834, and Prof. Torrey sent to
The university, though nominally a state institution, has received no aid of any account beyond the original grant of lands, many of which turned out to be of little or no value. The hindrances it has met, and the losses incurred by the war of 1812, and by fire in 1824, have more than swallowed up an equivalent to any advantage derived from the state, though the aid thus given, and which was inalienable by war, or sale, or fire, has done much to sustain the institution. It has, however, been obliged to depend in a great degree upon the friends of learning and christian culture for its support; and to vindicate its claim by the intellectual and moral discipline imparted to the young men it has sent forth to the world.
The largest donations it has ever received were from Gen. Ira Allen, amounting to perhaps $8,000 or $9,000; from Hon. Azariah Williams, in 1839, amounting in lands and other property to about $20,000, in honor of whom his name has been attached to the professorship of mathematics; and from Dr. Daniel Washburn of Stowe, in 1858, amounting to some $8,000.
According to the triennial catalogue of 1861, the number of young men who have completed a course of study within the institution is 718. Probably 500 more have been connected with it for a shorter period. Of the graduates 248 have followed the profession of law; 153 have entered the ministry; 30 have studied medicine; 61, including some of the later graduates who have not yet settled upon a profession, have devoted themselves to teaching, and about 20 have entered upon editorial life. The whole number who have received the honors of the university is 1,219. The average attendance of students for the last 25 years has been about 100; of graduates annually for the came period, 20.
The religious history of the institution has not been characterized so much by occasional revivals as by a sustained religious sentiment, resulting in frequent conversions of individuals rather than in seasons of a revived religious life. During the 15 years, for instance, ending 1859, the number of graduates who studied for the ministry was 65, of whom more than half were converted in college. It may be said that a year rarely passes without more or less conversions, especially while attending upon the studies of the senior year.
have confined our attention thus far exclusively to the proper collegiate
relations of the university. It was originally intended to include professional
courses of study, and some little effort was made to secure them, as was shown
by the appointment of Dr. John Pomeroy to the chair of anatomy and surgery in 1806, and of Royall Tyler to that of jurisprudence in 1811,
but only the medical department was fully organized. This was in 1821, and was
kept up till 1834, when it was suspended by the death of Dr. Benjamin Lincoln,
who had been for some years its leading mind. It was again revived in 1853, by
the efforts of Dr. S. W. Thayer, Jr., of
After the lapse of 60 years of trial and difficulty, and a fair measure of success, the university may now be said to have gained an abiding place among the institutions of the land, and to be contributing its share to the interests of good learning and religion, in the training of a select body of young men for places of honor and usefulness.
PRESIDENTS OF THE
Daniel Clarke Sanders,
2. Samuel Austin,
3. Daniel Haskel, A. M., 1821 1824.
8. Calvin Pease,
after his graduation, he began his theological studies under the direction of
Rev. Jonathan Edwards,
4 years later he was settled over the first Congregational society in
these labors he was called in 1815 to the presidency of the
Dr. Murdoch, who was professor in the university during the presidency of Dr. Austin, says of him, "that as president of a college, he was faithful to his trust. His efforts to promote the interests of the college were untiring; and he enjoyed in a high degree the respect and confidence of the public. . . . . For the spiritual welfare of his pupils he was deeply solicitous All his people respected and loved him; and to his subordinate officers he was uncommonly affectionate and kind." As a preacher, one who knew him well remarks: "The topics on which he delighted most to dwell, were the benevolence, the sovereignty, and the glory of God; the great system of redemption; the character of Christ and his sufferings, with the extensive results upon the universe, and especially in the sanctification and salvation of his chosen people. . . . . In the appropriateness, and enlargement, and spiritual glowing fervor of his public devotions, he has seldom been excelled." **
Haskel, who succeeded President Austin in the
* For biographic notice see article by Rev. Joshua Young, page 539.
** For more full particulars see Sprague's Annals, from which many of the facts for this, as for the succeeding notices, have been derived.
next two years we find him engaged in a public school, at
Haskel continued the faithful and beloved pastor of this church until the year
1821, when he was called to preside over the
About two years after his appointment as president, he suffered a severe attack of inflammatory rheumatism, that eventually affected his mind, ending in derangement, or more strictly speaking, monomania. Though able at times to engage in literary pursuits, he was never himself again.
resorting to various places and institutions, in the vain hope of recovering
from his malady, the latter years of his life were spent with his family at
A portrait before me, taken from a miniature likeness when a young man, presented to the university by Mr. Leavitt, through President Wheeler, represents an uncommonly fine head, full, high forehead, remarkably well proportioned. I was not surprised to read in a letter of one of his classmates. published in Sprague's Annals, that "in scholarship his rank was not far below the highest; and yet, had his college course been a year or two later (he was one of the younger members of the class), I have no doubt that he would have developed a still higher degree of intellectual promise."
His success as president of the university was all his friends had anticipated. The number of the students increased, and the prospects had become more cheering than for many years, when he was disabled, and obliged to retire.
was prepared for college by Rev. Dr. Crane, parish minister of Northbridge, and
was graduated at Brown university, with one of the
highest honors of his class, in 1806. For a year after he devoted himself to
the study of law. During this time, yielding his heart to the claims of the
great Lawgiver, he turned his thoughts to the ministry. In the spring of 1807,
he made public profession of religion, and commenced theological reading with
Rev. Samuel Starnes, and was the next year licensed to preach the gospel. In
the fall of the year 1808, he was invited to become the pastor of the
* Manuscript letter of Mrs. Haskel.
he here acquired, led to his appointment as president of the
university, upon the retirement of President Haskel. Owing to adverse
influences however, chiefly growing out of cases of discipline, he resigned the
office in 1826. Dr. Wheeler, in his historical sketch of the university,
observes, "Dr. Preston was connected with the college for so short a time, that little can be said respecting his actual or
prospective influence. He was a man remarkable for his gentlemanly and elegant
bearing, of simple, genial, and artistic tastes; and in the discharge of his
public duties, secured at once the love and admiration of students and of
others." Residents in
Two volumes of his sermons were published in 1857, edited by his son, J. W. Preston, Esq., to which were prefixed a biographical sketch of the author, by Rev. Dr. Talmage, president of Oglethorpe university. To this sketch we are indebted for most of the facts contained in this notice.
BY PRES'T J. TORREY.
Marsh, fifth president of the
first labors of Mr. Marsh, after leaving the seminary, were at the south, where
he was induced to go by the persuasion of that eminent and excellent man, Dr.
John H. Rice of
In 1826, after having been connected with Hampden-Sidney college for about three years, Mr. Marsh was appointed in October of that year president of the university in his native state; although the place was not one for which he thought himself in all respects best qualified, many considerations induced him to accept the appointment, and he entered upon the duties of his new office in the same year. It was at a time when the university was suffering under the effects of various calamities, external and internal, and the new president immediately set himself about reviving if possible the spirit of
the institution by a thorough reorganization of the whole system, both of its studies and of its discipline. In this work he was eminently successful.
sore domestic affliction which President Marsh experienced two years after
In 1833 he retired from the presidency and accepted the chair of intellectual and moral philosophy, which he continued to occupy for the remainder of his life. In 1835, he was married to Laura Wheelock, a sister of his former wife. She proved a faithful companion to himself, and mother to the children which had been left under her care when their own mother was taken from them, but was herself removed by death in 1838. Four years after sustaining this second heavy trial, on Sunday morning, July 3, 1842, Dr. Marsh departed this life in the 48th year of his life.
I have for the most part abstracted the following account of his character from a letter of mine to Dr. Sprague, which he has inserted in his Annals of the American Pulpit.
He exhibited from the earliest, the same elements of character which were afterwards so finely developed by him. Great simplicity, great integrity of mind and singleness of purpose were the master traits. As he never sacrificed one part of his nature to another, so he possessed, in no common degree, a healthy, well-balanced mind. He was neither a man of impulses nor a worshiper of abstractions. Whilst he reverently heeded the deeper instincts of his being, and carefully cherished every stirring of the religious affections, he was, at the same time, extremely cautious of being governed by feelings that had not first been interpreted and justified to reason. On the other hand, he kept a no less careful watch over the workings of the understanding, never hesitating to discard its conclusions, how ever seemingly logical, if they contradicted his deeper sense of the right and befitting in a moral point of view. This inward integrity which acted in him as an instinct, but which was firmly grounded in religious principle, gave the tone to everything else; to the character of his piety, to his fine social qualities, to his taste as a scholar, and his whole intellectual character as a theologian and philosopher.
His piety was of the calm and quiet sort, without much pretension too deeply seated indeed for display. It rather shunned than courted the notice of the world, exhibiting its genuineness and vitality in undoubted fruits; for his many virtues bore all of them preeminently the christian stamp. He seldom or never spoke of his own personal experience in religion: but it was evident that this reserve preceded neither from barrenness nor affectation, but grew out of the native modesty and retiredness of his disposition. Nor did he ever manifest the fervor or impassioned zeal which is sometimes considered the only sure indication of deep religious feeling. All this was foreign from his nature, and what it would have been impossible for such a man to assume.
In the qualities which make a man prized and beloved in social life, Mr. Marsh had few superiors. Sincerity and kindliness of feeling, united with a natural refinement of manners, made his society courted by the good and intelligent everywhere. Amiable and affectionate in his family, generous almost to a fault to his friends, easily approached and courteous to strangers, he was all this without the least affectation. His conversation was marked by habitual good sense, and a delicate regard to the feelings of the society he was in. Candid and simple in uttering his convictions, he was equally so in expressing his doubts, except to those on whom his convictions and his doubts would alike have been thrown away. He had a remarkable power of winning the esteem and affection of young men. His whole intercourse with them was in the truest sense, friendly and parental. He detested that system of authority which had no other way of sustaining itself than by breaking down, as he expressed it, "all the independent spirit and love of study for its own sake." In the youth he reverenced the man, and by treating him as such, made him conscious that he was one. Delinquents saw, that in dealing with them he was not aiming to build up his own authority by
making them humble and obsequious. The unaffected sincerity of his advice carried it home to the heart, and he insured obedience by making himself loved.
He was as thorough a scholar as earnest and patient labor with rare parts, diverted towards a lofty ideal, can make one. From humble beginnings, with little direction or encouragement from others, but guided and cheered by the whispering of his own hopes, he toiled on until he had laid a broad foundation for the studies to which he had consecrated his life, by mastering all the languages which he thought would be of the least help or service to him in pursuing them. Without ever losing sight of theology, he made himself well acquainted with the literatures of many periods and nations as reflected in the works of their best authors, keeping them all subscrvient to the one great purpose of attaining to a better understanding of divine truth. It was almost solely with reference to theology that he betook himself to philosophy. In the study of the former he took the profound interest which might be expected from a mind constituted as his was. He felt at once that there were brought before him great questions which never could be settled for him by others, but which he must answer for himself as best he could, with the divine help, and every human means of which he could avail himself. No doubt the school of literature had prepared him to look at these questions with a wider grasp of their bearings than he otherwise would have possessed. At any rate, he did not feel entirely satisfied in his own mind with the course of reasoning by which it was then sought to establish several of the more important doctrines of Christianity. It was with the proofs and explanations, however, not with the doctrines themselves, that he was disposed to find fault. He thought the theology of the day savored too much of a sensual philosophy, and betrayed too much effort, which must necessarily defeat its own purpose of comprehending spiritual things by reducing them to the forms and conditions of a wholly sensuous and sense-bound understanding. The criterion of a true philosophy, according to him, was its adequacy to meet the deepest wants of the human spirit by reconciling faith with reason.
Superficial observers who knew very little about the man or his philosophy, declared him to be a mere disciple of Coleridge. But in reality he neither derived his opinions originally from that writer, nor strongly resembled him in any one point of character, except in ardent, uncompromising love of the truth. The philosophy of Dr. Marsh, was, as much as that of any man can be, of home growth, the result of his own deep study and reflection. If he was indebted to others as who is not? he was indebted to them rather for awakening the activity of his own power of thought, than for any immediate infusion of their opinions. He was too honest to himself to be the follower of any school but that of Christ. Had he lived to complete what he had begun, this would have been more clearly seen.
He was not a mere man of the closet, but took a lively interest in all the great questions of his day. His eye was out upon every movement in the literary, political and religious worlds, and was quick to discern its character and tendency. The ready ease with which he scanned such movements showed the life-like, practical character of his knowledge. If any of those questions came by chance to agitate the public mind in the circle in which he moved, he was the first man to stand forth. There was never any holding back with him where great interests were concerned. He threw himself into the midst of the arena, taking his stand at once and decidedly, where he could be seen and read of all men. As a man of principle, he had a rock-like firmness you felt that you could rely on him, and that the truth was safe in his hands.
Yet in outward appearance, he was a timid and feeble-looking man. There was nothing commanding about him in attitude, voice, or gesture. The moral and intellectual expression conveyed in every look and tone of his voice, when he spoke on a great subject, was all the outward advantage he had to secure for him a patient and respectful attention. But this, in connection with the weighty sense of his discourse, always proved sufficient.
To sum up all in a word, he united together in his character, all the elements which conciliate the esteem of the good, with all that command the respect of the wise, and was one of the very few of the generation in which he lived truly deserving the name of a Christian philosopher.
BY PRES'T J. TORREY.
Wheeler, the son of John Brooks Wheeler, Esq., was born in
est member of class 11, remarkable for the number who
afterwards became men of influence and reputation. Immediately after leaving
college, he entered upon his theological studies at Andover, Mass., in the same
class with Presidents Smith and Wayland, Professors Torrey, Haddock and Rephey,
Rev. Dr. King, missionary to Greece, and a a number more distinguished men. Few
American scholars have had a larger circle of valuable acquaintance and
friends. On leaving
From that time forward till 1848, when the health of his family led him to resign his position, he devoted all his energies to the welfare of the university. He was connected with the institution as one of the corporation as early as 1825, and retained this charge till his death, April 16, 1862. In both relations he had served the institution for a longer time than any other man. He raised up friends for it; he secured large and generous subscriptions for it; and carried it through seasons of perplexity and trial. In connection with Drs. Marsh, Torrey, and G. W. Benedict, he carried out its system of instruction, and maintained its standard of scholarship and general spirit. No man set a juster estimate upon the relation of higher institutions of learning to the welfare and permanent prosperity of the state.
later years, Dr. Wheeler's attention was largely given to other public
interests affecting the well-being of the community and the nation. He was
interested in the internal improvements of the state, and in the political
questions agitating the country. In politics he belonged to the
As president of the university he is remembered by many of the alumni, as a valued adviser and friend; as a preacher, for occasional displays of a rare order of eloquence, rising fully to the dignity and greatness of his theme; while as a man and a citizen, his memory will be cherished for his large and conservative views. Almost the last act of his life was a generous donation to the institution to which he had given the best of his days.
[We here resume Mr. Clark's article. Ed.]
GRADUATES OF THE UNIVERSITY.
The whole number of those who have received literary honors from the university, inclusive of the year 1861, is 1,243. Of these 720 graduated after a course of study in the college proper; 236 from the medical department, and 287 have received honorary degrees. The graduates of the university are to be found in all professions, and in all parts of this country and of the world.
the ministry it is represented by such men as Rev. Drs. Chandler, Fisher,
Bowman, Houghton, Pease and Shedd; by Rev. Jehudi Ashmun devoted to the cause
of the colored race, and governor of Liberia, by Rev. Dr. T. M. Worcester,
missionary to the Cherokees, and some of the most active men now in the Turkish
and Armenian fields; and by Profs. Burgess and Robertson who
left their chairs in the university to engage in the work of missions.
In the legal profession, it has worthy representatives, in its oldest graduate,
Charles Adams, Esq., in Jacob Collamer, LL. D., called by his opponents the
ablest lawyer in the
This institution sprang into being about, 1820. In 1810 the village of Burlington, besides an incipient college, had the literary advantage of 4 school districts, where reading, writing and cyphering were taught the children in as many little buildings of one room. Here the Hickoks, Hitchcocks, Keyes and others of youthful promise struggled for the mastery in more sense than one. In
cuffs with each other. He that is now Gen. Ethan Allen
Hitchcock may well remember the little brick school house on
increase of population, after a few years made another advance necessary, and
the result of discussion at the district school meeting, was the result of
redistricting of the village, the erections, at once, of 7 new school houses in
as many neighborhoods, and the surrender of the academy to a corporation called
the Burlington Academy to be sustained by a charge for tuition on scholars.
This system continued until 1849. In December of that year 5 districts of the
village united to form a Union district. To this Union district the corporators
surrendered the academy and now (1863) for 14 years the present plan has been
in vogue, and gives good satisfaction to the parents and scholars who improve
its advantages. The number of pupils under the corporation was from 30 to 50
In the academy the question of separate or mixed schools, so often agitated, has been settled in favor of the latter. Under its earliest preceptor, good Master Caulkings, both sexes attended; yet a boy's school exclusively was the idea of its patrons when the district was divided, and as was supposed, a higher school instituted at the academy; but at present it embraces both sexes in the same school, to the eminent advantage of each.
BY REV. JOHN K. CONVERSE.
The Burlington Female Seminary is believed to be the oldest and the first incorporated institution in the state for the exclusive education of young ladies.
commenced its course of instruction in May, 1835, and received its charter from
the state, Nov. 15, 1836. During the 27 years of its existence, it has received
a liberal and well earned patronage, and had under its instruction more than
1600 pupils, from 19 different states, from
seminary is situated on a gentle slope fronting towards
course of study, drawn up mainly by the Rev. Joseph Torrey,
About one-half or 800 of the alumnζ, have finished the prescribed course, many of them in connection with music, drawing, painting, German or Italian.
Some facts connected with the starting of the seminary claim a brief notice. It commenced under difficulties.
writer of this article began his labors as pastor of the First Calvinistic
Congregational church in
had daughters to be educated; endeavored to convince them that some $2,000 or $3,000 that they were paying out to educate their daughters in expensive schools abroad, would go far towards sustaining a good school at home. The plan, however, met with little encouragement. The common reply was, that the thing proposed could not be done; that the college was suffering for want of material aid, and that if we could not sustain the college, we certainly could not sustain both the college and a seminary. Rev. Dr. James Marsh, then president of the university, was about the only man who encouraged the plan, believing that any enterprise that would rouse the attention to, and enlist the zeal of the community in the matter of education, would equally benefit the university. The plan of the pastor finding little encouragement, as has been stated, was dropped for the time, but by no means abandoned.
must not be inferred from the facts above stated, that the good people of
the close of the next year (1834), the subject of establishing a seminary for
the education of young ladies was revived and discussed. A fund of $30,000 had
just been raised by subscription for the college, and those who had opened
their hearts in this good work, were willing to enjoy still further the luxury
of doing good. The writer of this article, meanwhile, had had correspondence
with Miss Mary C. Green, then of
The seminary has no permanent funds. It has been sustained from the first by the income from tuition. In 1840 it was removed to its present site, in the buildings formerly erected by the Rt. Rev. Bishop Hopkins for his residence and for a theological seminary. The exact number of pupils it has had under its instruction can not be accurately stated, as no record of the attendance from 1841 to 1844 can be found. The records at hand show the names of 1600 or more.
The following is a list of the several teachers who have been employed in the different departments of instruction, from 1835 to '63. The figures denote the dates when they became connected with the seminary. A star marks the names of those deceased.
Principals. Miss Mary C. Green,* 1835; Miss Thirza Lee, 1841; Mrs. Martha O. Paine, 1842; Rev. J. K. Converse, 1844; Rev. B. W. Smith, associate principal, 1848.
Teachers of the English and Latin Languages, Mathematics and the Natural Sciences. Mr. Andrew Robertson, Miss Harriet N. Smith, Miss Mary D. Chase,* Miss Mary A. Poor,
Miss Lucy Baldwin, Miss Adeline Prichard, Miss Sarah R. Chase, Miss Catharine Fleming, Miss Semantha Bascom, Miss Caroline Paine, Mr. Stephen W. Hitchcock,* Miss Eliza Jane Hunt,* Miss Sophia E. Barnard,* Miss Loraine M. Gilbert, Miss Frances A. Hale, Miss Julia L. Chapman, Miss Rosa M. Champlin, Miss Dora L. Merrill, Miss Emily C. Sawyer.
Teachers of French. Miss Lucie A. Mignault, Mr. R. S. M. Bouchette, Mr. Stephen W. Hitchcock,* Miss Minerva A. Sawyer, Miss Frances A. Hale, Mrs. E. Jaquemart, Miss Jane Herbert, Miss Clara Stacy, Miss S. A. Higgs.
Teachers of Piano and Vocal Music. Prof. T. F. Molt,* 1835 to 1842; Miss Harriet Hosford, 1842; Miss Cornelia J. Hall, 1843; Miss Mary A. Bender; Miss Martha A. Williams, 1844; Prof. J. S. Moore, 1846; Mrs. C. F. Davey; Miss Mary A. Curtis, 1847; Prof. T. F. Molt,* 1847; Prof. T. E. Molt, 1846; Miss Lizzie E. Converse; Prof. Herman F. Molt, 1856; Prof. W. W. Pattridge.
Teachers of Drawing, &c. Prof. J. H. Hills, 1835; Mr. Henry Searle, Mrs. Theresa Bassett, Miss Omira B. Bottum, Miss Marion P. Hooker, Miss Elizabeth M. Barnes.
Teachers of Oil Painting. Miss Marion P. Hooker, 1848; Miss Sarah J. Parker; Miss Harriet Kilburn; Mr. Isaac L. Williams, 1852; Miss Sarah E. Converse, 1853.
In addition to the above, a considerable number of pupils selected from the highest class, with regard to their scholarship, have been employed as assistant teachers in the English and Latin departments.
Here much might be justly said of the talents and earnest devotion of several whose names are found in the above list of teachers. But this is not the place to speak of the living. In respect to the dead, we may speak of their good works which follow them, and in which they still live in the memory and affections of hundreds whose minds were formed by their power.
Miss Mary C. Green,
The first principal of the seminary,
was born in
Miss Mary D. Chase
"So fades the lovely, blooming flower,
Frail, smiling solace of an hour."
Prof. Theodore F. Molt
Was born in Gschwend, in the
Mr. Molt received the elements of a good classical and mathematical education. But soon after he entered the university, he, either by enlistment or conscription, became a soldier in Bonaparte's army. He belonged to what was called the foreign department of the army. Though young he soon attracted the notice of his superiors, and was promoted to the place of accountant and assistant paymaster in his regiment.
the battle of
He now returned home chose music for his profession, and devoted himself to it with true German perseverance. He had received in his boyhood his first lessons from his father and from an older brother who was distinguished for his attainments in the "divine art." After leaving the army he be‑
came, first, the pupil of Czerny then of Moschelles in
Molt came to this country in 1823. Landing in
Prof. Molt devoted himself with singular earnestness to his profession, giving lessons usually from 10 to 12 hours daily, and even then finding some hours to bestow on the musical works he was preparing for the press. His contributions to the science of music and of musical instruction, have been highly appreciated by professors in the art, especially his more recent works Progressive Lessons and Teacher's Guide. The former has no superior as a work for beginners.
Prof. Molt's laborious life closed after a short illness Nov. 16, 1856.
Stephen Washington Hitchcock,
A very acceptable and successful teacher of the French
language from November, 1846, to November, 1849, was a native of
Miss Sophia E. Barnard,
Whose name is starred in the list of teachers, was from
Miss Eliza Jane Hunt
Filled the place of first lady
teacher, for nearly four years from March, 1845. Miss Hunt was born in
ship, gentle and lady-like in manners, but ever firm and decided for the right. She possessed a ready insight into character, and was seldom mistaken in her judgment. She also possessed that rare quality so essential to successful teaching, viz.: the power, not only to communicate her instructions with clearness, but also the power of following those instructions into the mind of the pupil, and seeing how they are received and deposited in that mind. The ability to do which is one of the highest qualifications of a teacher.
Hunt was united in marriage with John B. Wheeler, Esq., of
Of the 1600 pupils who have been connected with the seminary from its origin, 81 deaths are known to have occurred. The actual number of deaths is presumed to be near 100, as from the wide dispersion of the pupils, some deaths have probably occurred not known to the writer. The mortality therefore, in 27 years, would probably amount to only about 16 per cent.
One important fact we would here notice with devout gratitude to God. During the 17 years that the present principal has had charge of the seminary, with the average number of 29 boarders per quarter, there has never been a death among the boarders, nor has there ever been among us any epidemic, or prevalent disease, which is certainly an unusual exemption, and conclusive proof of the healthiness of our location.
The office of the principal has been filled in the order of time, as follows: Miss Mary C. Green, from May, 1835, to February, 1841; Miss Thirza Lee, from February, 1841, to February, 1842.
this time the trustees and patrons of the school deemed it important that a
gentleman should be placed at the head, and the Rev. Lyman Coleman was elected
as principal. Mr, Coleman declined the appointment, and Mrs. Martha O. Paine
was elected principal, February, 1842. On her resignation, in the spring of
1844, the exercises of the seminary were suspended until September of that
year, when Rev. J. K. Converse, then pastor of the First Calvinistic
Congregational church in
The seminary, as has been remarked, has never had any corporate fund. Soon after the present principal commenced his duties, he purchased the two right hand buildings (see plate), which had previously been rented for the school, investing therein some $15,000. These two buildings have been well filled with pupils during his administration, until a few months since, when he sold the south, or right hand building, for other purposes. The seminary is now conducted in the large central building, which is most pleasantly situated and convenient in its arrangements. The number of pupils is limited to 40, one-half of whom can be accommodated with residence and board in the family of the principal, where they will be under the constant care of the teachers, in respect to morals, manners, and mental culture, and enjoy all the comforts and kind attentions of a pleasant home.
In reviewing the years the writer has spent in charge of this institution, he feels he has not labored in vain, and the present and future well-being of his many hundred pupils will ever be near his heart, and remembered at that throne where alone such remembrance can be availing.
In the state of society which exists among us, it is the peculiar privilege of an American to win his way by the culture and use of his own powers, with the certainty, that success will wait on real merit. And this is as true of the young woman as of the young man. Wealth and family have great weight in the start of both, but in the long run, superior intellectual and moral worth will win, no matter what may have been the disadvantages of the possessor, provided the resolution to be true to one's self comes not too late. While looking over the names of those who have been under my instruction, I see many happy illustrations of this remark. During the last 17 years the seminary has assisted 81 young ladies to an education by waiting on them, on certain conditions, for the whole or a portion of their bills, until they could earn the means of cancelling them, after completing the course of study. The obligations assumed by such pupils, with a few exceptions, have been honorably met. And those thus aided, as compared with others, have generally excelled in earnest application, and are now seen to occupy some of the highest stations of influence and usefulness. In a large number of cases, it is not the advantages of birth or fortune that have decided the destiny of my pupils, or have given them the stations they now hold, but it was education, culture, character.
Young Ladies' school on
was continued by her after her marriage with Mr. Worcester, then
pastor of the Calvinistic Congregational church in
Receiving but a limited number of pupils, the school has seldom been able to accommodate all applicants, and was never in more flourishing condition than at present.
The school is furnished with apparatus for experimental illustrations in natural philosophy and chemistry, and much attention is given to instruction in mental and moral science.
instructors at this date (March, 1862), are Rev. and Mrs. J. H. Worcester,
principals; Mlle. L. Eugenie Gangloff, Miss Kate Fessenden, Miss Lydia L.
Hodges, and Miss Julia Fleming, in the literary department, and Messrs. T. E.
Molt and S. C.
BY REV. B. W. SMITH.
Young Ladies' seminary, conducted by Rev. and Mrs. B. W. Smith, occupies the
building and grounds formerly occupied by the Burlington Female seminary,
situated at the south end of Church street, retired from the noise and bustle
of the business part of the town, and yet within five minutes' walk of the
heart of the village. It opened its first session in September, 1860, and from
that time to the present has enjoyed a fair amount of patronage from the
citizens of the town and state, and from other states and
There is also connected with the institution, a department for the education of lads and young men who may wish to prepare themselves for mercantile and other business, or for college, which has also been well attended. In the latter department the pupils attend mostly as day scholars; a few, however, have been accommodated with rooms and board.
There are connected with the institution 6 able and experienced teachers. The department of French being under the instruction of a lady of Parisian birth and education, and that of piano music, of Prof. T. E. Molt, who has been a most successful teacher for the last 15 or 20 years.
BY REV. A. FLEMING.
From 1783 to 1800 the population of Burlington had increased from about 40 persons to 600; and in the year 1800 there were 6 stores in town but there was no minister settled until 1810, and no house of worship erected until 1812. Previous to the year 1800, the privileges of public worship were but rarely enjoyed, even by the few who desired them, from the occasional ministrations of itinerant missionaries and other transient preachers of various sorts.
appears, however, that about the close of the year 1799, the village took a new
and vigorous start in growth and prosperity, and a commendable degree of public
spirit was awakened among the leading men of the place for promoting public
interests, which had been hitherto neglected. Among these were the institution
of public worship, and the practical inauguration of the university which had
been chartered and located here by the state. In Aug. 1799, the Rev. Daniel C.
Sanders was released from his pastoral charge in Vergennes, and as soon as this
was known in
"Voted, to raise $200 on the grand list of 1799, to
be paid in grain, beef, pork, butter or cheese, to be delivered to the minister
who shall be hired in
In 1805 a petition was presented to the selectmen, to warn a town meeting in reference to building a meeting house and supporting "social and public worship," agree-
able to the form and effect of the statute entitled "An
act for the support of the gospel," passed Oct. 26, 1797. The meeting was
held, and under the act referred to, the inhabitants of the town formed
themselves into a society by the name of the First society for social and
public worship in the town of'
the year 1805 also, was formed another important organized body, namely: the
First Christian church ever formed in this town. On the 21st of February of that
year, 14 persons, members of churches chiefly in Connecticut, met at the house
of Moses Catlin, and after a repeated perusal of articles of faith and a form
of church covenant, prepared by Rev. President Sanders, agreed to enter into
covenant with God and one another, as a church of Christ, and in testimony
thereof signed the articles and covenant. On the 23d, immediately after sermon,
the articles and covenant were read, and assent to them being continued, they
were publicly declared, by Pres't Sanders, to be a regular church of the Lord
Jesus Christ, established in
Besides the preaching of Pres't. Sanders, who officiated statedly until 1807, the Rev. Sam'l Williams, LL. D., also preached, more or less, in the years 1807 and 1808, while here superintending the publication of the second edition of his History of Vermont and in 1809, Rev. Willard Preston and Rev. Amariah Chandler, then licentiates, also labored here, very much to the acceptance of the church, but declined being candidates for settlement. As the fruit of their labor under God, the church received its first increase in August of this year an addition of 10 persons 9 of them by a profession of faith and 1 by letter from another church. The whole number of the church was now 21 3 of the original number having died.
this point of the history, it may be proper to remark that two parties had been
growing and were now grown to maturity among the people, respecting the
doctrines and the preaching of the gospel. The one was the "liberal
party" so called by themselves, who had a strong aversion to the strict
doctrines and manner of religious life so characteristic of the early times in
New England, and who preferred instead "moral preaching" in which the
puritanic doctrines of grace should be ignored. The other party was the orthodox, or Calvinistic party, so called in the language of
that day. The church mostly were of this party, and
also a respectable minor part of the society who sympathized with the church
and adhered to its fortunes. The preaching and influence of Pres't Sanders
undoubtedly fostered the liberal party rather than the other, although he was a
member of the church and had subscribed to its articles of faith, which were
substantially, though not fully and explicitly on all points, Calvinistic. And
until 1809, when Messrs. Preston and
in the fall of 1809, these two parties had their two candidates for settlement
Mr. Samuel Clark, Jr., from
nected with the liberal party. However that may be, Mr. Clark came first and began to preach, and soon after Mr. Haskel came.
On the 1st day of January, 1810, after Mr. Clark had finished his time of probation, the society met in the Court house to deliberate and vote on the question of settling Mr. Clark as their minister. The church met at the same time by themselves for the same purpose. A decided majority of the society voted to settled Mr. Clark; but the majority of the church declined to have him settled over them as their pastor. Mr. Clark intimated his readiness to be settled if the church were united with the society in the call, otherwise he declined. Here was a difficulty; but it was speedily surmounted by the expedient of dissolving the old society and forming a new one, on the entirely voluntary principle of the adherents and friends of Mr. Clark; and also forming a new church for him (which was done at the time of his ordination), on the basis of the same articles and church covenant on which the first church had been formed in 1805.
minority of the society also formed themselves into a new society, and took the
name of the First Calvinistic Congregational society in
Clark was ordained on the 19th of the same month by a council all from
Mr. Haskel and his people worshiped in the Court house at such times and hours of the day as they could find it unoccupied; and afterwards, by leave of the corporation, in the chapel of the college. In 1812 the first house of worship in town was erected by this church and society and dedicated to the worship of God the Father, Son and Holy Ghost. It was consumed by fire, kindled by an incendiary, on the morning of June 23d, 1839, and replaced by the present edifice, dedicated April 14, 1842.
Haskel was elected to the presidency of the university in 1821, and was
dismissed from his pastoral charge June 22, 1822, in order to enter on the
duties of that office. He was a man and a minister eminently fitted for the
times and the place and work to which he was called in
During the pastorate of Mr. Haskel the church increased in number from 21 to 91; and, what was of more consequence, by his preaching was well grounded and built up in the faith, and established in the knowledge and acknowledgment of the evangelical system of divine truth and grace.
[For further biography of Mr. Haskel see biographies of the presidents of the university by Prof. Clark. Ed.]
The second pastor of this church was the Rev. Willard Preston, who was installed Aug. 22, 1822.
The third pastor of the church was the Rev. Reuben Smith, installed May 3, 1826. During his ministry numerous conversions took place in the congregation, and the church was increased in number and piety.
The fourth pastor of the church was Rev. John K. Converse, installed Aug. 8, 1832; during whose pastorate a portion of the church were set off and formed into a new church (the church in Winooski).
The fifth pastor of the church was the Rev. John H. Worcester, installed March 10, 1847.
The sixth pastor of the church was Rev Spencer Marsh, ordained and installed Nov. 6, 1855. Mr. Marsh was dismissed from his pastoral office Feb. 8, 1860.
The seventh pastor of the church is Rev. Eldridge Mix, installed Sept. 4, 1862.
In 1860, a new congregational church and society were formed in this place, chiefly of members of this church and society. The Third Congregational church was organized on sabbath, Nov. 4, 1860; and on Dec. 26 the Rev. George B. Safford was settled over them.
The whole number of those who, by a hopeful conversion and public profession of faith, have united with the church since it was formed in the year 1805 is 612. The present membership (1861) is 311, about 200 of
whom are resident members. The Third Congregational church number 320.
Commemorative Sermon Half Century April 29, 1860.
BY REV. JOSHUA YOUNG.
"Other men labored and ye are entered into their labors." JOHN, iv, 38.
* * * * * * * * * *
the coming in of the present century, the religious affairs of
first commenced with the reading of a printed sermon, which was approved of and
well attended. About this time it was understood that the Rev. Daniel C.
Sanders had closed his engagement at Vergennes, and was at liberty to preach
wherever his services might be requested. Immediately on ascertaining this,
David Russell, Esq., and Dr. John Pomeroy most honorable names intimately
associated with the beginning and growth both of this town and this society
rode to Vergennes and engaged him to preach at
Sanders' first introduction to
From an examination of the first records of the town, it appears that in June, 1805, the 5th day of the month, more than 7 of the substantial freeholders of Burlington joined in petition to Geo. Robinson, town clerk, to warn a meeting of the inhabitants of said town, for the purpose of forming themselves into a society for social and public worship, agreeable to the form and effect of the statute, entitled "An act for the support of the gospel," passed Oct. 26, 1797.
This petition was signed by Wm. C. Harrington, Lyman King, Osias Buell, Arza Crane, Elnathan Keyes, Moses Catlin, David Russell, James Sawyer, Saml. Hickok, John Pomeroy, Horace Loomis.
the people met without distinction of opinions, and voted unanimously to form
themselves into a society by the name of the First society for Social and
public worship in the town of
four years passed over, and the next public record of ecclesiastical affairs is
the 7th article in the warning of the annual town meeting for March 20, 1809. In this interval, however, in the year 1807, Dr. Saml.
Williams of Rutland, a graduate from Harvard college,
and for some time a lecturer on natural philosophy to that institution, came to
At the town meeting mentioned above, i.e., in the year 1809, it was voted that a committee of five be chosen for the purpose of fixing on a place for building a meeting house; and Daniel Farrand, Stephen Pearl, Moses Robinson and David Russell were elected that committee, who reported at an adjourned meeting held about 2 weeks afterwards, that they "had taken the subject into consideration, and agreed to recommend to the town a piece of ground lying on the south side of the new road called College street, leading from the front of the college to the Court House square, east of the road called Middle street (now Willard street), leading south from Pearl street to the turnpike road (now Main street), for said purpose." The report was accepted, and a
* Hon. Charles Adams, since died, having departed this life Jan. 13, 1862.
committee of seven raised to make and receive proposals to draft a plan for a building to be erected immediately.
But on that beautiful hill-side, no church steeple yet points to heaven. The effort failed, and all we know from the town records of the how and the wherefore is just nothing. Only it is written that in about 3 weeks after the building committee was appointed, an adjourned meeting to hear the proceedings of the committee met, and immediately dissolved, and in about as many weeks more, that is, on the last Monday in May, 1809, assembled again, and immediately adjourned without day.
The explanation of the mystery is, in brief, that the slumbering lion of theology waked up, and the growls of religious controversy began to be heard. Hitherto the inhabitants of the town had acted together without any clashing of different opinions on matters of religious belief; but the dividing day had come.
. . . . . . . . .
A separation took place; but to tell you all the circumstances connected with it, as I learn them from the written statement of the dead, and from the lips of the living, who remember those days, would be to misappropriate the calm of this sacred day to a recital of the angers and strifes; the deceptions and the meannesses of sectarian controversy.
to proceed, in January, 1810, articles of association, whereby a very large
majority of the male inhabitants of the town formed themselves into a society
by the name of the First Congregational society, in the town of
. . . . . . . . .
Just 50 years ago, this month of April, on Thursday, the 19th day of the month, the people of Burlington, favorable to liberal sentiments in religion, were assembled in the Court house (a wooden structure afterwards burned down, but then occupying the same piece of ground on which now stands the more substantial edifice by that name), to induct into office the man they had chosen to be their christian teacher and guide, Mr. Saml. Clark, where, only 9 days before, the Calvanistic party of seceders had with eager haste ordained another minister; designing, it is said, in military phrase, to steal a march on the liberals in order to invest in their man, Mr. Danl. Haskel, afterwards 3d president of the University of Vermont, the right of 320 acres of land which was granted by charter to the first settled minister. On this account very great excitement prevailed at the time, feeling was intense, the very children partook of the agitation, and held disputes; but the difficulty was at length satisfactorily adjusted by a vote of the town appraising the lots and dividing them into three parts, giving the same sum of $1,000 to each of the ministers, and funding the other third, the income from which to be shared by the two societies equally.
services on the occasion of Mr. Clark's ordination were of an able and
interesting character, and were published. The Rev. Wm. Emerson, pastor of the
First church in Boston, and father, I believe, of the distinguished Ralph Waldo
Emerson, preached the sermon, the subject of which was Posthumous
Beneficence, and the text the words of Peter in his 2d epistle, i, 5.
"Moreover, I will endeavor that ye may be able after my decease to have
these things always in remembrance." The charge was given by the Rev.
Sam'l Whiting of
Mr. Clark's salary was $550, and for 12 years, with little or no interruption, he served this society. He died on Wednesday, May 2, 1827, having five years previously resigned his pastoral office in consequence of an attack of pulmonary disease, which finally terminated his life. He was buried on Friday at 2 o'clock in the afternoon, from his late residence, and on the succeeding Sunday Mr. Geo. G. Ingersoll, his successor in office, preached a funeral sermon, in which, at some length, he spoke of his life and character.
From a communication by the same to the Northern Sentinel, we extract:
Clark was born in
of his mind.' He was independent in his judgments and fearless in his declarations, and, though unpretending in manner, he was firm in the support of what he felt to be right. These traits of character were not only exhibited in his private life but they entered into and distinctly marked his duties as a minister of the gospel, for his religious views were cheering and consolatory, and he was decided in asserting and defending them. His faith was enlightened and liberal, and his charity, that virtue which is higher than faith, was a truly christian charity, for he earnestly desired the happiness and salvation of all of his fellow-beings.
"In his last sickness he was more than patient, he was cheerful, he spoke of his departure freely and calmly; he had no fears of death, and when at last death came on him it came as a quiet sleep."
The house we occupy, our goodly temple, was built, as the chiseled stone in the front wall of the tower tells us, in the year 1816. Immediately after the ordination of two ministers in town, there being but one public room convenient for a place of worship, the question inevitably came up, which society shall have the use of the Court house? or what portion of time shall each one have it in turn?
Various efforts were made towards a peaceful and handy decision of the question, and failed, till finally the stronger party, and we think, the right party, that is the society which had the right on their side, took the matter in hand, and passed in a meeting the following preamble and resolutions:
"Whereas, Every pacific measure has been proposed by the society to bring the respective claims of the two societies to an equitable adjustment, which has been opposed and neglected by the Calvinistic society, therefore:
"Resolved, That in future this society will assert their right to use the Court house upon all public religious occasions without any accountability to any of the members of the Calvinistic society.
"Resolved, That the above resolution is founded in right, legal, moral and religious, and that this society will support the same" and they did.
In those days, I am told, men were very early at meeting, and came prepared. Not, I fear, in a very meek and quiet spirit, nor having on that armor which the apostle describes; but the times were trying and our fathers were in earnest.
At a meeting of the society, convened April 22, 1815, Mr. Ebenezer J. Englesby introduced the following resolution:
"Whereas, It is understood that a number of the First Congregational society have purchased five acre lot, No. 17, for the purpose of erecting a meeting house thereon for the use of this society, have generously subscribed a large sum for the purpose of building said meeting house, therefore:
"Resolved, That this society agree that the said five acre lot, No. 17, shall be the place for setting a meeting house for said society, and that the subscribers for the same be requested to proceed and build said meeting house by subscription, in such manner as they shall judge most convenient for the accomodation of the society and under such regulations as they may agree upon among themselves."
Which resolution was unanimously adopted.
The house was built at the cost, including bell, clock and organ,* of about $23,000, and, with but little change in the interior, is the commodious, pleasant and chaste building we are assembled in to-day.
was dedicated Thursday, Jan. 9, 1817, by appropriate solemnities. Introductory
prayer was offered, and scripture read by the pastor of the society. A hymn
prepared by Deacon Jacob Williams, a member of the society, was sung.
Dedicatory prayer was made by John Foster, D. D. of Brighton,
"Holiness becometh thy house O Lord forever."
The original dedicatory hymn (by Jacob Williams), was as follows:
Great God, we enter this thy house;
This long wished for day with joy we see,
That we may pay our grateful vows,
And dedicate this house to thee.
Thy providential smiles, O Lord,
Have crowned our work with good success;
By thy Almighty name adored
That name we'll never cease to bless.
Continue still thy presence here,
Make this the place of thine abode,
Whilst we, with filial love, draw near
To thee, our Father and our God.
of the largest and finest organs in the country has of late been put into this
church. "It contains 1700 pipes, being 300 more than the organ in
May thy pure precepts be our guide;
All errors shunned with cautious care;
No doctrines taught by human pride,
Can with thy holy word compare,
But that religion from above,
Taught by thy son, our sovereign Lord,
Replete with peace, and truth, and love,
Claims all our reverence and regard.
May charity and love appear
In all we say, in all we do,
Thus prove our faith in thee sincere
And not a vain, an empty show.
May generations far remote,
Within these walls thy praise proclaim,
By purity of life support
The honor of the christian name.
May this church, still owned by thee,
When Christ appears a second time,
From every spot or blemish free
Appear with lustre all divine.
nearly two years previous to the resignation of Mr. Clark, whose failing health
disabled him to perform the duties of the pulpit, it had been occupied by a
young man born in
ordaining prayer was made by Rev. Dr. Bancroft; sermon was preached by Rev.
President Kirkland of the university at
Of the faithful and efficient ministry of Dr. Ingersoll* to this society, continued through 22 years of arduous labor, till his health broke down, it is not my purpose to speak at length.
The limits of this discourse will not allow; and some years hence it will be the more appropriate time for some one standing in this pulpit, to portray his genial disposition, his brilliant talents, his christian character, and his useful life not yet ended, but still prolonged and still devoted to the service of God, and human happiness.
Of only two things in his ministry may I allow myself to speak, and even them I can but allude to. I mean the institution of the Sunday school, which was established by him in this parish in May, 1828; and the Parish library, originally known as the Religious Book society, whose first meeting was called at his instance, and whose noble object he did every thing in his power to promote. Of no one's labors more than of his, is our present valuable collection of nearly 900 volumes of good and standard books, the fruit, and how wholesome fruit, how refreshing and invigorating to both mind and heart it is, the many who visit that library from week to week, know full well!
Of the Sunday school, Dr. Ingersoll thus spoke in his farewell sermon, which I may say in passing, no one can read without admiration for the earnestness and fidelity of the ministry it brought to a close.
I first came to you" (I quote his sermon), "there was no Sunday
school attached to the society; indeed the present system of Sunday schools had
but partially gone into operation in our land. For some time after my
settlement, I felt inadequate to bear the burden which such an institution
would impose. But becoming more and more convinced of the need of some such
public religious instruction for the children of the society, I undertook the
performance of the duty myself. For some years I was sole instructor of the
Sunday school, and, though it was not large, the business of instructing them, came at the close of the afternoon service after the
fatigues of the day; still I found in this matter my pleasure in my duty. Some
of the happiest moments
of my ministerial engagements were thus spent."
Referring to the Parish library, he says: "In the establishment and progress of this have ever taken as deep and uninterrupted interest. It was one of my earliest movements for the increase of religious knowledge among churches, and the diffusion of correct views of our religious faith among others. . . In order to make this institution productive of still greater good, I proposed to hold, in connection with it, monthly religious meetings for the edification of all who wished to attend. These meetings were held in the church, during the summer, in the afternoon, and during the winter, in the evening, at my house, the
* Rev. G. G. Ingersoll, D. D. was born in Boston, July 4th, 1796; graduated at Harvard college, 1815; began to preach Sept. 20, 1820; settled at Burlington, May 30, 1822; resigned his charge, March 31,1844; preached his farewell, June 2, 1844.
exercises at such times being prayer, a written essay, and familiar religious discussions." "And," he says, finally: "if there be any one thing more than another in connection with which I would have my name remembered among you, it is the Parish library."
May I here propose to you, my brethren, a suggestion, made to me by another, that, by a vote in the next parish meeting, you inscribe on that monument of a good and faithful minister's service to you, the name of the "Ingersoll Library."
make a single quotation more from the same sermon: "Of the 75
parishoners," he writes, "who first joined in the call given me to
settle here, only 15 are now recorded on the list. . . .
. . How many hands once reached out to me for
friendly grasp, have long since mouldered to dust! How many voices which once
spoke to me the cheering welcome, have long since been hushed in the repose of
the grave The fathers, Williams, Reed, Farrand, Curtis, Sawyer, Hollister,
Rice, Russell, Pomeroy, I miss your venerable forms from the seats you once so
constantly filled. The mothers in
The Fathers. I
would, my hearers, that with a few words proper and fit for each I could call
them up before you, for good and true men I am sure they were. Liberal christianity in
Very briefly I can speak of them, and only as I know them from an examination of the church and parish records, and from the recollections of one* who has kindly permitted me to read his MSS. sketch of the men who were his friends and companions when he was young.
the oldest inhabitants of
Companion of these was Dr. John Pomeroy, a leading physician and surgeon in this part of the state for over 40 years. He was an ardent lover and promoter of knowledge and of every useful improvement, and was for many years a member of the corporation of the university in this place, and a professor in its medical department. Indeed he was an enthusiast in any good work, and was a unitarian of the most thorough kind and foremost among the friends of the cause.
Deacon Jacob Williams, author of the dedicatory hymn, "sedate, thoughtful and profound" (says the MSS. from which I quote), he felt that life was a great service. When the hour of death came it found him ready to depart, and cheerful in the prospect of a higher life. Like "a granite column standing in some shady grove where the flowers fill the soul with delight, be gave solemnity and yet a pleasing dignity to all around him." In manners a gentleman of the old school, in acts a practical philanthropist, his
* Late Hon. Charles Adams.
Mr. Loomis was born in
"Ut insignis virlute ac meritis."
Obituary, published at the time of his death, writer unknown: In this town, on
the 19th inst. (Feb. 1844), Dr. John Pomeroy, aged nearly 79 years. Dr. Pomeroy
was one of our oldest inhabitants, and one among the early settlers of the
town. He was born in Middleboro,
life was a demonstration of his faith, and his morning prayer was for strength to live devoted to the will of his Maker. He passed away almost at the hour when our house was dedicated.
And then there was Deacon David Russell, a soldier of the revolution, whose venerable form (he died in 1843 at the age of 86), had been long associated in this community with all civil gatherings, social meetings and religious services, and was met in your streets even to the last.* He died at Governor's island. N. Y., while on a visit to his son, Dr. J. P. Russell, army surgeon; but his remains were buried in the graveyard in this place.
10 years before him, died Col. Nathan Rice in ripe old age, who
parish minister. When but a lad of 16 years of age, he enlisted
and served three months as a soldier at
following reminiscences of his useful life are taken from an obituary notice
published at the time of his death in the village paper, by whom written, I
have been unable to ascertain; Mr. Russell after leaving the army of the
Revolution, in which he had been early engaged, came to this state previous to
its being admitted into the Union. In 1783, he engaged with and entered into
the printing business at
This obituary notice was written by George G. Ingersoll,
In this town, on Thursday morning last, at the
residence of his son-in-law, Judge Foote, Col. Nathan Rice, in the 81st year of
his age. Col. Rice was a native of
"But mourn not for the friend, who having run
The bound of man's appointed years, at last
Life's blessings all enjoyed, life's labors done,
Serenely to his final rest has past."
I might also make most honorable mention of the names of James L. Sawyer, for many years clerk of this society, of Elnathan Keyes, and E. H. Demming, and Moses Jewett; of three who departed this life since I was called to be your pastor, Ebenezer T. Englesby, Nathan B. Haswell and Judge Alvan Foote; but time will not suffice.
other name, however, it were certainly wrong to omit,
that of Mark Rice. An humble mechanic he was, but good
in his craft as humble in heart and in hand honest and faithful. What he did
was always well done, and he was master not of one tool only but of many. The
chairs of his manufacture have not yet lost their fame in some of the
Next to the street fence in our burying ground, just at the left hand as you enter the gate, a stone with the following inscription, points out his grave:
Rice. A native of
Past a few graves in the same row with his you may read on another slab:
Saml. Clark | Was born in
Further in the yard, not many paces from the right hand side of the main path, are chiseled on a white block of marble, with appropriate devices, these words:
Our beloved Pastor Oliver W. B. Peabody | Born 9th July 1799* | Ordained | Over the First Cong. Society | 4th August 1845, | Taken from his people | July 5th, 1848, | Aged 49 years.
Of the character and ministry of the saintly man who succeeded Dr. Ingersoll, this simple and affectionate record on his grave stone is the fitting history.
On the very month that Peabody died, 2 young men from opposite quarters met at Cambridge, and entered their names together on the list of theological students of the university; who, friends and classmates, were destined to follow one another as his successors. Of them it is not fitting now that I should speak, not of one at all only to say perhaps, that when 50 years hence another preacher commemorates the 100th anniversary to this religious society, should my ministry seem to him worthy of succeeding that of an Ingersoll, or the memory I leave behind, hallowed as that of a Peabody, heaven will have heard my prayer and have helped mine infirmity.
Fifty years! yes fifty years have gone by since this christian church was founded in this place! Only fifty years and of the first members of it, of those who took part in its formation, only five survive, one for each ten years Horace Loomis, Dr. John Peck, Hon. Charles Adams, Mr. Phineas Lyman and Mr. Luther Moore, the last leaves on the tree; and of the congregation, which assembled in the Court, house on the 19th day of April, 1810, a very great majority of them, this April month, 1860, are of that larger congregation of the dead where the ancient mounds cover most thickly the ground of our village graveyard.
They have gone, your fathers and mothers, but the places, rough to them, they have left smooth to you, and the home and sanctuary they reared and defended for the religion of enlightened reason, and for the liberty of the individual conscience, has come down to you not in decay but in strength; not
SOLON WANTON BUSH, a graduate of Brown university, a
YOUNG, the present incumbent, was born in 1823, in Pittston, Kennebec county,
with marks of age upon it, but looking ever more youthful and with a beauty which no negligence has suffered to decay.
As we look back into the past we have reason to feel an honest pride. Let us do nothing now to put to shame the present.
* * * * * * * *
BY REV. A. WITHERSPOON.*
the year 1817, a society or class was formed in the village consisting of 9
persons, of whom Abijah Warner, still living, was appointed leader. The
officiating minister on this occasion, was J.
McDaniel, from which it may be inferred that
1855, a second church was formed by a colony from the old church, consisting of
27 members, and 49 probationers. This colony established themselves on
looking over the above list of names, the uninitiated reader will be surprised
at the number of ministers, who have been successively stationed in
property belonging to the two Methodist Episcopal churches in
*Pastor of the First M. E. Church.
at $3,000, and the parsonage and lot at $2,000. The new church, which is somewhat larger and more convenient than the old, is valued at $5,000, and the parsonage at $3,000.
The membership of the two churches is about equal. Both are small, as also the congregations. Each reported at the last conference, a fraction over 100 members, but it would be hardly safe to count more than 100.
The division took place after a great revival, under the labors of Rev. C. F. Burdick, assisted by Rev. H. Purdy, and Rev. J. W. Redfield. The church suddenly became too small for the membership and congregation, and the proposition to divide instead of enlarge, prevailed. But, as is too often the case, reaction followed revival; and there has been little or no advancement, either in membership or congregations since the division, and many now look upon it as unfortunate for the cause of Methodism in the place. Time seems to have proved, that neither the membership nor the population and growth of the village, warranted the movement; and that enlargement would have been the better policy; thus securing a more commanding influence, and avoiding the extra expense of sustaining two churches. It is hoped, however, that both will be enabled to live and ultimately prosper, and thus prove a blessing to themselves and the community. The official boards of the respective churches are as follows:*
enjoyment of the privileges of church relationship, and the dissemination of
their conscientious views of the doctrines of the gospel induced a few christians to unite and organize themselves into a branch of
For more than 3 years after Mr. Hill closed his labors they had only occasional supplies.
January, 1834, Rev, Mr. Norris became their pastor, under whose labors, in the
following autumn, it was resolved to become an independent body. A council was
called in accordance to established usage for such a purpose, and on Sept. 26,
the same year, the First Baptist church in
In June, 1830, Rev. J. H. Walden became their pastor, who, after a few months' labor, resigned his charge for another field. For more than 2 succeeding years they were destitute of a pastor, securing supplies as far as they found it practicable, maintaining their faith, though without an under shepherd set over them. In 1839 Rev. H. D. Hodge became their pastor, but remained with them less than a twelvemonth, when they were supplied a portion of the following year by Rev. Mr. Burbank.
1840, Rev. Hiram Safford of Keeseville, N. Y., became their pastor. During his
labors it was deemed essential to the prosperity of the church that their place
of worship should be removed from their location on College hill to the
neighborhood of the public square about one mile distant. Into this enterprise
the pastor and his feeble church entered with a strong faith and untiring
exertion. In 1842 a lot was purchased on the southwest corner of Church and
* Winter of 1862.
life July 28, 1844, aged 58 years, deeply lamented, not only by his own family and church but by the whole circle of his acquaintance to whom his urbane manners, tender and devoted spirit and ardent piety had greatly endeared him.
in 1845 Rev. H. I. Parker became the pastor, and entered heartily into the work
of completing the house of worship and strengthening the church. The house was
so near completed as to be publicly dedicated to the worship of God on the 3d
day of the ensuing April, and the pastor installed. Rev. Mr. Parker, after a
successful pastorate of 8 years, resigned his charge at the call of the
Northern Educational union, to become their secretary and financial agent.
Early in the year 1853 Rev. L. Tracey, from New Hampton, N. H., commenced his
labors with the church, and was installed in March of the same year. Owing to
the protracted ill health of his family he felt constrained to remove from the
place, and resigned his charge in 1855. In August following Mr. H. H.
Burrington, graduate of Rochester Theological seminary,
became their pastor, and was ordained to the work of the ministry on December
27th, 1855. His health proving inadequate to the duties devolving upon him, he
resigned his charge at the end of the 2d year of his pastoral labors. Rev. N.
P. Foster, M. D., commenced his labors with the church in Jan., 1858, and has
continued until the present time, with the exception of 6 months the past
summer (1861), having leave of absence for the purpose of visiting the
Baptist church in
The church as a benevolent body has but few equals, and scarcely a superior in the state. In their own destitution and want they have not forgotten those in deeper want and know practically while deeply grateful for the benefactions received that "it is more blessed to give than receive."
N. P. FOSTER, Pastor.
E. A. FULLER, Clerk.
March 17th, 1862.
BY REV. JOHN A. HICKS,
Protestant Episcopal church was first organized in
the 1st May, 1831, the Rev. George T. Chapman,
cost of the ground and building, including the organ and bell was $8,000. In the year 1857, the church was repaired and enlarged at an expense of $7,000, by the addition of a recessed chancel, side galleries, and stained glass windows, after a plan drawn and executed by the bishop, and it is now a most beautiful model of a parish church. The bishop held the rectorship until Easter, 1856, and performed the duties of rector until August, 1858, on the 23d day of which month the Rev. David Hillhouse Buel assumed the rectorship. The parish at present consists of 122 families, and has 202 communicants.
connected with the history of
soon begun under the supervision of the bishop, and after a plan drawn by
himself. The building having been completed, was
consecrated to its purposes on the 6th June, 1860, the bishop of
building erected for the seminaries of the
style is the collegiate gothic, of the same general character which prevails in
the English universities of
The interior is divided into two distinct departments. The eastern end, devoted to ministerial education, contains the house of the Willoughby professor of theology, with the library, comprising 1600 volumes, a large proportion of which are the best remains of christian antiquity the fathers, the councils, and after these, the reformers, and standard authors in polemic divinity.
The western end contains the academical department, the large schoolroom, 42 feet long, 21 feet wide, and 12 feet high, the smaller recitation rooms, the parlor and reception rooms, the dormitories, and the chapel. The basement, throughout the whole building, is 10 feet in height, arranged for the culinary work of the establishment, containing 3 first class furnaces, one in the center and one at either end, with flues and registers opening into all the rooms, in each of which there is a ventilator.
The chapel is highly ornamental, 62 feet
long, and 21 feet wide, with deeply recessed chancel and open roof, filled with gothic spandrils and elaborate tracery, provided with an excellent cast steel bell and a superior organ, and seated to accommodate, with entire comfort, 150 worshipers. The express design in this had been to form the taste of the theological students, especially, by placing before them a good model of ecclesiastical style in church architecture. The windows are all of stained glass, and the effect of the whole is uncommonly solemn and imposing.
The entire length of the building is 125 feet. The breadth, at the eastern end, 57; at the western end, 66; and in the centre, 44. The number of rooms is 44, besides the chapel and the belfry. And it will accommodate 15 theological students, together with the resident professor, in the eastern end, and 30 boys, with the principal of the academical department, in the western end, the chapel being used in common by both departments, which otherwise have no connection with each other, save that the whole is under the supervision of the same bishop and board of trustees.
As originally contemplated by the president, it is determined to put in operation two departments, entirely separate and distinct from each other. The one a theological department or divinity school, designed exclusively for the training and education of candidates for the ministry, under the especial care of the theological professor, who will reside in the eastern wing of the building, it having been arranged with reference to the accommodation of himself and family. The revenue arising from the legacy of Dr. Willoughby will be devoted entirely to the support of this department. Ample rooms are provided for the use of the students, and every other accommodation necessary for carrying on a full course of theological instruction.
The other, an academical department, for boys in no way connected with the theological, and dependent entirely upon its own resources for support under the charge of a principal and his assistants, who will occupy the central and western part of the building. The pupils will have rooms in the same part, eat at the table with the principal, and be entirely under his control and supervision as much as though they were his own sons. In the construction of the buildings, particular attention has been given to provide everything for the accommodation of a large family of this kind. A chapel for religious services, a large general school room, recitation and music rooms, a large reception room, a large dining room, kitchen, laundry, sleeping rooms all well warmed and ventilated and every convenience for the personal comfort and board of the pupils, as well as for their instruction and recreation.
It is the intention of the trustees to establish a first class thorough English, classical and mathematical institution, where parents can have their sons educated to such a degree as they may desire, either for practical business, for college, or for the theological department of the institute, without the intervention of the usual collegiate course; and at the same time, the arrangement is such by making them members of the family of the principal, that their physical, moral and christian culture is constantly kept in view, as well as their intellectual. Situated as the seminary is, upon one of the most picturesque points of Lake Champlain, commanding a view of the broad lake for 50 miles, with the beautiful bay and village of Burlington in front, and in the distance the Adirondacks of New York, and the Green mountains of Vermont away from the objects which are calculated to divert the attention of the pupils from their duties it affords rare opportunities for theological and academical instruction.
BY THE RT. REV. LOUIS DE GOESBRIAND.
few Catholic families who lived in Chittenden county up to 1830, had no priest
to attend them regularly, until the month of July of that year, when Rev.
Jeremiah O'Callaghan, an aged clergyman, a native of county Cork in Ireland, was
sent by Bishop Fenwick of Boston to this part of his extensive diocese. Col.
Hyde, towards the end of this same year, deeded to the bishop of
It was consumed by fire in 1838. It was attended by both the Canadians and the Irish, who formed the bulk of the Catholic congregation. Rev. J. O'Callaghan was assisted at different periods by other clergymen, viz.:
Rev. Messrs. Petithomme, O'Byrne and
Anse. After the burning of the church,
service was held in the basement of the Court house until 1841, when St. Mary's
church (which has since been enlarged) was erected; also by the care of Rev.
Jeremiah O'Callaghan. At this time, the French Canadians, under the direction
of Rev. Mr. Anse, put up another building on the hill near the place where the
other church stood, and the two congregations had separate services. It was in
1850 that the Canadians resolved to erect the present edifice known as
J. O'Callaghan continued to attend to his congregation in St. Mary's, and had
often alone to minister to the spiritual wants of the Canadians (in the absence
of a resident French priest), until November, 1853. At this time,
the fall of 1854, when the Rev. J. Quevillon left
summer of 1856, the
church edifice in
Catholics in this neighborhood number 70 families. The number of Catholic
BY WM. H. HOYT.
with, it may be, a single exception, is the oldest newspaper in
scribers have been obtained for this paper, and its circulation is
now rapidly increasing." In another part of his address, he says: "It
has been repeatedly asked, 'what are the politics of the editor?' The answer is
very willingly given, although it had been his intention that they should never
have been known from his paper, having determined it should be impartial. As a man,
he professes to be a firm and decided Federalist, but as an editor, he
is resolved to take no part in politics. He is willing any sentiments should be
advanced and advocated in his paper, provided these are clothed in decent
language, and partake not of undue asperity." The number which lies before
us as we write, is a small sheet of four columns to a
page, well printed for those days; and its contents are made up with ability
and interest. The first page is occupied with a reprint of Ira Allen's
correspondence with the Directory of the
first title of the paper was, Vermont Centinel, which was retained till
December 6th, 1810, when the name was changed to
The founder and first publisher of the Sentinel, as above stated, was Mr. John K. Baker. Mr. Baker relinquished the publication on the 12th of October, 1804, and it was assumed by Mr. Josiah King; but Mr. Baker's services were retained as assistant editor. The new proprietor, in announcing the change, says: "As the public mind seems unhappily divided, it will be the undeviating aim of the proprietor to give a fair, candid and impartial representation of facts and opinions on both sides of the political question." "The cool and dispassionate writer," he adds, "whether federalist or democrat, shall be duly attended to." A curious plan was adopted by him, which would work somewhat curiously now-a-days, we apprehend. "As it is the wish of the proprietor," he says, "to have an opportunity of determining on the propriety of inserting original productions, independent of personal attachments or aversions, he has placed a box on the door of the printing office for the reception of such pieces, by which means the authors' names may be unknown, even to the editor."
Mr. King retained the proprietorship of the paper for only one year, having relinquished it October 11, 1805, when its publication was resumed by its first founder, Mr. J. K. Baker, and printed by him "for the proprietors" (the names of whom are not given), until the beginning of the following April, 1806, when it passed into the hands of Messrs. Daniel Greenleaf & Co. It was considerably enlarged in size by them, and much improved in its general appearance. The name of the publishing firm was, a few weeks later, changed to Greenleaf & Mills; the firm consisting of Daniel Greenleaf and Samuel Mills. The partnership between them, however, was dissolved in October of the same year (1806); and the Sentinel, with its printing establishment, became the sole property of Mr. Mills. It continued under his proprietorship until January 1, 1818, when he retired from the printing business; having sold out his interest in it to his brothers, Ephraim and Thomas Mills. The Messrs. E. & T. Mills remained the publishers of the Sentinel until January 1, 1835, when they sold it to Mr. Nahum Stone. Mr. Stone was a printer, having learned the art
at, Keene, N. H., and subsequently worked at the business in
Such are the somewhat dry details, perhaps, of the successive proprietorships of this old and leading democratic paper; necessary, however, as a part of its history. We have been less exact in giving the precise dates of its later changes, for the reason that the earlier files of the paper are more complete than those of later years. During the long series of years that the Messrs. Mills published the Sentinel, they preserved files of its successive numbers, which are still accessible. But during the subsequent and not unfrequent changes, less care was taken in preserving them, and hence the office files are incomplete.
should be mentioned that during the greater part of the time that the Sentinel
has been published, its place of publication has been in the same locality, the
south side of the Court House square in
During a part of the time that the Sentinel was published by Mr. Paul, and afterwards by Mr. Saxe some three or four years in all a daily edition of it was issued. But not being found very remunerative in those quiet times, and being accompanied by largely increased expense and labor, it was discontinued.
The publication day of the Sentinel was, at first, Thursday; and for the first few years it was variously Thursday, Wednesday or Friday, according to the variations of the time of arrival of the then weekly mail from the cities. But it was finally fixed upon Friday, and has continued thus for more than 50 years.
At the first, as may be perceived from the address of its founder, Mr. Baker, above given, the Sentinel was designed not to be a party political paper; but to give the current news of the day, and to furnish a medium through which writers upon either side might present their thoughts and views to the public. Accordingly in its earlier volumes we find essays and letters and discussions, pro
and con, upon either side of the political questions of the day. But so soon as party politics had assumed more definite shape and party lines had become more distinctly drawn, epecially during the ante-war discussions and the period of the war itself i.e., of course, the war of 1812 the Sentinel was an earnest and firm democratic (or, as the party was then termed, in opposition to the federalists, republican) journal, and has unwaveringly continued such down to the present day.
We may add in conclusion, that from its age and its position and the generally superior ability with which it has been conducted, the Sentinel has always been the leading democratic paper of the state, and has at all times exercised a wide and strong influence among the members of its political party. Having also commanded a large and efficient support from them, it has for the most part been prosperous in its financial interests. The fact of its long continuance, for now considerably more than half a century, while similar undertakings, almost without number, have sprung up and disappeared again, forcibly bespeaks this fact.
BY G. W. BENEDICT.
first number of the
the consultations which were held on the subject, Seneca Austin and Luman
Foote, Esqs., then partners in the law business, in
The establishment of the Burlington Free Press met with great favor in the community, and a good subscription list in proportion to the population of the county was speedily secured for it. The paper was conducted with great ability, and soon became one of the most influential papers of the state, remarkable for its comprehensive views, its independence of tone, the force and directness of its editorial articles and the interest of its correspondence.
The Burlington Free Press was conducted by Mr. Foote alone, till the latter part of Feb. 1828, when Henry B. Stacy, Esq., who had had the practical business of printing the paper under his charge almost from the issue of its first number, became associated with Mr. Foote as editor and proprietor. By them jointly it was edited and published till January, 1833, when Mr. Stacy became sole editor and proprietor, and so remained till July, 1846. At that time DeWitt C. Clarke, Esq., became its owner and editor.
the commencement of the paper till April, 1848, the Burlington Free Press
had appeared only as a weekly sheet. At that time telegraph connections having
been formed between
On the first of April, 1853, the Free Press was purchased by the present editors and proprietors, Messrs. George W. and George G. Benedict. Both the weekly and daily papers have been enlarged more than once since they were commenced. The weekly paper is now twice its original size, and the daily paper has been enlarged in nearly the same proportion.
The political position which the Free Press has occupied during the past 36 years of its existence can be inferred from the following statement. In 1828, it supported for the presidency, John Quincy Adams, in preference to Andrew Jackson; in 1832, Henry Clay, in preference to Andrew Jackson; in 1836 and 1840, Wm. H. Harrison, in preference to Martin Van Buren; in 1844, Henry Clay, in preference to James K. Polk; in 1848, Zachary Taylor, in preference to Lewis Cass; in 1852, Winfield Scott, in preference
to Franklin Pierce; in 1856, John C. Fremont, in preference to James Buchanan; in 1860, Abraham Lincoln, in preference to Stephen A. Douglas or John C Breckinridge.
Northern Sentinel. Commenced in March, 1801, by J. K. Baker; with a slight change of name is still published (weekly) by W. H. & C. A. Hoyt & Co.
The Repertory. Published by Jed. Spooner.
The Iris and
The Green Mountain Repository 12° monthly; published by C. Goodrich; edited by Z. Thompson; lived 1 year (1832).
Commercial Register. Monthly; Nichols & Warren; begun in 1851(?); was issued for about 2 years.
Burlington Times Daily and weekly; in the fall of 1860, passed from the hands of D. W. C. Clarke, who started the paper, to those of George H. Bigelow, the present proprietor.
[The following list of Vermont books and publications by natives of Vermont, is not supposed even to approach completeness, and is not presumed to be altogether free from errors, in regard to the works which it enumerates, yet may serve for a skeleton for some one else to fill up. It is hoped that whoever can supply omissions or correct mistakes in it, will take the pains to do so, and send their notes to the editor. If a complete and accurate catalogue could be published as one of the appendices to a volume of the magazine, containing all the pamphlets, maps, &c., ever published in the state, as also the acts and journals of the legislature, the various recensions of the statutes, with other public documents, and not least though last, a list of all the periodicals of the state, with indications where to find some of the oldest and rarest of these; this single list, as a guide to the History of Vermont would be worth what is now asked for the entire work. Notices should be particular as to place and time of publication, number of pages, &c., to make them of greatest practical advantage.
As the larger portion of the following list were published in Burlington or by Chittenden county authors, the list has been assigned to this county, and we are indebted for it chiefly to J. E. Goodrich of Burlington. Ed.]
C. B. See Geology of
Asa. Interest and Discount Tables. 4°.
Ethan. Proceedings of
Animadversary Address. 24
A Vindication of the
Opposition of Vermont to the Government of New York, and of their Right to form
Narrative of his
Captivity, by himself. , 1779.
Reason the Sole Oracle of
Life of, by Jared Sparks. 16'. Middlebury.
Ira. Natural and Political History of the State of
Particulars of the Capture of the ship
Olive Branch. 160 pp. 8°.
Letters to the Governor of Vermont and
Address to the Legislature, respecting a conspiracy against the Author, and
respecting a Ship Canal from Lake Champlain to the River St. Lawrence, &c.,
&c. 61 pp. 8°.
ARNOLD, J. L. Poems.
A new Universal. 4°.
BAKE PAN, The. For Doughfaces, by One of Them. 64 pp. 8°.
Nicholas. On Free Agency. 216 pp.
Mrs. Anna C. Poems. The
The Holy. 4°.
S. R. Vermont's Appeal. 52 pp. 8°.
A. View of Methodist Episcopacy, 248 pp. 12°.
BROWN, J. N. See Encyclopaedia.
Jedediah. Sermons, Exhortations and Addresses. 12°.
BURNAP, U. C. The Youth's Etherial Director (astronomical). 72 pp. 8°. Middlebury, 1822.
Edward R. The Hero of Scutari and other Poems. 438 pp. 12°.
CAREY, Matthew. Olive Branch, or Faults on both sides, Federal and Democratic. 12°. Middlebury, 1816.
Walter. The Missionary Gazetteer. 420
Nathaniel. Sketches of the Principles of Government. 192 pp. 12°.
Principles of Government, a Treatise on
Free Institutions (re-written and enlarged). 330 pp. 8°.
Samuel Taylor. Aids to Reflection, with preliminary essay and
notes, by Dr. James Marsh. 8°.
The Friend. 8°.
The Statesman's Manual. 12°.
COLTON, Walter. A Prize Essay on Dueling; Ship and Shore; Visit to Constantinople; Deck and Port; Three years in California; Land and Sea; The Sea and the Sailor; Notes on France and Italy; Italy and the Literary Remains; A Memoir of Walter Colton, by Rev. Henry F. Cheever.
Thomas. Universal Letter Writer. 12°.
Mary. Poems. 247 pp.
James. Gazetteer of
DE GRANDPRE, L. Voyage in the Indian Ocean and to
DEMING, Leonard. Remarkable Events. 324 pp. 12°. Middlebury, 1825.
Catalogue of the Principal Officers of
DENMAN, T. Midwifery.
F. S. History of
Chas. G. Poems. 18°.
ENCYLOPΖDIA of Religious Instruction. Edited by Rev. J. Newton Brown. 1275 pp. 8°. Brattleborough, 1836.
Thomas Green. Science of Sanctity. 8°.
The Ladies' Monitor, a poem. 180 pp. 12°. Bellows Falls, 1818.
Poems. 2 vols. Political Satire. 12°
FRANKLIN, Benj. Life of, written by himself. 12°.
Joseph A. Sketches of Epidemic Diseases in
Institutes of Medicine.
2 vols. 886 pp. 8°.
Silas. Botanist and Family Physician. 203 pp. 12°.
C. A. History of the Church to the present time. 504 pp. 8°.
Chauncey. Northern Fruit Culturist, or Farmer's Guide
to the Orchard and
S. G. Book of Quadrupeds. 324 pp. 18°.
Dr. John A. Letters upon
GREENLEAF's Improved Grammar.
John. History of
GRISWOLD, R. W. Associate editor of the New Yorker, Brother Jonathan, New World, &c. Projector of the International Magazine.
The principal works of Mr. Griswold are: Poets and Poetry of America. Edited in 1842. 8vo.
The Female Poets of
Washington and the Generals of the American Revolution, and Napoleon and the Marshals of the Empire in 1847.
and Poetry of
The Sacred Poets of
Curiosities of American Literature. The Biographical Annual.
The Present Condition of Philosophy.
HAGER, A. D. See
Benj. H. History of
Daniel W. A Journal of Voyages and Travels in the Interiour of N. America, with
map. 432 pp. 8°.
Silas Wood. The Traveler's Dream and other Poems. 152 pp. 16°.
Jasper. The Primary Instructor and Spelling Book. 160 pp. 16°.
D. H. Introduction to Historical Chronology. Translated by
James Marsh. 12".
HEMENWAY, Abby M. Poets and Poetry of
G. The Spirit of Hebrew Poetry, translated by James
Marsh, D. D. 2 vols. 294, 320 pp. 12°.
HITCHCOCK, Pres. E. Hitchcock and C. H. Hitchcock. See Geology of
Rev. C. W. Sermons. 296 pp. 12°.
HOPKINS, Josiah. The Christian Instructor. 312 pp. 12°. Middlebury, 1825.
HOPKINS, Rt. Rev. J. H., D. D., LL. D. Christianity Vindicated. 178 pp. 12°.
Primitive Creed. 415 pp. 12°,
Gothic Architecture, with 13 plates. 46 pp. 4°.
Nathan. History of
Rev. John. The Blessedness of the Righteous, and the Vanity
of Man as Mortal. Edited by James Marsh. 331 pp. 8°.
HUBBARD, Wm. Indian Wars in
Charles. Letters. 327 pp. 12°.
INFANTRY Exercise of the
JILLSON, C. Inklings of Song. Poem. 159 pp.
Mrs. Narrative of the Captivity of. 12°.
Jonathan. Spelling Book. 180 pp.
Rebecca. Miscellaneous Poems. 18'.
LETTERS of a Blacksmith. 21°.
Seth. Spelling Book. 228 pp. 12°.
LEVINGS, Noah Christian Instructer In‑
* Since the article was in type we understand that only the works published by Bishop Hopkins, D. P. Thompson, and perhaps others, in the state, were included by Mr. Goodrich. Ed.
strutted. 237 pp. 12°. Middlebury, 1827.
R. W. Lives of the Presidents of the
John. Essay on the Human Understanding, with selections from
his other writings and a Life of the Author. 3 vols.
George P. Grammar of the Old Northern or Icelandic Language. 188
MARSH, Mrs. George P. Wolfe of the Wold, and other Poems. 12°. New Yorker, 186_.
Rev. James, D. D. Remains of, containing his
Metaphysical and Theological writings, with Life by Prof. Joseph Torrey. 642 pp. 8°. (Boston, 1843.) 2d ed.,
Prof. Leonard, M. D. The Apocatastasis, or Progress
Backwards (a refutation of Spiritism). 202 pp. 8°.
John. Select Remains.
METHODIST Preachers, Experiences of several, written by themselves. 12°. Barnard, 1812.
Memoir of Rev. Levi Parsons, First Missionary to
NARAMORE, G. H. April Leaves, Letters and Poems. pp.
Rufus. English Grammar. 136 pp. 12°.
Rev. Jeremiah. On Banks, Usury, &c. 300 pp. 12°.
Matrimony, &c. 328 pp. 12°.
Benj. Truth Displayed. 726 pp. 8°.
Thos. The Teacher's Manual. 12°
The Moral Instructer. A Series. 4 books.
Palmer's Arithmetic. 12°. 348 pp.
PARSONS, Rev. Levi, Life of. See Morton.
T. S. Graduates of
the Great, History of Life and Reign of. 12°.
Rev. Andrew. Universalism. 207 pp.
RULES and Articles of War, &c. 8°.
RURAL Magazine, or Vermont Repository, edited by Dr.
Samuel Williams. 8°. monthly.
1795, 648 pp.; 1796, 624 pp.
John. History of
John G. Poems. 2 vols.
SKETCHES of the War between the
SPENCER, Dr. S.,
Pastor's Sketches and 3 vols. of Sermons, with Biography.
H. L. Poems. 18°.
Beriah. System of Arithmetic. 423
Dugald. Elements of the Philosophy of the Human Mind. 3 vols. 8°.
Saml. History of Middlebury and
Danl. P. May Martin.
Locke Amsden. 12°.
Shaker Lovers, &c.
Prof. Zadoc. Gazetteer of
The Youth's Assistant (Arithmetic). 160 pp. 8°.
Youth's Assistant. 266
The Iris and
Geography and History of
Prof. Zadoc. Geography and Geology of
Appendix to above. 64 pp.
Journal of a Trip to
Child's Geography of
Mental Arithmetic. 12°.
Guide to Lake George, Lake Champlain,
THOMSON, James. The Seasons, with Life of the Author by Samuel Johnson. 24°. Middlebury, 1815.
Royall. The Algerine Captive. 2 v.
12°. 428 pp.
The Contrast the
first Comedy acted in
An Author's Evenings a Comedy repeatedly
WALKER, Hon. Jesse.
Orations, Poems, &c. 150 pp. 8°.
Poems, with biography. 12°. 196 pp.
WARNER, Seth. Life of, by D. Chipman. 16°. Middlebury.
Freemason's Monitor. 12°.
WATROUS, Sophia. The Gift. Poems. 172
WEEKS, Refine. Poems. 12°. 308 pp. 1820; 8°. (In 5 books, one large volume.)
Wm. B. Revised Statutes of the State of
Rev. O. G. The Jewsharp. Poems.
12°. 312 pp.
WILCOX, Carlos. Acts of Benevolence and Religion of Taste Sermon and Biography.
Saml. Natural and Civil History of
The Same to 2
vols. 8°. 1003 pp.
See Rural Magazine.
WRIGHT, N. H. Fall of
Asa. Practical Forms. 448 pp. 12°.
N. Digested Index to the Modern Reports of the Courts of Common Law of
P. The Law of Infancy and Coverture with Notes and
References, by E. H. Bennett. 396 pp. 8°..
James S. The Law of Arbitration, edited by Chauncey Smith. 540
CHALMERS, Geo. Opinions of Eminent Lawyers on various
points of English Jurisprudence, chiefly concerning the Colonies, Fisheries and
Commerce of Great Britain. 815 pp. 8°.
CHIPMAN, N., LL. D. On Government. See foregoing list.
Daniel. Essay on the Law of Contracts for the Payment of Specific Articles. 224 pp. 8°. Middlebury, 1822. The same, with Supplement by D. B. Eaton. 326
Geo. History of English Law. 595 pp. 8°.
C. Law of Life and Fire Insurance, with notes and additions by Wm. G. Shaw. 326 pp. 8°.
W. W. The Law of Mercantile Guaranties and of Principal and
Surety in General, with notes, &c., by J. W. Allen. 464 pp. 8°.
T. G. American Clerk's Companion.
James, LL. D. Treatise on the Principles of Pleading. 536 pp.
REEVE, Tapping. Law of Baron and Femme, Parent and Child, Master and Servant,
&c., edited by Lucius E. Chittenden. 500 pp. 8°.
The Same, with Appendix
by J. W. Allen. 588 pp.
Wm. On Voluntary and Fraudulent Conveyances.
Leonard. The Law of Railways, with notes, &c., by Milo L. Bennett, LL. D.,
and E. H. Bennett. 2 vols. 1298 pp. 8°.
Royall. Book of Forms. 16°.
WASHBURN, Peter T. Supplement to Aiken's Forms. 110 pp. 16°. Claremont, N. H.
Reports of the Decisions of the Supreme Court.
Asa. Reports (1826, 1827), 2 vols.
BRAYTON, Wm. Reports (1815 1819), 240 pp. Middlebury, 1821.
CHIPMAN, D. Reports (1789 1825), vol. I, and part I of vol. II. Middlebury, 1824.
Nathaniel. Reports (1789-91) and Dissertations. 296 pp. 16°.
Royall. Reports (1801 1803), in 2 2 vols.
Digest of the State Reports was published at
A condensed edition of the Supreme Court Reports of the State, that should contain (in 10 vols.) every case reported from 1789 to 1856, was projected by Mr. Chauncey Goodrich, and the approval of the legislature obtained (in 1856). Judge Redfield was appointed by the state to edit the series, and had already bestowed considerable labor on the earlier portion of the work, the first volume being ready for the press, when, in consequence of the death of the publisher, and the repeal by the legislature (in 1858) of the act authorizing the publication, the enterprize was abandoned. By reason of the small editions published of the earlier volumes, it is now exceedingly difficult and almost impossible to procure complete sets of the reports. The little volume of N. Chipman is so rare as to be esteemed a curiosity, and it is a piece of sheer good fortune, if at any price one can procure either Brayton's or Aiken's Reports, or the first nine volumes, the sixth excepted, of the numbered series.
were taken for establishing a public library in
are also several private libraries in the county, especially worthy of notice.
That of Hon. Geo. P. Marsh merits first mention, as in some respects probably
the most valuable private library in the