and cushions, &c., &c. You found the house so like a bird's nest—brown without but feather-lined within; you visited so good below, and slept so good above, you concluded these people in Essex about the happiest people in the world.—Editor.
[More names who were inhabitant's in Maidstone, Vt., in the year 1786: Caleb Amy, John Rich, James Lucas, Enoch Hall, Jeremy Merrell, John Hugh, John French,—Tory, Hains French, Benjamin Byrum, Joseph Wooster, Reuben Hawkins, Abraham Gile.]
Names. Co. Regt. When enlisted.
John J. Rich, I 3 April, 1861.
Horace H. Rich, I 3 April, 1861.
Jos. W. Taylor,* I 3 April, 1861.
Jos. Hinman,* I 3 November, 1861.
Moody B. Rich, I 3 November, 1861.
Wm. J. S. Dewey, I 3 September, 1862.
Charles Ford,* I 3 September, 1862.
Albee Elliott,* I 3 September, 1862.
Geo. England,* I 3 September, 1862.
Fred England,* I 3 September, 1862.
Wm. W. Walker, I 3 September, 1862.
L. C. Luther, January, 1864.
Pat. Gleason, January, 1864.
Wm. W. Walker,* January, 1864.
Jos. H. Watson, I 3 March, 1864.
John J. Rich* I 3 March, 1864.
E. B. Smith,* I 3 March, 1864.
Geo. A. Ford, I 3 March, 1864.
Charles Keeney, September, 1864.
J. M. Lund, September, 1864.
And'w J. Pottle, K 8 September, 1864.
John Shallop, I 3
BY GEO. A. APPLETON.
Victory, a town situated in the southwestern portion of Essex Co., is in lat. 44° 32', lon. 5° 5'; bounded N. W. by Burke and Kirby, N. E. by Granby and East Haven, S. E. by Lunenburg and Concord, and R W. by Concord and Kirby.
It was designed originally to contain 23,040 acres, and a tract of land lying between Victory and Concord—known as Bradley's Vale—by an act of the Legislature of 1856 being divided and a portion annexed to Victory, it now contains about 2500 acres more than its original territory.
It was granted Nov. 8, 1780, and chartered Sept. 6, 1781, to Capt. Ebenezer Fisk and 64 associates, reserving 5 rights of 300 acres, viz. the college right, grammar school right, minister's right, church right and common school right.
The surface is diversified, but though literally surrounded by ranges of mountains it is not comparatively very uneven, a large portion of the town being included in the valley of the Moose river. But as the distance increases from the river, the land becomes more elevated, until it forms a portion of Burke mountain on the west, an elevation of some 3,000 feet; Mount Tug and Miles' mountain on the E. and S. E., and Kirby mountain on the S. W.
There is also an elevation on the north, on the line between Victory and Granby called Round Top There is but one mountain, proper, wholly within the limits of the town—Umpire mountain, an elevation of about 2000 feet.
The Moose river rises in East Haven, and runs in nearly a southerly direction through the town, affording several excellent mill privileges. Here was once the hunting-ground of the Indian, and, in later years the game with which their forests abounded, was pursued and taken by the white man. So numerous were the moose which once roamed over these hills and through this valley, that the river was called "Moose river." There are also several other streams which empty into this river, as Alder brook, Umpire or Bog brook on the west, Granby stream on the east, which are sufficiently large for manufacturing purposes.
The timber along the banks of the Moose river, and its tributaries is mostly evergreen, consisting of pine tamarack, hemlock, spruce, fir, and cedar: together with a small quantity of elm, maple and birch. As the land becomes elevated there is a much larger proportion of the timber hard wood, consisting of birch, beech and sugar maple; and in some sections, especially in the west part of the town, there is a very large proportion of the latter, affording excellent sugar orchards, from which considerable quantities of sugar are manufactured.
The soil is generally fertile, and will compare favorably with adjoining towns. It is well adapted to the growing of potatoes, and most kinds of English grains.
In some parts of the town there is an abundance of granite, while other portions are comparatively free from stone of any kind, and there is but a very small proportion of the town which can properly be considered
* Names with star attached, died in the service.
1046 VERMONT HISTORICAL MAGAZINE.
waste land; or but little, which, if properly cultivated, would not richly repay the labor of the husbandman. It is well watered by a great number of freely-flowing, never-failing springs—as good as can anywhere be found.
Two miles and a half from the southern boundary of the town, at the junction of the Bog brook with the Moose river, is a tract of land known as the Bog. It consists of some 3,000 acres of low marshy land, which is usually flowed once a year, and frequently oftener. Near the mouth of the brook there is what is supposed to be a beaver meadow. Including some small additions which have been made within a few years, there are 50 or 60 acres which have been used, for years, an a mow-field. It is said that it was once so soft that a man by stepping upon it could shake half an acre. It is now, however, so much hardened that carting can be done over the most of it with safety.
"At a meeting of the original proprietors held at Guildhall, Oct. 6, 1798, it was voted to accept the survey of the township of Victory, which had been made that season by Jonas Baker, Esq., under the direction of David Hopkinson, Esq.,—and also to allow the account of David Hopkinson, Esq., for making the survey, and other incidental charges, £150 3s. 11d; his other account, £87. 11s. 11d. for opening the road through said township. Hezekiah May, Esq., was appointed an agent to the General Assembly of the state of Vermont,—at their session which was to meet at Vergennes during that same month,—for the purpose of preparing a petition to that Honorable House, for a tax of three cents per acre on all the lands in the township of Victory (public rights excepted), for the purpose of making a good wagon road through said township towards St. Johnsbury and Danville."
This was the same road which had been partially opened by David Hopkinson, Esq., the summer previous, 1798, about 14 years before there were any inhabitants in town, and is the first road we have any account of. This, however, was so badly located, and so imperfectly made, that it never became a traveled road. Some portions of it can be easily traced at the present day.
About the year 1812 James Elliot commenced on the lot now occupied by Mr. John Shorer, being on the road from Guildhall to Burke, and on the line between Victory and Granby. He remained there some three or four years and left. The first child born in town was Curtis Elliot, named in honor of Gen. Daniel Curtis, of Windsor, Vt., and who was one of the original proprietors.
The first permanent inhabitant of the town was John Shorer, who moved from Sanbornton, N. H., to Granby in 1815, and in 1822 moved to Victory. He was followed that same year by Reuben Sterner, and in the fall of 1825 by Mr. Asa Wells, originally from Connecticut, and by Isaac R. Houston. Thus was commenced the settlement which is now known as North Victory.
The settlement of West Vitcory was commenced in the year 1827, by Timothy Minor,, who moved his family, consisting of a wife and three children, from Lyndon, on the 17th day of January. Previous to this, however, two men, with their families— Clark Ranney and Eben Clark—moved from Westminster, Vt., to what was then called the Vale, but which now belongs to Victory.
In the fall of 1829 Mr. James Towle and Mr. Archibald Starks moved from St. Johnsbury, and in the spring of 1830 they were followed by Mr. Jonathan Hill, who moved from the same place. The first child born in West Victory was Fanny M. Minor, April 17, 1827, and who is now living in Lawrence, Mass.
The first death in West Victory, Enoch W. Sanborn—died August, 1842—a child about one year and half old. The first grown person, Mrs. Jeremiah Ingraham, died May 2, 1848, being more than 20 years after the settlement was commenced. First marriage, Jona. Lawrence and Angeline Towle, Oct. 2, 1852. The first school, consisting of 8 scholars, was taught by Hannah Bean, in the spring of 1832. The first saw-mill was built by Joseph Woods, about the year 1830, on Moose river, on the line between Victory and Bradley's Vale. Soon after other families moved into that part of the town, and formed the neighborhood now known as South Victory.
There are now in operation three saw-mills, together with other machinery connected with them, and two others which are at present out of repair and not doing business,
The town once contained a large amount of pine lumber, there being some 3000 acres, covered more or less thickly. On one lot 3536 pine trees have been counted, estimated,
25 years ago, at 1,500,000 feet. There was also an unlimited amount of spruce, hemlock and cedar; so that the lumber business, in some form, has been quite extensively carried on from the early settlement of the town to the present time.
Previous to 1841 most of the lumber cut was run down the Moose and Passumpsic rivers to the Connecticut, or manufactured at mills along those streams.
About that time Mr. Willard Read built a mill in the southern part of Bradley's Vale (now North Concord), where he commenced manufacturing lumber taken from this town. This mill was subsequently purchased by Mr. Dudley P. Hall, now of East Burke. Another large mill was built upon the opposite side of the river, where he was extensively engaged for 9 years in the manufacture of lumber that was taken from this town, amounting to about 7,000,000 feet; and other mills were soon after built upon the Moose river, which have been more or less extensively engaged in the manufacture of pine lumber. Probably not less than 20,000,000 of pine, spruce and hemlock have been cut within the last 30 years from lands in this town.
Large quantities of cedar have also been taken to adjoining towns for fencing, and along the line of the Passumsic railroad for ties. Mr. Nat S. Damon employed 20 hands one winter getting out cedar, a large portion of which was used for railroad purposes.
Victory has become somewhat celebrated also for its blueberry fields. Fires, which have been set designedly and by accident, have run extensively through those sections, where the timber has been mostly cut off, and blueberry bushes have come in spontaneously and in such abundance that during the autumn months thousands resort to them for the purpose of gathering the fruit with which they are often so heavily loaded. For the last two years, however, there have been no blueberries of any amount in this section; but during the fall of 1859 and 1860 they were so plenty that a pailful could be picked in a very few minutes. From the time they commenced to ripen until they were gone, there was a "regular rush" to the blueberry fields. The road side, barns, and barnyards along the nearest available points were lined and filled with horses and carriages while the fields were inhabited by scores at a time from adjoining towns, and sometimes from a distance of 30 or 40 and even 50 miles, and the most of them would come out with their basket filled.
Previous to 1823 there was no road leading through the town which could be traveled by teams, and but one way of getting out in any direction, and that through Granby to Guildhall. There was a line of marked trees to Lunenburgh, and a foot path over which people sometimes walked; but it seemed very desirable that there should be a road which would admit of travel through the town to adjoining towns; and, consequently, in that year, a road was laid out near the line, between Granby and Victory, leading from Lunenburgh to Burke, and a portion of it worked. With this road the Guildhall road intersected, so that a direct road from Guildhall to Burke through Victory was also formed, and there has since been a road opened connected with this and leading to St. Johnsbury through Concord, a distance of 18 miles.
Victory did not become an organized town until 1841, the meeting for that purpose being called by Ansel Hannum, justice of the peace. Isaac R. Houston was chosen moderator; Loomis Wells, town clerk; Jonathan Hill, Ransom Hall, John Gates, Chauncey Hildreth, selectmen; Loomis Wells, town treasurer; Hubbard Gates, first constable; Abraham Sanborn, James Towle and Ansel Hannum, listers; Timothy Miner, Chauncey Hildreth and Moses C. Kimball, auditors; Levi P. Shores, Joseph Nickerson and Nathan Boles, fence viewers; I. R. Houston, John Shores, town grand jurors; Sonathan Lawrence, Nathan Boles, Elisha Gustin, highway surveyors; Joseph Hall, Chauncey Hildreth, county grand jurors; Levi P. Shores, Moses C. Kimball and Orin Hall, petit jurors.
Population in 1841, 140; in 1850, 168; in 1860, 212. Grand list in 1844, 252.15; in 1850, 379.90; in 1855, 522.77; in 1860, 535.27; in 1862, 521.43. The first representative was Loomis Wells, who represented the town in 1841 and '42; Ransom Hall, in 1843 and '44; Harlan Keyes, in 1845; James Towl, in 1846 and '47; Jonathan Hill, in 1848; James Towl, in 1849 and '50; Wm. Stearns, in 1851 and '52; Cyrus Smith, in 1853; James B. Hill, in 1854 and '55; Charles Hall, in 1856; Willard H. Kneeland, in 1857 and '58; Warren Harrington, in 1859,
1018 VERMONT HISTORICAL MAGAZINE.
and '60; Isaac R. Houston, in 1861, '63, '64 and '65; Geo. A. Appleton in 1866.
First P. 0., established March 24, 1858. Natt S. Damon, P. M. The present P. M., Willard H. Kneeland, appointed July 11, 1859.
There are at present 4 school districts in town, in which schools are sustained two terms during the year. In two of them, new school-houses have been built recently.
There is but one religious society in town, and that Methodist (see history by Rev. J. Evans). There are, however, some Congregational people in North Victory who are connected with the church in Granby, and virtually belong to that town, so far as sabbath schools, and all religious purposes are concerned.—May, 1867.
As this town has been but partially settled, and that comparatively recently, there are but few incidents connected with its early history which would be of general interest. Unlike many other towns, most of the early settlers are now living here. Mr. John Shores now remains upon the farm where he first commenced nearly 40 years ago; Mr. Hill now lives on the farm upon which he first moved, and has just commenced his 90th year—being the oldest man in town. As was the case with many of the early settlers of our own and other states, they were obliged to endure the hardships and privations incident upon a first settlement, which would at the present time be thought almost incredible.
Two children have been lost in the woods since the settlement of the town. One, Geo. Minor, son of Timothy Minor, a boy about four years old, was lost April 14, 1827. He left the house soon after noon without hat, coat, or shoes, and intending to go to the sugar place, but lost his way and wandered about in the woods. Search was immediately made for him, but without success. It was renewed again the next morning as soon as people could see. About one hundred had collected from adjoining towns at sunrise, and by noon three hundred more.
They again commenced the search, assuring the mother that if he was found they would fire one gun; if dead, three; if ALIVE, would blow a bugle. Near four in the afternoon a party of some twenty was about giving up the search in a particular direction, saying that no child, or hardly a wild beast could go any further in consequence of the windfalls, when they heard the little fellow calling to them and saying, "I am coming." The signal-gun was fired and heard by that almost distracted mother. None but those who have been placed in similar circumstances, can imagine her feelings; for as she listened now, was it her darling boy which she was about to clasp once more in her arms, that was found alive, or had he been devoured by the wild beasts which then prowled so thickly through the forests, and had left his mangled corpse, or his tattered garment, or perhaps a hand, or a foot only was left? But soon the shrill notes of the bugle were distinctly heard, and the mother knew that her son which "was lost, is found." He is now in the army of the United States.
The other child, was a little girl about three years old, belonging to Mr, Moses Emerson. She was lost about noon in the summer of 1858, who after being out all night was found the next day a considerable distance in the woods, sleeping quietly where she had settled down from fatigue.
DEA. ASA WELLS.
BY LOOMIS WELLS, OF GRANBY.
Asa Wells was born in Bolton, Tolland county, Ct., May 29, 1770. Being of a slender constitution, and a little deaf from childhood, he remained upon the home farm, while his father and older brothers served in the Revolutionary war.
Sept. 13, 1795, he married Martha Loomis by whom he had 8 children; four of them only survived him.
In 1807 he removed to Tolland, Mass., and in 1817 to Lunenburgh, Vt. The spring of 1825 he removed to Granby, and in the fall to Victory, upon the farm now occupied by his oldest daughter, Martha.
The roads were very poor and but little traveled, and a part of the boards for his log buildings had to be drawn from Burke, and the grain to be carried to Burke, Lunenburgh or Guildhall, and in the summer season generally on horseback. For several years all kinds of grain were carried out of town to be ground—wheat always.
To aggravate the hardships and privations of a new settlement, he was here in the decline of life, with impaired health, by the
rascality of a nephew, who sold him for his farm in Massachusetts what purported to be 600 acres of good land, as he said, in the thriving town of Victory, Vt., only one hundred of which, as described, could be found in the town; besides, the covenant of the deed was defective, which led to a protracted and expensive law suit in Connecticut, in which he was beaten on technicalities, leaving him poor to struggle on through the last years of his life, on rather poor land. Yet he earnestly endeavored to promote the prosperity of the town, by encouraging settlers, improving roads, and particularly by endeavoring to improve the moral and religious condition of the settlement. My father was not a politician, and always stood aloof from office of every grade. I do not recollect ever seeing him read a political paper, but his Bible and a few choice religious books were the chosen and constant companions of his leisure moments.
Religion was his favorite theme; hence, as a private Christian, and in the society of friends, family and home, his distinguishing traits were exhibited. In early life he was of a serious and reflective turn, being, from feeble health, much in the company of a pious mother. When about 21 or 22 years of age, the sudden death of his next older and favorite brother, followed in three days by the death of his mother, and soon an attack of the same disease (dysentery), that nearly proved fatal,—while these nearly overwhelmed him with grief, he also became particularly anxious for his own salvation, avoiding, for several months, every thing like amusement and the society of his associates.
Soon after their marriage my parents, according to the then prevalent custom of the Congregational church in New England, united with the Congregational church of Bolton, by what was then termed "the half-way covenant;" that was, as I have been told, by assenting to the "articles of faith," promising to live as near as they were able to the rules of the Bible, going to "communion," and promising to have their children baptized. This, however, they soon felt to be the form without the substance, and, after a protracted mental struggle, accepted salvation on whole covenant terms, and both soon after made a public profession of their faith in Christ, and a family altar was set up through life.
Although frequently beset with temptations, doubts and fears, aggravated by nervous debility, which produced at times great activity and animation, but was often followed by dejection, yet hope would revive after melancholy, and he would press onward in the Christian race.
He commenced when quite young the practice of reading the Bible through by course once a year, and continued it as long as he lived; and, after his health failed so as to be unable to work regularly, he often read it through two or three times in a year. Hence he was a good Bible student, and able from Scripture to warn or reprove, encourage or console. He sung intuitively either part in church music, and from 8 years of age to his last sickness he sung in the choir, if needed; indeed, at any time, or on any occasion when it was appropriate, he was ready and willing to sing of "redeeming grace and dying love."
Although particularly industrious, he not only attended meeting on the Sabbath when able, but was present at the lecture and prayer meeting, and was ready to converse in private when opportunity presented.
Kind and affectionate in his family, and ardently desirous of doing all for them in his power, yet he looked upon them as "lent treasures," and when the Master called them home could say, "Thy will be done."
A cancerous humor had developed itself about him for more than 30 years; at last it became seated on his under lip, and no medical skill could remove it. For nearly four years he was being worn out by it, suffering intense pain, unrelieved by refreshing sleep; but while his earthly house was being dissolved day by day, his evidence of a blessed immortality beyond the grave grew brighter and stronger, and be had a word "in season" for all who called to see him. The morning he died he asked to be raised in bed and have his large Bible held before him, when he had it opened at St. John, 14th chapter, and appeared to read to himself. Conscious to the last, he took an affectionate leave of all present, then closed his eyes in death, Sept. 6, 1837, aged a little more than 67 years. Mother survived hint nearly 22 years, much afflicted, having become a cripple. She died May 10, 1857, in the "full assurance of faith." Truly, "the memory of the just is blessed."
1050 VERMONT HISTORICAL MAGAZINE.
METHODISM IN VICTORY.
BY REV. J. EVANS.
The west part of this town, with a few families at the river, some two miles distant, have been connected with East, St. Johnsbury, and also with Victory, for quarterly meeting purposes, since 1840, until the friends of religion and morals here came to the conclusion that they were able and ought to have a minister live with them, so as to be able to have regular and stated means of grace within their own borders. In view of this, I was engaged to preach to the people in Victory one Sabbath each month for the conference year of 1860.— Before the year closed, there was almost an unanimous call for me to accept the lands in the town of Victory chartered for the settlement of a minister, and ministers of the gospel in said township forever. I put them off for a while, on account of feelings of unworthiness and imbecilities; but, at the close of the year, I told them to do as they thought best (my home at the time was in Newbury, Vt.) I soon received a letter from one of the official members of the church, stating that the town had voted to settle me as their minister. According to the agreement entered into, I moved into the town of Victory, with my family, in the month of May, 1861.
I find some worthy members here, and some that are not so worthy. We however did not organize a church at once, but met with our good brethren in Kirby; at Kirby for our quarterly meetings, as heretofore, until the spring of 1862. In a quarterly meeting held in Kirby, in good faith and feeling—on motion, voted to separate Victory from Kirby, so that Victory might become a charge by itself. Andes T. Bullard, the presiding elder, was in the chair; John Goram, secretrry.
In the month of August, 1862, Br. Andes T. Bullard met with us at the dwelling-house of Mr. Willard A. Kneeland, the usual place of holding meetings at the river, and preached a good sermon from Ephesians v. 1; after the close of the sermon we met for a quarterly conference, agreeable to appointment. This was our first quarterly conference held in Victory. Our presiding elder (A. T. Bullard) was in the chair. Br. A. J. Shaw was duly elected secretary of the quarterly conference, and afterwards was elected recording steward. The official members of this quarterly conference consists of five stewards and four class-leaders and one local preacher, The church of Victory is divided into four classes: Class No. 1, 16, one in the army (on trial); No. 2, 10, one died in the army; No. 3, 13, four on trial; No. 4, 15, two on trial—making 46 in full connection, and 8 on trial. We have no meeting-house in this town, and hold our meetings in school-houses mostly. There are some four persons also in this part of the town that are Freewill Baptists and belong to Lyndon Center, some 10 miles from here. Also there are a few Congregational brethren at the north-east part of the town, who hold their church election with the Congregational church in Granby. Of those friends that belong to the Granby church I do not know just how many there are; I cannot, however, call to mind but six. Some of these, I feel assured, are worthy members of any church, and think they evidence genuine zeal for God.
There has been but a few meetings held in this town for the past few years but by the Methodists. The Freewill Baptists have had two evening lectures the year past. We cannot speak of great prosperity at this time. We have a regular class meeting once a week, and two prayer meetings, and they are generally well attended. But some of our brethren have gone to the war, and some of our brethren's sons have gone, and some have fallen there in hospital, and a general feeling of sadness is manifest in all our borders. And what is worse for the cause of God, this war excitement does not, as it should, drive us nearer to God and his throne. Yet a general feeling of submission to the will of Him who doeth all things well is apparent, and we hope this principle will ultimately prevail till the nations shall learn war no more or the principles of treason shall cease to exist, and sin, the fruitful source of all kinds of rebellion, shall be slain by its true conqueror, Christ the Lord.
What Victory has done to put down the Rebellion.
Of the many thousands who have gone to our nation's rescue, Victory has furnished from her sparse population twenty-two men, fourteen of whom went for their own town, the remainder for other towns. These be‑
NATURAL HISTORY. 1051
longed to the different regiments of Vermont volunteers, as follows:
3d Reg't, Co. B. — Moody Evans. Co. D.— Albert H. Thomas, Lester Smith—died Jan. 17, 1863,—Henry W. Sterns—died Jan. 21, 1863,—Augustus B. Jones—died May 25, '64, of wounds,—Chas. A. Story, Robert Suitor.— Co. I.—Benj. W. Isham—died Dec. 15, 1862,— William Brooks. A. J. Shaw.
4th Reg't, Co. G.—Alonzo H. Bell—died Jan. 1, 1862.—Horace B. Houston, Wesley I. Houston—died May 17, 1862,
8th Reg't, Co. K.—Charles H. Farnham —died Sept. 4, 1862,—Melvin Wilson. H. M. Lund.
9th Reg't, Co. F.—Hollis M. Emerson, Moses Emerson, Fredom D. Prescott.
11th Reg't, Co. A.—Ira Lee, Orisan L. Farnham.
Vt. Artillery.—Abial Cheney.
Besides these one man procured a substitute, a non-resident, and two others paid commutation. Of this number, six have died from sickness, and one from wounds received in battle, and have thus been called to lay all, even life itself, upon the altar of our country, and thus become a portion of that costly oblation which she has so willingly offered.— They died, not on the field of battle made gory by the blood of thousands of thousands of their fallen comrades—not amid the roar of thundering cannon as their awful death-tones hushed, as it were, for a moment, the shrieks and groans of the dying, only to add new horror to the scene—not amid the acclamations of contending armies, as they rush to victory and glory, but they are none the less honored. They have done what they could to perpetuate those liberties and blessings, for which our fathers bled and died. They have done what they could to defend our homes, our friends, our sacred altars, and our government—the best upon which the sun ever shone—from tyranny and blood-stained oppression; from a power whose poisonous fangs were seeking to sever the very life-strings of its existence; and their graves are in southern climes—their precise locations doubtless soon to be lost by time's onward march; yet their memories will long be fondly cherished at home.—May, 1867.
NATURAL HISTORY OF ESSEX CO.
BY H. A. CUTTING.
Essex county lies east of Caledonia and Orleans, bordering for upwards of 65 miles upon the meandering folds of the Connecticut river. Its area is about 620 square miles, and a large share of the county is covered with a dense growth of forest trees—mostly spruce, yet pine and hemlock, together with the sugar maple,, birch and beech, give an ever-varying appearance to the forests, and furnish lumber in abundance and variety. The larger portion of the inhabitants live near the streams, and the majority live in or near the Connecticut river valley. In Concord and Lunenburgh, however, the towns are generally settled, yet the part lying back from the river and off from the large brooks is little but a wilderness. For so small a section of country there is greater difference in climate than is general in this latitude. The direction of the wind and the lay of the land, doubtless are the main rouses; yet difference in soil, and the amount of water in the vicinity, of course makes sonic difference in vegetation. The proximity of the highest portion of the White Mountain range, on which snow lies for at least nine months out of the year, gives a coolness to the atmosphere which must have its effect upon the climate. The valley of the Connecticut is frequently some two or three weeks earlier than some of the interior portions, yet as a general thing the frosts on the streams prevent the growth of anything that cannot be raised in among the hills of the interior townships. I have however seen the maple buds on the Connecticut bursting into loaves, when the snow in the dense forests of spruce and hemlock, in Granby, East Haven and Ferdinand, would lie in sufficient depth to make quite a freshet of the streams, and the buds of the maple in those localities could hardly be said to have swollen.
Of the geology of Essex little can be said. In our recent state survey very little was done in this county, and we find a sort of general description to suffice in that recently published work. In the southern portion of the county the prevailing rock is talcose slate, with granite bowlders. The elate is, however, very irregular in stratification, being intersected with dikes, much broken in surface and putting on many varieties of appearance. In the southern portion of Concord there is dike of magnesian limestone, that is traceable in a straight line nearly three miles, varying from 2 to 6 feet wide. There is also in Concord, on the farm owned by Wm. Darling, quite a deposit of iron and copper pyrites, also