VHG Burlington, Chittenden County, Vt.



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The men who met to frame a constitution for the state of Vermont in 1777, understood full well the importance of a thorough system of education, as essential to the wellbeing and preservation of a free government. Besides providing for a system of common schools, one section declares that "one grammar school in each county, and one university in this state, ought to be established by direction of the general assembly."

At the time when this constitution was adopted, a little more than half of the townships had been chartered. But in the remaining one right was reserved "for the use of a seminary or college." By this means about 29,000 acres of land, scattered through some 120 townships and gores, but lying chiefly in the northern part of the state, were secured for a college, and eventually came into the possession of the University of Vermont, though much of this land proved of little value.

In consequence of the sparse population and the unsettled condition of public affairs, nothing beyond this general provision was accomplished for some years. The attention of the public was at length aroused by the efforts of President Wheelock in behalf of Dartmouth college. In the year 1785, he secured from this state, to the disregard of the prospective wants of its own institutions, and with a generosity it could ill afford, a grant of land nearly equal in amount to that reserved for its own university; —  "the legislature having a high sense of the importance of the said institution of Dartmouth college and Moor's Charity school to mankind in general and to this commonwealth in particular." Encouraged by his success President Wheelock the next year was proceeding to secure all the lands appropriated by the state for educational purposes, and to take its educational interests under his particular care, when the attention of some of our leading men, and among the rest, Hon. Elijah Paine of Williamstown, Gen. Ira Allen of Colchester, and Dr. Samuel Williams of Rutland, was awakened to the importance of carrying out the provisions of the constitution to secure a college in their own state.

As early as 1785, Judge Paine offered to give £2,000 to be expended in the erection of a suitable building for a college, if it should be located at Williamstown, and endowed with the college lands. Soon after, Gen. Ira Allen made an effort to secure the institution at Burlington, by the offer of £4,000 in his own name, and £1,650 from other subscribers. The question was decided by the general assembly in favor of Burlington, in 1791, and a charter duly made out. The vote stood 89 for Burlington, 24 for Rutland, 5 for Montpelier, 1 for Danville, 1 for Castleton, 1 for Berlin, and 6 for Williamstown. The main reasons for deciding in favor of Burlington, were, the convenience of access from all directions, the distance from Dartmouth and Williams college (then in contemplation), the unrivaled beauty of the natural scenery, and especially the very liberal subscriptions offered by Gen. Allen and others of the vicinity.

The corporation was at once organized, and in the following June, a square of 50 acres, then covered with stately pine trees, was set off, on which to erect the college buildings. Some delay arising from a difference of opinion between Gen. Allen and the remainder of the corporation, nothing farther was done till October, 1793, when it was decided that "early in the next summer a house shall be built on the college square for the use of the university." This was for a preparatory school, and eventually for the house of the president. This building, 48 feet in length, 37 in breadth, and 2 stories high — known in later years as "the old yellow house," and burned in 1844, — was begun in 1794, and nearly completed the following year. At this juncture Gen. Allen, who had been actively engaged in completing this building, and in preparing for a college edifice, engaged in an unfortunate commercial speculation, which seriously embarrassed him, and finally deprived the university of a large part of his subscription. From this cause little more was done to the building till 1798, when the work was resumed and completed. The next year a farther subscription of £2,300, from the citizens of Burlington, prepared the way for a college edifice, and a preparatory school was opened in the building already erected, under the care of Rev. Daniel C. Sanders. During the year 1800 preparations were making to begin the new building early the next spring. In the meantime Mr. Sanders was elected president, October 17, 1800, and four young men were formally admitted to the university. President Sanders, a graduate of Harvard, was a man of rare enterprise, tact and energy. He continued at the head of the institution till it was broken up in the war of 1812; and its early success, notwith-




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standing peculiar trials and difficulties, was due in no small degree to his untiring efforts — at one time felling the pine trees with his own hand to clear a place for the college buildings and superintending their erection, and again acting as sole instructor for some years.

From an article in the Vermont Sentinel of July, 1805, we learn that the college edifice had been erected "four stories high, 45 feet wide at each end, 95 feet in the middle formed by a projection of 15 feet in front, 15 feet in rear, 160 feet long, built of brick, of durable materials and excellent workmanship." The different college buildings had cost $24,391. For this large sum the college was dependent upon private liberality. The institution was now fairly begun, and the first class graduated in 1804. Four years after the number of paying students was 61 — the largest number reached under the presidency of Mr. Sanders.

For the first 6 years with the exception of a single term, all the instruction in the college proper was given by the president. In 1807, Mr. James Dean, a graduate of Dartmouth, was appointed tutor, and two years later, professor of mathematics and natural philosophy. By this time a good philosophical apparatus had been secured, second only to that of Yale and Harvard, and the course of study generally was as extensive as that in any of the New England colleges. The charge for tuition was fixed at $10 a year, and other expenses were proportionately light. It was the expectation at first that the income from the public lands and the patronage of the entire state would, at an early day, enable the corporation to make tuition free, at least to all the sons of Vermont.

In 1809, Dr. John Pomeroy was appointed to the chair of anatomy and surgery. In 1811, Rev. Jason Chamberlain was elected professor of the Latin and Greek languages, and the Hon. Royall Tyler, professor of jurisprudence; and arrangements were made to fill, as soon as the funds would allow, a professorship of belles lettres, and one of chemistry and mineralogy, "whose duty it shall be to analyze at the charge of the institution, all fossils, minerals, &c., which may be discovered within the limits of this state." So liberal and comprehensive were the plans of the noble men who then had the superintendence of the institution — numbering among them Samuel Hitchcock, Dudley Chase, Titus Hutchinson, Royall Tyler and William C. Bradley — worthy compeers of the original founder, the generous, large-minded, but unfortunate Ira Allen.

Their plans failed of realization. The connection of the university with the state, gave rise to political intrigues, and brought little aid to an embarrassed treasury. The establishment of a rival college at Middlebury drew off students from the best portion of the field of the university. The troubles with Great Britain interfered with the commercial prosperity of the community; and to crown all, on the breaking out of the war, the college buildings were seized for military purposes, and the university was compelled to suspend its course of instruction, dismiss its academical faculty, and recommend its students to other institutions. No compensation for this well-nigh fatal blow to the welfare of the institution was ever received from the government. Though the college buildings were put in good repair on their evacuation, the rent promised for their use never found its way into the college treasury, and the institution, beggared, had to begin anew.

It was reorganized in 1815, by the appointment of Rev. Samuel Austin, for 25 years a pastor of a congregational church at Worcester, Mass., as president; Rev. James Murdoch of Princeton, Mass., professor of languages; Rev. Ebenezer Burgess, professor of mathematics and natural philosophy; Jairus Kennan, professor of chemistry and mineralogy; and instruction was resumed. But, though the faculty possessed in an eminent, degree the confidence of the Christian public, both as teachers and religious men, the number of students was small. The attention of the young men and of the community had been turned elsewhere, and the faculty ere long became discouraged. Mr. Kennan died in about a year after his appointment, one officer left after another, till at last Dr. Austin resigned in 1821.

At this time, the institution was kept from complete disorganization by the efforts of Mr. Arthur L. Porter, recently appointed to the chair of chemistry. Through his influence, Rev. Daniel Haskel, pastor of the Congregational church in Burlington was appointed president, and James Dean was induced to resume his former post as professor of mathematics; and in 2 years' time the number of students went up from 22 to 70. But in 1824, just as better days were beginning to dawn, a yet greater calamity befell the university. The college edifice with its library and apparatus were laid in ashes. The health and reason of President




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Haskel broke down under the trial, and most of the officers withdrew. Yet a second time, the same young man who had just before saved the institution, found generous hearts and hands to aid him, and in the course of three months, by the pledge of $8,300 from the inhabitants of Burlington, arrangements were completed for a new building. The corner stone was laid by Gen. Lafayette, June 29, 1825. This building was not as large on the ground as the former, and was but three stories high. While this was in progress, George W. Benedict was elected professor of mathematics and natural philosophy, and remained connected with the institution in this and other departments for 22 years, a most valuable college officer. Rev. Willard Preston was elected president in the early part of 1825, but retained the position only a little more than a year, when he was succeeded by Rev. James Marsh. The next year Rev. Joseph Torrey was appointed to the chair of languages, which he left in 1842, for that of intellectual and moral philosophy, which he still holds in vigorous old age.

To the labors of President Marsh, aided by Profs. Benedict and Torrey, the university owes its essential character as an institution of learning and religion. Its course of study, which its varying board of instruction has sought to carry out, is substantially as it was originally matured by them; — systematic, aiming at the harmonious presentation of different branches, in a way to secure the best mental and moral discipline, and to ground the student in the fundamental principles of the various departments of knowledge, including philology, science, philosophy, government and religion.

In order the better to carry out his ideas of instruction, President Marsh resigned the presidency in 1833, for the chair of intellectual and moral philosophy, which he held till his death, in 1842. Rev. John Wheeler was elected to succeed him as president, and continued in this post till Aug. 1848, when he resigned. He was succeeded by Rev. Worthington Smith, who was elected the following June, and entered on his duties at the next commencement. Upon the failure of Dr. Smith's health in 1855, he resigned his place, and was succeeded by the Rev. Calvin Pease, D. D., who had occupied the chair of languages vacated by Prof. Torrey.

In December, 1861, Dr. Pease tendered his resignation of the presidency, to take effect at the close of the half year, Feb. 1862, having accepted a call to a pastorate in Rochester, N. Y.; and the following September, Prof. Torrey was appointed president of the institution.

It must suffice to say of the successors of Dr. Marsh, that they have sought to administer the affairs of the university in accordance with the ideas we have indicated, as first elaborated and exemplified by him and his colleagues. The pecuniary embarrassments consequent on repeated reverses and trials they have severally sought to relieve, and with more or less success, by subscriptions from among the friends of the institution; and greater liberality in supplying its wants is now all that is needed to enable it to realize the beneficent purposes of its founders.

War has now a second time added to the embarrassments of the university, and reduced the number of its students; some of whom, dependent on their own efforts for means to prosecute their studies, have been obliged to withdraw, while others have heard the call of the country and taken up arms in its defence. About one-fifth of its entire number have engaged in the public service. Retrenchment has been necessary, and besides delaying to fill the office of president, the chair held by Prof. Hungerford has been suspended, and his duties distributed between Prof. Marsh of the academical, and Prof. Seeley of the medical department. Yet the second half of the college year, 1861—2, opens with better auspices. Means have been secured to make thorough repairs in the rooms occupied by the students, and a handsome library building, 2 stories high, 40 feet by 60, is in process of erection. Means for the latter had been secured, for the most part, by the efforts of President Pease.

The limited space allowed for this article, will not permit a detailed notice of the different men connected with the institution at different times, or of the various changes made from one department to another, as have been found most convenient for the ends of instruction. A passing notice of a few other men, and of the present organization, is all we can attempt.

Mr. F. N. Benedict was elected to the chair of mathematics in 1833, and continued in active service till 1854, when he was succeeded by Rev. McKendree Petty. The chair of natural philosophy was filled by Prof. Henry Chaney from 1838 to 1853, when the duties of this department were divided between the professors of mathematics and chemistry. In 1815 a new department of English literature was organized and placed under the care of Rev. W. G. T. Shedd.




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When Prof. Shedd, in 1852, removed to Auburn Theological seminary, Rev. N. G. Clark was chosen to succeed him.

A tabular statement of the different departments and the officers in charge, with the time of their appointment, will present at a glance the present organization (Dec., 1862): Rev. Joseph Torrey, D. D., president and professor of intellectual and moral philosophy, 1842; Rev. N. G. Clark, professor of English literature and Latin, 1852; Rev. McKendree Petty (Williams'), professor of mathematics, 1854; Leonard Marsh, M. D., professor of natural history, 1857; Rev. M. H. Buckham, professor of Greek.

The president, and Prof. Marsh are graduates of Dartmouth; Profs. Clark, Petty and Buckham of the university.

The university possesses a valuable library and philosophical apparatus. For this purpose the sum of $14,000 was appropriated in 1834, and Prof. Torrey sent to Europe to secure apparatus and the best standard works. Additions have been made from time to time to the library, and the collections of natural history, now quite valuable, partly by purchase and partly by donations. The library of the university now numbers nearly 10,000 volumes, and those of the literary societies connected with it make up some 4,000 more. There are 2 library funds, of which the avails of one are to be expended for the purchase of periodicals, and of the other for works in English literature and history; the first, of $500, founded by George W. Strong of New York city, in 1847; the second, of $1,250; of this $750 was given in 1836, by John B. Wheeler of Oxford, N. H., and Nathan Wheeler of Grafton, Vt., at the same time with $750 for the immediate purchase of this class of works, and $500, in 1853, by President Wheeler.

The university, though nominally a state institution, has received no aid of any account beyond the original grant of lands, many of which turned out to be of little or no value. The hindrances it has met, and the losses incurred by the war of 1812, and by fire in 1824, have more than swallowed up an equivalent to any advantage derived from the state, though the aid thus given, and which was inalienable by war, or sale, or fire, has done much to sustain the institution. It has, however, been obliged to depend in a great degree upon the friends of learning and christian culture for its support; and to vindicate its claim by the intellectual and moral discipline imparted to the young men it has sent forth to the world.

The largest donations it has ever received were from Gen. Ira Allen, amounting to perhaps $8,000 or $9,000; from Hon. Azariah Williams, in 1839, amounting in lands and other property to about $20,000, in honor of whom his name has been attached to the professorship of mathematics; and from Dr. Daniel Washburn of Stowe, in 1858, amounting to some $8,000.

According to the triennial catalogue of 1861, the number of young men who have completed a course of study within the institution is 718. Probably 500 more have been connected with it for a shorter period. Of the graduates 248 have followed the profession of law; 153 have entered the ministry; 30 have studied medicine; 61, including some of the later graduates who have not yet settled upon a profession, have devoted themselves to teaching, and about 20 have entered upon editorial life. The whole number who have received the honors of the university is 1,219. The average attendance of students for the last 25 years has been about 100; of graduates annually for the came period, 20.

The religious history of the institution has not been characterized so much by occasional revivals as by a sustained religious sentiment, resulting in frequent conversions of individuals rather than in seasons of a revived religious life. During the 15 years, for instance, ending 1859, the number of graduates who studied for the ministry was 65, of whom more than half were converted in college. It may be said that a year rarely passes without more or less conversions, especially while attending upon the studies of the senior year.

We have confined our attention thus far exclusively to the proper collegiate relations of the university. It was originally intended to include professional courses of study, and some little effort was made to secure them, as was shown by the appointment of Dr. John Pomeroy to the chair of anatomy and surgery in 1806, and of Royall Tyler to that of jurisprudence in 1811, but only the medical department was fully organized. This was in 1821, and was kept up till 1834, when it was suspended by the death of Dr. Benjamin Lincoln, who had been for some years its leading mind. It was again revived in 1853, by the efforts of Dr. S. W. Thayer, Jr., of Northfield, and Dr. Walter Carpenter of Randolph, who both removed to Burlington, and under whose auspices this department has attained to a good degree of prosperity. The number who have completed a medical education in the university is 216.




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After the lapse of 60 years of trial and difficulty, and a fair measure of success, the university may now be said to have gained an abiding place among the institutions of the land, and to be contributing its share to the interests of good learning and religion, in the training of a select body of young men for places of honor and usefulness.




1. Daniel Clarke Sanders, D. D.,*       1800 — 1814.

2. Samuel Austin, D. D.,                     1815 — 1821.

3. Daniel Haskel, A. M.,                      1821 — 1824.

4. Willard Preston, D. D.,                    1825 — 1826.

5. James Marsh, D. D.,                       1826 — 1833.

6. John Wheeler, D. D.,                       1833 — 1849.

7. Worthington Smith, D. D.,              1849 — 1855.

8. Calvin Pease, D. D.,                        1855 — 1862.

9. Joseph Torrey, D. D.,                      1862.


President Austin.


Samuel Austin, D. D., president of the University of Vermont from 1815 to 1821, was born in New Haven, Conn., October 7, 1760. He was the son of Samuel and Lydia Austin. At the age of 16, he entered the army as a substitute for his father, but obtained a discharge upon the capture of New York by the British. For the next 4 years, he was engaged in teaching and in the study of law. Feeling the need of a better education, he soon turned his attention to classical study, and at the age of 20 entered Yale college, from which he was graduated in 1783. He united with the church soon after entering college, and was distinguished while there for his decided christian character. One of his classmates speaks of his commencement oration as one of the best performances of the kind, and of his high rank as a scholar in his class.

Soon after his graduation, he began his theological studies under the direction of Rev. Jonathan Edwards, D. D., then of New Haven, and was ordained there in November, 1786.

Some 4 years later he was settled over the first Congregational society in Worcester, Mass. He had in the meantime married the daughter of Rev. Dr. Samuel Hopkins of Hadley, Mass. He remained at Worcester about 25 years, and acted a prominent part in the general religious movements of his day, besides fulfilling his duties diligently and faithfully as a pastor. He was one of the originators of the General Association of Mass., he shared in the formation of the Mass. Home Missionary society; served on many ecclesiastical councils; published many sermons and tracts for the times; and collected and edited with care the works of the elder President Edwards. He was a strong, earnest, efficient defender of sound doctrine, and a man of great influence among the churches. In 1807 he was complimented with a doctorate in divinity by Williams college.

From these labors he was called in 1815 to the presidency of the University of Vermont, then just reviving, or rather attempting to revive, after the war of 1812. After six years of great labor and struggle with the difficulties of the situation, and after having really accomplished a valuable work, but not such as to meet his expectations, he resigned his charge, and was soon after settled in the ministry at Newport, R. I., where he remained four years, and did not again engage in any active labors. He spent his last years in feeble health at the house of his nephew, Rev. Samuel H. Riddel, then of Glastonbury, Conn., where he died Dec. 4, 1830.

Dr. Murdoch, who was professor in the university during the presidency of Dr. Austin, says of him, "that as president of a college, he was faithful to his trust. His efforts to promote the interests of the college were untiring; and he enjoyed in a high degree the respect and confidence of the public.  .  .  .  .  For the spiritual welfare of his pupils he was deeply solicitous  All his people respected and loved him; and to his subordinate officers he was uncommonly affectionate and kind." As a preacher, one who knew him well remarks: "The topics on which he delighted most to dwell, were the benevolence, the sovereignty, and the glory of God; the great system of redemption; the character of Christ and his sufferings, with the extensive results upon the universe, and especially in the sanctification and salvation of his chosen people.  .  .  .  .  In the appropriateness, and enlargement, and spiritual glowing fervor of his public devotions, he has seldom been excelled." **


President Haskel.


Daniel Haskel, who succeeded President Austin in the University of Vermont, the son of Roger and Anna Haskel, was born in Preston, Conn., in June, 1784. His early years were spent on a farm. He entered Yale college in 1798, and was graduated in 1802. The


* For biographic notice see article by Rev. Joshua Young, page 539.

** For more full particulars see Sprague's Annals, from which many of the facts for this, as for the succeeding notices, have been derived.




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next two years we find him engaged in a public school, at Norwich, Conn.; afterwards in other schools, looking, however, to the ministry as his final field of labor. His theological studies were at Princeton, under the care of Dr. Samuel Stanhope Smith. After preaching for a little time in Connecticut, and afterwards at St. Albans, Vt., he was called to take charge of the Calvinistic Congregational church in Burlington, over which he was settled on the 10th of April, 1810. The same year he was married to Elizabeth Leavitt, daughter of Dudley Leavitt, Esq., of Bethlem, Conn.

"Mr. Haskel continued the faithful and beloved pastor of this church until the year 1821, when he was called to preside over the University of Vermont. He preached occasionally during his connection with the university, but never after his connection with it closed. He resigned his office as president in 1824."

About two years after his appointment as president, he suffered a severe attack of inflammatory rheumatism, that eventually affected his mind, ending in derangement, or more strictly speaking, monomania. Though able at times to engage in literary pursuits, he was never himself again.

After resorting to various places and institutions, in the vain hope of recovering from his malady, the latter years of his life were spent with his family at Brooklyn, N. Y., where his wife had gone to live with her mother.

His time in Brooklyn was spent mostly in study, particularly in mathematics and astronomy, with occasional lectures before public institutions, or an article for the press, among others, a lecture on the English language, published in the Knickerbocker Magazine of February and March, 1840. His last labors were upon the American part of McCulloch's Universal Gazetteer, a work of much labor, which he performed by engagement for the Harpers of New York.*

A portrait before me, taken from a miniature likeness when a young man, presented to the university by Mr. Leavitt, through President Wheeler, represents an uncommonly fine head, full, high forehead, remarkably well proportioned. I was not surprised to read in a letter of one of his classmates. published in Sprague's Annals, that "in scholarship his rank was not far below the highest; and yet, had his college course been a year or two later (he was one of the younger members of the class), I have no doubt that he would have developed a still higher degree of intellectual promise."

His success as president of the university was all his friends had anticipated. The number of the students increased, and the prospects had become more cheering than for many years, when he was disabled, and obliged to retire.


President Preston.


Rev. Willard Preston, D. D., was born in Uxbridge, Mass., May 29, 1785, the youngest but one of a family of six sons and six daughters. His father was a substantial farmer, a man of peculiarly strong mind, and great energy, as well as uprightness of character. His mother, whose maiden name was Elizabeth Hart, was a lady of unusual sprightliness of mind and sweetness of disposition, joined to a cheerful consistent piety. The son shared largely in the qualities of both his parents, and in childhood was remarkable for the purity of his character, and those qualities of mind and heart, that made him at once the pet of his parents, and the delight of his older brothers and sisters.

He was prepared for college by Rev. Dr. Crane, parish minister of Northbridge, and was graduated at Brown university, with one of the highest honors of his class, in 1806. For a year after he devoted himself to the study of law. During this time, yielding his heart to the claims of the great Lawgiver, he turned his thoughts to the ministry. In the spring of 1807, he made public profession of religion, and commenced theological reading with Rev. Samuel Starnes, and was the next year licensed to preach the gospel. In the fall of the year 1808, he was invited to become the pastor of the Congregational church of Burlington, Vt., but declined in view of the feebleness of his health. The next three years were spent in the southern states. On his return to New England in 1811, he was married to Lucy Maria Bohu of Brooklyn, Conn., and soon after, January 8, 1812, was settled as pastor of the Congregational church at St. Albans, Vt. Here he remained till September, 1815, when he was obliged to seek a milder climate, greatly to the regret of an attached people, who twice afterward solicited his return. The following June, he was settled in Providence, R. I., when his labors were greatly blessed to his own congregation and to the young men of the university. In 1821, he was dismissed at his own request, to be installed the next year over the Congregational church in Burlington, Vt. The great respect


* Manuscript letter of Mrs. Haskel.




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he here acquired, led to his appointment as president of the university, upon the retirement of President Haskel. Owing to adverse influences however, chiefly growing out of cases of discipline, he resigned the office in 1826. Dr. Wheeler, in his historical sketch of the university, observes, "Dr. Preston was connected with the college for so short a time, that little can be said respecting his actual or prospective influence. He was a man remarkable for his gentlemanly and elegant bearing, of simple, genial, and artistic tastes; and in the discharge of his public duties, secured at once the love and admiration of students and of others." Residents in Burlington, still love to speak of his rare eloquence and power in the pulpit, and the simplicity and purity of his christian character.

After leaving Burlington, he turned again toward the southern states, as best suited to his feeble health. He spent some five years preaching at different places as his health allowed, when be accepted a call to the Independent Presbyterian church in Savannah, Ga. Here he continued with unfaltering vigor and industry for nearly a quarter of a century, till his sudden death from paralysis of the heart, on the 26th of April, 1856, in the 71st year of his age. No man could have been more devoted to his people and to his work. At one time, for seven years, consecutively, he never left the city save for some ministerial call. During the yellow fever in 1854, he never left his post, but remained faithful to his duties to the sick and the dying and the dead. His congregation were among the largest, most refined and intellectual in the southern states. But besides his pastoral care of his proper parish, he took great interest in the invalid strangers who visited the city. Then by his pulpit efforts, and by his pastoral labor, he sought to fulfill his appointed work; and his death was felt to be a public loss to the city.

Two volumes of his sermons were published in 1857, edited by his son, J. W. Preston, Esq., to which were prefixed a biographical sketch of the author, by Rev. Dr. Talmage, president of Oglethorpe university. To this sketch we are indebted for most of the facts contained in this notice.


President Marsh.




James Marsh, fifth president of the University of Vermont, was born at Hartford, in this state, July 19th, 1794. His grandfather, Joseph Marsh, Esq., in whose house he was born, came from Lebanon, Conn., and established himself at Hartford, about the year 1772. His father, Daniel Marsh, was a respectable farmer, and James spent the first eighteen years of his life at home, assisting his father in the hardy labors of the field, and with the expectation of devoting himself to agriculture as the business of his life. By an unexpected turn in the domestic arrangements, this plan was altered; he was induced to turn his attention to study; and in the year 1813, became a student in Dartmouth college. While at college, in the spring of 1815, during a season of great interest on the subject of religion among the students, he experienced, as he ventured to believe, a radical change of heart, and from that time devoted himself to the work of the Master who had called him. From college, where he gained the highest honors as a scholar, he went immediately to Andover for the purpose of pursuing the study of theology. After a year spent at Andover, he accepted the office of tutor in Dartmouth college, which he held for two years; and then, in the autumn of 1820, he resumed his course of professional studies in the Andover seminary, which without being again interrupted, except by a short sea voyage, and visit to the south, undertaken for the benefit of his health, were completed in September, 1822.

The first labors of Mr. Marsh, after leaving the seminary, were at the south, where he was induced to go by the persuasion of that eminent and excellent man, Dr. John H. Rice of Virginia. Under the patronage and influence of Dr. Rice, he finally became established as a professor in Hampden-Sidney college. Having received this appointment while on a temporary visit to the north, he was ordained as a minister of the gospel at Hanover, N. H., and two days afterwards married Louisa, daughter of James Wheelock, Esq., a niece of John Wheelock, former president of Dartmouth college.

In 1826, after having been connected with Hampden-Sidney college for about three years, Mr. Marsh was appointed in October of that year president of the university in his native state; although the place was not one for which he thought himself in all respects best qualified, many considerations induced him to accept the appointment, and he entered upon the duties of his new office in the same year. It was at a time when the university was suffering under the effects of various calamities, external and internal, and the new president immediately set himself about reviving if possible the spirit of




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the institution by a thorough reorganization of the whole system, both of its studies and of its discipline. In this work he was eminently successful.

A sore domestic affliction which President Marsh experienced two years after coming to Burlington in the loss of his excellent wife, to whom he was most devotedly attached, did not divest him from his earnest purpose of making himself useful in his new situation. In less than a year after this great trial, he had already composed his preliminary essay to Coleridge's Aids to Reflection, which brought that work for the first time before the American public. This was followed soon after by several other theological and literary works, fully establishing his claim to be considered a man of true philosophical spirit as well as of great attainments in learning and piety. He was twice honored with the degree of doctor of divinity, first by Columbia college, New York in 1830, and then by Amherst college in 1833.

In 1833 he retired from the presidency and accepted the chair of intellectual and moral philosophy, which he continued to occupy for the remainder of his life. In 1835, he was married to Laura Wheelock, a sister of his former wife. She proved a faithful companion to himself, and mother to the children which had been left under her care when their own mother was taken from them, but was herself removed by death in 1838. Four years after sustaining this second heavy trial, on Sunday morning, July 3, 1842, Dr. Marsh departed this life in the 48th year of his life.

I have for the most part abstracted the following account of his character from a letter of mine to Dr. Sprague, which he has inserted in his Annals of the American Pulpit.

He exhibited from the earliest, the same elements of character which were afterwards so finely developed by him. Great simplicity, great integrity of mind and singleness of purpose were the master traits. As he never sacrificed one part of his nature to another, so he possessed, in no common degree, a healthy, well-balanced mind. He was neither a man of impulses nor a worshiper of abstractions. Whilst he reverently heeded the deeper instincts of his being, and carefully cherished every stirring of the religious affections, he was, at the same time, extremely cautious of being governed by feelings that had not first been interpreted and justified to reason. On the other hand, he kept a no less careful watch over the workings of the understanding, never hesitating to discard its conclusions, how ever seemingly logical, if they contradicted his deeper sense of the right and befitting in a moral point of view. This inward integrity which acted in him as an instinct, but which was firmly grounded in religious principle, gave the tone to everything else; to the character of his piety, to his fine social qualities, to his taste as a scholar, and his whole intellectual character as a theologian and philosopher.

His piety was of the calm and quiet sort, without much pretension — too deeply seated indeed for display. It rather shunned than courted the notice of the world, exhibiting its genuineness and vitality in undoubted fruits; for his many virtues bore all of them preeminently the christian stamp. He seldom or never spoke of his own personal experience in religion: but it was evident that this reserve preceded neither from barrenness nor affectation, but grew out of the native modesty and retiredness of his disposition. Nor did he ever manifest the fervor or impassioned zeal which is sometimes considered the only sure indication of deep religious feeling. All this was foreign from his nature, and what it would have been impossible for such a man to assume.

In the qualities which make a man prized and beloved in social life, Mr. Marsh had few superiors. Sincerity and kindliness of feeling, united with a natural refinement of manners, made his society courted by the good and intelligent everywhere. Amiable and affectionate in his family, generous almost to a fault to his friends, easily approached and courteous to strangers, he was all this without the least affectation. His conversation was marked by habitual good sense, and a delicate regard to the feelings of the society he was in. Candid and simple in uttering his convictions, he was equally so in expressing his doubts, except to those on whom his convictions and his doubts would alike have been thrown away. He had a remarkable power of winning the esteem and affection of young men. His whole intercourse with them was in the truest sense, friendly and parental. He detested that system of authority which had no other way of sustaining itself than by breaking down, as he expressed it, "all the independent spirit and love of study for its own sake." In the youth he reverenced the man, and by treating him as such, made him conscious that he was one. Delinquents saw, that in dealing with them he was not aiming to build up his own authority by




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making them humble and obsequious. The unaffected sincerity of his advice carried it home to the heart, and he insured obedience by making himself loved.

He was as thorough a scholar as earnest and patient labor with rare parts, diverted towards a lofty ideal, can make one. From humble beginnings, with little direction or encouragement from others, but guided and cheered by the whispering of his own hopes, he toiled on until he had laid a broad foundation for the studies to which he had consecrated his life, by mastering all the languages which he thought would be of the least help or service to him in pursuing them. Without ever losing sight of theology, he made himself well acquainted with the literatures of many periods and nations as reflected in the works of their best authors, keeping them all subscrvient to the one great purpose of attaining to a better understanding of divine truth. It was almost solely with reference to theology that he betook himself to philosophy. In the study of the former he took the profound interest which might be expected from a mind constituted as his was. He felt at once that there were brought before him great questions which never could be settled for him by others, but which he must answer for himself as best he could, with the divine help, and every human means of which he could avail himself. No doubt the school of literature had prepared him to look at these questions with a wider grasp of their bearings than he otherwise would have possessed. At any rate, he did not feel entirely satisfied in his own mind with the course of reasoning by which it was then sought to establish several of the more important doctrines of Christianity. It was with the proofs and explanations, however, not with the doctrines themselves, that he was disposed to find fault. He thought the theology of the day savored too much of a sensual philosophy, and betrayed too much effort, which must necessarily defeat its own purpose of comprehending spiritual things by reducing them to the forms and conditions of a wholly sensuous and sense-bound understanding. The criterion of a true philosophy, according to him, was its adequacy to meet the deepest wants of the human spirit by reconciling faith with reason.

Superficial observers who knew very little about the man or his philosophy, declared him to be a mere disciple of Coleridge. But in reality he neither derived his opinions originally from that writer, nor strongly resembled him in any one point of character, except in ardent, uncompromising love of the truth. The philosophy of Dr. Marsh, was, as much as that of any man can be, of home growth, the result of his own deep study and reflection. If he was indebted to others — as who is not? — he was indebted to them rather for awakening the activity of his own power of thought, than for any immediate infusion of their opinions. He was too honest to himself to be the follower of any school but that of Christ. Had he lived to complete what he had begun, this would have been more clearly seen.

He was not a mere man of the closet, but took a lively interest in all the great questions of his day. His eye was out upon every movement in the literary, political and religious worlds, and was quick to discern its character and tendency. The ready ease with which he scanned such movements showed the life-like, practical character of his knowledge. If any of those questions came by chance to agitate the public mind in the circle in which he moved, he was the first man to stand forth. There was never any holding back with him where great interests were concerned. He threw himself into the midst of the arena, taking his stand at once and decidedly, where he could be seen and read of all men. As a man of principle, he had a rock-like firmness — you felt that you could rely on him, and that the truth was safe in his hands.

Yet in outward appearance, he was a timid and feeble-looking man. There was nothing commanding about him in attitude, voice, or gesture. The moral and intellectual expression conveyed in every look and tone of his voice, when he spoke on a great subject, was all the outward advantage he had to secure for him a patient and respectful attention. But this, in connection with the weighty sense of his discourse, always proved sufficient.

To sum up all in a word, he united together in his character, all the elements which conciliate the esteem of the good, with all that command the respect of the wise, and was one of the very few of the generation in which he lived truly deserving the name of a Christian philosopher.


President Wheeler.




John Wheeler, the son of John Brooks Wheeler, Esq., was born in Grafton, Vt., March 11, 1798, and was graduated at Dartmouth college in 1816. He was the young‑




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est member of class 11, remarkable for the number who afterwards became men of influence and reputation. Immediately after leaving college, he entered upon his theological studies at Andover, Mass., in the same class with Presidents Smith and Wayland, Professors Torrey, Haddock and Rephey, Rev. Dr. King, missionary to Greece, and a a number more distinguished men. Few American scholars have had a larger circle of valuable acquaintance and friends. On leaving Andover in 1819, he spent some months in the service of the gospel in the southern states, mostly in Georgia. On returning north, he was soon called to settle over a congregational church in Windsor, where he was installed in 1821. He remained there some twelve years, an acceptable pastor and preacher. As early as 1824, he was elected president of the university, but at that time thought best to decline the appointment. It was offered him the second time, and accepted in 1833.

From that time forward till 1848, when the health of his family led him to resign his position, he devoted all his energies to the welfare of the university. He was connected with the institution as one of the corporation as early as 1825, and retained this charge till his death, April 16, 1862. In both relations he had served the institution for a longer time than any other man. He raised up friends for it; he secured large and generous subscriptions for it; and carried it through seasons of perplexity and trial. In connection with Drs. Marsh, Torrey, and G. W. Benedict, he carried out its system of instruction, and maintained its standard of scholarship and general spirit. No man set a juster estimate upon the relation of higher institutions of learning to the welfare and permanent prosperity of the state.

In later years, Dr. Wheeler's attention was largely given to other public interests affecting the well-being of the community and the nation. He was interested in the internal improvements of the state, and in the political questions agitating the country. In politics he belonged to the school of Webster and Everett. In social life too, he belonged rather to the gentlemen of the old school, with a keen sense of good breeding, and all the proprieties of refined life.

As president of the university he is remembered by many of the alumni, as a valued adviser and friend; as a preacher, for occasional displays of a rare order of eloquence, rising fully to the dignity and greatness of his theme; while as a man and a citizen, his memory will be cherished for his large and conservative views. Almost the last act of his life was a generous donation to the institution to which he had given the best of his days.


[We here resume Mr. Clark's article. — Ed.]




The whole number of those who have received literary honors from the university, inclusive of the year 1861, is 1,243. Of these 720 graduated after a course of study in the college proper; 236 from the medical department, and 287 have received honorary degrees. The graduates of the university are to be found in all professions, and in all parts of this country and of the world.

In the ministry it is represented by such men as Rev. Drs. Chandler, Fisher, Bowman, Houghton, Pease and Shedd; by Rev. Jehudi Ashmun devoted to the cause of the colored race, and governor of Liberia, by Rev. Dr. T. M. Worcester, missionary to the Cherokees, and some of the most active men now in the Turkish and Armenian fields; and by Profs. Burgess and Robertson who left their chairs in the university to engage in the work of missions. In the legal profession, it has worthy representatives, in its oldest graduate, Charles Adams, Esq., in Jacob Collamer, LL. D., called by his opponents the ablest lawyer in the United States senate, in Judge Aldis and other well-known lawyers in this state. Some twenty of the graduates of the university are now engaged in editorial life, including editors of two of the leading Journals in New York city, the Times and the World. The man who has for years had charge of public education in the city of St. Louis, the president of the Pacific university in Oregon, and the oldest lawyer in San Francisco, and trustee of a college in California, are graduates of the university. Like its sister institutions, the university is acting a worthy part in the great work of human progress.




This institution sprang into being about, 1820. In 1810 the village of Burlington, besides an incipient college, had the literary advantage of 4 school districts, where reading, writing and cyphering were taught the children in as many little buildings of one room. Here the Hickoks, Hitchcocks, Keyes and others of youthful promise struggled for the mastery in more sense than one. In




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cuffs with each other. He that is now Gen. Ethan Allen Hitchcock may well remember the little brick school house on St. Paul's street where he then attended school, taught by his brother Henry, who afterwards stood so high at the bar in Mobile, Ala. But so inferior literary advantages scarcely would content the rising town. In 1812 the plan was changed, separate districts were abandoned. A lot was purchased corner of College and Willard streets, and the building now called "the academy," was erected for a graded school where all the children were collected in different rooms under the care of a principal teacher. The first principal was named Caulkings. The change was in the right direction. The older children were immediately advanced to higher studies and many boys were put in preparation for college.

The increase of population, after a few years made another advance necessary, and the result of discussion at the district school meeting, was the result of redistricting of the village, the erections, at once, of 7 new school houses in as many neighborhoods, and the surrender of the academy to a corporation called the Burlington Academy to be sustained by a charge for tuition on scholars. This system continued until 1849. In December of that year 5 districts of the village united to form a Union district. To this Union district the corporators surrendered the academy and now (1863) for 14 years the present plan has been in vogue, and gives good satisfaction to the parents and scholars who improve its advantages. The number of pupils under the corporation was from 30 to 50 under the Union it has been from 70 to 100. The building, a very fine one in 1820, centrally located, has answered all purposes to the present time. At the close of this unhappy civil war a new and more expensive building may be expected; and the culture there given to many youth of both sexes, will be remembered long after the academy, so called, shall have given place to its successor with new name and further promise of usefulness.

In the academy the question of separate or mixed schools, so often agitated, has been settled in favor of the latter. Under its earliest preceptor, good Master Caulkings, both sexes attended; yet a boy's school exclusively was the idea of its patrons when the district was divided, and as was supposed, a higher school instituted at the academy; but at present it embraces both sexes in the same school, to the eminent advantage of each.











The Burlington Female Seminary is believed to be the oldest and the first incorporated institution in the state for the exclusive education of young ladies.

It commenced its course of instruction in May, 1835, and received its charter from the state, Nov. 15, 1836. During the 27 years of its existence, it has received a liberal and well earned patronage, and had under its instruction more than 1600 pupils, from 19 different states, from Scotland and the Canadas, who are now found in almost every part of the world, filling all positions that woman can adorn with intelligence and virtue.

The seminary is situated on a gentle slope fronting towards Lake Champlain, distant about 100 rods. It has ample grounds, and is surrounded with evergreens and other native trees of luxuriant growth. Its location, in one of the most beautiful and healthy villages of New England, commanding, as it does, one of the richest and most picturesque views of the lake, its islands and the distant mountain scenery, is pleasant, and appropriate for a literary institution.

The course of study, drawn up mainly by the Rev. Joseph Torrey, D. D., has special reference to method, adaptation and completeness.

About one-half or 800 of the alumnζ, have finished the prescribed course, many of them in connection with music, drawing, painting, German or Italian.

Some facts connected with the starting of the seminary claim a brief notice. It commenced under difficulties.

The writer of this article began his labors as pastor of the First Calvinistic Congregational church in Burlington, in April, 1832. When he came to his field of labor, he was greatly surprised by one very singular fact, viz.: that Burlington, "the Queen city of the lake," with a population of 4,000 inhabitants, with large wealth and a good college in the place, had not a student in college any where on earth — not one. This, and some kindred facts, led the young pastor at once to resolve to use what influence he might have to advance the cause of common and higher education, and settled in his mind the conviction, that the work of a pastor comprises not only the spiritual, but also and equally the intellectual culture of his flock. He at once formed a plan of a school for the higher education of girls; explained his plan to leading men in the place who




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had daughters to be educated; endeavored to convince them that some $2,000 or $3,000 that they were paying out to educate their daughters in expensive schools abroad, would go far towards sustaining a good school at home. The plan, however, met with little encouragement. The common reply was, that the thing proposed could not be done; that the college was suffering for want of material aid, and that if we could not sustain the college, we certainly could not sustain both the college and a seminary. Rev. Dr. James Marsh, then president of the university, was about the only man who encouraged the plan, believing that any enterprise that would rouse the attention to, and enlist the zeal of the community in the matter of education, would equally benefit the university. The plan of the pastor finding little encouragement, as has been stated, was dropped for the time, but by no means abandoned.

It must not be inferred from the facts above stated, that the good people of Burlington were deficient either in liberality or in their appreciation of good learning. On the contrary, at the period referred to, in 1832 and 1833, they evinced their estimation of education by a subscription of some $20,000 for the University of Vermont. In further explanation, it should be noticed that Burlington, being the principal port on Lake Champlain, early became an important commercial centre; wealth was rapidly acquired, and hence the energies of the people, and especially those of young men, were turned away from the gardens of literature and absorbed in the channels of commerce. Hence, none of her youth were found in the college. But this state of things was soon changed for the better.

Near the close of the next year (1834), the subject of establishing a seminary for the education of young ladies was revived and discussed. A fund of $30,000 had just been raised by subscription for the college, and those who had opened their hearts in this good work, were willing to enjoy still further the luxury of doing good. The writer of this article, meanwhile, had had correspondence with Miss Mary C. Green, then of Windsor, with reference to taking charge, if the effort should be successful. The plan was again discussed with a few leading men who had daughters to be educated. On the 9th of March fallowing, he also called a meeting at Col. Thomas's hotel, explained the object to the meeting when assembled, and presented facts to show that the amount paid from Burlington for the education of daughters abroad, would sustain a good board of teachers at home. A committee was appointed to consider the subject and report. At an adjourned meeting, the committee made a favorable report, and the subject was taken up in good earnest. The large brick house of the late Hon. Wm. A. Griswold was chartered for the school, and funds were subscribed for erecting an additional building. The services of Miss Green were secured as preceptress — a lady who most happily combined a solid judgment and a large degree of executive energy with the accomplishments of a true woman. The school was opened in May, 1835. An ample charter was granted by the legislature, and the following named gentlemen were elected by the corporators the first board of trustees, viz.: Hon. Alvan Foote, N. B. Haswell, Esq., Jno. S. Potwin, Esq., Henry Mayo, Esq., Prof. Geo. W. Benedict, E. T. Englesby, Esq., George P. Marsh, Esq., Harry Bradley, Esq., Sion B. Howard, Esq., Udney H. Penniman, Esq., Samuel Dinsmore, Esq., Geo. B. Mouser, Esq., Hon. Wm. A. Griswold. To the efficient action of this board of trustees and to the liberality and coφperation of a few other individuals, the seminary was greatly indebted for its prosperous beginning.

The seminary has no permanent funds. It has been sustained from the first by the income from tuition. In 1840 it was removed to its present site, in the buildings formerly erected by the Rt. Rev. Bishop Hopkins for his residence and for a theological seminary. The exact number of pupils it has had under its instruction can not be accurately stated, as no record of the attendance from 1841 to 1844 can be found. The records at hand show the names of 1600 or more.




The following is a list of the several teachers who have been employed in the different departments of instruction, from 1835 to '63. The figures denote the dates when they became connected with the seminary. A star marks the names of those deceased.

Principals. — Miss Mary C. Green,* 1835; Miss Thirza Lee, 1841; Mrs. Martha O. Paine, 1842; Rev. J. K. Converse, 1844; Rev. B. W. Smith, associate principal, 1848.

Teachers of the English and Latin Languages, Mathematics and the Natural Sciences. — Mr. Andrew Robertson, Miss Harriet N. Smith, Miss Mary D. Chase,* Miss Mary A. Poor,




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Miss Lucy Baldwin, Miss Adeline Prichard, Miss Sarah R. Chase, Miss Catharine Fleming, Miss Semantha Bascom, Miss Caroline Paine, Mr. Stephen W. Hitchcock,* Miss Eliza Jane Hunt,* Miss Sophia E. Barnard,* Miss Loraine M. Gilbert, Miss Frances A. Hale, Miss Julia L. Chapman, Miss Rosa M. Champlin, Miss Dora L. Merrill, Miss Emily C. Sawyer.

Teachers of French. — Miss Lucie A. Mignault, Mr. R. S. M. Bouchette, Mr. Stephen W. Hitchcock,* Miss Minerva A. Sawyer, Miss Frances A. Hale, Mrs. E. Jaquemart, Miss Jane Herbert, Miss Clara Stacy, Miss S. A. Higgs.

Teachers of Piano and Vocal Music. — Prof. T. F. Molt,* 1835 to 1842; Miss Harriet Hosford, 1842; Miss Cornelia J. Hall, 1843; Miss Mary A. Bender; Miss Martha A. Williams, 1844; Prof. J. S. Moore, 1846; Mrs. C. F. Davey; Miss Mary A. Curtis, 1847; Prof. T. F. Molt,* 1847; Prof. T. E. Molt, 1846; Miss Lizzie E. Converse; Prof. Herman F. Molt, 1856; Prof. W. W. Pattridge.

Teachers of Drawing, &c. — Prof. J. H. Hills, 1835; Mr. Henry Searle, Mrs. Theresa Bassett, Miss Omira B. Bottum, Miss Marion P. Hooker, Miss Elizabeth M. Barnes.

Teachers of Oil Painting. — Miss Marion P. Hooker, 1848; Miss Sarah J. Parker; Miss Harriet Kilburn; Mr. Isaac L. Williams, 1852; Miss Sarah E. Converse, 1853.

In addition to the above, a considerable number of pupils selected from the highest class, with regard to their scholarship, have been employed as assistant teachers in the English and Latin departments.

Here much might be justly said of the talents and earnest devotion of several whose names are found in the above list of teachers. But this is not the place to speak of the living. In respect to the dead, we may speak of their good works which follow them, and in which they still live in the memory and affections of hundreds whose minds were formed by their power.


Miss Mary C. Green,


The first principal of the seminary, was born in Windsor, in the year 1800. Of her parentage and childhood, we have no knowledge, but at an early age she evinced an unusual maturity of intellect. We are not informed at what school she pursued the higher studies. She began the work of teaching, which she loved, at an early age. She was the efficient principal of the seminary from its origin in 1835 to February, 1841, when she resigned her charge with a view to accepting an invitation from a friend to travel in Europe. In 1844 or 5, she married William E. Mayhew, Esq., a merchant of Baltimore, Md., who, in former years, had been a partner in trade with Mr. George Peabody, now the distinguished American banker, in London. Mrs. Mayhew died at Baltimore, in 1856, having adorned a useful life with the attainments of the scholar and the graces of the true christian.


Miss Mary D. Chase


Of Randolph, one of the first graduates of the seminary, became the head assistant teacher under Miss Green, about the year 1838. Miss Chase was a young lady of superior mind, accurate scholarship, and of most amiable spirit. But her course of usefulness was destined to be brief. A few months after entering upon her duties, she fell into a fatal decline and passed away, beloved and mourned by all who knew her.


"So fades the lovely, blooming flower,

Frail, smiling solace of an hour."


Prof. Theodore F. Molt


Was born in Gschwend, in the kingdom of Wittemburg, Germany, Feb. 13th, 1795, His father, John Frederick Molt, was a member and officer in the Lutheran church, and for many years was organist in the church at Gschwend.

Mr. Molt received the elements of a good classical and mathematical education. But soon after he entered the university, he, either by enlistment or conscription, became a soldier in Bonaparte's army. He belonged to what was called the foreign department of the army. Though young he soon attracted the notice of his superiors, and was promoted to the place of accountant and assistant paymaster in his regiment.

When the battle of Waterloo was approaching, his regiment, then 30 miles distant on the frontier, was ordered to Waterloo. They reached Waterloo on the day of the battle, too late to participate in the strife, but not too late to survey that fatal field, strown with the dead and dying — a scene which ever after lived in vivid remembrance in his mind.

He now returned home — chose music for his profession, and devoted himself to it with true German perseverance. He had received in his boyhood his first lessons from his father and from an older brother who was distinguished for his attainments in the "divine art." After leaving the army he be‑




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came, first, the pupil of Czerny — then of Moschelles in London. He also had the acquaintance and assistance of Beethoven, Frans Schubert and other distinguished pianists and composers.

Prof. Molt came to this country in 1823. Landing in Quebec, he found employment for some years, but preferring a location in the states, he came to Burlington in the fall of 1833, and commenced his labors as a teacher of piano music. Pupils in music were few — his prospects were discouraging, and in 1834, he had nearly decided to go elsewhere. But the writer of this article obtained for him a few pupils, and encouraged him to stay, by the hope that the plan of establishing a seminary for young ladies would be soon realized. On opening the school in May, 1825, he became the teacher of music, which place he filled with distinguished ability, with the exception of a short interval, until his death in 1856. By his ability as a teacher and his courteous bearing as a gentleman, he uniformly won the respect of his pupils.

Prof. Molt devoted himself with singular earnestness to his profession, giving lessons usually from 10 to 12 hours daily, and even then finding some hours to bestow on the musical works he was preparing for the press. His contributions to the science of music and of musical instruction, have been highly appreciated by professors in the art, especially his more recent works — Progressive Lessons and Teacher's Guide. The former has no superior as a work for beginners.

Prof. Molt's laborious life closed after a short illness Nov. 16, 1856.


Stephen Washington Hitchcock,


A very acceptable and successful teacher of the French language from November, 1846, to November, 1849, was a native of Mount St. Hillaire, Canada East. His earlier education was acquired in the best French schools in the province, and he was graduated at the University of Vermont. He was a fine scholar — an earnest christian, unassuming and genial in manners; a young man of great promise, and a favorite with all who knew him. On resigning his place in the seminary, he accepted an appointment from the trustees of Middlebury Female seminary as principal of that school. He commenced his labors in Middlebury in the spring of 1851. August 18th of that year, he was married to Miss Sophia C. Stevens, daughter of Henry Stevens. Esq., of Barnet (now of Burlington). Miss Stevens had been his pupil at Burlington. He was successful and much beloved in his new field of labor. But his period of usefulness was short. In May, 1852, he was attacked with bleeding at the lungs, and it was soon apparent that he was a victim of consumption, which terminated his life in August, 1852. After his death his widow spent some 8 years in the Schools of Design in Paris and in Rome, and is now the wife of William Page, Esq., the artist and author of "Venus" which has been on exhibition recently in most of our cities.


Miss Sophia E. Barnard,


Whose name is starred in the list of teachers, was from Salisbury, Conn., and was one of the earliest graduates of the seminary. Her family, in her childhood, removed to Little Falls, N. Y. On the opening of the seminary, she was entered as a pupil. Some 6 years after finishing the course of study, she was invited to return as the head lady teacher. She taught 1 year, when she was suddenly called home by the illness of her affianced husband, a young physician of character, wealth and brilliant prospects. It was not expected that their marriage would be consummated for a year or two; but her intended husband, becoming suddenly worse — fearing that he should not survive and wishing to leave his estate to the object of his affections, he sent for her at midnight. At his house, and standing in her slippers at his bedside, she was married to him in presence of friends and an attorney who had been called in to make his last will. The young physician passed through the crisis of his disease and recovered, but his companion was spared to him but a few short years, when she was called to exchange the prospects of earth for the better portion in heaven. Miss Barnard was endowed with many personal attractions, and was a fine scholar and true woman.


Miss Eliza Jane Hunt


Filled the place of first lady teacher, for nearly four years from March, 1845. Miss Hunt was born in Bath, N. H., Aug. 28, 1824, where she spent the years of her childhood. Her parents subsequently removed to Haverhill, N. H., where she enjoyed the advantages of the academy in that place. Some of the higher studies in her course were pursued at Montpelier, under the direction of Mr. Calvin Pease, now Dr. Pease, and recently president of the University of Vermont. Miss Hunt excelled as a successful teacher. She was a lady of solid talents, good judgment and prudent deportment; accurate in scholar‑




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ship, gentle and lady-like in manners, but ever firm and decided for the right. She possessed a ready insight into character, and was seldom mistaken in her judgment. She also possessed that rare quality so essential to successful teaching, viz.: the power, not only to communicate her instructions with clearness, but also the power of following those instructions into the mind of the pupil, and seeing how they are received and deposited in that mind. The ability to do which is one of the highest qualifications of a teacher.

Miss Hunt was united in marriage with John B. Wheeler, Esq., of Burlington, eldest son of ex-president Wheeler, in October, 1852. Having adorned this new position with intelligence and the graces of a christian, for the space of 4 years, she departed this life Nov. 7th, 1856.

Of the 1600 pupils who have been connected with the seminary from its origin, 81 deaths are known to have occurred. The actual number of deaths is presumed to be near 100, as from the wide dispersion of the pupils, some deaths have probably occurred not known to the writer. The mortality therefore, in 27 years, would probably amount to only about 16 per cent.

One important fact we would here notice with devout gratitude to God. During the 17 years that the present principal has had charge of the seminary, with the average number of 29 boarders per quarter, there has never been a death among the boarders, nor has there ever been among us any epidemic, or prevalent disease, which is certainly an unusual exemption, and conclusive proof of the healthiness of our location.

The office of the principal has been filled in the order of time, as follows: Miss Mary C. Green, from May, 1835, to February, 1841; Miss Thirza Lee, from February, 1841, to February, 1842.

At this time the trustees and patrons of the school deemed it important that a gentleman should be placed at the head, and the Rev. Lyman Coleman was elected as principal. Mr, Coleman declined the appointment, and Mrs. Martha O. Paine was elected principal, February, 1842. On her resignation, in the spring of 1844, the exercises of the seminary were suspended until September of that year, when Rev. J. K. Converse, then pastor of the First Calvinistic Congregational church in Burlington, was elected principal by the trustees, and is still in charge of the institution.

The seminary, as has been remarked, has never had any corporate fund. Soon after the present principal commenced his duties, he purchased the two right hand buildings (see plate), which had previously been rented for the school, investing therein some $15,000. These two buildings have been well filled with pupils during his administration, until a few months since, when he sold the south, or right hand building, for other purposes. The seminary is now conducted in the large central building, which is most pleasantly situated and convenient in its arrangements. The number of pupils is limited to 40, one-half of whom can be accommodated with residence and board in the family of the principal, where they will be under the constant care of the teachers, in respect to morals, manners, and mental culture, and enjoy all the comforts and kind attentions of a pleasant home.

In reviewing the years the writer has spent in charge of this institution, he feels he has not labored in vain, and the present and future well-being of his many hundred pupils will ever be near his heart, and remembered at that throne where alone such remembrance can be availing.

In the state of society which exists among us, it is the peculiar privilege of an American to win his way by the culture and use of his own powers, with the certainty, that success will wait on real merit. And this is as true of the young woman as of the young man. Wealth and family have great weight in the start of both, but in the long run, superior intellectual and moral worth will win, no matter what may have been the disadvantages of the possessor, provided the resolution to be true to one's self comes not too late. While looking over the names of those who have been under my instruction, I see many happy illustrations of this remark. During the last 17 years the seminary has assisted 81 young ladies to an education by waiting on them, on certain conditions, for the whole or a portion of their bills, until they could earn the means of cancelling them, after completing the course of study. The obligations assumed by such pupils, with a few exceptions, have been honorably met. And those thus aided, as compared with others, have generally excelled in earnest application, and are now seen to occupy some of the highest stations of influence and usefulness. In a large number of cases, it is not the advantages of birth or fortune that have decided the destiny of my pupils, or have given them the stations they now hold, but it was education, culture, character.




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The Young Ladies' school on Locust street, Rev. and Mrs. J. H. Worcester, principals, was commenced by Mrs. Worcester, then Miss Catharine Fleming, in March, 1845.

It was continued by her after her marriage with Mr. Worcester, then pastor of the Calvinistic Congregational church in Burlington; and in 1855, Mr. Worcester, having resigned his pastoral charge, became a principal teacher in the school.

Receiving but a limited number of pupils, the school has seldom been able to accommodate all applicants, and was never in more flourishing condition than at present.

The school is furnished with apparatus for experimental illustrations in natural philosophy and chemistry, and much attention is given to instruction in mental and moral science.

The instructors at this date (March, 1862), are Rev. and Mrs. J. H. Worcester, principals; Mlle. L. Eugenie Gangloff, Miss Kate Fessenden, Miss Lydia L. Hodges, and Miss Julia Fleming, in the literary department, and Messrs. T. E. Molt and S. C. Moore, in music.







The Young Ladies' seminary, conducted by Rev. and Mrs. B. W. Smith, occupies the building and grounds formerly occupied by the Burlington Female seminary, situated at the south end of Church street, retired from the noise and bustle of the business part of the town, and yet within five minutes' walk of the heart of the village. It opened its first session in September, 1860, and from that time to the present has enjoyed a fair amount of patronage from the citizens of the town and state, and from other states and Canada.

There is also connected with the institution, a department for the education of lads and young men who may wish to prepare themselves for mercantile and other business, or for college, which has also been well attended. In the latter department the pupils attend mostly as day scholars; a few, however, have been accommodated with rooms and board.

There are connected with the institution 6 able and experienced teachers. The department of French being under the instruction of a lady of Parisian birth and education, and that of piano music, of Prof. T. E. Molt, who has been a most successful teacher for the last 15 or 20 years.












From 1783 to 1800 the population of Burlington had increased from about 40 persons to 600; and in the year 1800 there were 6 stores in town — but there was no minister settled until 1810, and no house of worship erected until 1812. Previous to the year 1800, the privileges of public worship were but rarely enjoyed, even by the few who desired them, from the occasional ministrations of itinerant missionaries and other transient preachers of various sorts.

It appears, however, that about the close of the year 1799, the village took a new and vigorous start in growth and prosperity, and a commendable degree of public spirit was awakened among the leading men of the place for promoting public interests, which had been hitherto neglected. Among these were the institution of public worship, and the practical inauguration of the university which had been chartered and located here by the state. In Aug. 1799, the Rev. Daniel C. Sanders was released from his pastoral charge in Vergennes, and as soon as this was known in Burlington, some of its leading men took measures to have him remove to this place, for the double purpose of preaching statedly to the people, and of attempting to get the university into practical operation. He was engaged to preach statedly for $400 per annum, besides whatever he should obtain for his services as an instructor. He removed hither and began his labors in November of that year, preaching in the Court house on the sabbath, and instructing a few pupils in his own house, at first as a preparatory school. In 1800 he was elected president of the university, but was its sole instructor for some time. His salary for preaching was raised, the first year altogether voluntarily, but after that by a town tax for $200, and $200 by voluntary subscription. In this way was public worship supported until 1810. From the minutes of a town meeting is taken the following extract:

"Voted, to raise $200 on the grand list of 1799, to be paid in grain, beef, pork, butter or cheese, to be delivered to the minister who shall be hired in Burlington for the year ensuing, at his dwelling house in Burlington, on or before the 25th day of December next."

In 1805 a petition was presented to the selectmen, to warn a town meeting in reference to building a meeting house and supporting "social and public worship," agree-




                                                     BURLINGTON.                                          537


able to the form and effect of the statute entitled "An act for the support of the gospel," passed Oct. 26, 1797. The meeting was held, and under the act referred to, the inhabitants of the town formed themselves into a society by the name of the First society for social and public worship in the town of' Burlington. Hitherto they had done this informally as a town; now the town was organized as a parish, for the purpose specified. In 1809 this society took measures to have a meeting house built, but this was never done by that society.

In the year 1805 also, was formed another important organized body, namely: the First Christian church ever formed in this town. On the 21st of February of that year, 14 persons, members of churches chiefly in Connecticut, met at the house of Moses Catlin, and after a repeated perusal of articles of faith and a form of church covenant, prepared by Rev. President Sanders, agreed to enter into covenant with God and one another, as a church of Christ, and in testimony thereof signed the articles and covenant. On the 23d, immediately after sermon, the articles and covenant were read, and assent to them being continued, they were publicly declared, by Pres't Sanders, to be a regular church of the Lord Jesus Christ, established in Burlington. This is the same church now known, by way of distinction from another which was formed 5 years afterwards, by the name of the First Calvinistic Congregational church in Burlington. The names of its original members are these: Ebenezer Lyman, Daniel Coit, Ozias Buel, Daniel C. Sanders, Abigail Catlin, Sarah Atwater, Anna Lyman, Nancy Sanders, Amelia Tuttle, Abigail Buel, Mirriam Whetmore, Clarissa Lyman, Lucinda Catlin. Of these Mrs. Clarissa Lyman is the only one now living (March, 1863). Rev. President Sanders was elected their moderator and clerk, and served as such until their first pastor was ordained. The church thus organized, enjoyed the ministrations of Pres't Sanders and others, in common with the inhabitants of the town who chose to do so. But it does not appear that the church had any voice in the choice of the minister to be hired. But here it should be noted, however, that in an unsuccessful attempt to settle a minister in 1806, and again in 1810, the church had a separate vote in the matter, and the concurrence of both the church and the society was evidently understood to be necessary for the settlement of a minister.

Besides the preaching of Pres't. Sanders, who officiated statedly until 1807, the Rev. Sam'l Williams, LL. D., also preached, more or less, in the years 1807 and 1808, while here superintending the publication of the second edition of his History of Vermont — and in 1809, Rev. Willard Preston and Rev. Amariah Chandler, then licentiates, also labored here, very much to the acceptance of the church, but declined being candidates for settlement. As the fruit of their labor under God, the church received its first increase in August of this year — an addition of 10 persons — 9 of them by a profession of faith and 1 by letter from another church. The whole number of the church was now 21 — 3 of the original number having died.

At this point of the history, it may be proper to remark that two parties had been growing and were now grown to maturity among the people, respecting the doctrines and the preaching of the gospel. The one was the "liberal party" so called by themselves, who had a strong aversion to the strict doctrines and manner of religious life so characteristic of the early times in New England, and who preferred instead "moral preaching" in which the puritanic doctrines of grace should be ignored. The other party was the orthodox, or Calvinistic party, so called in the language of that day. The church mostly were of this party, and also a respectable minor part of the society who sympathized with the church and adhered to its fortunes. The preaching and influence of Pres't Sanders undoubtedly fostered the liberal party rather than the other, although he was a member of the church and had subscribed to its articles of faith, which were substantially, though not fully and explicitly on all points, Calvinistic. And until 1809, when Messrs. Preston and Chandler preached here, there was very little preaching and ministerial influence of a kind to foster the orthodox, or as sometimes called the "Connecticut party." Hence the Liberal party, now known as the Unitarians, became decidedly the greatest in number, means and popular influence.

Sometime in the fall of 1809, these two parties had their two candidates for settlement — Mr. Samuel Clark, Jr., from Massachusetts, was the favorite of the Unitarian party, as now we may call it; and Mr. Daniel Haskel, from Connecticut, the preferred candidate of the Calvinistic party. The latter, as the evidence seems to us to indicate, was engaged by the authority of the proper committee; the other by some individuals con‑




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nected with the liberal party. However that may be, Mr. Clark came first and began to preach, and soon after Mr. Haskel came.

On the 1st day of January, 1810, after Mr. Clark had finished his time of probation, the society met in the Court house to deliberate and vote on the question of settling Mr. Clark as their minister. The church met at the same time by themselves for the same purpose. A decided majority of the society voted to settled Mr. Clark; but the majority of the church declined to have him settled over them as their pastor. Mr. Clark intimated his readiness to be settled if the church were united with the society in the call, otherwise he declined. Here was a difficulty; but it was speedily surmounted by the expedient of dissolving the old society and forming a new one, on the entirely voluntary principle of the adherents and friends of Mr. Clark; and also forming a new church for him (which was done at the time of his ordination), on the basis of the same articles and church covenant on which the first church had been formed in 1805.

The minority of the society also formed themselves into a new society, and took the name of the First Calvinistic Congregational society in Burlington. By them, at their first meeting, Mr. Haskel was adopted as their candidate for settlement; and after preaching the usual period of probation was unanimously elected by them in concurrence with the church. An ecclesiastical council was forthwith convened from the ministers and churches in the vicinity, and Mr. Haskel was regularly ordained to the christian ministry and installed as pastor of the church and minister of the society, April 10, 1810.

Mr. Clark was ordained on the 19th of the same month by a council — all from Massachusetts, save one minister from Rockingham, Vt. The two societies and their ministers very wisely and amicably divided between them the public right of land given by charter to the minister first settled in town.

Mr. Haskel and his people worshiped in the Court house at such times and hours of the day as they could find it unoccupied; and afterwards, by leave of the corporation, in the chapel of the college. In 1812 the first house of worship in town was erected by this church and society and dedicated to the worship of God the Father, Son and Holy Ghost. It was consumed by fire, kindled by an incendiary, on the morning of June 23d, 1839, and replaced by the present edifice, dedicated April 14, 1842.

Mr. Haskel was elected to the presidency of the university in 1821, and was dismissed from his pastoral charge June 22, 1822, in order to enter on the duties of that office. He was a man and a minister eminently fitted for the times and the place and work to which he was called in Burlington. His learning was deep and extensive, chiefly in the region of metaphysical philosophy; his theology was of the old school, consistently held, clearly expressed, and constantly inculcated in his preaching; his influence among his people and in the community was sedate, kindly and conciliating; and ultimately he secured not only the esteem of his people, but even the respect of the enemies of the cause which he upheld.

During the pastorate of Mr. Haskel the church increased in number from 21 to 91; and, what was of more consequence, by his preaching was well grounded and built up in the faith, and established in the knowledge and acknowledgment of the evangelical system of divine truth and grace.


[For further biography of Mr. Haskel see biographies of the presidents of the university by Prof. Clark. — Ed.]


The second pastor of this church was the Rev. Willard Preston, who was installed Aug. 22, 1822.

The third pastor of the church was the Rev. Reuben Smith, installed May 3, 1826. During his ministry numerous conversions took place in the congregation, and the church was increased in number and piety.

The fourth pastor of the church was Rev. John K. Converse, installed Aug. 8, 1832; during whose pastorate a portion of the church were set off and formed into a new church (the church in Winooski).

The fifth pastor of the church was the Rev. John H. Worcester, installed March 10, 1847.

The sixth pastor of the church was Rev Spencer Marsh, ordained and installed Nov. 6, 1855. Mr. Marsh was dismissed from his pastoral office Feb. 8, 1860.

The seventh pastor of the church is Rev. Eldridge Mix, installed Sept. 4, 1862.

In 1860, a new congregational church and society were formed in this place, chiefly of members of this church and society. The Third Congregational church was organized on sabbath, Nov. 4, 1860; and on Dec. 26 the Rev. George B. Safford was settled over them.

The whole number of those who, by a hopeful conversion and public profession of faith, have united with the church since it was formed in the year 1805 is 612. The present membership (1861) is 311, about 200 of




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whom are resident members. The Third Congregational church number 320.






Commemorative Sermon — Half Century — April 29, 1860.




"Other men labored and ye are entered into their labors." — JOHN, iv, 38.


*    *    *    *    *    *    *    *    *    *


At the coming in of the present century, the religious affairs of Burlington, but a small place of 200 or 300 souls, were in a very unsettled state. It was in this respect, as a frontier town, many of its early settlers bring either indisposed or indifferent to religious institutions; preaching rarely enjoyed, and the sabbath, too often, only a day of relaxation. Some of the inhabitants, however, who had been brought up in a different state of things, and taught to respect religion, were very unwilling to be shut out from religious privileges, and therefore made efforts to secure in part the performance of religious worship on Sunday.

They first commenced with the reading of a printed sermon, which was approved of and well attended. About this time it was understood that the Rev. Daniel C. Sanders had closed his engagement at Vergennes, and was at liberty to preach wherever his services might be requested. Immediately on ascertaining this, David Russell, Esq., and Dr. John Pomeroy — most honorable names intimately associated with the beginning and growth both of this town and this society — rode to Vergennes and engaged him to preach at Burlington, holding themselves personally responsible for the payment of his salary. Afterwards, being chosen first president of the University of Vermont, then just coming into life, he became for a time a stated minister in town, and regularly officiated in the Court house, there being no house of worship in the place.

Dr. Sanders' first introduction to Burlington was, I am informed, a sermon which he preached by request on the death of Gen. Washington, soon after that national bereavement in December, 1799. One who heard that discourse is still a member* of our congregation, and gives his recollections of it as a lad, impressed by its eloquence and solemnity. The text was from Deut., 34th chap., 70th verse: "His eye was not dim nor his natural force abated;" and the object of the sermon was to portray by a comparison of the lives of Moses and Washington, the manner in which the Infinite Disposer of events controls the affairs of nations, by his direction of the lives of individuals.

From an examination of the first records of the town, it appears that in June, 1805, the 5th day of the month, more than 7 of the substantial freeholders of Burlington joined in petition to Geo. Robinson, town clerk, to warn a meeting of the inhabitants of said town, for the purpose of forming themselves into a society for social and public worship, agreeable to the form and effect of the statute, entitled "An act for the support of the gospel," passed Oct. 26, 1797.

This petition was signed by Wm. C. Harrington, Lyman King, Osias Buell, Arza Crane, Elnathan Keyes, Moses Catlin, David Russell, James Sawyer, Saml. Hickok, John Pomeroy, Horace Loomis.

Accordingly, the people met without distinction of opinions, and voted unanimously to form themselves into a society by the name of the First society for Social and public worship in the town of Burlington; and the society was formed.

Nearly four years passed over, and the next public record of ecclesiastical affairs is the 7th article in the warning of the annual town meeting for March 20, 1809. In this interval, however, in the year 1807, Dr. Saml. Williams of Rutland, a graduate from Harvard college, and for some time a lecturer on natural philosophy to that institution, came to Burlington for the purpose of superintending the publication of his History of Vermont, and while here, preached in the Court house, and was a member of Dr. Pomeroy's family.

At the town meeting mentioned above, i.e., in the year 1809, it was voted that a committee of five be chosen for the purpose of fixing on a place for building a meeting house; and Daniel Farrand, Stephen Pearl, Moses Robinson and David Russell were elected that committee, who reported at an adjourned meeting held about 2 weeks afterwards, that they "had taken the subject into consideration, and agreed to recommend to the town a piece of ground lying on the south side of the new road called College street, leading from the front of the college to the Court House square, east of the road called Middle street (now Willard street), leading south from Pearl street to the turnpike road (now Main street), for said purpose." The report was accepted, and a


* Hon. Charles Adams, since died, having departed this life Jan. 13, 1862.




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committee of seven raised to make and receive proposals to draft a plan for a building to be erected immediately.

But on that beautiful hill-side, no church steeple yet points to heaven. The effort failed, and all we know from the town records of the how and the wherefore is just nothing. Only it is written that in about 3 weeks after the building committee was appointed, an adjourned meeting to hear the proceedings of the committee met, and immediately dissolved, and in about as many weeks more, that is, on the last Monday in May, 1809, assembled again, and immediately adjourned without day.

The explanation of the mystery is, in brief, that the slumbering lion of theology waked up, and the growls of religious controversy began to be heard. Hitherto the inhabitants of the town had acted together without any clashing of different opinions on matters of religious belief; but the dividing day had come.


.   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .


A separation took place; but to tell you all the circumstances connected with it, as I learn them from the written statement of the dead, and from the lips of the living, who remember those days, would be to misappropriate the calm of this sacred day to a recital of the angers and strifes; the deceptions and the meannesses of sectarian controversy.

But to proceed, in January, 1810, articles of association, whereby a very large majority of the male inhabitants of the town formed themselves into a society by the name of the First Congregational society, in the town of Burlington, were adopted in public meeting; a call was given to Mr. Saml. Clark, who had been preaching in town for some time a few Sundays by invitation, to be their gospel minister.


.   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .


Just 50 years ago, this month of April, on Thursday, the 19th day of the month, the people of Burlington, favorable to liberal sentiments in religion, were assembled in the Court house (a wooden structure afterwards burned down, but then occupying the same piece of ground on which now stands the more substantial edifice by that name), to induct into office the man they had chosen to be their christian teacher and guide, Mr. Saml. Clark, where, only 9 days before, the Calvanistic party of seceders had with eager haste ordained another minister; designing, it is said, in military phrase, to steal a march on the liberals in order to invest in their man, Mr. Danl. Haskel, afterwards 3d president of the University of Vermont, the right of 320 acres of land which was granted by charter to the first settled minister. On this account very great excitement prevailed at the time, feeling was intense, the very children partook of the agitation, and held disputes; but the difficulty was at length satisfactorily adjusted by a vote of the town appraising the lots and dividing them into three parts, giving the same sum of $1,000 to each of the ministers, and funding the other third, the income from which to be shared by the two societies equally.

The services on the occasion of Mr. Clark's ordination were of an able and interesting character, and were published. The Rev. Wm. Emerson, pastor of the First church in Boston, and father, I believe, of the distinguished Ralph Waldo Emerson, preached the sermon, the subject of which was Posthumous Beneficence, and the text the words of Peter in his 2d epistle, i, 5. "Moreover, I will endeavor that ye may be able after my decease to have these things always in remembrance." The charge was given by the Rev. Sam'l Whiting of Rockingham, Vt., and the Rev. Thaddeus Mason Harris of Dorchester, Mass., extended the right hand of fellowship.

Mr. Clark's salary was $550, and for 12 years, with little or no interruption, he served this society. He died on Wednesday, May 2, 1827, having five years previously resigned his pastoral office in consequence of an attack of pulmonary disease, which finally terminated his life. He was buried on Friday at 2 o'clock in the afternoon, from his late residence, and on the succeeding Sunday Mr. Geo. G. Ingersoll, his successor in office, preached a funeral sermon, in which, at some length, he spoke of his life and character.

From a communication by the same to the Northern Sentinel, we extract:

"Mr. Clark was born in Brookline, Mass., in 1782, and graduated at Harvard college in 1805.   .   .   In respectful remembrance it may be truly said, as a kind and faithful husband and parent, his loss will be deeply felt; as a sincere and generous friend he will be long recollected; as a citizen he was ever prepared and willing to be useful. Mr. Clark possessed a fair understanding and a warm and feeling heart He was distinguished by a cheerful temper and a disposition to look on life in its brighest light. . . . Unreserved in daily intercourse, of no one could it be more properly said, that his words were 'the index




                                                     BURLINGTON.                                          541


of his mind.' He was independent in his judgments and fearless in his declarations, and, though unpretending in manner, he was firm in the support of what he felt to be right. These traits of character were not only exhibited in his private life but they entered into and distinctly marked his duties as a minister of the gospel, for his religious views were cheering and consolatory, and he was decided in asserting and defending them. His faith was enlightened and liberal, and his charity, that virtue which is higher than faith, was a truly christian charity, for he earnestly desired the happiness and salvation of all of his fellow-beings.

"In his last sickness he was more than patient, he was cheerful, he spoke of his departure freely and calmly; he had no fears of death, and when at last death came on him it came as a quiet sleep."

The house we occupy, our goodly temple, was built, as the chiseled stone in the front wall of the tower tells us, in the year 1816. Immediately after the ordination of two ministers in town, there being but one public room convenient for a place of worship, the question inevitably came up, which society shall have the use of the Court house? or what portion of time shall each one have it in turn?

Various efforts were made towards a peaceful and handy decision of the question, and failed, till finally the stronger party, and we think, the right party, that is the society which had the right on their side, took the matter in hand, and passed in a meeting the following preamble and resolutions:

"Whereas, Every pacific measure has been proposed by the society to bring the respective claims of the two societies to an equitable adjustment, which has been opposed and neglected by the Calvinistic society, therefore:

"Resolved, That in future this society will assert their right to use the Court house upon all public religious occasions without any accountability to any of the members of the Calvinistic society.

"Resolved, That the above resolution is founded in right, legal, moral and religious, and that this society will support the same" — and they did.

In those days, I am told, men were very early at meeting, and came prepared. Not, I fear, in a very meek and quiet spirit, nor having on that armor which the apostle describes; but the times were trying and our fathers were in earnest.

At a meeting of the society, convened April 22, 1815, Mr. Ebenezer J. Englesby introduced the following resolution:

"Whereas, It is understood that a number of the First Congregational society have purchased five acre lot, No. 17, for the purpose of erecting a meeting house thereon for the use of this society, have generously subscribed a large sum for the purpose of building said meeting house, therefore:

"Resolved, That this society agree that the said five acre lot, No. 17, shall be the place for setting a meeting house for said society, and that the subscribers for the same be requested to proceed and build said meeting house by subscription, in such manner as they shall judge most convenient for the accomodation of the society and under such regulations as they may agree upon among themselves."

Which resolution was unanimously adopted.

The house was built at the cost, including bell, clock and organ,* of about $23,000, and, with but little change in the interior, is the commodious, pleasant and chaste building we are assembled in to-day.

It was dedicated Thursday, Jan. 9, 1817, by appropriate solemnities. Introductory prayer was offered, and scripture read by the pastor of the society. A hymn prepared by Deacon Jacob Williams, a member of the society, was sung. Dedicatory prayer was made by John Foster, D. D. of Brighton, Mass., and Rev. John Pierce. Afterward Dr. Pierce of Brookline, Mass. (under whom Mr. Clark early studied for the ministry), preached a sermon from Psalm xciii, 5 —

"Holiness becometh thy house O Lord forever."

The original dedicatory hymn (by Jacob Williams), was as follows:


Great God, we enter this thy house;

This long wished for day with joy we see,

That we may pay our grateful vows,

And dedicate this house to thee.


Thy providential smiles, O Lord,

Have crowned our work with good success;

By thy Almighty name adored —

That name we'll never cease to bless.


Continue still thy presence here,

Make this the place of thine abode,

Whilst we, with filial love, draw near

To thee, our Father and our God.



* One of the largest and finest organs in the country has of late been put into this church. "It contains 1700 pipes, being 300 more than the organ in St. Paul's, London. By touching one key in this instrument, 34 pipes can be sounded at one time, and 340 pipes by one grasp of chords." — Ed.




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May thy pure precepts be our guide;

All errors shunned with cautious care;

No doctrines taught by human pride,

Can with thy holy word compare,


But that religion from above,

Taught by thy son, our sovereign Lord,

Replete with peace, and truth, and love,

Claims all our reverence and regard.


May charity and love appear

In all we say, in all we do,

Thus prove our faith in thee sincere

And not a vain, an empty show.


May generations far remote,

Within these walls thy praise proclaim,

By purity of life support

The honor of the christian name.


May this church, still owned by thee,

When Christ appears a second time,

From every spot or blemish free

Appear with lustre all divine.


For nearly two years previous to the resignation of Mr. Clark, whose failing health disabled him to perform the duties of the pulpit, it had been occupied by a young man born in Boston, July 4th, 1796, and graduated at Harvard college, 1815. The same, whose name was Geo. Goldthwait Ingersoll was ordained the second minister of this society, on the 30th day of May, 1822. He has written of that day that the weather was fine, the house uncommonly full; the services of very high order; the ordaining counsel dined at Howard's. Pres't Haskel asked the blessing, Rev. Mr. Johnston of Williston returned thanks."

The ordaining prayer was made by Rev. Dr. Bancroft; sermon was preached by Rev. President Kirkland of the university at Cambridge, Mass., and Rev. Wm. Ware, Rev. Samuel Ripley, Rev. Converse Francis, Rev, Charles Brooks and Rev. Dr. Thayer performed the other parts; all which coming from such men must indeed have been of a "high order."

Of the faithful and efficient ministry of Dr. Ingersoll* to this society, continued through 22 years of arduous labor, till his health broke down, it is not my purpose to speak at length.

The limits of this discourse will not allow; and some years hence it will be the more appropriate time for some one standing in this pulpit, to portray his genial disposition, his brilliant talents, his christian character, and his useful life not yet ended, but still prolonged and still devoted to the service of God, and human happiness.

Of only two things in his ministry may I allow myself to speak, and even them I can but allude to. I mean the institution of the Sunday school, which was established by him in this parish in May, 1828; and the Parish library, originally known as the Religious Book society, whose first meeting was called at his instance, and whose noble object he did every thing in his power to promote. Of no one's labors more than of his, is our present valuable collection of nearly 900 volumes of good and standard books, the fruit, and how wholesome fruit, how refreshing and invigorating to both mind and heart it is, the many who visit that library from week to week, know full well!

Of the Sunday school, Dr. Ingersoll thus spoke in his farewell sermon, which I may say in passing, no one can read without admiration for the earnestness and fidelity of the ministry it brought to a close.

"When I first came to you" (I quote his sermon), "there was no Sunday school attached to the society; indeed the present system of Sunday schools had but partially gone into operation in our land. For some time after my settlement, I felt inadequate to bear the burden which such an institution would impose. But becoming more and more convinced of the need of some such public religious instruction for the children of the society, I undertook the performance of the duty myself. For some years I was sole instructor of the Sunday school, and, though it was not large, the business of instructing them, came at the close of the afternoon service after the fatigues of the day; still I found in this matter my pleasure in my duty. Some of the happiest moments
of my ministerial engagements were thus spent."

Referring to the Parish library, he says: "In the establishment and progress of this have ever taken as deep and uninterrupted interest. It was one of my earliest movements for the increase of religious knowledge among churches, and the diffusion of correct views of our religious faith among others.   .   .   In order to make this institution productive of still greater good, I proposed to hold, in connection with it, monthly religious meetings for the edification of all who wished to attend. These meetings were held in the church, during the summer, in the afternoon, and during the winter, in the evening, at my house, the


* Rev. G. G. Ingersoll, D. D. was born in Boston, July 4th, 1796; graduated at Harvard college, 1815; began to preach Sept. 20, 1820; settled at Burlington, May 30, 1822; resigned his charge, March 31,1844; preached his farewell, June 2, 1844.




                                                     BURLINGTON.                                          543


exercises at such times being prayer, a written essay, and familiar religious discussions." "And," he says, finally: "if there be any one thing more than another in connection with which I would have my name remembered among you, it is the Parish library."

May I here propose to you, my brethren, a suggestion, made to me by another, that, by a vote in the next parish meeting, you inscribe on that monument of a good and faithful minister's service to you, the name of the "Ingersoll Library."

I make a single quotation more from the same sermon: "Of the 75 parishoners," he writes, "who first joined in the call given me to settle here, only 15 are now recorded on the list.   .   .   .   .   .   How many hands once reached out to me for friendly grasp, have long since mouldered to dust! How many voices which once spoke to me the cheering welcome, have long since been hushed in the repose of the grave The fathers, Williams, Reed, Farrand, Curtis, Sawyer, Hollister, Rice, Russell, Pomeroy, I miss your venerable forms from the seats you once so constantly filled. The mothers in Israel whom I approached in filial reverence — you are no longer here. The friends whose matured life and powers gave a present stability to our pastoral connection, and a promise of a long continued support — I look in vain for many of you today."

The Fathers. I would, my hearers, that with a few words proper and fit for each I could call them up before you, for good and true men I am sure they were. Liberal christianity in Burlington need not be ashamed of its ancestors. But how can I speak of men who were carried to their graves before I was born? or while my infancy and youth were passing far from here? The very mention of their names, however, will bring them to the minds and hearts of some of you, and they will walk before you as in other days, or sit beside you here. Yes, I know not what tender recollections it will awaken.

Very briefly I can speak of them, and only as I know them from an examination of the church and parish records, and from the recollections of one* who has kindly permitted me to read his MSS. sketch of the men who were his friends and companions when he was young.

Among the oldest inhabitants of Burlington who were members of this society, Stephen Pearl and Phineas Loomis stand first. Younger men were Sam. Hitchcock, and Daniel Farrand, and Luther and Horace Loomis, sons of Phineas Hitchcock and Farrand, were among the most distinguished lawyers of Vermont, and took high rank among its cultivated citizens. Mr. Farrand was for some time judge of the supreme court, and the chief speaker in behalf of the liberal cause on all occasions. Of Horace Loomis, the venerable man of 85 years, who still retains the interest of his younger and more vigorous days in the society; of him, of our respect and our love for him another occasion must speak. Of Luther Loomis, all say he was a genuine and noble man. Strong in body, he was stronger in nature, intellect, and second to none in execution of purpose and energy of life.**

Companion of these was Dr. John Pomeroy, a leading physician and surgeon in this part of the state for over 40 years. He was an ardent lover and promoter of knowledge and of every useful improvement, and was for many years a member of the corporation of the university in this place, and a professor in its medical department. Indeed he was an enthusiast in any good work, and was a unitarian of the most thorough kind and foremost among the friends of the cause

Deacon Jacob Williams, author of the dedicatory hymn, "sedate, thoughtful and profound" (says the MSS. from which I quote), he felt that life was a great service. When the hour of death came it found him ready to depart, and cheerful in the prospect of a higher life. Like "a granite column standing in some shady grove where the flowers fill the soul with delight, be gave solemnity and yet a pleasing dignity to all around him." In manners a gentleman of the old school, in acts a practical philanthropist, his


* Late Hon. Charles Adams.

** Mr. Loomis was born in Sheffield, Mass., in 1798. His father, Phineas Loomis came to Burlington when Luther was 7 years old. He lived 63 years, and was identified with all the public enterprises of his town — as director of the Burlington bank from the act of incorporation to the time of his death; as a prominent member of the Champlain Steam Navigation company, and as one of the 8 original purchasers of the property at Wionooski falls (Colchester), owned by the Burlington Mill company, and had his practical good sense managed the operations of the company, it would have escaped the disasters which finally overwhelmed it. One year, 1816, he represented Burlington in the state legislature, his first and only connection with politics. He died June 22, 1844.

"Ut insignis virlute ac meritis."

† Obituary, published at the time of his death, writer unknown: In this town, on the 19th inst. (Feb. 1844), Dr. John Pomeroy, aged nearly 79 years. Dr. Pomeroy was one of our oldest inhabitants, and one among the early settlers of the town. He was born in Middleboro, Mass., on the 9th April, 1764. His early advantages for an education were limited to the opportunities afforded by the common winter school, and occasional assistance of the




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life was a demonstration of his faith, and his morning prayer was for strength to live devoted to the will of his Maker. He passed away almost at the hour when our house was dedicated.

And then there was Deacon David Russell, a soldier of the revolution, whose venerable form (he died in 1843 at the age of 86), had been long associated in this community with all civil gatherings, social meetings and religious services, and was met in your streets even to the last.* He died at Governor's island. N. Y., while on a visit to his son, Dr. J. P. Russell, army surgeon; but his remains were buried in the graveyard in this place.

About 10 years before him, died Col. Nathan Rice in ripe old age, who came to Burlington in 1811, and from that time to his decease, in 1834, was actively connected with this society, and for 12 years served as one of the deacons of the church. He, too, was a patriot of the revolution, at first as aid to Gen. Lincoln, and finally in active service under Lafayette.**


parish minister. When but a lad of 16 years of age, he enlisted and served three months as a soldier at West Point, in the latter part of the Revolution. He studied Physic with Dr. Bradish, in Cummington, Mass., and in 1787 established himself at Cambridge, in this state; was married in 1789, and in 1792 after a successful practice at Cambridge, perceiving the superior advantages offered by the location of this town, he removed here with his family, and occupied for some months a log cabin then standing partly in what is now called Pearl street. The first brick house erected in this town was built by him in 1796, on Water street, which continued to be his family residence to the time of his decease. For more than 5 years previous to his death he was the subject of a nervous disease, which during that whole period made him the object of the most constant and tender care as a patient. Dr. Pomeroy was the leading physician and surgeon in this part of the state, for over 40 years, and retired from practice some 10 years since, with the reputation of a devoted, enterprising and successful practitioner. His practice was characterized by directness, simplicity and originality, and to save his patient from every pang not unavoidable, was with him an object of deep solicitude. A history of his surgical cases particularly, and his mode of treating wounds, would, we are confident, suggest some important hints for the benefit of mankind. He was an ardent lover and promoter of knowledge, and of every useful improvement; was for many years a member of the corporation of the university in this place, and a professor in its medical department. He had long been an open professor of the christian religion, and entertained a strong and lively sense of the importance of the change of worlds. His sensibilities were more than ordinarily affected by the approach of that event. Never doubting the justice and mercy of God as revealed in his works and word, but believing that our state in another life, depended upon the fidelity with which we discharged our duties here, he often expressed his fears for his own deficiencies and unworthiness. Doubt and fear are, with him, now dissipated, and the great realities which he looked forward to with so much interest and solicitude, are his — and we humbly trust that his sympathies, which always made him alive to every thing which is good here, will in their now fuller exercise, render him happy in the other world.


* The following reminiscences of his useful life are taken from an obituary notice published at the time of his death in the village paper, by whom written, I have been unable to ascertain; Mr. Russell after leaving the army of the Revolution, in which he had been early engaged, came to this state previous to its being admitted into the Union. In 1783, he engaged with and entered into the printing business at Bennington, with Anthony Haswell, Esq., under whose auspices during that year the Vermont Gazette (a paper still published by the descendants of Mr. Haswell) was established, strongly advocating the claims of Vermont previous to her admission into the Union. In 1784 the legislature of this state established five post offices, one at Bennington, one at Rutland, one at Brattleboro, one at Windsor, and one at Newbury. Mr. Haswell, the senior partner in the concern was appointed post master general, Mr. Russell discharging its duties. Upon the admission of Vermont into the Union in 1791, the post offices in this state became a part of the establishment under the control of the general government, and Mr. Russell was appointed post master at Bennington. He continued in that office until he was appointed collector of customs for the district of Vermont, when in 1797 he removed to Burlington, and entered upon the duties of his office, and continued therein until superseded by Dr. Jabez Penniman. Mr. Russell was at an early day appointed agent for the erection of the first college building for the University of Vermont, and a description of this beautiful edifice may be found in the late edition of Thompson's Gazetteer of Vermont, many of the old inhabitants of Burlington can bear testimony to the untiring zeal and fidelity in its erection by Mr. Russell, amid many difficulties and pecuniary losses to himself. He afterwards for a long period officiated as a faithful civil magistrate, and for a number of years he was clerk of the supreme court for Chittenden county. Mr. Russell was a decided and sincere friend of religion; he early exerted himself in the establishment of its institutions in this town, and was not only a constant worshiper, but for some years officiated as deacon in the Unitarian church with which he was connected.

** This obituary notice was written by George G. Ingersoll, D. D., his pastor, and then minister of the Unitarian church, and published in the village paper:

DIED — In this town, on Thursday morning last, at the residence of his son-in-law, Judge Foote, Col. Nathan Rice, in the 81st year of his age. Col. Rice was a native of Sturbridge, Mass., and a patriot of the Revolution. He was graduated at Harvard college, and soon after commenced the study of the law in the also of John Adams, afterwards president of the United States. But in consequence of the excited state of the country, then in the beginning of the revolution, he gave up his profession and entered the army, in which he continued throughout the war. At its termination he returned to private life, with the rank of major, and resided at Hingham, Mass., where for many years he represented the town in the state legislature, and took an active interest in all the useful business of the town. He lived there beloved and respected. In 1798, with the same ardent feeling, he again entered the service of his country, and as senior colonel, had the command of the troops stationed at Oxford, Mass. In 1811 he removed to this town, since which time he has been well known and highly respected as a man, citizen and a friend. Possessed of an ardent temperament, he ever took a lively interest, not only in the prosperity of the circle drawn nearest round him, but in the general welfare of the community. The temperance cause, and other similar moral movements, received his cordial approbation and support. He ever cherished a profound reverence for the institutions of that religion he for so many years professed, and his punctual attendance and earnestness in public worship, and the ordinances of the church with which he was connected, evinced his deep sense of the importance of Gospel truth. His life was a long one, but its good was enjoyed with generous feeling, and its duties performed with upright intention, while towards its close he continued cheerful through many months of debility, his faculties remaining unimpaired to the last. He died with thankfulness for the mercies of his past life, and a humble hope of acceptance with his God. Though taken in a full old age, his children will still feel his death a severe trial, whilst those who have known him as a neighbor and friend will long remember him with affection. and respect the good old man.

"But mourn not for the friend, who having run

The bound of man's appointed years, at last

Life's blessings all enjoyed, life's labors done,

Serenely to his final rest has past."




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I might also make most honorable mention of the names of James L. Sawyer, for many years clerk of this society, of Elnathan Keyes, and E. H. Demming, and Moses Jewett; of three who departed this life since I was called to be your pastor, Ebenezer T. Englesby, Nathan B. Haswell and Judge Alvan Foote; but time will not suffice.

One other name, however, it were certainly wrong to omit, that of Mark Rice. An humble mechanic he was, but good in his craft as humble — in heart and in hand honest and faithful. What he did was always well done, and he was master not of one tool only but of many. The chairs of his manufacture have not yet lost their fame in some of the households of Burlington, and for them, I am assured, Spaulding's Liquid Glue is a useless invention. Substantial was his character as his work; for he loved labor and labored for its benign influence, and despised all show and pretence. He had an utter hatred of all cant, and contemned the pretensions of bigotry. An unlettered man, he acquired, however, a practical cultivation by long intercourse with men of business, and was not often deceived in his judgments of character. As an ardent supporter of liberal christianity he felt a pleasure in giving aid to its support. So strong was this feeling that he desired to extend his aid beyond life, and for that purpose caused a deed of land to be executed to his friend Horace Loomis, in trust for the benefit of the society in their effort to spread a knowledge of the truth of the gospel in its simplicity; from which there accrues to this society the interest of from $2000 to $2500 annually.

Next to the street fence in our burying ground, just at the left hand as you enter the gate, a stone with the following inscription, points out his grave:

Mark Rice. A native of Mass. | Died April 22d, 1829. | Aged 61 yrs. | Founder of the Unitarian Fund of the | First Cong. Society. | They have erected this stone | To his memory

Past a few graves in the same row with his you may read on another slab:

Rev. Saml. Clark | Was born in Brookline Mass. | 8 July 1782 | And died 22d May 1827 | Aged 44 yrs. | This stone is erected | To his memory, by the | First Cong. Society over which | he was ordained | April 19th 1810.

Further in the yard, not many paces from the right hand side of the main path, are chiseled on a white block of marble, with appropriate devices, these words:

Our beloved Pastor Oliver W. B. Peabody | Born 9th July 1799* | Ordained | Over the First Cong. Society | 4th August 1845, | Taken from his people | July 5th, 1848, | Aged 49 years.

Of the character and ministry of the saintly man who succeeded Dr. Ingersoll, this simple and affectionate record on his grave stone is the fitting history.

On the very month that Peabody died, 2 young men† from opposite quarters met at Cambridge, and entered their names together on the list of theological students of the university; who, friends and classmates, were destined to follow one another as his successors. Of them it is not fitting now that I should speak, not of one at all only to say perhaps, that when 50 years hence another preacher commemorates the 100th anniversary to this religious society, should my ministry seem to him worthy of succeeding that of an Ingersoll, or the memory I leave behind, hallowed as that of a Peabody, heaven will have heard my prayer and have helped mine infirmity.

Fifty years! yes fifty years have gone by since this christian church was founded in this place! Only fifty years and of the first members of it, of those who took part in its formation, only five survive, one for each ten years — Horace Loomis, Dr. John Peck, Hon. Charles Adams,‡ Mr. Phineas Lyman and Mr. Luther Moore, the last leaves on the tree; and of the congregation, which assembled in the Court, house on the 19th day of April, 1810, a very great majority of them, this April month, 1860, are of that larger congregation of the dead where the ancient mounds cover most thickly the ground of our village graveyard.

They have gone, your fathers and mothers, but the places, rough to them, they have left smooth to you, and the home and sanctuary they reared and defended for the religion of enlightened reason, and for the liberty of the individual conscience, has come down to you not in decay but in strength; not


* In Exeter, N. H.

† SOLON WANTON BUSH, a graduate of Brown university, a native of Rhode Island, now pastor of the Unitarian church in Medfield, Boston, and previously of the same in Brattleboro, Vt. He was minister of the society in Burlington about 3 years.

JOSHUA YOUNG, the present incumbent, was born in 1823, in Pittston, Kennebec county, Me.; graduated from Bowdoin college in 1845, and from the divinity school of the University at Cambridge, in 1842. In 1848, was settled as successor to Amos Smith, colleague of Francis Parkman, D. D., the pastor of the New North church, Boston. Resigned his charge there in February, 1852, and the following December was installed over the First Congregational society in Burlington, Vt.

‡ Now deceased.




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with marks of age upon it, but looking ever more youthful and with a beauty which no negligence has suffered to decay.

As we look back into the past we have reason to feel an honest pride. Let us do nothing now to put to shame the present.


*   *   *   *   *   *   *   *







Burlington first appears upon the General Minutes of the Methodist Episcopal church, for the year 1823. But we learn from other sources, that it was visited by Methodist preachers at an early day. In 1799, Western Vermont constituted what was called the Vergennes circuit; and was traveled by Rev. Joseph Mitchell, and Rev. Abner Wood. Other circuits were soon formed, and Burlington became first a part of one, and then of another. About the year 1815, a Methodist society, or class, was formed at the house of Mr. Henry Noble, then a preaching place, some 8 miles east of the village. It consisted of 7 persons, of whom Mr. Ebenezer Stewart was appointed leader. The officiating minister on that occasion was Nicholas White, late of the New York conference; he being then on the Charlotte circuit, we infer that Burlington was embraced in said circuit.

About the year 1817, a society or class was formed in the village consisting of 9 persons, of whom Abijah Warner, still living, was appointed leader. The officiating minister on this occasion, was J. McDaniel, from which it may be inferred that Burlington was then an appointment on the St. Albans circuit, he being at that time preacher on said circuit. This inference also agrees with the recollection of Rev. John B. Stratten, late presiding elder of Burlington district; who preached on the St. Albans circuit in 1818, and became presiding elder of what was then called the Champlain district, embracing all Western Vermont and much more, in 1823. Rev. Noah Levings, late secretary of the American Bible society, was appointed to Burlington in 1823, and having served the appointment two years, was succeeded by the following ministers in consecutive order up to the present time: Robert Travis, 1825; Joshua Poor, 1826 and 1827; V. Kempton and H. Chase, 1828; Charles P. Clark, 1829 and 1830; Elijah Crane, 1831; Elijah Crane and Abiather M. Osborn, 1832; M. Bates, 1833; James Caughey, 1834; R. M. Little, 1835 and 1836; John Pegg, 1837; James Caughey, 1838; John Haslam, 1839; S. D. Brown, 1840 and 1841; B. O. Meeker, 1842; T. W. Pearson, 1843 and 1844; Wm. Ford, 1845; H. L. Starks, 1846 and 1847; E. B. Hubbard, 1848; L. Janes, 1849 and 1850; Thomas Dodgson, 1851 and 1852; C. F. Burdick, 1853 and 1854; B. O. Meeker, 1855 and 1856; Wm. A. Miller, 1857 and 1858; L. D. Stebbins, 1859; A. Witherspoon, 1860 and 1861.

In 1855, a second church was formed by a colony from the old church, consisting of 27 members, and 49 probationers. This colony established themselves on Pine street, under the pastoral direction of Rev. L. Marshall, and have with great enterprise and liberality erected a convenient church and parsonage. Mr. Marshall remained with them one year. Since that time they have been served by the following ministers, namely: Wm. P. Brown, 1856 and 1857; D. B. McKenzie, 1858 and 1859; James M. Edgerton, 1860; C. H. Richmond, 1861.

In looking over the above list of names, the uninitiated reader will be surprised at the number of ministers, who have been successively stationed in Burlington. This is explained by a reference to the present rules governing Methodist itinerancy, which require that the minister be appointed but one year at a time, and in no case to exceed two years in succession at the same place. That this arrangement has been useful, there can be little doubt. But the system which in this, and several other matters of usage, and temporal economy, undertakes to maintain uniformity through all the conferences, must sooner or later endanger the unity of the denomination. The great want of Methodism at the present day, in respect to church polity is, less centralization, and more flexibility. Efforts have been made, and are still contemplated, to accommodate the term of ministerial service to circumstances and peculiarities which exist in city and country, on old and new sections, and in respect to the age and adaptation of ministers. These efforts are destined to succeed, or otherwise the existing rules will result in the establishment of independent sections or churches.

The property belonging to the two Methodist Episcopal churches in Burlington, is valued at about $13,000. This property is mostly free from debt. Both churches, and parsonages, are of brick. The old building was commenced in 1831, and finished in its present form, in 1834. It is capable of seating 400. The church and lot are valued


*Pastor of the First M. E. Church.




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at $3,000, and the parsonage and lot at $2,000. The new church, which is somewhat larger and more convenient than the old, is valued at $5,000, and the parsonage at $3,000.

The membership of the two churches is about equal. Both are small, as also the congregations. Each reported at the last conference, a fraction over 100 members, but it would be hardly safe to count more than 100.

The division took place after a great revival, under the labors of Rev. C. F. Burdick, assisted by Rev. H. Purdy, and Rev. J. W. Redfield. The church suddenly became too small for the membership and congregation, and the proposition to divide instead of enlarge, prevailed. But, as is too often the case, reaction followed revival; and there has been little or no advancement, either in membership or congregations since the division, and many now look upon it as unfortunate for the cause of Methodism in the place. Time seems to have proved, that neither the membership nor the population and growth of the village, warranted the movement; and that enlargement would have been the better policy; thus securing a more commanding influence, and avoiding the extra expense of sustaining two churches. It is hoped, however, that both will be enabled to live and ultimately prosper, and thus prove a blessing to themselves and the community. The official boards of the respective churches are as follows:*

First Church. — A. Witherspoon, pastor; James Caughey, H. C. Farrar, local preachers; John K. Gray, A. B. Seavor, Ambrose Atwater, Charles Haynes, Hilas Roby, O. J. Walker, Socrates Beach, A. H. Blair, stewards; John K. Gray, A. B. Seavor, leaders.

Second Church. — C. H. Richmond, pastor; T. F. Stewart, Wm. Dean, local preachers; Amasa Drew, John Y. Drew, Roswell Newton; Henry Bean, J. P. Flanders, Dennis Fish, Samuel Huntington, H. W. Smith, William Mead, stewards; Samuel Huntington, H. Vickery, Wm. Mead, H. W. Smith, John Thayer, leaders.




The enjoyment of the privileges of church relationship, and the dissemination of their conscientious views of the doctrines of the gospel induced a few christians to unite and organize themselves into a branch of the Baptist church of Williston. The organization took place Jan. 5, 1830, with a membership of 6 individuals, 2 of whom were males. They were supplied with preaching one-half of the time for a few months by a member of the church of Williston by the name of Hill.

For more than 3 years after Mr. Hill closed his labors they had only occasional supplies.

In January, 1834, Rev, Mr. Norris became their pastor, under whose labors, in the following autumn, it was resolved to become an independent body. A council was called in accordance to established usage for such a purpose, and on Sept. 26, the same year, the First Baptist church in Burlington was duly organized with a membership of 11, 5 of whom were males. Rev. Mr. Norris closed his labors with them at the end of the year. During the year 1835 the desk was supplied most of the time by Rev. C. Ingraham and Rev. Mr. Bryant.

In June, 1830, Rev. J. H. Walden became their pastor, who, after a few months' labor, resigned his charge for another field. For more than 2 succeeding years they were destitute of a pastor, securing supplies as far as they found it practicable, maintaining their faith, though without an under shepherd set over them. In 1839 Rev. H. D. Hodge became their pastor, but remained with them less than a twelvemonth, when they were supplied a portion of the following year by Rev. Mr. Burbank.

In August. 1840, Rev. Hiram Safford of Keeseville, N. Y., became their pastor. During his labors it was deemed essential to the prosperity of the church that their place of worship should be removed from their location on College hill to the neighborhood of the public square about one mile distant. Into this enterprise the pastor and his feeble church entered with a strong faith and untiring exertion. In 1842 a lot was purchased on the southwest corner of Church and Main streets, and the house commenced. The pastor and the people having "a mind to work" and sacrifice for the much desired object. In the erection of their edifice for worship the church were both blessed and afflicted — while they saw their place of worship advancing, they also beheld their much esteemed and faithful pastor falter beneath the great tax laid upon his physical ability, and ere the structure was complete, the lips that had urged so many to help, and the hand that had toiled so diligently in the work were sealed and stilled by the summons to enter the higher temple. He departed this


* Winter of 1862.




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life July 28, 1844, aged 58 years, deeply lamented, not only by his own family and church but by the whole circle of his acquaintance to whom his urbane manners, tender and devoted spirit and ardent piety had greatly endeared him.

Early in 1845 Rev. H. I. Parker became the pastor, and entered heartily into the work of completing the house of worship and strengthening the church. The house was so near completed as to be publicly dedicated to the worship of God on the 3d day of the ensuing April, and the pastor installed. Rev. Mr. Parker, after a successful pastorate of 8 years, resigned his charge at the call of the Northern Educational union, to become their secretary and financial agent. Early in the year 1853 Rev. L. Tracey, from New Hampton, N. H., commenced his labors with the church, and was installed in March of the same year. Owing to the protracted ill health of his family he felt constrained to remove from the place, and resigned his charge in 1855. In August following Mr. H. H. Burrington, graduate of Rochester Theological seminary, became their pastor, and was ordained to the work of the ministry on December 27th, 1855. His health proving inadequate to the duties devolving upon him, he resigned his charge at the end of the 2d year of his pastoral labors. Rev. N. P. Foster, M. D., commenced his labors with the church in Jan., 1858, and has continued until the present time, with the exception of 6 months the past summer (1861), having leave of absence for the purpose of visiting the Holy Land and other portions of the east. During his absence the church was supplied by students from New Hampton institution — Fairfax and Rev. Mr. Hard, who was stopping for a few months in the place.

The Baptist church in Burlington commenced its labors with feeble means and under very great discouragements. Being unable to support its own ministry it early asked aid of the Vermont Baptist state convention, and from 1839 to 1859 received large appropriations from that missionary body. The membership of the church has been remarkably transient — located emphatically where "two ways meet;" with the reception of more than 300 members it has at no time scarcely numbered 100. Additions by baptism and letter have been frequent during the whole history of the church, while the winter of '47-48, also '57-88, they enjoyed precious revivals, resulting in the hopeful conversion of a large number and great accessions to the church. It has been a church wonderfully blessed in the harmony of its councils and unity of its members; even amid the delusions and fanaticism that have distracted so many churches during the years of their history, from whose influence they were not exempt, with a faith that discovered their help alone in God they have held on and held out amid the difficulties they have had to encounter and the great sacrifices they have had to make.

The church as a benevolent body has but few equals, and scarcely a superior in the state. In their own destitution and want they have not forgotten those in deeper want and know practically while deeply grateful for the benefactions received that "it is more blessed to give than receive."

N. P. FOSTER, Pastor.

E. A. FULLER, Clerk.

March 17th, 1862.







A Protestant Episcopal church was first organized in Burlington, by the name of St. Paul's church, in April, 1831. The services of the church had been celebrated in the town occasionally for several years before. The first corporators were, Hon. Heman Allen, Timothy Follett, Andrew Thompson, Justus Burdick, Phineas Atwater, Luman Foote, Chauncey Goodrich.

On the 1st May, 1831, the Rev. George T. Chapman, D. D., was chosen the minister of the parish, and he entered on his duties on the 2d Sunday in June following. The number of families then connected with the parish, was about 20, containing 17 communicants. So rapid was its growth, that at the annual convention in Middlebury, in May, 1832, the rector reported 80 families, 103 Sunday scholars, 48 baptisms (34 children, 14 adults), 80 communicants and 14 confirmations. The church building was begun in the fall of the year 1831. Dr. Chapman retained the rectorship until the fall of 1832, when he resigned to make way for the Rt. Rev. John H. Hopkins, D. D., who had been elected bishop of the diocese, and was by arrangement to have the rectorship of the parish. The first official act of the bishop after his removal to Burlington, was the consecration of the new church, on the 25th November, 1832, when he also confirmed 29 persons. The church, which is of blue limestone, in the gothic style, with buttresses between the windows and at the angles, was 86 by 48 feet, with a tower 75 feet high, projecting in front. The whole




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cost of the ground and building, including the organ and bell was $8,000. In the year 1857, the church was repaired and enlarged at an expense of $7,000, by the addition of a recessed chancel, side galleries, and stained glass windows, after a plan drawn and executed by the bishop, and it is now a most beautiful model of a parish church. The bishop held the rectorship until Easter, 1856, and performed the duties of rector until August, 1858, on the 23d day of which month the Rev. David Hillhouse Buel assumed the rectorship. The parish at present consists of 122 families, and has 202 communicants.

Intimately connected with the history of St. Paul's is that of the Vermont Episcopal institute, which though a diocesan, and not a parochial institution is the result of the labors of the bishop while rector of that church, and owes its location in Burlington to that cause. The history of the institute dates back to the beginning of his episcopate. In his address to the convention of 1833, he stated that he had enlarged his private residence for the purpose of accommodating a few scholars to be educated with his own sons, under his personal supervision. Many still remember the beautiful and imposing structure which first met the eyes of those entering Burlington from the south; only the centre wings of which still occupy the site. The misfortunes which befell that enterprise were the prelude to better things, and the Vermont Episcopal institute of that day disappeared only to reappear in the more substantial and durable form of the present incorporation, which was chartered Nov. 14, 1854, for theological and academical education. John H. Hopkins, Charles B. Marvin, Thomas H. Canfield, Edward I. Phelps and Albert A. Catlin were named in the charter as the first trustees, with power to increase their number to 21. As soon as the bishop, who had assumed the labor of collecting the necessary funds, had secured a sufficient amount, the property on Rock point consisting of 100 acres, which had long been his residence, was purchased and conveyed to the corporation, to be held as the residence and for the better support of the bishop of the diocese for the time being and for the establishment and maintenance of a theological seminary and church schools, the whole system and teaching of which shall be in accordance with the doctrines, discipline and worship of the Protestant Episcopal church in the United States of America. The erection of the

building was soon begun under the supervision of the bishop, and after a plan drawn by himself. The building having been completed, was consecrated to its purposes on the 6th June, 1860, the bishop of Quebec and several Canadian clergymen assisting in the services. The board of trustees took immediate measures to put the institute into operation, by choosing the Rev. John A. Hicks. D. D., rector of Trinity church. Rutland, resident professor of divinity, and the Rev. Theodore A. Hopkins, A. M., principal of the academic department. The schools were opened on the 1st September following.

The building erected for the seminaries of the Vermont Episcopal institute, is a large and substantial edifice of stone, being a species of marble, quarried on the property, within a convenient distance, of a light and agreeable color, and admirably adapted to the purpose. The walls are 3 feet at the foundation, falling off 6 inches at each story, as they rise; but in the tower not less than 2 feet thick to the top, which is 60 feet above the ground. The angles are further strengthened by buttresses, ending in pinnacles.

The style is the collegiate gothic, of the same general character which prevails in the English universities of Oxford and Cambridge. The tower projects 22 feet, and the chancel window of the chapel, which is in the second story, is a fine example of ecclesiastical architecture. The doors and windows throughout are deeply recessed, and the effect of the whole exterior is universally considered grand and impressive.

The interior is divided into two distinct departments. The eastern end, devoted to ministerial education, contains the house of the Willoughby professor of theology, with the library, comprising 1600 volumes, a large proportion of which are the best remains of christian antiquity — the fathers, the councils, and after these, the reformers, and standard authors in polemic divinity.

The western end contains the academical department, the large schoolroom, 42 feet long, 21 feet wide, and 12 feet high, the smaller recitation rooms, the parlor and reception rooms, the dormitories, and the chapel. The basement, throughout the whole building, is 10 feet in height, arranged for the culinary work of the establishment, containing 3 first class furnaces, one in the center and one at either end, with flues and registers opening into all the rooms, in each of which there is a ventilator.

The chapel is highly ornamental, 62 feet




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long, and 21 feet wide, with deeply recessed chancel and open roof, filled with gothic spandrils and elaborate tracery, provided with an excellent cast steel bell and a superior organ, and seated to accommodate, with entire comfort, 150 worshipers. The express design in this had been to form the taste of the theological students, especially, by placing before them a good model of ecclesiastical style in church architecture. The windows are all of stained glass, and the effect of the whole is uncommonly solemn and imposing.

The entire length of the building is 125 feet. The breadth, at the eastern end, 57; at the western end, 66; and in the centre, 44. The number of rooms is 44, besides the chapel and the belfry. And it will accommodate 15 theological students, together with the resident professor, in the eastern end, and 30 boys, with the principal of the academical department, in the western end, the chapel being used in common by both departments, which otherwise have no connection with each other, save that the whole is under the supervision of the same bishop and board of trustees.

As originally contemplated by the president, it is determined to put in operation two departments, entirely separate and distinct from each other. The one a theological department or divinity school, designed exclusively for the training and education of candidates for the ministry, under the especial care of the theological professor, who will reside in the eastern wing of the building, it having been arranged with reference to the accommodation of himself and family. The revenue arising from the legacy of Dr. Willoughby will be devoted entirely to the support of this department. Ample rooms are provided for the use of the students, and every other accommodation necessary for carrying on a full course of theological instruction.

The other, an academical department, for boys — in no way connected with the theological, and dependent entirely upon its own resources for support — under the charge of a principal and his assistants, who will occupy the central and western part of the building. The pupils will have rooms in the same part, eat at the table with the principal, and be entirely under his control and supervision as much as though they were his own sons. In the construction of the buildings, particular attention has been given to provide everything for the accommodation of a large family of this kind. A chapel for religious services, a large general school room, recitation and music rooms, a large reception room, a large dining room, kitchen, laundry, sleeping rooms — all well warmed and ventilated — and every convenience for the personal comfort and board of the pupils, as well as for their instruction and recreation.

It is the intention of the trustees to establish a first class thorough English, classical and mathematical institution, where parents can have their sons educated to such a degree as they may desire, either for practical business, for college, or for the theological department of the institute, without the intervention of the usual collegiate course; and at the same time, the arrangement is such by making them members of the family of the principal, that their physical, moral and christian culture is constantly kept in view, as well as their intellectual. Situated as the seminary is, upon one of the most picturesque points of Lake Champlain, commanding a view of the broad lake for 50 miles, with the beautiful bay and village of Burlington in front, and in the distance the Adirondacks of New York, and the Green mountains of Vermont — away from the objects which are calculated to divert the attention of the pupils from their duties — it affords rare opportunities for theological and academical instruction.







The few Catholic families who lived in Chittenden county up to 1830, had no priest to attend them regularly, until the month of July of that year, when Rev. Jeremiah O'Callaghan, an aged clergyman, a native of county Cork in Ireland, was sent by Bishop Fenwick of Boston to this part of his extensive diocese. Col. Hyde, towards the end of this same year, deeded to the bishop of Boston for the use of the Catholics of Burlington, the lot of ground which is now used by them as a burying place. On this lot, in 1832, Rev. J. O'Callaghan undertook to build a church edifice, which stood a little northeast of the present gateway to the cemetery. This building must have been paid for chiefly by means of collections taken by him for that purpose in the parts.

It was consumed by fire in 1838. It was attended by both the Canadians and the Irish, who formed the bulk of the Catholic congregation. Rev. J. O'Callaghan was assisted at different periods by other clergymen, viz.:




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Rev. Messrs. Petithomme, O'Byrne and Anse. After the burning of the church, service was held in the basement of the Court house until 1841, when St. Mary's church (which has since been enlarged) was erected; also by the care of Rev. Jeremiah O'Callaghan. At this time, the French Canadians, under the direction of Rev. Mr. Anse, put up another building on the hill near the place where the other church stood, and the two congregations had separate services. It was in 1850 that the Canadians resolved to erect the present edifice known as St. Joseph's church, which they did under the direction of Rev. Joseph Quevillon.

Rev. J. O'Callaghan continued to attend to his congregation in St. Mary's, and had often alone to minister to the spiritual wants of the Canadians (in the absence of a resident French priest), until November, 1853. At this time, Vermont, which was until then comprised in the limits of the diocese of Boston, was erected into a diocese of which Burlington was made the see, and the Right Rev. L. de Goesbriand consecrated its first bishop. Since 1853, St. Mary's congregation has been under the care of the bishop, assisted at different times by Rev. Thomas Riordan, Very Rev. James Conlan, Very Rev. Thomas Lynch, Revds. James Quin, Joseph Duglue and Jerome Cloarec. There is a free school for boys attached to the church, attended by an average of 70 pupils. Catechism is taught every Sunday at 3 o'clock, in the church, and is attended by 200 children.

Sisters of Providence (an order established by the bishop of Montreal for visiting the poor and sick), 7 in number, have charge of the Orphan asylum, which averages 50 young children of the two sexes. It is sustained by contributions collected chiefly by the sisters themselves, in the different Catholic congregations of the state. The building they occupy, is the one before well known as the Pearl Street house. Since the spring of 1854, the sisters have, besides caring for the orphans, teaching them and visiting the sick, taught a free school to the Catholic girls of Burlington and vicinity.

From the fall of 1854, when the Rev. J. Quevillon left Burlington, St. Joseph's church was under the charge of priests of the order of the oblate B. M. J., until November, 1856, when they were recalled by their superiors, who thought the field was not large enough for a community of missionary priests. Bishop de Goesbriand took in person the charge of St. Joseph's church, till the autumn of the following year, when the present priest, the Rev. H. Cardinal, was installed. By his exertions, a large brick school-house has been erected near St. Joseph's church, but is not yet completed.

In the summer of 1856, the church of St. Thomas in Underhill Center was built. It is a neat frame building, attended by 120 families of Underhill and neighboring towns. Since its erection, divine service has been kept in it on Sunday, once or twice a month, by one of the priests of St. Mary's cathedral, Burlington.

The church edifice in Richmond Center was completed in 1858, and blessed on the 3d of October same year. Service is held here once every month on Sunday.

The Catholics in this neighborhood number 70 families. The number of Catholic families in Milton and neighborhood is about the same as at Richmond. Their church, which is yet in an unfinished state, was built in 1859, and is now attended once a month, on Sunday, from St. Albans.











The Sentinel, with, it may be, a single exception, is the oldest newspaper in Vermont; it having been commenced in the early part of the year 1801. The Rutland Herald, we have heard, was started some little time before that; but how long, or at what exact date, we are unable to say. The Sentinel was commenced in the month of March in that year, by Mr. John K. Baker; the first number bearing the date of Thursday, March 19, 1801; and the publication of it has continued uninterruptedly from that time to the present. The very early files of the paper are lost; the only complete set of them, so far as is known, having been burned in the disastrous fire which destroyed the State House at Montpelier in the winter of 1857. Some early scattering numbers of it, however, are still in existence; and from the close of the year 1803, a tolerably complete series of it may be made out. One of those early numbers, No. 26, dated September 10th, 1801, lies before us. It being the close of the first six months of the enterprise, the editor, Mr. Baker, takes occasion to issue an address to his patrons over his own name, in which he says: "The very liberal patronage the editor has received, has surpassed his most sanguine expectations. In the short space of six mouths, upwards of 800 sub‑




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scribers have been obtained for this paper, and its circulation is now rapidly increasing." In another part of his address, he says: "It has been repeatedly asked, 'what are the politics of the editor?' The answer is very willingly given, although it had been his intention that they should never have been known from his paper, having determined it should be impartial. As a man, he professes to be a firm and decided Federalist, but as an editor, he is resolved to take no part in politics. He is willing any sentiments should be advanced and advocated in his paper, provided these are clothed in decent language, and partake not of undue asperity." The number which lies before us as we write, is a small sheet of four columns to a page, well printed for those days; and its contents are made up with ability and interest. The first page is occupied with a reprint of Ira Allen's correspondence with the Directory of the Republic of France, while he was detained as a prisoner in St. Pelagic prison, Paris, in 1798. The inside is largely occupied with the details of foreign news, of the affairs of the French army then in Egypt, and of matters on the continent, in which Bonaparte then figured simply as first consul. As a curious instance of the tardy conveyance of news in those days, we may cite a note, prefixed by the editor, in which he says: "We were last evening [September 9th] favored with a New York paper of the 31st ultimo, which is one day later than any we received by the mail." The foreign news, too, was of July's date, and had been 34 days crossing the ocean. The paper contains an original letter, addressed to the Sentinel by Ira Allen, dated August 21, 1801, at Colchester, in which he vindicates his address "to the Citizens of the United States;" and among the usual advertisements and notices appear the names of men, long since departed, who were the sires and grandsires of some among us, now themselves grown gray and venerable with the weight of years.

The first title of the paper was, Vermont Centinel, which was retained till December 6th, 1810, when the name was changed to Northern Centinel, a new volume being commenced December 13th, 1810, with a new title. Two years later, December 10th, 1812, the word "Northern," was dropped, and the new volume commences as The Centinel. A year later still, January 14, 1814, a figured heading appears upon the paper, bearing the title — Northern Sentinel: the old name resumed, but with modernized spelling. This curiously and rudely figured heading is retained through the year; when it is dropped, and the plain title of Northern Sentinel resumed. This appears unchanged after that date until 1830, when the paper appears under the title of Burlington Sentinel, which has been retained ever since.

The founder and first publisher of the Sentinel, as above stated, was Mr. John K. Baker. Mr. Baker relinquished the publication on the 12th of October, 1804, and it was assumed by Mr. Josiah King; but Mr. Baker's services were retained as assistant editor. The new proprietor, in announcing the change, says: "As the public mind seems unhappily divided, it will be the undeviating aim of the proprietor to give a fair, candid and impartial representation of facts and opinions on both sides of the political question." "The cool and dispassionate writer," he adds, "whether federalist or democrat, shall be duly attended to." A curious plan was adopted by him, which would work somewhat curiously now-a-days, we apprehend. "As it is the wish of the proprietor," he says, "to have an opportunity of determining on the propriety of inserting original productions, independent of personal attachments or aversions, he has placed a box on the door of the printing office for the reception of such pieces, by which means the authors' names may be unknown, even to the editor."

Mr. King retained the proprietorship of the paper for only one year, having relinquished it October 11, 1805, when its publication was resumed by its first founder, Mr. J. K. Baker, and printed by him "for the proprietors" (the names of whom are not given), until the beginning of the following April, 1806, when it passed into the hands of Messrs. Daniel Greenleaf & Co. It was considerably enlarged in size by them, and much improved in its general appearance. The name of the publishing firm was, a few weeks later, changed to Greenleaf & Mills; the firm consisting of Daniel Greenleaf and Samuel Mills. The partnership between them, however, was dissolved in October of the same year (1806); and the Sentinel, with its printing establishment, became the sole property of Mr. Mills. It continued under his proprietorship until January 1, 1818, when he retired from the printing business; having sold out his interest in it to his brothers, Ephraim and Thomas Mills. The Messrs. E. & T. Mills remained the publishers of the Sentinel until January 1, 1835, when they sold it to Mr. Nahum Stone. Mr. Stone was a printer, having learned the art




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at, Keene, N. H., and subsequently worked at the business in Schenectady, N. Y.; from whence he came to Burlington. He afterwards became a clerk in one of the departments at Washington, where he died, After publishing the Sentinel for about two years, he sold his interest in it to Sylvanus Parsons, Esq., who retained it for only about a year. Mr. Parsons was not himself a practical printer, but was a lawyer by profession; and was for many years employed in the office of the Hon. Asahel Peck. He afterwards went to Kansas, where he died. The next proprietor of the paper was Mr. Azro Bishop, who purchased it from Mr. Parsons. Mr. Bishop was a printer, and had learned the art in the Sentinel office, where he had served his time as apprentice. He was merely the publisher of the paper; the editorial charge of it being in the hands of Dana Winslow, Esq. Bishop sustained the proprietorship of the paper for some two years, and then sold out his interest in it to Mr. Winslow. Some time after he set up an opposition democratic paper in Burlington; but it did not thrive well, and soon died out. Mr. Bishop himself subsequently removed to California. Mr. Winslow was a practical printer, as well as editor; and after the paper had passed into his hands he continued to publish it for some three years. It was then sold by him to George Howard Paul, Esq., who held the proprietorship of it for several years. Not being fortunate, however, in his pecuniary affairs, Mr. Paul failed, and his property, including the Sentinel establishment, passed into the hands of an assignee, by whom the paper was sold to John G. Saxe, Esq. This was in the year 1851. Mr. Saxe continued to publish it until 1855, when he in turn sold out to Mr. Douglas A. Danforth, who continued the sole proprietor of it for several years. During the latter part of 1859, he sold a half of his interest in the paper, and the large job printing establishment connected with it, to E. Marvin Smalley, Esq.; and it was published by them, under the firm of Danforth & Smalley, during the year 1860, and until March, 1861, Mr. Smalley then sold out his interest in it to the present owner, Wm. Henry Hoyt, Esq., who also, a few weeks later, purchased from Mr. Danforth his interest in it, and thus became its sole proprietor. Since Oct. 1, 1861, it has been published by the printing firm of Messrs. W. H. & C. A. Hoyt & Co.

Such are the somewhat dry details, perhaps, of the successive proprietorships of this old and leading democratic paper; necessary, however, as a part of its history. We have been less exact in giving the precise dates of its later changes, for the reason that the earlier files of the paper are more complete than those of later years. During the long series of years that the Messrs. Mills published the Sentinel, they preserved files of its successive numbers, which are still accessible. But during the subsequent and not unfrequent changes, less care was taken in preserving them, and hence the office files are incomplete.

It should be mentioned that during the greater part of the time that the Sentinel has been published, its place of publication has been in the same locality, the south side of the Court House square in Burlington. For many years its printing office was in the buildings known as Mills row. Those buildings having from great age become dilapidated and untenable, they were torn down during the summer of 1862, by their owner, the Hon. Asahel Peck, and a new and elegant brick block has been erected in their place. A large and commodious printing office and counting room having been fitted up by Judge Peck in the new block, expressly for the Sentinel, its place of publication was removed thereto during the past season, so that now it finds itself again upon the precise locality where it first started, more than 60 years since, and where for nearly the whole period its publication was continued.

During a part of the time that the Sentinel was published by Mr. Paul, and afterwards by Mr. Saxe — some three or four years in all — a daily edition of it was issued. But not being found very remunerative in those quiet times, and being accompanied by largely increased expense and labor, it was discontinued.

The publication day of the Sentinel was, at first, Thursday; and for the first few years it was variously Thursday, Wednesday or Friday, according to the variations of the time of arrival of the then weekly mail from the cities. But it was finally fixed upon Friday, and has continued thus for more than 50 years.

At the first, as may be perceived from the address of its founder, Mr. Baker, above given, the Sentinel was designed not to be a party political paper; but to give the current news of the day, and to furnish a medium through which writers upon either side might present their thoughts and views to the public. Accordingly in its earlier volumes we find essays and letters and discussions, pro




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and con, upon either side of the political questions of the day. But so soon as party politics had assumed more definite shape and party lines had become more distinctly drawn, epecially during the ante-war discussions and the period of the war itself — i.e., of course, the war of 1812 — the Sentinel was an earnest and firm democratic (or, as the party was then termed, in opposition to the federalists, republican) journal, and has unwaveringly continued such down to the present day.

We may add in conclusion, that from its age and its position and the generally superior ability with which it has been conducted, the Sentinel has always been the leading democratic paper of the state, and has at all times exercised a wide and strong influence among the members of its political party. Having also commanded a large and efficient support from them, it has for the most part been prosperous in its financial interests. The fact of its long continuance, for now considerably more than half a century, while similar undertakings, almost without number, have sprung up and disappeared again, forcibly bespeaks this fact.







The first number of the Burlington Free Press was issued cm the 15th clay of June, A. D. 1827, Luman Foote, Esq., being the editor and publisher. For some time previous to the establishment of the Free Press, there had been a growing dissatisfaction in the minds of many with the Sentinel, the only newspaper then published in the vicinity. Whether there was, or was not any just ground for such a feeling towards the Sentinel at that period, it is of no consequence to inquire. It is enough to advert to its undoubted existence which soon assumed a practical shape in a determination on the part of those in the town who felt most keenly on the subject, to have a new paper established immediately, one which would be more in harmony with the prevailing political sentiment of the people of Vermont.

In the consultations which were held on the subject, Seneca Austin and Luman Foote, Esqs., then partners in the law business, in Burlington, took a deep interest. The result was that Mr. Austin provided the means to purchase the necessary outfit of a printing office, and Mr. Foote assumed the charge of completing the preparations and the responsibilities of the editorship of the new paper, and its first issue was made as above stated. The law partnership of Messrs. Austin & Foote was forthwith dissolved, and Mr. Foote devoted himself to the work of his new calling.

The establishment of the Burlington Free Press met with great favor in the community, and a good subscription list in proportion to the population of the county was speedily secured for it. The paper was conducted with great ability, and soon became one of the most influential papers of the state, remarkable for its comprehensive views, its independence of tone, the force and directness of its editorial articles and the interest of its correspondence.

The Burlington Free Press was conducted by Mr. Foote alone, till the latter part of Feb. 1828, when Henry B. Stacy, Esq., who had had the practical business of printing the paper under his charge almost from the issue of its first number, became associated with Mr. Foote as editor and proprietor. By them jointly it was edited and published till January, 1833, when Mr. Stacy became sole editor and proprietor, and so remained till July, 1846. At that time DeWitt C. Clarke, Esq., became its owner and editor.

From the commencement of the paper till April, 1848, the Burlington Free Press had appeared only as a weekly sheet. At that time telegraph connections having been formed between Burlington and New York by the way of Troy, Mr. Clarke started a daily paper entitled the Daily Free Press, which, as well as the weekly paper, has continued to be issued from that date to the present time without any interruption.

On the first of April, 1853, the Free Press was purchased by the present editors and proprietors, Messrs. George W. and George G. Benedict. Both the weekly and daily papers have been enlarged more than once since they were commenced. The weekly paper is now twice its original size, and the daily paper has been enlarged in nearly the same proportion.

The political position which the Free Press has occupied during the past 36 years of its existence can be inferred from the following statement. In 1828, it supported for the presidency, John Quincy Adams, in preference to Andrew Jackson; in 1832, Henry Clay, in preference to Andrew Jackson; in 1836 and 1840, Wm. H. Harrison, in preference to Martin Van Buren; in 1844, Henry Clay, in preference to James K. Polk; in 1848, Zachary Taylor, in preference to Lewis Cass; in 1852, Winfield Scott, in preference




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to Franklin Pierce; in 1856, John C. Fremont, in preference to James Buchanan; in 1860, Abraham Lincoln, in preference to Stephen A. Douglas or John C Breckinridge.




Burlington Mercury. — Published by Donnely & Hill, from 1797 to 1799.

Northern Sentinel. — Commenced in March, 1801, by J. K. Baker; with a slight change of name is still published (weekly) by W. H. & C. A. Hoyt & Co.

Burlington Gazette. — Started by Hinckley & Fish, in Sept. 1814; expired in Feb. 1817.

The Repertory. — Published by Jed. Spooner.

The Burlington Free Press. — Begun by Henry B. Stacy, June, 1827; is issued as daily and weekly by the Messrs. Benedicts.

The Iris and Burlington Literary Gazette. — Semi-monthly, large 8°.; published by Worth & Foster, edited (in 1829 certainly) by Z. Thompson; born in 1828, died in 1829; aged 20 months.

The Green Mountain Repository — 12° monthly; published by C. Goodrich; edited by Z. Thompson; lived 1 year (1832).

The Green Mountain Boy. — Richards & Co.; lived from December, 1834, to March, 1835

Burlington Courier. — Originated by E. A. Stansbury; edited afterwards by Guy C. Sampson; then by a Mr. Briggs; begun —— ; closed, —— .

Commercial Register. —— Monthly; Nichols & Warren; begun in 1851(?); was issued for about 2 years.

Burlington Times — Daily and weekly; in the fall of 1860, passed from the hands of D. W. C. Clarke, who started the paper, to those of George H. Bigelow, the present proprietor.





[The following list of Vermont books and publications by natives of Vermont, is not supposed even to approach completeness, and is not presumed to be altogether free from errors, in regard to the works which it enumerates, yet may serve for a skeleton for some one else to fill up. It is hoped that whoever can supply omissions or correct mistakes in it, will take the pains to do so, and send their notes to the editor. If a complete and accurate catalogue could be published as one of the appendices to a volume of the magazine, containing all the pamphlets, maps, &c., ever published in the state, as also the acts and journals of the legislature, the various recensions of the statutes, with other public documents, and not least though last, a list of all the periodicals of the state, with indications where to find some of the oldest and rarest of these; this single list, as a guide to the History of Vermont would be worth what is now asked for the entire work. Notices should be particular as to place and time of publication, number of pages, &c., to make them of greatest practical advantage.

As the larger portion of the following list were published in Burlington or by Chittenden county authors, the list has been assigned to this county, and we are indebted for it chiefly to J. E. Goodrich of Burlington. — Ed.]


ADAMS, C. B. See Geology of Vermont.

AIKEN, Asa. Interest and Discount Tables. 4°. Burlington.

ALLEN, Ethan. Proceedings of New York. Pamphlet, 1774.

 —— Animadversary Address. 24 pp. 8°. Hartford, Conn, 1778.

 —— A Vindication of the Opposition of Vermont to the Government of New York, and of their Right to form into an Independent State. 172 pp. 12°. Windsor, 1779.

 —— Narrative of his Captivity, by himself. —— , 1779. Burlington, 12° and 8°. 1838, 4th edition, 1846.

 —— Reason the Sole Oracle of Man. 477 pp. 8°. Bennington, 1784.

 —— Life of, by Jared Sparks. 16'. Middlebury.

ALLEN, Ira. Natural and Political History of the State of Vermont. 8°. London, 1798.

 —— Particulars of the Capture of the ship Olive Branch. 160 pp. 8°. Burlington, 1802.

 —— Letters to the Governor of Vermont and Address to the Legislature, respecting a conspiracy against the Author, and respecting a Ship Canal from Lake Champlain to the River St. Lawrence, &c., &c. 61 pp. 8°. Philadelphia, 1811(?).

ALLEN, Elizabeth. Silent Harp or Fugitive Poems. 120 pp. 12°. Burlington, 1832, 1836.

ARNOLD, J. L. Poems.

ATLAS, A new Universal. 4°. Brattleboro, 1842.

BAKE PAN, The. For Doughfaces, by One of Them. 64 pp. 8°. Burlington, 1854.

BATES, Wm., D. D. The Four Last Things, edited by President Marsh. 238 pp. 8°. Burlington, 1832.




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BAYLIES, Nicholas. On Free Agency. 216 pp. 12°. Montpelier, 1820.

BEAUMONT, Wm., M. D. Physiology of Digestion. 304 pp. 12°. Burlington, 1847.

BECKLEY, Rev. H. History of Vermont. 396 pp. 12° Brattleboro.

BOTTA, Mrs. Anna C. Poems. The Rhode Island Book, 1853. 8°. 203 pp. New York, 1853. The Hand Book of Literature, 1860.

BIBLE, The Holy. 4°. Brattleboro, 1816, 1824.

BRADLEY, S. R. Vermont's Appeal. 52 pp. 8°. Hartford, Conn., 1779.

BRONSON, A. View of Methodist Episcopacy, 248 pp. 12°. Burlington, 1844.

BROWN, J. N. See Encyclopaedia.

BURCHARD, Jedediah. Sermons, Exhortations and Addresses. 12°. Burlington, 1836.

BURNAP, U. C. The Youth's Etherial Director (astronomical). 72 pp. 8°. Middlebury, 1822.

BURTON, Asa. Metaphysical Essays. 414 pp. 8°. Portland, 1824.

CAMPBELL, Edward R. The Hero of Scutari and other Poems. 438 pp. 12°. New York, 1857.

CAREY, Matthew. Olive Branch, or Faults on both sides, Federal and Democratic. 12°. Middlebury, 1816.

CHALMERS, Thomas, D. D. Astronomical Discourses. 12°. Montpelier, 1819.

CHAPIN, Walter. The Missionary Gazetteer. 420 pp. Woodstock, 1825.

CHAPMAN, Geo. T., D. D. Sermons on the Ministry, Worship and Doctrines of the P. E. Church. 2d edition. 324 pp. 12°. Burlington, 1832.

CHIPMAN, Nathaniel. Sketches of the Principles of Government. 192 pp. 12°. Rutland, 1793.

 —— Principles of Government, a Treatise on Free Institutions (re-written and enlarged). 330 pp. 8°. Burlington, 1833,

COLERIDGE, Samuel Taylor. Aids to Reflection, with preliminary essay and notes, by Dr. James Marsh. 8°. Burlington, 1829. 2d edition (without notes). 358 pp. Burlington, 1840.

 —— The Friend. 8°. Burlington, 1831.

 —— The Statesman's Manual. 12°. Burlington, 1832.

COLTON, Walter. A Prize Essay on Dueling; Ship and Shore; Visit to Constantinople; Deck and Port; Three years in California; Land and Sea; The Sea and the Sailor; Notes on France and Italy; Italy and the Literary Remains; A Memoir of Walter Colton, by Rev. Henry F. Cheever.

COOK, Thomas. Universal Letter Writer. 12°. Montpelier, 1816.

CUTTS, Mary. Poems. 247 pp. Boston, 1852.

DEAN, James. Gazetteer of Vermont. 8°. Montpelier, 1808.

DE GRANDPRE, L. Voyage in the Indian Ocean and to Bengal in 1790, &c. 18°. Brattleborough, 1814.

DEMING, Leonard. Remarkable Events. 324 pp. 12°. Middlebury, 1825.

 —— Catalogue of the Principal Officers of Vermont, from 1778 to 1851, with some biographical notices and appendix (Gazetteer). 216 pp. 8°. Middlebury, 1851.

DENMAN, T. Midwifery. 8°. Brattleboro, 1807.

EASTMAN, F. S. History of Vermont. 110 pp. 18°. Brattleboro, 1828.

EASTMAN, Chas. G. Poems. 18°. Montpelier.

ENCYLOPΖDIA of Religious Instruction. Edited by Rev. J. Newton Brown. 1275 pp. 8°. Brattleborough, 1836.

FESSENDEN, Thomas Green. Science of Sanctity. 8°. Brattleboro, 1804.

 —— The Ladies' Monitor, a poem. 180 pp. 12°. Bellows Falls, 1818.

 —— Poems. 2 vols. Political Satire. 12°

FRANKLIN, Benj. Life of, written by himself. 12°. Montpelier, 1809.

GALLUP, Joseph A. Sketches of Epidemic Diseases in Vermont. 8°. Boston, 1815.

 —— Institutes of Medicine. 2 vols. 886 pp. 8°. Boston, 1839.

GASKELL, Silas. Botanist and Family Physician. 203 pp. 12°. Danville, 1824.

GEOLOGY of Vermont. First Annual Report, by C. B. Adams. 96 pp. 8°. Burlington, 1845. Second report, 272 pp. 8°. Burlington, 1846. Third and fourth reports in 1847, 1848.

GEOLOGY of Vermont. By Edward Hitchcock, LL.D., E. Hitchcock, Jr., A. D. Hager and C. H. Hitchcock. 2 vols. 982 pp. 4°. Claremont, N. H., 1861.

GOODRICH, C. A. History of the Church to the present time. 504 pp. 8°. Brattleboro, 1839.

GOODRICH, Chauncey. Northern Fruit Culturist, or Farmer's Guide to the Orchard and Fruit Garden. 108 pp. 12°. Burlington, 1849. 2d ed., enlarged, 1850.




                                                     BURLINGTON.                                          557


GOODRICH, S. G. Book of Quadrupeds. 324 pp. 18°. Brattleboro.

GRAHAM, Dr. John A. Letters upon Vermont. (Descriptive sketch of the present state of Vermont.) 187 pp. 8°. London, 1797.

GREEN MOUNTAIN Temperance Songster, 48 pp. 16°. Burlington.

GREENLEAF's Improved Grammar. Brattleboro.

GRIDLEY, John. History of Montpelier (a thanksgiving discourse with appendixes). 48 pp. 8°. Montpelier, 1843.

GRISWOLD, R. W. Associate editor of the New Yorker, Brother Jonathan, New World, &c. Projector of the International Magazine.

The principal works of Mr. Griswold are: Poets and Poetry of America. Edited in 1842. 8vo.

Prose Writers of America in 1846.

The Female Poets of America in 1849.

Washington and the Generals of the American Revolution, and Napoleon and the Marshals of the Empire in 1847.

Poets and Poetry of England in the Nineteenth Century.

The Sacred Poets of England and America.

Curiosities of American Literature. The Biographical Annual.

The Present Condition of Philosophy.

HAGER, A. D. See Geology of Vermont.

HALL, Benj. H. History of Eastern Vermont from Its Earliest Settlement, to the Close of the Eighteenth Century. 800 pp. 8°. New York, 1858. (We give this work a place here, because of its subject, and the grateful pride with which its author boasts his descent from Vermont ancestry.)

HARMAN, Daniel W. A Journal of Voyages and Travels in the Interiour of N. America, with map. 432 pp. 8°. Andover, Mass., 1820.

HAZELTINE, Silas Wood. The Traveler's Dream and other Poems. 152 pp. 16°. Boston, 1860.

HAZEN, Jasper. The Primary Instructor and Spelling Book. 160 pp. 16°. Woodstock:, 1822.

HEGEWISCH, D. H. Introduction to Historical Chronology. Translated by James Marsh. 12". Burlington, 1837.

HEMENWAY, Abby M. Poets and Poetry of Vermont. (A compilation.) 404 pp. 12°. Rutland, 1858. Poets and Poetry of Vermont. Revised edition. 514 pp. 12°. Boston, 1859. Songs of the War. (A compilation.) 96 pp. 12°. Albany, 1863.

HERDER. J. G. The Spirit of Hebrew Poetry, translated by James Marsh, D. D. 2 vols. 294, 320 pp. 12°. Burlington, 1833.

HITCHCOCK, Pres. E. Hitchcock and C. H. Hitchcock. See Geology of Vermont.

HODGE, Rev. C. W. Sermons. 296 pp. 12°. Burlington, 1850.

HOPKINS, Josiah. The Christian Instructor. 312 pp. 12°. Middlebury, 1825.

* HOPKINS, Rt. Rev. J. H., D. D., LL. D. Christianity Vindicated. 178 pp. 12°. Burlington, 1833.

 —— Primitive Creed. 415 pp. 12°, Burlington, 1834.

 —— Primitive Church. 392 pp. 12°. Burlington, 1835.

 —— Gothic Architecture, with 13 plates. 46 pp. 4°. Burlington, 1836.

 —— Church of Rome. 406 pp 12°, Burlington, 1837.

 —— Vermont Drawing Book of Landscapes, 38 Drawings on Stone, in 6 Nos. 4°. Burlington.

 —— Sundry Pamphlets.

HOSKINS, Nathan. History of Vermont from its Discovery to the year, 1830. 316 pp. 12°. Vergennes, 1831.

HOWE, Rev. John. The Blessedness of the Righteous, and the Vanity of Man as Mortal. Edited by James Marsh. 331 pp. 8°. Burlington, 1832.

HUBBARD, Wm. Indian Wars in New England from 1607 to 1677. 12°. Brattleboro', 1814.

HUDSON, Charles. Letters. 327 pp. 12°. Woodstock, 1827.

INFANTRY Exercise of the United States Army. Abridged. 12°. Montpelier, 1820.

JILLSON, C. Inklings of Song. Poem. 159 pp. 16°. Worcester, Mass., 1851.

JOHNSON, Mrs. Narrative of the Captivity of. 12°. Windsor, 1814.

LAMB, Jonathan. Spelling Book. 180 pp. 12°. Burlington, 1829.

JOSSELYN, Robert. Poems. Boston, 1849.

LARD, Rebecca. Miscellaneous Poems. 18'. Woodstock, 1820.

LETTERS of a Blacksmith. 21°. Burlington.

LEONARD, Seth. Spelling Book. 228 pp. 12°. Rutland, 1816.

LEVINGS, Noah Christian Instructer In‑


* Since the article was in type we understand that only the works published by Bishop Hopkins, D. P. Thompson, and perhaps others, in the state, were included by Mr. Goodrich. — Ed.




558                              VERMONT HISTORICAL MAGAZINE.


strutted. 237 pp. 12°. Middlebury, 1827.

LINCOLN, R. W. Lives of the Presidents of the United States, with Biographical Notices of the Signers of the Declaration of Independence. 8°. Brattleboro', 1839.

LINSLEY, Joel N., D. D. Lectures to the Middle Aged. 180 pp. 16°. Hartford, 1828.

LOCKE, John. Essay on the Human Understanding, with selections from his other writings and a Life of the Author. 3 vols. 12°. Brattleboro', 1806.

LOVELAND, Samuel C. Greek Lexicon of the New Testament. 24°. Woodstock, 1828.

MARSH, George P. Grammar of the Old Northern or Icelandic Language. 188 pp. 12°. Burlington, 1838.

MARSH, Mrs. George P. Wolfe of the Wold, and other Poems. 12°. New Yorker, 186_.

MARSH, Rev. James, D. D. Remains of, containing his Metaphysical and Theological writings, with Life by Prof. Joseph Torrey. 642 pp. 8°. (Boston, 1843.) 2d ed., Burlington, 1845.

MARSH, Prof. Leonard, M. D. The Apocatastasis, or Progress Backwards (a refutation of Spiritism). 202 pp. 8°. Burlington, 1854.

MASON, John. Select Remains. Brattleboro', 1810.

METHODIST Preachers, Experiences of several, written by themselves. 12°. Barnard, 1812.

MORTON. Memoir of Rev. Levi Parsons, First Missionary to Jerusalem. 408 pp. 12°. (2d ed.) Burlington, 1830.

NARAMORE, G. H. April Leaves, Letters and Poems. —— pp. Albany, 1857.

NEW England Economical Housekeeper and Family Receipt Book. 12°. Montpelier.

NUTTING, Rufus. English Grammar. 136 pp. 12°. Montpelier, 1826.

O'CALLAGHAN, Rev. Jeremiah. On Banks, Usury, &c. 300 pp. 12°. Burlington, 1834.

 —— On Protestancy, Matrimony, &c. 328 pp. 12°. Burlington, 1837.

OSBORNE, Benj. Truth Displayed. 726 pp. 8°. Rutland, 1816.

PALMER, Thos. The Teacher's Manual. 12° Boston.

 —— The Moral Instructer. A Series. 4 books.

 —— Palmer's Arithmetic. 12°. 348 pp. Boston, 1855.

PARSONS, Rev. Levi, Life of. See Morton.

PEARSON, T. S. Graduates of Middlebury College. 8°. Windsor, 1853.

PETER the Great, History of Life and Reign of. 12°. Montpelier, 1811.

ROYCE, Rev. Andrew. Universalism. 207 pp. 18°. Windsor, 1839.

RULES and Articles of War, &c. 8°. Burlington, 1813.

RURAL Magazine, or Vermont Repository, edited by Dr. Samuel Williams. 8°. monthly. 1795, 648 pp.; 1796, 624 pp. Rutland.

RUSSELL, John. History of Vermont State Prison, from 1807 to 1812. 18°. Windsor, 1812.

SAXE, John G. Poems. 2 vols. Boston.

SKETCHES of the War between the U. S. and Great Britain to the Peace in 1815 8°. Rutland, 1815.

SPENCER, Dr. S., D. D. See Rupert No. of this work.

 —— Pastor's Sketches and 3 vols. of Sermons, with Biography.

SPENCER, H. L. Poems. 18°. Rutland.

STEVENS, Beriah. System of Arithmetic. 423 pp. 8°. Saratoga, N. Y., 1822.

STEWART, Dugald. Elements of the Philosophy of the Human Mind. 3 vols. 8°. Brattleboro', 1808.

SWIFT, Saml. History of Middlebury and Addison County. 444 pp. 8°. Middlebury, 1859.

THOMPSON, Danl. P. May Martin. Montpelier, 1835.

 —— The Green Mountain Boys. 2 vols. 12°. 536 pp. Montpelier, 1839.

 —— Locke Amsden. 12°. Burlington.

 —— Shaker Lovers, &c. 8°. Burlington.

 —— History of Montpelier. 8°. Montpelier, 1861.

THOMPSON, Prof. Zadoc. Gazetteer of Vermont. 312 pp. 12°. Montpelier, 1824.

 —— The Youth's Assistant (Arithmetic). 160 pp. 8°. Woodstock, 1825.

 —— Youth's Assistant. 266 pp. 12°. Woodstock, 1828.

 —— History of Vermont to 1822. 282 pp. 18°. Burlington, 1833.

 —— The Iris and Burlington Literary Gazette. Edited monthly. Large 8°. Burlington, 1828, 1829. (We do not know whether Prof. T. edited the first vol. or not.)

 —— The Green Mountain Repository. Edited monthly. 12°. 284 pp. Burlington, 1832.

 —— Geography and History of Lower Canada. 16°. Stanstead, C. E., 1835.




                                                     BURLINGTON.                                          559


THOMPSON, Prof. Zadoc. Geography and Geology of Vermont. 220 pp. 12°. Burlington, 1848.

 —— History of Vermont, Natural, Civil and Statistical, with 200 Engravings. 656 pp. 8°. Burlington, 1842.

 —— Appendix to above. 64 pp. 8°. Burlington, 1853.

 —— Journal of a Trip to London, &c. 144 pp. 12°. Burlington, 1852.

 —— Child's Geography of Vermont. 24°.

 —— Mental Arithmetic. 12°.

 —— Map of Vermont.

 —— Guide to Lake George, Lake Champlain, Montreal, &c., with map.

THOMSON, James. The Seasons, with Life of the Author by Samuel Johnson. 24°. Middlebury, 1815.

TYLER, Royall. The Algerine Captive. 2 v. 12°. 428 pp. Walpole, N. H., 1797.

 —— The Contrast — the first Comedy acted in America in 1795.

 —— An Author's Evenings — a Comedy repeatedly performed in Boston.

UNIVERSITY of Vermont, Semicentennial Anniversary. 1854.

WALKER, Hon. Jesse. Orations, Poems, &c. 150 pp. 8°. Burlington, 1854.

 —— Poems, with biography. 12°. 196 pp. Buffalo, 1854.

WARNER, Seth. Life of, by D. Chipman. 16°. Middlebury.

WEBB. Freemason's Monitor. 12°. Montpelier, 1815.

WATROUS, Sophia. The Gift. Poems. 172 pp. 24°. Montpelier, 1840.

WEEKS, Refine. Poems. 12°. 308 pp. 1820; 8°. (In 5 books, one large volume.)

WEDGWOOD, Wm. B. Revised Statutes of the State of Vermont, abridged.

WHEELER, Rev. O. G. The Jewsharp. Poems. 12°. 312 pp. Windsor, 1860.

WILCOX, Carlos. Acts of Benevolence and Religion of Taste — Sermon and Biography.

WILLIAMS, Saml. Natural and Civil History of Vermont. 416 pp. 8°. Walpole, N. H., 1794.

 —— The Same to 2 vols. 8°. 1003 pp. Burlington, 1809.

 —— See Rural Magazine.

WRIGHT, N. H. Fall of Palmyra, and other Poems. 143 pp. 24°. Middlebury, 1817.


Law Books.


AIKEN, Asa. Practical Forms. 448 pp. 12°. Windsor, 1836.

BAYLIES, N. Digested Index to the Modern Reports of the Courts of Common Law of England and the United States. 3 vols. 1512 pp. 8°. Montpelier, 1814.

BINGHAM, P. The Law of Infancy and Coverture with Notes and References, by E. H. Bennett. 396 pp. 8°.. Burlington, 1848.

CALDWELL, James S. The Law of Arbitration, edited by Chauncey Smith. 540 pp. 8°. Burlington, 1853.

CHALMERS, Geo. Opinions of Eminent Lawyers on various points of English Jurisprudence, chiefly concerning the Colonies, Fisheries and Commerce of Great Britain. 815 pp. 8°. Burlington, 1858.

CHIPMAN, N., LL. D. On Government. See foregoing list.

CHIPMAN, Daniel. Essay on the Law of Contracts for the Payment of Specific Articles. 224 pp. 8°. Middlebury, 1822. The same, with Supplement by D. B. Eaton. 326 pp. 8°. Burlington, 1852.

CRABB, Geo. History of English Law. 595 pp. 8°. Burlington, 1831.

ELLIS, C. Law of Life and Fire Insurance, with notes and additions by Wm. G. Shaw. 326 pp. 8°. Burlington, 1854.

FELL, W. W. The Law of Mercantile Guaranties and of Principal and Surety in General, with notes, &c., by J. W. Allen. 464 pp. 8°. Burlington, 1859.

FESSENDEN, T. G. American Clerk's Companion. Brattleboro, 1815.

GOULD, James, LL. D. Treatise on the Principles of Pleading. 536 pp. 8°. Burlington, 1849.

REEVE, Tapping. Law of Baron and Femme, Parent and Child, Master and Servant, &c., edited by Lucius E. Chittenden. 500 pp. 8°. Burlington, 1846.

 —— The Same, with Appendix by J. W. Allen. 588 pp. Burlington, 1857.

ROBERTS, Wm. On Voluntary and Fraudulent Conveyances. Burlington, 1845.

SHELFORD, Leonard. The Law of Railways, with notes, &c., by Milo L. Bennett, LL. D., and E. H. Bennett. 2 vols. 1298 pp. 8°. Burlington, 1855.

SLADE, Wm. Jr. Vermont State Papers, from 1749 — 1791. (Laws from 1779 — 1786.) 568 pp. 8°. Middlebury, 1823.

TYLER, Royall. Book of Forms. 16°. Brattleboro'.

WASHBURN, Peter T. Supplement to Aiken's Forms. 110 pp. 16°. Claremont, N. H.


Reports of the Decisions of the Supreme Court.


AIKENS, Asa. Reports (1826, 1827), 2 vols. Windsor, 1827.




560                              VERMONT HISTORICAL MAGAZINE.


BRAYTON, Wm. Reports (1815 — 1819), 240 pp. Middlebury, 1821.

CHIPMAN, D. Reports (1789 — 1825), vol. I, and part I of vol. II. Middlebury, 1824.

CHIPMAN, Nathaniel. Reports (1789-91) and Dissertations. 296 pp. 16°. Rutland. 1793.

TYLER, Royall. Reports (1801 — 1803), in 2 2 vols. New York, 1809, 1810.

VERMONT Reports. Vols. I — IX, reported by the Judges; X and XI (in parts), by G. P. Shaw; XI (last part), XIV, by Wm. W. Weston; XV, by Wm. Slade, Jr.; XVI — XVIII, by P. T. Washburn; XXIV by John F. Deane; XXVII — XXIX, by Charles L. Williams; XXX — XXXIII, by William G Shaw, the present reporter. The first four vols. were published in St. Albans (1829 — 33); the next four in Middlebury (1834 -7); vols. IX — XV, in Burlington (1837 — 44); XVI — XXIII, in Woodstock (1845 — 52); XXIV — XXVI, in Brattleboro' (1853 — 5); and the remaining volumes in Rutland (1856-62).

WASHBURN'S Digest of the State Reports was published at Woodstock , vol. I, in 1846, vol. II, in 1852.


A condensed edition of the Supreme Court Reports of the State, that should contain (in 10 vols.) every case reported from 1789 to 1856, was projected by Mr. Chauncey Goodrich, and the approval of the legislature obtained (in 1856). Judge Redfield was appointed by the state to edit the series, and had already bestowed considerable labor on the earlier portion of the work, the first volume being ready for the press, when, in consequence of the death of the publisher, and the repeal by the legislature (in 1858) of the act authorizing the publication, the enterprize was abandoned. By reason of the small editions published of the earlier volumes, it is now exceedingly difficult and almost impossible to procure complete sets of the reports. The little volume of N. Chipman is so rare as to be esteemed a curiosity, and it is a piece of sheer good fortune, if at any price one can procure either Brayton's or Aiken's Reports, or the first nine volumes, the sixth excepted, of the numbered series.





[Measures were taken for establishing a public library in Burlington early as 1802 — for notice of the Ingersol library, see Ecclesiastical Department, and Historic Sermon, by Rev. Mr. Young, the late pastor of the Unitarian church and society in Burlington.

There are also several private libraries in the county, especially worthy of notice. That of Hon. Geo. P. Marsh merits first mention, as in some respects probably the most valuable private library in the United States. There is no library to our knowledge elsewhere in Vermont to compare with it. In many things it far excels the State library and those of the colleges, and is eminently worthy of extended notice. Moreover, Prof. J. Torrey, Hon. David Reed and several other residents of Burlington have handsome and choice libraries. For notice of the historical nuggets and antiquarian stores of Henry Stevens, see No. 3, p. 282 of this work. — Ed.]