oral during the war, which gave him the rank of Colonel. He was descended from the disュtinguished family of Hay in Scotland, and was highly educated and distinguished for his own talent. While Commissary for the army and resident in New York he presented a petition, the object of which was to procure the sanction of purchases for the army in this state "to the pretended Legislature of Vermont." The stern old fathers of Vermont felt the insult and were in a dilemma how to rebuke the same and yet secure the trade, till Matthew Lyon suggested that they accept his petition with the recommend that he should address his next petition to the great grand assembly of Vermont.


From the Vermont Record.

Robert Hanniford, of Underhill, now (January, 1867) at the ripe age of 99, hale and hearty, in the full possession of his intellect, east his vote for Washington, and for every occupant of the presidential chair except Pierce and Buchanan.










The lands now in the area of Essex county were, previous to 1764, supposed to be in the New Hampshire grants, and some of the land was granted by the Governor of New Hampュshire to different parties. It was, however. included in New York in the year above named, and March 7th, 1770, the government of that state erected the county of Gloucester, which included the land in the N. E. part of the state, Essex within its limits. In 1777, the General Convention of Vermont declared themselves independent, and in 1779 divided the state into two counties, and each county into two shires. Essex was then within the limits of Cumberland county, in the shire of Newbury. In 1781 this county was divided into Windham, Windsor and Orange, Essex being within the limits of Orange, with Newbury still for its shire. The county of Caledonia was incorporated Nov. 8th, 1796, and included all the N. E. part of the state within its limits. Essex county was, however, soon incorporated, and the county officers were appointed in the October session of the legislature in 1800. Essex county is about 45 miles from N. to S. and 23 from E. to W. It lies between Lat. 44ー 20' and 45ー, and Lon. 4ー 51' and 5ー 28' E. from Washington. It is bounded N. by Canュada East and S. by the Connecticut river, bordering its bank for more than 65 miles, S. W. by Caledonia county, and W. by Orleans county. The land is generally fertile, though in many parts stony. Along the valley of the Connecticut it is beautifully picturesque, and no more romantic scenery can be found. Guildhall was chosen as its shire, and has thus far been unchanged, but there is a strong wish among many at present to change it to Island Pond. This county was never much settled by Indians, but was used as a hunting ground, and through it was the main road for the St. Francis tribe of Canada and those living in the valley of the Connecticut. It was a while disputed territory between them, and we have every reason to suppose that there were many ambuscades and trials of skill between the Indians of Coos and St. Francis, within its borders. There have been a few stone tomahawks and arrow points found within the limits of the county, but Indian relics are rare. There are several anecdotes concerning the aborigines, but they appear in the town histories. As a considerュable portion of the county is still a wilderュness, we have four unorganized towns輸verill, Ferdinand, Lewis and Norton, and three gores, viz. Avery's, Warner's and Warュren's. Averill was chartered June 23, 1762, is 6 miles square, and bounded N. E. by Caュnaan, S. E. by Lemington, S. W. by Lewis, and N. W. by Avery's gore and Norton. It is well watered and well timbered, but broken and uneven in surface and contains but few inhabitants.

Ferdinand was chartered Oct. 13th, 1761, to contain 23 square miles, but as a portion of Wenlock has been added it now contains much more than that. It is bounded N. by Lewis, E. by Brunswick and Maidstone, S. by Granby and E. Haven, and W. by Newark and Brighton. It contains several ponds and streams, which are well stocked with splendid trout, making this town the best fishing ground in the section.

Lewis was chartered June 29th, 1762, is a mountainous township 6 miles square, bounュded N. E. by Averill, S. E. by Bloomfield, S. W. by Ferdinand and Brighton, and N. W. by Avery's gore. This township is well timbered with pine, but the land is not conュsidered to be of the best quality. Norton is






bounded N. by Canada, E. by Canaan and Averill, S. by Warner's, Warren's and Avュery's gores and W. by Holland. The Grand Trunk R. R. coming up through Warren's gore runs through near the center of the town, but as the land is poor and rocky few have made homes in this locality.

Of the three gores Warren's contains 6380 acres, Warner's 2,000, and Avery's 10,685. They all lie together, being bounded N. by Norton, E. by Averill and Lewis, S. by Brighton and W. by Holland and Morgan. They contain some ponds and small streams, are in some parts well timbered, and the Grand Trunk R. R. running througb near the center of the three, or through the cenュtral gore, renders the timber of some value.

The first settlement of the county was made in Guildhall (then supposed to be Luュnenburgh) by David Page, Timothy Nash and Geo. Wheeler. They had to bring their provisions from Northfield, Mass., in canoes, by river navigation over 160 miles. During the war of the Revolution they were constantly annoyed by the tories and Inュdians who killed their cattle, plundered their houses, and carried some of their number away into captivity. In laying before the reader the incidents of our early history, I think that some extracts from Eben Judd's diary as good an account of the early settlers as can be given. He surveyed this portion of Vermont, as well as northern New Hampュshire, and many incidents in his journal will show his connection with both localities.

We commence Sept. 6th, 1766, from Judd's journal:*


"After dinner we had a Coos meeting John Holdbrook Moderator, Benj. Clark and all the rest that chose, council men. Went to Baldwin's and lodged."

"Sept. 7th. Crossed the river at noon to Joseph Wait's, surveyed on the river the Govュernor's lot in Brunswick."

"Sept. 9th. Finished Governor's lot," &c. "

Sept. 10th. Went to meeting at Mr. Hall's in Maidstone. In the afternoon went to Mr. Rich's, and saw his son sick with consumption."

"Sept. 12th. Began to survey at Lemingュton upper bounds."

"Sept. 13th and 14th. Surveyed at Lemington and on the river against that place."

"Sept. 15th. Surveyed against Minnehead; and camped in the woods."

"Sept. 17th. Went to Nath'l Wait's in forenoon, and drew a tooth for his wife. In the afternoon went to old Mr. Blodgett's and heard David Judd preach."

"Sept. 18th. Made a plan of Lemington."

"Sept. 22. Began to lot Lemington."

"Sept. 30th. Run until we came to the line between Lewis and Magog, there we went on side line to the mile tree southerly, which tree stands on a very high mountain, where we could overlook nearly all of Lewュis and some part of Wenlock and Averill.

"Oct. 2d. Finished the lotting of Lewis and set out homewards. Lodged on a branch of the Nulhegan river."

"Oct. 4th. Went to Mr. Rich's. Spent afternoon with Dr. Gott.

"Oct. 5th. This day had a meeting at Wooster's. Maj. Wilder mad. Joseph Holdュbrook confused the whole meeting and conュducted in a scandalous manner; was for having Whitelaw's survey or location all broken up, and all our allotments, and said he was ashamed of such conduct The meetュing was adjourned until the next day, and the settlers of Maidstone sent for."

"Oct. 6th. Another meeting at Wooster's 幽oldbrook continues to abuse the meeting and comes near breaking up the allotment."

"Oct, 7th. and 8th. Surveyed up the valュley of the Connecticut."

"Oct. 9th. Surveyed on side of the river in Maidstone. Just at sunset met a company of men on a piece of land that Mr. Shoff lived on. They held our chain-men, and said if we went on they would break, our heads. We returned to Thomas Wooster's. (We went on with our work until the 13th.")

"Oct. 13th. About 2 o'clock P. M. was met by a company of settlers in a Briton's manner. They stopped and hindered us a long time."

"Oct. 14th. Began to lot where we left off on Wait's Bow. We went strong handed. Joseph Holdbrook carried the fore end of the chain, and was clinched upon by Mr. Grapes. Grapes was advised to let go, and finally did, and we went on with our lotting."


* For the extracts from Judd's Journal we are inュdebted to the Editor, who copied them from the original journal now in possession of Henry Stevens, the veteran antiquarian of the State.






"Oct. 21st. Run a line about 4 miles on a high mountain, which is 77 rods perpendicュular height."

"Oct. 22d. Run about 4 miles on the east line of Stratford, over a large pond. Good land all around it, and a fine path made by moose."

"Oct. 27th. Lodged at John Holdbrook's in Stratford, and eat old hasty pudding that the old man had made a week before."

(He leaves his boarding place on account of high charges, being 10 shillings per week for himself and horse keeping besides.)

"Nov. 8th. Surveyed on the river in Maidstone," (was stopped and held fast by the settlers of said town near Merrill's) "finally they desisted." He then says "We compromised, and they agreed to delay the matter till after the Surveyor's meeting, by our promising to use our influence to have each settler have 20 acres of meadow and 80 acres of upland. Great indignation was expressed against the doings and usage of Holdbrook."

"Nov. 2d. Thanksgiving day. We livュed exceeding well at Esq. Eames." . . .

"Nov. 27th. Went to Maj. Wilder's after paper, and then to every house where I thought I could get some. Found some at last. Lodged at Dr. Gott's in Guildhall, who told me as many stories as I could pen down in a month. Told me of a number of reュceipts that would be to infinite advantage to any man. Told me he had made 19 almaュnacs, and got six of them printed. For the first he got 」30 and more for the rest. When I asked him any question about asュtronomy, he could not answer." (Judd was an almanac maker.)

"Nov. 29th. Went to Capt. Burley's after paper and got six sheets Just before night there was a small earthquake and the ground was felt to shake."

"Nov. 30th. Thanksgiving day in Verュmont. Went to Mr. Hall's at night. Fine supper羊oasted turkey, chicken pie, and the first apples and apple pie I have tasted since I came to Coos. Had a fiddler and Coos dance. Went from there to Mr. Lucas' about 10 o'clock at night, where we found a company drinking sizzled rum, or hot toddy. Had a high caper, as it is called. About midnight returned to Esq. Eames, and made out to get to bed without help. The weather moderated about this time, as might have been expected."

"Dec. 3d. A disease very prevalent among young women, and some boys have it 様arge bunch on their throats or bronchial. About two-thirds or more of girls and young women have these bronchial bunches which are frequently as large as a hen's egg. Do not generally prove fatal."

"Dec. 11th. Was voted in Stratford at their adjourned meeting to dismiss Joseph Holdbrook Esq. from all public business respecting the town as he has been in very hardservice for sixteen years," &c., &c.

"Dec. 13th. The happy wished-for day has arrived and no Holdbrook. Proceeded on business as fast as possible. Brought on Lemington first, then Averill, then Minne- head, then Lewis, then Brunswick, then Wenlock, then Ferdinand, then waited for the settlers of Maidstone, and opened meetュing at 1 o'clock, P. M. A number of setュtlers together and a large lot of proprietors, all proceeded to business with calmness and resolution and there was not even a high word spoken. There were matters to settle of the utmost consequence to private persons. Finished about 2 o'clock at night and made a settlement with all the settlers. Happy would it be for me if I could make as much peace every day as I know I have done toュday. I am sure nothing would have been done about a settlement had I not urged the matter just as I did."


(Mr. Judd now visits the Governor of Vt. and describes his visit as follows.)


"June 4th, 1787. Crossed the river to Williston to see his excellency Governor Chittenden of Vermont. I found him in a small house in the woods."猷uestions and answers:


QUES. In what manner must the surveyor be paid for running the outlines of the towns?

ANS. Those towns which were settled and located before the war the State of Vermont will pay for running the outlines.


QUES. (After showing him the advertiseュment and votes of our meeting). Will this meeting answer our purpose to act upon or not?

ANS. You had better warn a new meetュing and take regular steps of the law, and






then you need not fear about having any thing overhauled.

QUES. Will it be likely that we shall get a new grant of land to make up the defiュciency in those towns that fall short accordュing to charter?

ANS. This state would not wish to make up the damage done by New Hampshire, but if you have paid more money for towns than you ought, the legislature will undoubtedly give you that back in lands. That will ever be my advice. You can draw a petition for that purpose and bring to the assembly, and I will overlook it and see it is well stated, &c. You can as well do it yourself as to employ any one else to do it. It will be best to set forth how much your land falls short from the charter, and then cast up and see how much you have paid over what you ought to have paid, and I will help you all I can. You can, if you like, petition for Lunenburgh, to make up the deficiency, and then pay what the overplus tax money will not pay. (I reviewed the Holdbrook case to him and he said it was very well, for he was a worthless fellow.)

QUES. What shall we do with settlers now on pitches in the towns?

ANS. You must put into the warning for the meeting to have them hold their pitches, and you must not interrupt them, for I will take the part of the poor settlers rather than have them interrupted. You must give them more than granted, if you intend to have them peaceable. (Judd now returns to Coos.)

"Jan. 8, 1787. Went to Southbury, Ct., to a Coos (proprietors') meeting. Jo. Holdbrook had his vote of thanks read off to him, &c. David Hyde behaved very scanュdalously."

"Feb. 1st. Began an almanac for 1788, and took 50 acres of land in Lunenburgh, for a poor debt of 500 dollars of Wm. Langdon, one of the original proprietors of that town."

"March 25th. Went to hear Mr. Eli preach. He spoke from these words: 'To be carnal minded is death; but to be spiritual minded is life and peace.' He said much about the mind of a person, and that his actions were an index of it."

I will add a sermon:


"Man is born into trouble as the sparks fly upward." I shall divide my discourse into and confine it under the following heads: First, man's ingress into the world. Second, his progress through the world. Third, his egress out of the world,


First, man comes into the world naked and bare;

Second, his progress through it is trouble and care;

Third, he goes out of it nobody knows where.


To conclude:


If you do well while here, you will fare well when there;

I can tell you no more, if I preach a whole year."


"April 12, 1787. My birth day, 26 years old." (He now leaves his almanac with a printer, and starts for Vermont again.)

"November 10th Tarry at Guildhall, to attend to my store and mill, sawed 2141 feet of boards for John Rich to-day."

(His diary of 1800 commences in Woodュstock prison, where he was confined for debt. Officer Fitch arrested him by breaking into another man's house, where he struck him with a cane and presented a loaded pistol to his wife's breast. He was liberated, June 24th of this year.)

As the town histories contain most of the items which might be in place in a county chapter, I will mention but one incident in the political strife of 1812, 1813 and 1814.

In relation to the politics of that time, I would say that each party was ready and willing to injure the opposite. Every opュportunity was eagerly embraced and every provocation possible given. So, after the lapse of 50 years it is impossible to arrive at the facts of all cases. The case I will mention was the shooting of Beach by Dennett, an officer of customs. The account at that time published is as follows: In September of 1813, Mr. Samuel Beach, of Canaan, VT., wishing to repair a mill-dam in Canada, obtained a permit from the governor to take over a yoke of oxen to work on the dam. He accordingly sent a man forward with his team. The oxen were taken from him by Lieut. John Dennett. Mr. Beach, when enュdeavoring to obtain his oxen, was shot dead by Dennett. Dennett and his associates were put in Guildhall jail, from which Denュnett escaped the following spring. The next August he was retaken, but not until mortalュly wounded by his pursuers. It appears that Dennett resisted, and was shot, while attempting to kill Mr. Morgan, by a Mr. Sperry, another of the pursuers. This is the substance of the story, as circulated by the






federals; while the opposite party circulated and still say the following was true, and circumstanced seem to favor the truth of the assertion:


In the fall of 1813, one Samuel Beach, of Canaan, owning mills in Canada, obtained a permit to take over a yoke of cattle to repair his dam. This he did several times, and after working them a few days would sell to the English and take in another yoke. This was soon reported to Gen. Cushman, who ordered Lient. Dennett with a squad of men to put a stop to it. In attempting to do so, Beach leveled his gun at Dennett and snapped it, but it missed fire; while he was in the act Dennett discharged his gun at him, which took effect, killing Beach. Dennett and his associates were arrested and placed in Guildhall jail, but as many doubts seem to have arisen about the justice of the arrest, his associates from time to time were allowed to leave for their homes. Dennett walked about the house and yard as he chose, and finalュly went home in the spring and went to makュing buckets in the woods. Some little effort was made to find him, but he was not found. At length it became common talk that he was about home, and three men were comュmissioned to take him and return him to jail. The remainder is from Dennett's own words, after he knew he could live but a few hours: He says that he was on a log chopping, and the first intimation he had of any one being present he was shot, the ball entering and lodging in his back. They then bound him and took him to a village in Canaan, where a lumber wagon was procured, and he was tied in the bottom and the wagon was driven over the rough road to Guildhall; and, further, the wagon having no springs, it hurt him much to ride, and he plead with his captors to drive slow over rough places, which they not only refused to do but would drive off the road, so as to torture him the more. After lodging him in jail, Dr. Lyman, of Lancaster, extracted the ball; doubtless doing it in a very unskillful manュner, perhaps being the worse for liquor at the time. Some thought his (Dennett's) enemies hired him to kill him in the operaュtion, but it is not probable that that was the case. Be it as it may, he lived but a short time.

I have now told the stories of the two opュposing parties, and the reader must form his own opinion of the case. It would not be strange, in these bitter times, if both parties were hasty in the discharge of their duty. That Beach was guilty of taking over cattle to sell, cannot he doubted.




The first Essex county court was holden at Lunenburgh, on the 3d Wednesday of December, 1800. Ambrose Grow was adュmitted to the bar, and seven entries were made for jury trial. The next term was. holden at Brunswick, on the 3d Wednesday of June, 1801; Hon. Daniel Dane, chief judge. Samuel Phelps, of Lunenburgh, and Mills DeForest, of Lemington, assistant judges. Joseph Wait, of Brunswick, sheriff. The first trial in this court was at this term. The action was brought by John and Ann Hugh against James and Mary Lucas, for slander. The jury returned a verdict of guilty, and assessed the damages at $14,41. The cost was $60,70. There has been and conviction for manslaughter葉he case apュpeared as follows: Two brothers, Stephen and Martin Pellom, resided in Guildhall; their father was an East Indianian, their mother a negroes or mulatto. Stephen went and took a harrow that belonged to Martin, and while carrying it on his back he was assaulted by Martin with a club, and finally it seems threw down the harrow and went in for combat. Stephen, it appeared, struck Martin on the temple with a club, fracturing his skull and killing him. He was arrested the same day, viz., April 30, 1851, and was finally convicted of manslaughter.





Towns Males. Females. Total.

Averill, 5 7 12

Bloomfield, 180 140 320

Brighton, 490 455 945

Brunswick, 123 89 212

Canaan, 336 172 408

Concord, 687 604 1291

East Haven, 75 61 136

Ferdinand 29 5 34

Granby, 66 66 132

Guildhall, 281 271 552

Lemington, 99 108 207

Lunenburgh, 534 500 1034

Maidstone, 145 114 259

Norton, 25 7 32

Victory, 113 99 212

Totals, 3088 2698 5786








Councilors and Sena-

tors for Essex Co. Chief Judges. Sheriffs. State's Attorneys. Judges of Probate.

覧覧覧覧覧 覧覧覧 覧覧覧 覧覧覧覧 覧覧覧覧

1801 Daniel Dana Joseph Wait, Elijah Foot, Daniel Dana,

1802 I put down the " " " " " " " "

1803 named of the coun- " " " " Levi Barnard, " "

1804 cil that lived at the " " " " " " " "

1805 time of election in " " " " " " " "

1806 Essex County. " " William Hewes, Seth Quishman, " "

1807 " " " " " " " "

1808 Micajah Ingham, " " " " " "

1809 Haines French, Daniel Dana, " " " " " "

1810 " " Maidst'n. Micajah Ingham, " " " " Joseph Wait,

1811 " " Oliver Ingham, Joseph Berry, Charles Cutler,

1812 David Hopkinson, David Hibbard, jr., " "

1813 Daniel Dana, " " Elijah Foot, Daniel Dana,

1814 " " " " " " " "

1815 David Hopkinson, John Dean, Joseph Berry, Isaac Cushman,

1816 Oliver Ingham, Rich Stevens, " " " "

1817 " " Henry Hall, " " " "

1818 " " Rich Stevens, " " " "

1819 Joseph Berry, " " " " Bailey Denison, " "

1820 " Guildhall, " " John Dean, Seth Cushman, " "

1821 " " Benj. Hunkins, Dyer Hibbard, Joseph Berry, " "

1822 " " Joseph Berry, Elijah Hill, Seth Cushman, " "

1823 " " Wm. Gates, Richard Stevens, Joseph Berry, Wm. Gates,

1824 " " " " Azariah Webb, jr., " " " "


1825 Stephen Royce, Azariah Webb, jr, Seth Cochrane, William Cates,

1826 Samuel Prentice, Rich Stevens, " " Royal Cutler,

1827 Stephen Royce, Azariah Webb, jr, " " William Gates,

1828 Samuel Prentice, " " David Hibbard, jr., Royal Cutler,

1829 Ephraim Paddock, Henry Hall, " " " "

1830 " " Chapin K. Brooks, " " " "

1831 Richardson Graves, Stephen Royce, Henry Hall, " " Wm. Gates,

1832 " " Nicholas Bailis, Azariah Webb, jr., James Steele, " "

1833 " " Stephen Royce, Greenleaf Webb, Wm. Heywood, jr., " "

1934 Jacob Collamer, Chapin K. Brooks, James Steele, " "

1835 Richardson Graves. Isaac R. Redfield, Greenleaf Webb, " " " "


1836 Wm. Gates, Isaac R. Redfield. Greenleaf Webb, Wm. Heywcod, jr., Royal Cutler,

1837 Wm. Heywood, jr., Stephen Royce, " " " " Joseph Gleason,

1838 " " Isaac R. Redfield, " " " " " "

1839 Geo. E. Holmes, " " George E. Holmes, " " " "

1840 Stephen Howe, " " Greenleaf Webb, David Hibbard, jr., Royal Cutler,

1841 Moody Rich, " " George E. Holmes, Wm. Heywood, jr., Azariah Webb, jr.,

1842 Warner Bingham, " " George W. Gates, " " " "

1843 " " Charles K. Williams, " " " " Moody Rich,

1844 George Marshall, Isaac R. Redfield, " " " " " "

1845 " " " " Beach Blodgett, Win. T. Barron, Wm. Heywood, jr

1846 David Hibbard, jr., Daniel Kellogg, Preston May, " " Jonah Brooks,

1847 " " Charles Davis, R. C. Benton, Wm. H. Hartshorn, " "

1848 Oramel Crawford, Hiland Hall, George W. Gates, Wm. Heywood, jr., Isaac Cummings,

1849 " " Luke P. Poland, Greenleaf Webb, " " Jonah Brooks,

1850 John Dewey, " " " " Wm. H. Hartshorn, " "

1851 " " " " James W. Cooper, Wm. Heywood, jr., R. W. Freeman,

1852 Henry S. Walter, " " William Rich, " " " "

1853 " " " " N. W. French, R. C. Benton, O. Crawford,

1954 Wm. H. Hartshorn, " " " " " " William Chandler,

1855 " " " " D. H. Beattie, " " " "

1856 R. C. Benton, A. Peck, " " Wm. H. Hartshorn, " "

1857 " " Luke P, Poland " " Geo. N. Dale, " "

1858 N. W. French, " " Wm. Cheney, " " Jonah Brooks,

1859 Myron S. Chandler, " " " " " " " "

1860 T. G. Beattie, " " H. W. Bedell, Oscar F. Harvey, " "

1861 " " " " " " " " " "

1862 D. A. Beattie, " " " " Henry Heywood, " "

1863 " " " " Charles Chase. " " " "



The following is a list of Attorneys admitted to the bar at Essex County Court:


Ambrose Grow. 1800 David Hibbard, 1822

Benjamin Bissell, 1801 S. W. Cooper, 1822

Seth Cushman, 1804 Francis E. Phelps 1824

Andrew Judson, 1806 J. M. Cushman, 1825

Peter Converse, 1806 James Steel, 1827

Daniel Cobb. 1809 Charles C. Cushman, 1830

Samuel A. Pearson, 1810 George Paine, 1831

John N. Tilliston, 1810 Wm. Heywood, jr., 1831

Elisha Hinds, 1811 A. H. Joy, 1837

James Berry, 1811 Hiram A. Fletcher, 1838

Thomas Denison, 1812 John S. Roby, 1844

Zera Cutler, 1812 John Nichols, 1844

Charles Robinson, 1813 R. C. Benton, 1851

Samuel Ingham, 1818 D. G. Peabody, 1852

Bailey Davidson, 1818 Henry Heywood, 1860

Nelson Chamberlain, 1819 Geo. W. Hartshorn, 1860

J. W. Williams, 1820 覧 Tenney, 1861

Thomas Peverly, 1821



List of Attorneys that have practiced and those that continue to practice at Essex County Court:


Names. Residence. Com'd. Closed.

John Mattocks, Peacham, 1800 1842

Elijah Frost, Guildhall, 1800 1816

Wm. Mattocks, Danville, 1801 1840

D. S. Burtrum, Danville, 1802 1804

Levi Barnard, Lunenburgh & Lancas‑

ter, N. H. 1802 1831

Asa King, " " 1803 1805

A. Sprague, " "" 1803 1805

E. Knight, " "" 1803 1804

Wm. A. Palmer, jr., St. Johnsbury & Dan-

ville, 1803 1807

Seth Cushman, Guildhall, 1804 1844

Wm. A. Griswold, Danville, 1805 1819

Reuben Grant, Concord, 1806 1812

Samuel A. Pearson, Lancaster, N. H. 1810 1838

John N. Tilliston, Northumberland N.H. 1810 1815







A. Wetherbee, Waterford, 1809 1821

Joseph Berry, Guildhall, 1811 1820

Wm. Farrar, Lancaster, N. H. 1811 1819

Ephraim Paddock, St. Johnsbury, 1812 1840

Zara Cutler, Northumberland N. H. 1813 1810

Isaac Fletcher, Lyndon, 1816 1836

David Hibbard, Concord, 1816 1846

Charles Davis, Danville & Waterford, 1818 1840

Bailey Denison, Guildhall and North‑

umberland N. H. 1819 1822

Thomas Peabody, jr., Northumberland N.H. 1822 1829

Saunders W. Cooper, Guildhall and Lancas‑

ter, N. H. 1822 1829

Turner Stevenson, Lancaster, N. H. 1824

J. Sheaf, Lancaster, N. H. 1825 1830

James Bell, Walden, 1825 1841

Ira Young, Colebrook and Lancas‑

ter, N. H. 1825 1845

J. W. Williams, Lancaster, N. H. 1826 1865

J. S. Wells, Guildhall and Lancas‑

ter, N. H. 1828 1848

J. D. Stoddard, Waterford & St. Johns‑

bury, 1829

Jesse Cooper, Canaan 1831 1832

Wm. Heywood, Lunenburgh & Guildhall,

Lancaster, N. H. 1832

Titus Hull, Guildhall & Northum‑

berland, N. H. 1835 1842

H. N. Wead, Guildhall, 1835 1838

John Doan, Jr., Lunenburgh, 1839 1843

Thomas Bartlett, Lyndon, 1840 1861

H. A. Fletcher, Colebrook & Lancaster,

N. H. 1840

Jacob Benton, Lancaster, N. H. 1843

O. H. Hartt, Montpelier, 1843 1845

John Nichols, Guildhall, 1844 1846

John S. Roby, Lancaster, N. H. 1844 1846

W. T. Barrow, Guildhall, 1845 1848

George C. Cahoon, Lyndon, 1846

W. Burns, Lancaster, N. H. 1846

W. H. Hartshorn, Guildhall, 1847

Dymon Flint, Colebrook, N. H. 1848 1856

A. J. Willard, St. Johnsbury, 1849

Benj. F. Whidden, Lancaster, N. H. 1849 1862

O. T. Brown, East St. Johnsbury, 1849

Geo. A. Bingham, Lyndon. 1849 1853

C. W. Burt, Colebrook, N. H. 1849 1854

H. S. Bartlett, Lyndon, 1850 1856

B. W. Slade, St. Johnsbury, 1850 1861

Geo. C. Williams, Lancaster, N. H. 1850

R. C. Benton, Lunenburgh, 1857 1858

覧 Roberts, Lyndon, 1852 1854

D. A. Rogers, Colebrook, N. H. 1855 1858

Ira A. Ramsey, Guildhall & Colebrook,

N. H. 1855

A. Barker, Colebrook, N. H. 1855

Ossian Ray, Stewartstown and Lan‑

caster, N. H. 1855

John W. Edwards, Derby, 1856

George N. Dale, Guildhall and Island

Pond, 1857

O. F. Harvey, West Concord, 1858

Geo. W. Hartshorn, Canaan, 1858

Charles D. Johnston, Stratford, N. H. 1859 1861

Benjamin H. Steel, Derby Line, 1859

Jonathan Ross, St. Johnsbury, 1859

Wm. S. Dodd, Colebrook, N. H. 1860

Henry Heywood, Guildhall, 1861





[In the foregoing lists I have endeavored to come as near positive certainty as possible, yet it is not impossible that some names may be wrong. I would acknowledge the gratuュitous assistance of Henry Heywood, Esq. of Guildhall, in searching the county records, as his aid has been of great benefit to the corュrectness of the items.]


The Grand Trunk Railway, connecting Portland with Montreal, was chartered in 1848, and built in 1853, through Essex counュty. It crosses the Connecticut at the mouth of the Nulhegan from New Hampshire, and runs in a northwesterly direction through Bloomfield, Brunswick and Ferdinand, to Island Pond village which is in Brighton, containing the custom-house for the entry of goods passing to and from Canada. From Brighton it runs E. of N. into Canada, passュing through a corner of Morgan, in Orュleans county, Warren's gore and Norton. When the road was first surveyed it was inュtended to run up the valley of the Connectiュcut to Canaan, but on account of offers from the Canadians to build to Island Pond and establish the custom-house there instead of on the line葉hey then owning only the Canュada end of the road and the expense being greater to them in building to Canaan擁t was finally changed to the present route. The Grand Trunk Co. at length bought the entire road, and being English capitalists now talk of removing the custom-house from Island Pond to the line, yet it probably will not be done at present.




To the lovers of natural scenery the valley of the Connecticut, from the head of the fifteen-mile falls to Canaan, cannot be surュpassed in loveliness. The meandering folds of the river, the abrupt headlands, the towュering summits of the White Mountains, the variety of timber land, all conspire to renュder it a changing scene and one of peculiar interest and beauty. Almost every town in the county boasts of some hill or mountain from the summit of which scenes of peculiar beauty lay spread before you, and such in reality is the case.

The White Mountains are in full view from the river towns, and may be seen perhaps from every town in the county. The best view of the White Mountain range attainaュble is however from Lunenburgh. Seen from that locality they stand out in all their boldュness. Perhaps the best view is from near the village, but it is fine from almost every part of the town. From Mt. Byron in Maidュstone, the bows of the Connecticut river, five of them which are to be seen謡ill spell the word Union, each bow forming a letter sufュficiently distinct for recognition. Looking over into New Hampshire and also into Canュada for 40 or 50 miles, the landscape is exュceedingly beautiful. The White Mountains are in full view, and the profile of the old man of the mountains in Franconia notch is visible, but with this phenomenon葉hat the old man of the mountain appears to be






lying on his back, his rugged profile intent skyward. Many other views might be pointュed out, but to gain a good idea of them it requires a visit in person.









This town is situated on the Connecticut River; and is bounded W. by the unorganized township of Lewis, N. by Lemington and S. by Brunswick. It was chartered by Gov. Wentworth, June, 1762, under the name of Minnehead. By the terms of the charter the township was to be 6 miles square, and divided into 70 shares. The grantees were 63 in number.* 500 acres, which was to be accounted two shares, were reserved for the Governor's right, one share for the propagaュtion of the gospel in foreign parts, one for a glebe for the benefit of the Church of England, one for the first settled minister in the town, and one for the benefit of schools in town. It appears the town was first surveyed in 1796, by Andrew Beers. This survey was unsatisfactory, and in 1798 E. W. Judd was appointed to make a new one. This survey also proving unsatisfactory, Jonas Baker was appointed to re-survey the same in 1802, and the township was run out into lots of 112 acres each. By whom or at what time the town was first settled, we have no definite data. But from the best information obtained it is reasonable to suppose that Thomas Lamkin was the first settler, and came into town in 1796. Who his first assoュciates were does not appear to be definitely known, but in 1802 there had been nearly 30 "pitches" made in town. Among the settlers at this date were Gaius Kibbe, James P. Frazier, J. J. French, Peter Mills, Stone Mills, Eben Wright, Raymond Fuller, Daniel Holbrook and Samuel Healey. Joseph Steュvens also came not far from this time. He and Mr. Healey** are the only ones now remaining; both are 80 years old or upwards. But few of the early settlers remained in town for any great length of time. They commenced under disadvantageous circumュstances, and many became discontented and left, some allowing their lands to be sold for taxes. From 1812 to 1820 the population scarcely increased at all. In 1830 the population numbered 150. What it numbers at the present time (April 1862) is not accurateュly known; but there are from 70 to 75 families. Only that portion in the vicinity of the Connecticut and Nulhegan rivers has as yet become settled, but the town is gradually increasing in population and wealth, and by the stimulus imparted to it by the construcュtion of the Grand Trunk Railroad (which passes through the southerly portion) is becoming a town of considerable importance, so that no town in the county now presents greater inducements to settlers.

At the junction of the Nulhegan and Connecticut rivers the Messrs. Baldwin have a superior establishment for manufacturing lumber of all kinds, furnishing employment to numerous hands, and a good market for all such as are disposed to turn an honest penny by drawing their spare lumber during the winter months. The market for all kinds of produce is also rendered excellent.

The surface of the town is uneven, presentュing almost every variety of scenery. A few meadow or interval farms are found on the banks of the Connecticut and Nulhegan rivers, but in many places the upland bluffs extend to the rivers. The soil is mainly good; in certain sections it is very excellent, while in other sections it appears only valuュable for pasturage and timber. A large porュtion of the township is covered with valuュable timber of various kinds, for which a branch of the Nulhegan river, which passes through the center, furnishes conveyance to the mills. There are other streams of sufficient power for manufacturing purュposes, some of which have been improved. The number of lumber mills in town is now four, being located in the different neighュborhoods in town. There are numerous other little streams formed by springs of the


* GRANTEES OF BLOOMFIELD, ORIGINALLY MINNEHEAD, Rev. Noah Waddams, Rev. Elijah Sill, Rev. Joel Bardwell, Rev. Sylvanus Osborne, Agus Judson, Beach Tomlinson, Elijah Mills, Samuel Jones, Samuel Hurd, David Baldwin, jr., Medad Wright, Ephraim Beers, Nathan Beardsley, Brewster Dayton, Stephen Frost, John Haines, Thomas Wooster, Joseph Holbrook, Israel Jonhson, Samuel Chatfield, jr., Wooster Twitchell, Joseph Davis, Samuel Nichols, Benjamin Bennet, Heth Garlick, Reuben Booth, Mark Langdon, Daniel Bostwick, Daniel Pickett, Samuel Canfield, Joseph Wheaton, Samuel Mallery, Stephen Morehouse, Capt. Nathaniel Bosworth, Daniel Averill, Moses Averill, Elias Kene, David Hawley, Josiah Caswell, Daniel Kene, Stephen Nobles, Israel Nobles, Morgan Nobles, Zepaniah Branch, Benjamin Mallery, Butler Mallery, Capt. Elijah Whitュtlesey, Thomas Beeman, Aaron Phelps, jr., Samuel Prindle, Capt. Nathan Hicok, John Marsh, Portsmouth, Joseph Calhoun, John Calhoun, William Cogswell, Samuel Averill, Hon. Theodore Atkinson, William Temple, Esq., Richard Webird, Esq., Daniel Warner, Esq., Zachariah Nobles, David Calhoun, James Calhoun.

** Both since deceased.

In 1860, population 320.