VERMONT HISTORICAL MAGAZINE.
ORLEANS COUNTY—INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER.
BY REV. PLINY H. WHITE.
The first white native of the County was William Scott Shepard, who was born in Greensboro, 25th March, 1790—the son of Ashbel Shepard. The first marriage was that of Joseph Stanley of Greensboro, and Mary Gerould of Craftsbury, which was solemnized at Greensboro, July 25, 1793 by Timothy Stanley, Esq.
The first town organized was Craftsbury. The organization took place March 15, 1792. Greensboro was organized March 29, 1793.— The inhabitants increased but slowly. In 1791, 19 persons in Greensboro, and 18 in Craftsbury, were the entire population of the county. Before the year 1800 settlements were begun in all the towns except Charleston, Coventry, Holland, Jay, Lowell, Morgan and Westmore; and in the spring of that year settlements were begun in several of those towns. The population of the county in 1800 was 1004, more than half of which was in Craftsbury and Greensboro.
In 1792 and 1793 Ebenezer Crafts of Craftsbury was the first and only representative from Orleans county in the legislature. In 1794 Joseph Scott of Craftsbury, was the only representative; and in 1795 Timothy Stanley of Greensboro, also bore the sole burden and honor. In 1796 Samuel C. Crafts of C., and Aaron Shepard of G., shared the responsibility. In 1797 Joseph Scott and Timothy Stanley were again sent from their respective towns, to look after the budding interests of the young county. In 1798 the same men were elected, and were reinforced by Timothy Hinman of Derby. In 1799 Scott and Hinman had as associates John Ellsworth of Greensboro, and Elijah Strong of Brownington. In 1800 Samuel C. Crafts, Elijah Strong, Timothy Hinman and Timothy Stanley were returned from their respective towns, and with them appeared, for the first time, Luther Chapin of Newport. All of these were men of intelligence and sound judgment, and actively engaged in promoting the interests of their towns and of the county. With perhaps one exception, their names are still held in lively and grateful remembrance. There was not a useless nor an indifferent person among them—not one who was not justly honored for ability, integrity, and private as well as public virtues.
In 1799 the legislature established courts in Orleans county, and the county began its independent existence. Browington and Craftsbury were made half-shire towns. John Ellsworth was the first chief judge of the county court, and Timothy Hinman and Elijah Strong were the assistant judges. They met Nov. 20, 1799, at the house of Dr. Samuel Huntington, in Greensboro, and organized the county by electing Timothy Stanley clerk, and Royal Corbin Treasurer. The first session of the county court was held at Craftsbury, on the 4th Monday in March—(March 24,) 1800, at which time Timothy Hinman was chief judge, and Samuel C. Crafts and Jesse Olds were the assistants. Both the assistants were educated men, and graduates of Harvard college; but they were not educated to the law, nor was the chief Judge; and cases were probably decided in accordance with justice and common sense, rather than with the technicalities of the law. Timothy Stanley, of Greensboro, was the first county clerk; Joseph Scott, of Craftsbury, the first sheriff; Joseph Bradley the first States attorney, and Ebenezer Crafts, of Craftsbury, the first judge of probate. On the second day
32 VERMONT HISTORICAL MAGAZINE
of the session, Moses Chase was admitted to the bar. Courts continued to be held* alternately at Craftsbury and Brownington, in March and August, till August, 1816, when the court was held at Brownington for the last time. By an act of the legislature in 1812, Irasburgh was established as the shire town, as soon as the inhabitants of that town should, within 4 years, build a court-house and jail, to the acceptance of the judges of the supreme court. The conditions having been complied with, courts began in 1817 to be held at Irasburgh, and that has been the shire town to this day, notwithstanding efforts had been made at various times to remove the county seat to Coventry, Barton and Newport.
The war of 1812 was very injurious to Orleans County; not, indeed, because of any devastation actually suffered, or of any severe draft upon the inhabitants to act as soldiers. But the fear of evil was in this case almost as great an injury as the actual experience of it would have been. The county was on the extreme northern frontier, and was exposed not only to ordinary border warfare, but to be penetrated to the very heart by the defenceless route of Lake Memphremagog, and Black and Barton rivers. While the war was merely apprehended, the people kept up good courage, and constructed in several places stockade forts by way of defence. But no sooner had hostilities begun, than a panic seized the settlers. Stories of Indian atrocities were the staple of conversation, and there was a general belief that the tomahawk and scalping-knife would again and at once commence their work of butchery. A general flight took place. Many cultivated farms were abandoned; cattle were driven off, and such portable property as could most easily be removed was carried away. Some of those who left the county never returned, and those who did eventually come back, were impoverished and discouraged. In almost all of the towns, however, enough of' the more courageous inhabitants remained to keep possession of the territory, and to maintain in a small way the institutions of civilization. Parties of United States soldiers were stationed at North Troy, and at Derby line, and a sense of security gradually returned to the people.
The growth of the county experienced another severe check in 1816. That year was memorable as one of extraordinary privations and sufferings. An unusually early spring had created expectations of a fruitful season and an abundant harvest, but on the morning of June 9th there occurred a frost of almost unprecedented severity, followed by a fall of snow, which covered the earth to the depth of nearly a foot, and was blown into drifts 2 or 3 feet deep. All the growing crops were cut down. Even the foliage on the trees was destroyed, and so completely as respected the beeches, that they did not put forth leaves again that year. No hope or possibility of a harvest remained, and the settlers had before them the gloomy prospect of extreme scarcity if not of actual famine. Their forebodings were more than realized. Not a single crop came to maturity. Wheat alone progressed so far that by harvesting it while yet in the milk, and drying it in the oven, it might be mashed into dough and baked, or boiled like rice. There was neither corn nor rye except what was brought from abroad, sometimes from a great distance, and at an expense of $3.00 a bushel, and sometimes more. Provisions of every kind were very scarce, and very high. Fresh fish and vegetables of every kind that could possibly be used as food were converted to that purpose. There was extreme suffering through the summer and fall, and still greater distress during the winter; but it is not known that any one perished by starvation.
At this time, and in fact for a long time before and after, ashes and salts of ashes were about the only commodities which the settlers could exchange for the necessaries of life.— The manufacture of them was a very humble branch of industry, but it was, nevertheless, of great importance.
"The settlers, like the pioneers of all new countries, brought but little with them. Their own strong arms were their main reliance.— As soon as a cabin had been erected to shelter their families they commenced the clearing away of the forest and the opening up of the fields from which to gain a subsistence.— The trees fell before the repeated strokes of the axe, were cut into convenient lengths, rolled into heaps and consumed into ashes — These were carefully saved, conveyed to the nearest store, and exchanged for provisions
* It deserves a brief note, that the sessions of courts in this county, as in others, originally began on Monday; and, to prevent the necessity of profaning the Sabbath by travel from remote places, the time was changed to Tuesday, which is now the day of beginning the sessions of courts, throughout the State.
ORLEANS COUNTY. 33
and necessary articles. Many settlers found it expedient to work their ashes into black salts, thus lightening the labor of the transportation. In this form they were conveyed distances of 10 to 20 miles to a market. In some instances, where settlers were too poor to own a team, they have been known to take bag of salts upon their back to the nearest store. It was fortunate for these hardy pioneers that pot-ashes always brought a remunerating price in the not remote market of Montreal. Serious inconvenience and probably much actual suffering would have ensued but for this. The little stores in the country towns each had its ashery, and all were eager to purchase. Upon the sales of their pot and pearl ashes in Montreal they depended almost entirely for the means of remittance to their creditors in the American cities. So important was the traffic that in most of the interior towns of Vermont, during the greater portion of the year, not a dollar in money could be raised, except from the sale of ashes. Without, this, goods or provisions could not have been imported, taxes could not have been collected, and the country must have been greatly impeded in its advance and prosperity."
The county has advanced steadily in population and in enterprise. In 1800 the population was 1064; in 1810, 4,593; in 1820, 5,457; in '30, 10,887; in '40, 13,834; in '50, 15,707; in '60, 18,981. During the decennial period from 1850 to 1860, its increase was not only greater than that of any other county in the State, but than that of the whole State, and sufficient to offset an actual decrease in other counties which would have deprived the State of one representative in congress. Its principal business growth has been in the way of farming.
Its numerous water privileges have remained unoccupied till a recent period, and even now only a part of them are put to use. In 1860 there were only 130 manufacturing establishments in the county, and to make up that number, everything was included, from a cooper's shop to a grist-mill. In these establishments, a little more than $200,000 was invested, and the annual products were worth $308,217. The opening of the Connecticut and Passumpsic Rivers Railway to Boston, Oct. 21, 1857; to Newport, October, 1862, and to North Derby, May, 1, 1867, not only stimulated all the other business of the county, but occasioned a large increase of manufacturing, principally of lumber. The stimulating influence of the road was felt chiefly by the villages of Barton and Newport.
Orleans county has furnished but a comparatively small number of persons to occupy the higher offices of the State. Of these, the most eminent as respects number, length and variety of public services, was Samuel. C. Crafts, of Craftsbury. Not to mention minor offices, of which there were almost none which he did not hold; he was a member of congress 8 years, 1817 to 1825, governor 3 years, 1828 to '31, and senator in congress 1 year, 1842 to '43. David M. Camp, of Derby, was lieutenant governor 5 years, 1836 to '41.—Portus Baxter, of Derby, was a member of congress 6 years, 1861 to '67. Isaac F. Redfield, of Derby, was elected a judge of the supreme court in 1836, and by successive annual elections, held the office 24 years, during the last eight of which he was chief justice. Benjamin H. Steele, of Derby, became a judge of the supreme court in 1865, and still remains on the bench.
CHIEF JUDGES OF THE COUNTY COURT,
1799, John Ellsworth; 1800—'09, Timothy Hinman; 1810-'15, Samuel C. Crafts; 1816 to '24. William Howe.
ASSISTANT JUDGES OF THE COUNTY COURT.
1800—'09, Samuel C. Crafts; 1800, '01, Jesse Olds; 1802—'13, Timothy Stanley; 1810 to '14, George Nye; 1814, Nathaniel P. Sawyer; 1815—'23, Timothy Stanley; 1815—'20, Samuel Cook; 1821—'24, N. P. Sawyer; 1824, John Ide; 1825—'27, S. C. Crafts; 1825, '26, William Baxter ; 1826—'32, Ira H. Allen; 1827, Wm. Howe; 1828, '29, Jasper Robinson; 1830—'32, David M. Camp; 1833—'35, David P. Noyes; 1833, Isaac Parker; 1834, '35, David M. Camp; 1836, Portus Baxter; 1836—'38, Alvak R French; 1837, '38, John Kimball; 1839—'42, Isaac Parker; 1839, Chas. Hardy; 1840, '41, John Boardman; 1842, Jairus Stebbins; 1843, A. R. French and David M. Camp; 1844—'46, Elijah Cleveland and Harry Baxter; 1847, '48, James A. Paddock and John Harding; 1849—'51, Solomon Dwinell and Loren W. Clark; 1852, Nehemiah Colby and Wm. Moon, Jr.; 1853, John M. Robinson; 1854, John D. Harding and Sabin Kellam; 1855, John W. Robinson and Fordyce F. French; 1856, Sabin Kellam and Durkee Cole; 1857, Emory Stewart; 1857, '58, John Walbridge; 1858, '59, Sam'l Cheney; 1859, Henry
34 VERMONT HISTORICAL MAGAZINE.
Richardson; 1860, '61, J. D. Harding and E. G. Babbitt; 1862—'64, Amasa Paine; 1862, '63, Simeon Albee; 1864, '65, Wm. J. Hastings; 1865, '66, Josiah B. Wheelock; 1866, '67, Benjamin Comings; 1867, '68, E. O. Bennett; 1868, James Simond.
1800, '01, Joseph Bradley; 1802—'14, Wm. Baxter; 1815, David M. Camp; 1816—'23, Joshua Sawyer; 1824—'27, Augustus Young; 1828, '29, E. H. Starkweather; 1830, '31, George C. West; 1832—'34, Isaac F. Redfield; 1835, E. H. Starkweather; 1836, '37, Charles Story; 1838, Samuel Sumner; 1839, Jesse Cooper; 1840, '41, Samuel Sumner; 1842, Jesse Cooper; 1843, '44, John H. Kimball; 1845, '46, Nathan S. Hill; 1847, '48, Henry F. Prentiss; 1849, John L. Edwards 1850, Norman Boardman; 1851, '52, Wm. M. Dickerman; 1853, Samuel A. Willard; 1854, H. C. Wilson; 1855, '56, John P. Sartle; 1857, '58, J. E, Dickerman; 1859, H. C. Wilson; 1860, '61, A. D. Bates; 1862, 63, N. T. Sheafe; 1864, '65, Wm, W. Grout; 1866, Lewis H. Bisbee; 1867, '68, S. B. Robinson. (See after paper of Mr. White—Admissions to the Bar, by Hon. E. A. Stewart.—Ed.)
SENATORS PROM ORLEANS COUNTY.
1836—'38, Augustus Young, South Craftsbury, whig; 1839, S. S. Hemenway, Barton, democrat; 1840, Jacob Bates, Derby, whig 1841, S. S. Hemenway, Barton, d.; 1842—'44, D. M. Camp, Derby, w.; 1845, '46, E. B. Simonds, Glover, w.; 1847, Elma White, Brownington, w.; 1848, T. P. Redfield, Irasburgh, Free Soil; 1849, E. White, Brownington, w.; 1850—'52, H. M. Bates, Irasburgh, w.; 1853, A. J. Rowell, Troy, f. s.; 1854, E. White, Brownington, w.; 1855, George Worthington, Jr., Irasburgh, American; 1856, '57, W. B. Cole, Charleston, republican; 1858, G. Worthington, Jr., Irasburgh, r.; 1859, '60, G. A. Hinman, Holland, r.; 1861, '62, N. P. Nelson, Craftsbury, r.; 1862, '63, E. Cleveland, Coventry, r.; 1863, '64, J. H. Kellam, Irasburgh, r.; 1864, '65, L. Richmond, Derby, r; 1865, '66, J. F. Skinner, Barton, r.; 1866, '67, L. Baker, Newport, r.; 1867, '68, J. W. Simpson, Craftsbury, r.; 1868, W. G. Elkins, Troy, republican.
It appears from this table that the county has been
represented by democratic senators 2 years, by free soilers 2 years, by an American
1 year, by whigs 15 years, and by republicans 11 years, during the last 8 of
which the county has had two senators. Irasburgh has
furnished a senator 8 years, Craftsbury seven years, Derby 6 years, Barton 4 years, Brownington 3 years, Charleston, Coventry, Glover, Holland, Newport and Troy, 2 years each.
PROHIBITORY LAW, AND COUNTY COMMISSIONERS
The statute of 1852, "to prevent the traffic in intoxicating liquors for purposes of drinking." provided for its own submission to a popular vote; and the county of Orleans, at town meetings held on the 2d Tuesday of Feb., (Feb. 8) 1853, indicated its will in regard to the law, as follows:
Albany, 103 101
Barton, 56 70
Brownington, 48 58
Charleston, 62 37
Coventry, 53 89
Craftsbury, 76 115
Derby, 115 48
Glover, 48 145
Greensboro', 84 91
Holland, 8 28
Irasburgh, 109 52
Jay, 11 28
Lowell, 29 86
Morgan, 27 30
Newport, no meeting held
Salem, 10 50
Troy, 52 74
Westfield, 52 58
Westmore, 1 42
Total, 944 1202
Majority against the law, 258
The popular vote throughout the State was in favor of the law, which accordingly went into operation Feb. 8, 1853. With one exception, the commissioners elected in Orleans county have been in favor of the enforcement of the law. They have been as follows:
1853, Samuel Conant; 1854, Lemuel Richmond; 1855, '56, J. F. Skinner; 1857, N. P. Nelson; 1858, '59, Wm. S. Hastings; 1860, Silas G. Bean; 1861, '62, C. A. J. Marsh; 1863, '64, Joseph Bates, 2d; 1865, '66, Pliny N. Granger; 1867, '68, James Clement; 1869, Josiah B. Wheelock.
Under the statute of 1845, "relating to common schools," the following county superintendents of common schools were appointed by the judges of Orleans county court:— 1845—'47, David M. Camp; 1848, '49, Samuel R. Hall,
Since the enactment of the statute of 1856,
ORLEANS COUNTY. 35
establishing a Board of Education, and providing for Teachers' Institutes, an Institute has been held in Orleans county nearly every year.
The first institute was held at Barton, Jan. 29, 1848, and was well attended by teachers of common schools in several towns, and by many teachers of high schools and academies. The Rev. S. R Hall lectured on mental arithmetic, and took part in the discussions of other topics; and Mr. Benjamin H. Steele discussed written arithmetic. A very warm interest in the success of the institute, and a general satisfaction in its conduct, were shown by the people of Barton.
The second institute was also held at Barton Nov. 26, 1858, and seemed to receive a warmer welcome on that account. The Rev. John H. Beckwith, the Rev. S. R. Hall and the Rev. Pliny H. White, addressed the institute— "adding much to the interest and instructiveness of the session." Instruction in geography and grammar was given by Mr. Edward Conant.— " The very deep interest manifested by all, together with the somewhat unusual array of ability in the instructors, all combined to render the institute uncommonly effective."
The institute for 1859 was held at Coventry, November 22. The session was commenced in the school-room of the academy, but the increasing attendance made it necessary to adjourn to to the town-hall, which was filled with an attentive and appreciative audience. The Rev. Messrs. Thomas Bayne, A. R. Gray, S. R. Hall and Pliny H. White, participated in the discussions, and a large number of teachers of the higher schools were present and assisting.
The institute for the next year was held at West Albany, Dec. 6, 1860. "An unusual number of professional men attended this session, among whom were Drs. G. A. Hinman and D. N. Blanchard, and the Rev. Messrs. Thomas Bayne, A. R. Gray, E. D. Hopkins, S. R. B. Perkins, George Putnam, and Pliny H. White. The attendance steadily and rapidly increased, until the house was entirely filled with an attentive and interested audience of teachers and citizens."
The institute for 1861 was held at Derby, Dec. 25 and 26, and was very largely attended. The Rev. Messrs. A. R. Gray and Pliny H. White, and Messrs. M. F. Farney and D. M. Camp, 2d, with other practical teachers, took part in the exercises. "The multitude of citizens in attendance, with the earnest attention and Interest displayed, were indications full of encouragement."
The newt institute was held at Glover, Nov. 18 and 19, 1862. English grammar was discussed by Mr. Corliss of West Topsham—an address on reading was delivered by Mr. Geo. W. Todd of Glover, and a lecture upon geology and mineralogy was delivered by the Rev. S. R. Hall.
The next institute was held at Irasburgh, Jan. 19 and 20, 1864, and was more numerously attended, both by teachers and by citizens, than any previous institute had been—every town in the county being represented. The Rev. Messrs. S. R. Hall, Azro A. Smith and Pliny H. White, contributed to the success of the occasion. Milton R. Tyler, Esq., of Irasburgh, exerted himself, actively and efficiently, in furthering the work.
Another institute was held in 1864, at South Troy, Dec. 20—teachers in large numbers, parents and citizens were present, and seemed stirred by a common interest. Messrs. M. F. Varney and George W. Todd, principals of academies at North Troy and Glover, and the Rev. Messrs. B. M. Frink, C. Liscom, S. R. B. Perkins, and A. H. Smith, took part in the exercises. The session was more thun usually successful.
The institute for 1865 was held at Newport, December 15 and 16. At first the attendance was exceedingly small; but it became quite large before the session closed. Lessons in reading and in arithmetic were given by Mr. B. F. Bingham.
The next institute was held at Greensboro, Feb. 8 and 9, 1867, and was warmly welcomed and largely attended. Teachers were present from several counties. More than ususl interest attached to this session of the institute, because it was the first session in Orleans county under the law allowing teachers to make application for certificates authorizing them to teach for a term of years. Forty-four teachers applied for such certificates, and some received them.
The next session was held at Barton, Oct. 29 and 30, 1868. A. E. Rankin, Esq, secretary of the board of education, was assisted by Mr. John Tenney, of Albany, N. Y., and the subjects of reading, grammar, geography and arithmetic were discussed. The Rev. Messrs. J. G. Lorimer, S. K. B. Perkins, W. H. Robinson, David Shurtleff and Pliny H. White, took part in the exercises.
A meeting of the Vermont Teachers' Association was held at Barton Jan. 22, 23, and 24, 1868. J. S. Spaulding, LL. D. presided ever
36 VERMONT HISTORICAL MAGAZINE.
the meeting, and delivered the opening address. Lectures were delivered by Hiram Orcott, of Lebanon, N. H., on "the education of woman," — by Pref. G. N. Webber, on "the Relation of Language to Thought"—by Gen. John W. Phelps, on "Good Behavior"—by Prof. M. H. Buckham, on "Practical Education," and by Prof. B. Kellogg, on "The diseases and Misuse of the Mind. A paper by the Rev. C. E. Ferrin, upon "The Relation to each other of the Common School, the Academy and the College," was read. The subjects of "School Discipline and "The Best Method of Teaching English Grammar," were discussed by teachers and friends of education from various parts of the State.
PASTORS OF CONGREGATIONAL CHURCHES IN ORLEANS COUNTY,
Arranged according to dates of their settlement.
Jacob S. Clark, Morgan, Jan. 11, 1827.
Daniel Wild, Brookfield, July 1, 1820.
Samuel R. Hall, Brownington, Jan. 4, 1854.
Jabez S. Howard, Holland, June 3, 1844.
S. K. B. Perkins, Glover, Jan. 11, 1860.
Azro A. Smith, Westfield, Feb, 10, 1864.
John H. Woodward, Irasburgh, Sept. 21, 1864.
Azel W. Weld, Greensboro, Oct. 26, 1864.
The longest pastorate is that of Rev. Jacob S. Clark, which has continued now more than 38 years—but is now merely nominal.
Coventry, June 7, 1866.
SONS OF ORLEANS COUNTY MINISTERS IN THE WAR OF '61.
William Chamberlin, son of the late Rev. Schuyler Chamberlin of Craftsbury, a private in the 1st Vt. Cavalry.
John C. Chapin, son of the late Rev. Wm. A. Chapin of Greensboro—was a private in a western regiment, and died of a wound received at the battle of Shiloh.
Charles W. Liscomb, Co. B, 13th regiment, John E. Liscomb of Co. D, 8th Reg., and Hi- rum Liscomb of 118th N. Y. Reg., were sons of the Rev. Cyrus Liscomb of Irasburgh.
John A. Ryder of the 8th Reg. and Ziba Ryder of the 9th, are sons of Rev. Samuel Ryder of Coventry.
The first Paper published in Orleans county was the "Northern Oziris," at Derby—the first number of which appeared Dec. 15, 1831. It was published by J. M. Stevens for the proprietors. After an interval of a month the second number appeared, in which it was said, "It will be published on every Thursday morning during the year, and we have no good reason to doubt it will so continue to be published for the next half century." The final number, however, appeared Apr. 19, 1832.
"Lamoille River Express" commenced on Friday, June 1, 1838—J. W. Remington, publisher.
"The Yeoman's Record" made its first appearance at Irasburgh Aug. 13, 1845, edited and published by E. Rawson. It was purchased by A. G. Conant, who assumed the publication Sept. 29, 1847, E. Rawson resumed the control March 22, 1848, and the paper was discontinued March 20, 1850.
The "Orleans County Gazette" was first issued May 11, 1850. It was published by Leonard B. Jameson, and edited by him and John A. Jameson. At the commencement of the third volume, May 8, 1852, J. M. Dana became the sole editor and publisher. At the commencement of the fifth volume, June 17, 1854, George W. Hartshorn became the editor and publisher, and edited the paper during the remainder of its existence. With No. 29, the "North Union" was established June 10, 1854, by E. E. G. Wheeler and F. C. Harrington, publishers and editors. At the 16th No., Sept. 23 1854, Mr. Wheeler retired from the paper, and it was edited and published by F. C. Harlington. Vol. 3 of the North Union began on the 19th of June, 1856—ended about the first of October. With No. 3 it passed into the hands of stockholders—G. A. Hinman, editor. Of the fifth volume Sylvester Howard, Jr., became publisher, and published it till the close of the volume, having as partner for a few weeks A. A. Earle, and for the last 3 months H. D. Morris. At the close of the 5th volume the Gazette was united with the "North Union."
"White River Advertiser and Vermont Family Gazette" commenced on Wednesday Oct. 6, 1852.
"Orleans Independent Standard," commenced in 1856, at Irasburgh, A. A. Earle editor,—now published at Barton.
The "Newport News" was discontinued Dec. 8, 1864, and the materials and good will were sold to the "Vermont Union," at Lyndon.
"Green Mountain Express" commenced at Irasburgh in 1863, (H. & G. H. Bradford, editors,) and after about one year passed into the hands of stockholders and finally sold to W. G. Cambridge, in Sept 1864.
The "Newport. Republican" was established. Oct. 19, 1864. by W. G. Cambridge, editor and
ORLEANS COUNTY. 37
proprietor, at $2,00 per annum. It was discontinued Feb. 22, 1865.
The "Newport Express" commenced March 1, 1865, at $2,00—D. K. Simonds and R. Cummings publishers, D. K. Simonds editor.
[Mr. White left his paper unfinished, and a foregoing leaf or paragraph seems to be missing here—Ed.]
ADMISSIONS TO THE ORLEANS COUNTY BAR.
BY HON. E. A. STEWART.
March term, 1800, Moses Chase; November term, '01, William Baxter; August, '03, Ezra Carter; March, '05, Jesse Olds and Henry Works; March, '06, Hezekiah Frost; August, '08, Charles Reynolds; do. '07, Joseph H. Ellis; March, '09, Horace Bassett; August, '09, Roger G. Bulkley; August, '10, Joshua Sawyer; do. '11, John Wallace; do. '12, Peter Burbank; Marck, '13, Chester W. Bless; August, '15, William Richardson; March, '16, Nathaniel Reed, Jr.; March, '17, Salmon Nye; Aug., '18, David Gould; September, '22, John L. Fuller; February, '22, Samuel Upham; September, '24, John H. Kimball, Geo. M. Mason; September, '25, James A. Paddock and Harvey Burton; October, '27, Isaac F. Redfield; August '31, Dan'l F. Kimball; December, '32, Carlos Baxter; December, '33, Franklin Johnson; June, '43, Elbridge G. Johnson; December, '34, Elijah Parr; June, '35, Charles W. Prentiss; June, '37, Timothy P. Redfield; December, '42, David Chadwick and Edward A. Cahoon; June, '43, John L. Edwards; June, '44, Wm. M. Dickerman, E. Winchester; December, '44, William. T. Barron, Eben A. Randall; June, '45, Nathaniel S. Clark; December, '46, Isaac N. Cushman; June, '48, Thomas Abbott and Wm. M. Heath; Dec., '48, John P. Sartle; June, '50, Henry H. Frost; June, '51, Fernando C. Harrington; June, '52, Jerre E. Dickerman; June, '63, Don A. Bartlett and George Baldwin; Dec., '56, Frederick Mott; June, '57, Amasa Bartlett; Dec., '57 Henley C. Akeley and R. A. Barker; June, '58, Alonzo D. Bates, William G. P. Bates, Benjamin H. Steele and Edward A. Stewart; Dec., '59, Enoch H. Bartlett; June, 1860, Merrill J. Hill and B. P. D. Carpenter; June, '61, Charles Williams; December, '61, J. S. Dorman, Charles N. Fleming and John B. Robinson; June, '62, George D. Wyman, Lewis H. Bisbee, John Young and Elijah S. Cowles; June, '63, Geo. W. Todd; Dec. '64, Riley E. Wright; Dec., '65, Josiah Grout, Jr., June, 66, Charles B. Daggett, D. K. Simonds and Henry C. Bates; Dec., '67, Solomon W. Dane; Dec., '68, George P. Keeler and Israel A. Moulton; October, '69, Leonard Thompson.
The Orleans County Court, in the fall of '69, proved a total failure, in consequence of the floods. Judge Prout did not arrive until a week after the time.
ORLEANS COUNTY. CONTINUED.
BY REV. S. R. HALL, LL. D.
This County is situated in the central part of northern Vermont; being hounded N. by Canada, E. by Caledonia, S. by Essex and W. by Franklin and Lamoille counties. It was an unbroken wilderness till after the Revolutionary war, and inhabited only by Indians. Hunters had visited it, and soldiers had passed through some portions of it, in military excursions. A portion of Rogers' men, returning, after the destruction of St. Francis Indian village in 1759, passed through, from Memphremagog lake, by Lake Beautiful, in Barton, on their way to the foot of the Fifteen-mile Falls, on Connecticut river, or what was then called lower Coos. Marks made on the trees by these soldiers, it is believed have been discovered in several towns, and also a "shirt of mail" and the remnants of an "iron spider" have been found, that were probably left by them. A son of one of these soldiers was a resident in the county, after the lapse of more than a century?*
Many years later a military road was made through the south-west portion of the county, to Hazens' notch in the present town of Westfield. The traces of that road, though made during the early part of the Revolution, are still distinct in Greensboro, Craftsbury, Albany, and Lowell.
The county was incorporated Nov. 5, 1792, and embraced 22 townships and some gores. Craftsbury and Brownington, were constituted half-shire towns. When the new County Lamoille was constituted, 3 towns were embraced in the limits of that County, and the area of Orleans was diminished by more than 100 square miles. Irasburg was constituted the shire town in 1816. The number of towns remaining in the county is 19.
The physical geography, and geology of Orleans County are diverse from any other portion of the State. It is situated almost
* Mr. Joel Priest, Brownington.
38 VERMONT HISTORICAL MAGAZINE.
wholly within the Y of the Green mountains. The geological formations of the County separate it into 3 divisions. 1. The talcose and chlorite schists characterise the four western towns, bordering on the Missisco river and its tributaries. 2. The central part lies wholly in the calcareous mica slate region, consisting of impure carbonate of lime, clay and hornblend schists, with occasional beds of both older and recent granite. The lime, clay and hornblend are interstratified. The changes from one to the other, in some places occur many times, within a few rods. 3. The eastern part of the County is almost wholly granitic i.e. granite, gneiss and sienite.
The granitic rocks are more recent than the stratified rocks; fragments of these are frequently found embedded in the granite.* Veins of granite are often found projected in to fissures of the older rocks. A very interesting exhibition of this may be seen at Coventry Narrows, described by Dr. Hitchcock, Geological Rep. p. 562, Fig. 290, nebular or concretionary granite described by Dr. H. p, 563, and illustrated by Fig. 292, is a great curiosity, though of no particular value, except for cabinet specimens. This variety is largely distributed in Craftsbury. The minerals of most interest and value occur in the Missisco valley. "The most striking features of this valley are the immense ranges of serpentine and soapstone. There are two ranges of the former, and two of the latter; extending from Potton on the north, to Lowell in the south end of the valley. The quantity of serpentine in Lowell and Westfield, is greater than in any other part of the State. The eastern range contains the veins of magnetic iron ore, which supplied the furnace at Troy. The quantity is inexhaustible; but the ore contains titanium, and is hard to smelt. The iron, when manufactured, is of the best quality, having great strength and hardness. It is finely adapted to make wire, screws, &c. It would make the best kind of rails for railroads. Should a railroad be constructed in the Missisco valley, this ore will be of immense value to the County and State. It might, even now, be wrought with profit to the owners. It makes the most valuable hollow ware and stoves.
In the serpentine range on the west side of the river, is found chromate of iron, a mineral of great value in the arts. The largest beds of it are in the eastern part of Jay, within one and a half miles of Missisco river.†
Small beds of chromate of iron have been found in the
serpentine range, on the east side of the river, south of the magnetic iron
ore, in both Troy and Westfield. Most beautiful specimens of asbestos, common
and ligniform, are found in the serpentine at Lowell
and Westfield. This serpentine might be wrought, and would be found of equal value to any in the State. It contains the most beautiful veins of amianthus and bitter spar. Some varieties resemble verde antique.
The soapstone which accompanies the serpentine, is generally hard, but no doubt might, in many places, be wrought to great advantage."‡
The streams mostly flow northerly and north-westerly, towards the Memphremagog lake. The Missisco river flows northerly, till it enters Canada, and then turning westward re-enters Vermont, passing through the county of Franklin and pours into Champlain. But the upper valley of this stream is appropriately classed with others, the waters from which flow into Memphremagog. The latter lake, at no very distant geological period, no doubt, covered the low lands of the Missisco valley, as well as those bordering on Black, Barton and Clyde rivers. The highest land between the lake and Missisco valley is, in some places, probably not more than 100 to 150 feet.
The County is more abundantly supplied with lakes, ponds and streams, than any other portion of Vermont, if not New England, of equal area. Black, Barton and Clyde rivers are almost entirely limited to the County, also the head waters of the Missisco, and Wild branch. Several streams which flow north into Canada, and empty into Magog and St. Francis rivers, rise in ponds within the county.
A considerable portion of Memphremagog lake, Caspian lake, Willoughby lake, Morgan lake, Bellwater pond, or Lake Beautiful, are with a very large number of ponds, within the County.
These ponds and lakes furnished abundance of the finest fish, to the Indians, hunters and
* See Geological Report, p. 562.
† See Geol. Report, pp. 836 and 837.
‡ Sumner's Hist. of Missisco Valley.
ORLEANS COUNTY. 39
early settlers.* They also were the home of numerous beaver and otter; while the meadows on the numerous rivers, furnished rich pasture to moose and deer, thousands of which were killed principally for their skins.
The face of the country differs considerably from other parts of the State. The general elope is northward; and though there is considerable difference in the bight of arable land, the highest points are reached by a gradual rise, and the summits or ridges are capable of convenient cultivation. Precipitous cliffs and ledges are uncommon, except on the western boundary. From Hazen's notch to Jay peak, is a continuous mountain range, varying from 2500 to 4000 feet above the ocean. The summit of Jay peak, in the north-west corner of Westfield, is 4018 feet above tide water. The summit of Westmore mountain, in the extreme east part, is nearly 3000 feet. The elevation of several ponds, lakes and towns has been ascertained.
Ft. above ocean.
Elligo Pond, Craftsbury, is 863
Hosmore Pond, " 1001
Bellwater Pond, or Lake Beautiful, Barton, 933
Salem Pond, Salem, 967
Pensioner's Pond, Charleston, 1140
Island Pond, Brighton, 1182
Morgan Lake, Morgan, 1160
Willoughby Lake, Westmore, 1161
Memphremagog Lake, † 695
South Troy village, 740
Irasburgh (Court House), 875
Barton village, 953
Derby (Centre), 975
Derby, (Line), 1050
Craftsbury Common, 1158
Brownington (village), 1113
Cultivated lands in Holland, Greensboro, Craftsbury, Westmore and a portion of Glover, vary from 1100 to 1500 feet above the ocean. Most of the lands lying on the rivers, vary from 700 to 900. Much of the table land, lying between the streams, is of the best quality for cultivation and grazing. The meadows and intervals are unsurpassed by any in the State.
The soil differs materially in different parts of the County; by the character of the rock in place. The prevailing rock in the Missisco valley is talcose schist. This variety of rock contains very little carbonate of lime, and decomposes very slowly. The soil will, therefore, be deficient in lime, except on the intervals, or drift soil. The rock in the extreme eastern part of the county is mostly granite or gneiss. The decomposition of these rocks, is not rapid, but sufficiently so, to furnish some new materials of value to the soil. The remaining portion of the county is embraced in the calcareous mica elate region. These varieties of rock, limestone, clay and hornblend, are found interstratified, and all are inclined to very rapid decomposition, so that the soil will be constantly enriched by the addition of lime, and the other materials embraced in the rocks. Decomposed lime, hornblend and clay schists form the very best varieties of soil for wheat, grass, barley, &c.
In the northern part of the county the soil is generally a deep loam, resulting from drift agency, and in many instances, covering the rock in place to a great depth. This soil, originating in a region of purer limestone at the north, is rich in salts of lime and very highly productive. Troy, Newport, Coventry, Craftsbury, Derby, Charleston and Holland, contain many thousand acres of this variety of soil, of great excellence.
A prominent fact, in the entire calcareous mica slate region, is the immense growth of sphagnous peat or muck. This substance has already filled the basins of many original ponds, and those formed by beavers; and rapidly accumulating on the borders of many others. Beneath many of these beds of muck, shell marl is found in large quantities, furnishing abundant material for manufacturing the best quality of caustic lime. When peat
* About the year 1800, Mr. Erastus Spencer, with Mr. Elijah Spencer, and two others residing in the east part of Brownington, went to a pond near the foot of Bald mountain in Westmore, and in a single day caught more than 500 pounds of trout, weighed after being dressed. They were obliged to procure oxen to carry home the avails of their day's work!
† The waters of Memphremagog lake being 695 feet above the ocean, would have to be raised only 500 feet in order to flow back, so as to unite with the waters of Island pond, in the county of Essex, and cover the site of Hosmer ponds Craftsbury, Salem pond, Derby pond, Pensioner's pond, Morgan lake, Willoughby lake, Bellwater pond, or Lake Beautiful, Runaway pond, formerly known as Long pond, and all the smaller ponds of the country. A barrier as high as that no doubt once existed near the present outlet of the lake and all these various lakes and ponds were once a part of that lake. Most of the villages in both the Missisco valley and the rest of the country are located in the bed of this lake, as it existed in a former age. (See Hall's Geography and History of Vermont, p. 16.)
40 VERMONT HISTORICAL MAGAZINE.
or muck is combined with wood-ashes, or lime, in the proportions of two bushels of the latter to a cord of the former, it is more valuable as manure than any made at the barn. Nothing exceeds it in value, as a top-dressing for grass lands. The abundance and distribution of this substance is very remarkable. In one town the writer surveyed the beds of muck, and found more than 640 cords for each acre of land in the township. Many other towns have an equal supply. These beds of muck constitute the future wealth of the agriculturist. Most of the arable land in the county may be easily enriched to any degree desired. The natural soil is not inferior to that in any portion of New England, but these resources of indefinitely increasing its fertility, add immensely to its value.
Another part should be noticed. The numerous rivers and streams in the county furnish an immense amount of most valuable water power. Excellent sites for mills, factories, &c., abound;—only a small part of which have as yet been improved. This should excite no surprise, when it is remembered that but little more than half a century has elapsed since the Indian wigwam occupied the site of our smiling villages, and the "wild fox dug his hole unscared," in what are now our best cultivated fields, and where rural dwellings are scattered over hill, plain and valley.
Falls of great beauty exist on both Missisco and Clyde rivers. The principal falls on the Missisco are in North Troy. Rev. Z. Thompson says, "here the river precipitates itself over a ledge of rocks about 70 feet. These falls and the still water below present a grand and interesting spectacle, when viewed from a rock that projects over them 120 feet in perpendicular height." Accurate measurement, might somewhat diminish Mr. Thompson's estimate, but would not lessen the grandeur of the scene.
The falls on the Clyde in West Charleston cannot be viewed from a position so favorable. The descent of the water is not perpendicular; but the fall is greater. Both are objects of great interest to the beholder. Many other falls on these streams furnish excellent sites for mills, factories, &c.
The climate does not vary materially from other portions of the State of similar latitude and altitude. The altitude is greater than that of the Champlain valley, but less than the upper valley of Connecticut river. The Memphremagog lake and other large bodies of water modify the temperature, and the average range of the thermometer at Craftsbury, Brownington and Derby, is only a few degrees lower than at Burlington. The winters are long, and the cold somewhat severe. But the greater uniformity of temperature, from November to April, than what is usual, either in Champlain valley, or the Atlantic slope, in the same latitude, is an important compensation. Men and animals suffer less from a continuous low temperature, than by frequent changes from a higher to a lower. The thermometer does not fall so low, as at places considerably further south. Early frosts are less frequent than in some parts of Massachusetts.
There are really but two seasons, summer and winter. The transition from one to the other is commonly sudden. The only real inconvenience to the agriculturist is the shortness of seedtime. The summers are generally sufficiently long and warm to mature corn—the exceptions being rare, in favorable locations. Domestic animals not only thrive and mature well, but have a decided preference in the market over those reared in many other sections of country. Better horses, oxen, or cows, than the average of those reared in the county, are not easy to find. The quantity of butter made from a cow, is not exceeded, if equaled, in any part of New England.*
The forest trees are similar to those generally in northern New England and Canada East. The arbor vitæ (white cedar,) is however more abundant, and of larger size than in any other portion of the Northern States. The sugar-maple is the glory of the forests, furnishing as it does in every town, an important revenue of saccharine secretions, conducive alike to health, pleasure and profit.
The noble pine, formerly abundant, has, alas, suffered so much from vandal extirpators, as hardly to have a representative now of its once towering height and gigantic bulk. Ruthless hands have laid this forest king in an untimely grave! True, here and there a scattered few remain, that feebly represent the glory of the fallen, as the Indian of this age does the Phillips and Tecumsehs of the former. Would that the insane cupidity of early settlers had spared a few of these meg‑
* More than 200 pounds per cow, has been sold frequently from dairies of considerable size, beside the supplies of a family.
ORLEANS COUNTY. 41
nificent specimens of the former forests. But all that our children can know of them, is learned from the large stumps that yet adhere to the earth which reared them.*
A few of the immense elms remain, and it is hoped may long he preserved, to exhibit a trace of the magnificence of the early forests.
The botanist finds the county very rich,— most of the plants given by Mr. Thompson in his History of Vermont are found in it, a few not found elsewhere in the State.
The first settlements in the County were made simultaneously at Greensboro and Craftsbury, in 1788. Most of the other towns were settled prior to the commencement of the present century. An account of the early settlers, their hardships and sufferings will be more appropriately given in the history of the several towns.
[We here omit a description of Glover and Runaway Pond, furnished by Hall, having a full account of it given in the history of Glover.—Ed.]
A COUNTY BIBLE SOCIETY
has existed many years, and has aided in supplying, not only the destitute within the county, but the State and country at large, with the Holy Scriptures. Many thousand dollars have been contributed for this object. Various religious denominations unite in this important work.
ORLEANS COUNTY BIBLE SOCIETY.
PRESIDENTS, IN ORDER,— Orem Newcomb, Esq., of Derby; Dea. Samuel Baker, Greensboro; Rev. J. N. Loomis, Craftsbury; Rev. S. Chamberlain, Albany; William J. Hastings, Craftsbury; J. H. Skinner of Derby; Dea. Loring Frost, of Coventry; Hon. E. B. Simonds, of Glover.
SECRETARIES.—Geo. Nye, Esq., Irasburgh; Jesse Cooper, Esq., Irasburgh; Rev. Joel Fisk, Irasburgh; Rev. A. L, Cooper, Derby; Thomas Jameson, Irasburgh; Rev. Sidney K. B. Perkins, Glover.
DEPOSITARIES.—Geo. Worthington, Esq., Irasburgh; Dea. Hubbard Hastings, Irasburgh; Jesse Cooper, Esq., Irasburgh; Amasa Bartlett, Esq., Irasburgh; Rev. S. R. Hall, Brownington; Rev. Thomas Bayne, Irasburgh; Rev. Pliny H. White, Coventry; Rev. Wm. A. Robinson, Barton.
At the organization of Orleans County Bible Society, Aug. 16, 1814, Officers chosen for the ensuing, or first year:—Elijah Strong, Esq., President; Luther Newcomb, Esq., Vice Psesident; Ralph Parker, Esq., Hon. Royal Corbin, Thomas Taylor, Esq., Directors; Hon. George Nye, Treasurer; Thomas Tolman, Esq., Secretary.
AGENTS, IN THE TOWNS:—Greensboro.
Asahel Washburn, Esq; Glover, Jno. Boardman, Esq; Barton, Jno. Kimball, Esq.; Brownington, Jasper Robinson. Esq.; Derby, Rev. Luther Leland; Duncansboro, Amos Sawyer, Esq.; Coventry, Peter Redfield, Esq.; Craftsbury, Augustus Young, Esq.; Hyde Park, Joshua Sawyer, Esq.; Morgan, Jotham Cummings, Esq.; Holland, Eber Robinson, Esq.; Navy, Stephen Cole, Esq.; Troy, Josiah Lyon, Esq.; Salem, Eph'm. Blake, Esq.; Westfield, Medad Hitchcock, Esq.; Kelly Vale, Asahel Curtis, Esq.; Eden, Rev. Joseph Farrar; Morristown, Samuel Cook, Esq.; Irasburgh, Nath'l Killam, Esq.; Lutterloch, Aaron Chamberlain, Esq.; Wolcott, Mr. Seth Hubbell; Elmore, Martin Elmore, Esq. The first Annual Meeting of the Society will be holden at Brownington, in Aug. next, on the 2d day of the Court (Tuesday) 3 o'clock P. M. at the court-house.
Dec. 1814. Att. THO'S TOLMAN, Sec.
THE ORLEANS COUNTY NATURAL, AND CIVIL HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
was formed in 1853. The objects of this society are expressed in the first article of the Constitution—"To promote the study of natural history, primarily in Orleans County and Northern Vermont and to collect and preserve while the early settlers are able to furnish them the items of interest in the civil history of the county, which would otherwise be soon lost to the future historian."
For several years, this society was very active and made many valuable collections, and procured the writing of several town histories. Some of these have been published, and also a history of the Missisco valley by Samuel Sumner, Esq., and a brief notice of the county by Rev. S. R. Hall. Other town histories will be embraced in this number of the Vermont Historical Gazetteer.
The first president was the Hon. S. C. Crafts, for several years Governor of Vermont. After his death Rev. S. R. Hall, LL. D., was appointed to that office, and continues. So many of the early members have died, or re‑
* A pine recently felled in Coventry, yielded 4131 feet of inch boards!
42 VERMONT HISTORICAL MAGAZINE,
moved from the county, that the operations of the society were discontinued during the late war. It is proposed to re-organize during the present year (1869), and it is hoped with greater energy than formerly.
Several societies have existed, at different times, some of which are still active in efforts to advance the improvements of agriculture. Much benefit has been the result of these organizations.
The most successful temperance organizations have been the Good Tempters. Town societies of this order exist in nearly every town, and have essentially advanced the interests of the temperance cause.
THE ORLEANS COUNTY TEACHERS' ASSOCIATION.
has existed many years, and accomplished much good.
Rev. S. R. Hall LL. D. was many years president, and after his resignation, Rev. A. A. Smith was appointed and still continues in office. The constitution of this important society is as follows:
"Whereas the future welfare of our County depends upon the intellectual and moral culture of the people, and as the Common School, the ordinary place of learning for the mass of both sexes, is in too many instances sadly neglected; and whereas we greatly need a higher and better standard of qualifications among our Teachers, and a deeper and more heartfelt interest among Parents and Pupils, and feeling that something should be done to remove existing evils, and permanently to advance the true interests of popular education, we the undersigned do unite for the accomplishment of these purposes, and adopt for our guidance the following
Article I. The name of this society shall be the Orleans County Teachers' Association.
Art. II. The object of this Association shall be the advancement of the interests of education in the County, and especially the improvement of Common Schools.
Art. III. The officers shall be a President, two Vice Presidents, chosen by the Association, and the Superintendents of Schools in the several towns ex officio, a Corresponding and Recording Secretary, Treasurer, Librarian, and Executive Committee of three; said officers may be chosen annually, but shall hold their offices till others are appointed.
Art. IV. The Association shall hold its annual meeting in the month of October, at such time and place as may be fixed by adjournment, or may be called by the Executive Committee, with other meetings, quarterly or oftener, as thought best, and the notices of such meetings shall be published in the County paper, by the Executive Committee at least two weeks before the time appointed.
Art. V. The exercises of each meeting shall be Lectures, discussions and reports by Committees previously appointed. The Executive Committee shall secure at least two lectures for each meeting, from some teacher or friend of education, and shall also present a series of subjects for discussion, and may appoint two persons to lead in the discussion of each topic.
Art. VI. Any teacher or friend of education may become a member of the Association by signing the Constitution and paying 25 cents. Females shall not he required to pay the initiation fee. The funds shall be appropriated to advance the interests of the Society, by the payment for able works on education, the payment of the expenses of lecturers invited from beyond the limits of the County, and for any other object judged expedient by the Committee; all moneys shall be paid from the Treasury by their order, and they shall make an annual report of all moneys appropriated by them, the Treasurer shall also be required to make a similar report to the Association.
Art. vii. This Constitution may be amended at any annual meeting, but not so as to change the purpose of the Association."
ACADEMIES AND SCHOOLS.
At an early period, an academy or County Grammar school was established at Brownington. Of this school Rev. A. L. Twilight was for many years the able and successful principal. Under his able management and efforts, the seminary attained a high character and was highly successful. Many were fitted for college, who have since become eminently useful. Other able teachers, Rev. Mr. Woodward, Judge Porter and Rev. Mr. Scales, conducted the seminary a short time each. But Mr. Twilight conducted it longer than all the others.*
A similar institution was established a few years later at Craftsbury. It attained eminence among the academies of the State. In 1840, Rev. S. R. Hall assumed the charge of it, and aimed to make it a Normal school, or teachers, seminary, of high order, similar to the one he had conducted at Anderson, Mass. As Mr. Hall was pastor of the church, he was led to resign his connection with the school after a few years. Able and successful teachers have given the school high eminence. It has the richest cabinet and collections for a museum, of any school in Northern Vermont,
* For further accounts see biography of Mr. Twilight in the history of Brownington.
ORLEANS COUNTY. 43
if not in the State. For many years, both of these institutions exerted a salutary influence. But After a part of the county funds were given to other schools, both of these declined. Others however have been commenced at Derby, Glover, Barton, Westfield, Troy and Albany. That at Derby is now eminently prosperous. A new building, highly creditable to that town, has been just completed, another at Craftsbury, is being completed.
In all the other towns mentioned and at Charleston and Irasburgh, good buildings have been provided for academies or high schools. No county in the State surpasses Orleans, in the efforts made to provide for the education of youth. May these efforts continue and increase.
ORLEANS COUNTY MEDICIAL SOCIETY.
BY J. M. CURRIER, M. D.
This society was organized at Orleans, (now 1869 Coventry) Aug. 15, 1843. The following were the first officers:
S. S. Kendall, M. D., president; J. F. Skinner, M. D., vice president; Daniel Bates, M. D., secretary; Geo. A. Hinman, M. D., treasurer; S. S. Kendall, M. D., librarian; Lemuel Richmond, M. D., J. F. Skinner, M. D., and Daniel Bates, M. D., censors.
The following names are found appended to the constitution as members:
Lemuel Richmond, Derby Line, J. F. Skinner, Barton, Daniel Bates, Lewis Morril, Newport, Geo. A. Hinman, West Charleston, S. S. Kendall, Coventry, Geo. Damon, Dyer Bill, West Albany, Lewis Patch, Derby, H. P. Hoyt, Henry Hayes, Elijah Robinson, L. W. Adgate, Irasburgh, A. G. Bugbee, Derby Line, D. W. Blanchard, Coventry, John B. Masta, Barton, S. A. Skinner, Brownington.
Very few meetings were holden under this organization until Sept, 11, 1851, when there took place a re-organization, at Coventry.—The following officers were elected:
Lemuel Richmond, M. D., president; Dyer Bill, M. D., vice president; D. W. Blanchard, M. D., secretary; S. S. Kendall, M. D. treasurer; L. W. Adgate, M. D., librarian.
Meetings were regularly holden in the different towns until June 22, 1854, after which time none were holden until June 7, 1864, when there took place another re-organization. The following officers were elected:
Lemuel Richmond, M. D., president; J. F. Skinner, M. D., vice president; D. W. Blanchard, M. D., secretary; L. W. Adgate, M. D., treasurer; A. G. Bugbee, M. D., J. M. Currier, M. D., R. B. Skinner, M. D., censors.
Successful meetings have been holden up to the present time, (1869). The following names have been appended to the constitution as members, in addition to the above, viz. J. M. Currier, M. D., Newport, R. B. Skinner, M. D., Barton, F. W. Goodall, M. D., Glover, G. B. Cutler, M. D., Troy, W. B. Moody, M. D., Brownington, S. Putnam, M. D., Greensboro, N. Tittemore, M. D., Lowell, George Woodward, M. D., Albany, S. R. Corey, M. D., East Craftsbury, T. H. Hoskins, M. D., Newport, C. G. Adams, M. D., Island Pond, N. Cheney, M. D., Beebe Plain, R. P. Johnson, M. D., Stanstead; S. E. Farnsworth, M. D., Lowell, Charles L. Erwin, M. D., Newport Centre, E. O. Ranny, M. D., Barton Landing, H. J. Miller. M. D., South Troy, J. M. Winslow, M. D., Brownington, C. L. French, M. D. Glover.
The following is the order of presidents of the society:
First president, S. S. Kendall; second, J. F. Skinner; third, Lemuel Richmond; fourth, D. W. Blanchard.
This society was formed for self-improvement, in which the members could report their cases, and receive as well as impart knowledge relating to the pathology and treatment of diseases. It has had an elevating effect upon the medical profession of the county, dispelling jealousy, hatred and self-conceit, and inspiring confidence, respect, and love for research among its members.
THE ORLEANS COUNTY SOCIETY OF NATURAL SCIENCES.
BY J. M. CURRIER, M. D.
This Society organized Sept. 28, 1869, was designed to supersede the Orleans County Natural and Civil Historical Society, which was organized in 1853, and continued in active and efficient operation until 1859, since which time no meetings have been holden.
It has adopted mainly the constitution and by-laws of the Portland Society of Natural History, modified only to suit the different circumstances. The museum and library are located at Derby, Vt. The cabinet contains several hundred valuable specimens, mostly minerals, which will soon be properly labeled and catalogued.
The meetings are holden in the several towns in the county, as may be determined from time to time. There are six regular
44 VERMONT HISTORICAL MAGAZINE.
meetings in a year, and the by-laws provide for special meetings whenever the interests of the society require them.
The society contemplates commencing a series of publications, under the title of "Transactions of the Orleans County Society of Natural Sciences," during the year 1870, and to continue them annually.
The following are the present officers of the society, (1870) viz.:
George A. Hinman, M. D., president; Rev. H. A. Spencer, first vice president; E. P. Colton, Esq., second vice president; J. M. Currier, M. D., Rec. and Cor. secretary; M. H. Fuller, A. B., treasurer; Hon. E. A. Stewart and M. H. Fuller, A. B., curators.
Honorary members: Rev. S. R. Hall, LL. D., Hon. D. M. Camp.
The Orleans County Natural and Civil Historical Society was organized in 1853. The following were the first officers:
Hon. Samuel C. Crafts, president; Rev. S. R. Hall, Rev. A. R. Gray, vice presidents;—George A. Hinman, M. D., secretary; S. A. Skinner, M. D., treasurer.
There were four regular meetings in a year, held in the several towns, as determined by the society, from time to time. The library and cabinet were kept at Derby Academy, Vt.
AGRICULTURE IN ORLEANS COUNTY.
BY HON. Z. E. JAMESON, OF IRASBURGH.
The geological character of each town will doubtless be given by other writers. It is a subject that attracts the attention of but few farmers, and needs no particular consideration, except so far as it affects the soil. This is so satisfactory, that many seem to regard their own estates as best.
Those upon the hills speak of their excellent pastures and great crops of grass; these alone are reliable sources of prosperity. But the valleys are often equally productive of grass, and being more free from stone, are easily tilled, and tempt the farmer to the free use of the plow, and the more extensive cultivation of grain and hoed crops.
As an example of the actual productions in this county, I give the statistics collected by school-district clerks, in 13 towns, in 1867.
The number of farms reported is 718, and the actual produce and number of acres are usually from the farmer's own estimate:
Acres wheat, ........................................................... 568
" oats, ....................................................... 2,287
Acres rye and barley, ................................................ 66
" potatoes, .................................................... 708
" corn, ......................................................... 348
" India or buckwheat, .................................... 600
" mowing, ................................................ 16,903
" pasture, ................................................ 22,207
Bushels of roots for cattle, ................................... 14,735
Number of oxen, ..................................................... 771
" cows, ..................................................... 3,128
Pounds of butter, ............................................. 222,829
" cheese, .................................................. 35,745
Number cattle less than 3 yrs. old, .......................... 2,297
" sheep, ................................................. . 14,065
Pounds of fattened pork, ................................... . 377,400
Number of store pigs, ............................................. . 844
Bushels of apples, ................................................ 9,219
Swarms of bees, ..................................................... 614
Pounds of surplus honey, ....................................... 4,197
Number of maple trees tapped, ............................ 153,835
Pounds of sugar made, ....................................... 350,745
Number of horses over 4 yrs. old, .............................. 924
" colts less than " ....................................... 546
The yield per acre of the crops is somewhat variable, yet shows no failure; and in many cases the yield is large—as from 30 to 40 bushels of wheat, 50 to 80 bushels of oats—300 bushels of potatoes.
The wheat raised is not nearly enough to supply the home demand. When the country was first settled wheat was considered a sure and remunerative crop; but from perhaps 1840 to 1860 many fields were completely destroyed by midge, or what is commonly called wevil—especially on valley land that inclined to be sandy—but constant experiments gradually proved, that if spring wheat was sown very early on fertile land, a crop is almost certain. Winter wheat is not raised.
The oat crop is raised on every variety of soil, and with but little care; and, in the absence of a regular rotation of crops, oats are often raised 3 or 4 years on one piece of land thus raised because oats are reliable, and are always in demand, and are a source of moneyed income. They are sown at any time after the snow leaves the ground until June 15.
Barley, rye, corn and buckwheat are only raised in small quantities, as will be seen by comparing the number of acres with the number of farms, reported.
Doubtless when the importance of feeding grain to all kinds of stock is fully appreciated, as well as the profit in fattening cattle and sheep, these kinds of coarse grain will be more extensively raised.
ORLEANS COUNTY. 45
Potatoes average only about one acre to the farm; yet in towns where there are starch-factories, as in Albany, Barton, Coventry, Derby, Charleston, Lowell, and other towns, potatoes are planted in fields of from 5 to 20 acres, and yield, in some cases, over 400 bushels per acre, —and generally 200 per acre. The price paid at the factories, in 1863, was from 30 to 40 cts, —the highest price being for well-ripened, good eating potatoes, as such yield the most starch; from 7 to 8 lbs. to the bushel.
In Coventry, in each of 3 years, were received at the factory from 30,000 to 36,000 bushels. Three other years were received from 20,000 to 24,000 each year. The method of raising potatees is usually to plow up a piece of pasture, or grass ground, and for a fertilizer use only a spoonful of plaster (gypsum) in each hill. The inferior kinds, however, will not generally rot, even if grown on rich ground. The second year of plowing, apply manure and sow grass-seed and grain. In this way land does not run out, and a cash income is secured. The products intended for market, such as oats, butter, cheese, hops and cattle, are bought by men who are called speculators, but who are of great assistance to farmers in making a home market for all surplus productions; and as the farmers usually take papers that report the markets, they know the value, and the prices obtained usually leave but a small margin of profit to the dealer; but his capital is returned so often that the risk is less. Every day express-matter can be sent to the city, and every week special butter-cars and cattle-trains accommodate the dealer.
No produce has been so variable as hops.— The crop in the field yields from 100 lbs. to a ton per acre; in price from 2 cents per pound to 75 cents. One day in October, 1868, it was reported that 150,000 pounds were delivered at Newport, at 15 cents per pound. In nearly every town there are a few acres still cultivated.
The sugar made in the county is not enough to supply the home wants, although there are quanties sent to all parts of the country to those who prefer the maple to all other sugars; yet it is evident the merchants bring in more than they send off. The average yield per farm is nearly 500 lbs. A good sugar-place is usually considered a valuable addition to a farm and worthy of preservation; yet it is doubtles true that an acre of good tillage yields a greater annual income than an acre of maples.
The cattle in Orleans county are mostly natives, bred in a somewhat careless manner.—The males used for breeding being often inferior animals, and their stock remarkable for no particular excellencies. With some farmers the color was the chief thing. The ox or cow must be red, then, if it was otherwise valuable, so much the better. Such ideas led to the introduction of Devon stock; and in many parts of the county the cattle show the influence of Devon blood in color and build, but there is no herd of pure Devons, of long standing, known to the writer. At the fair in 1868, there were two exhibitors of Devons, E. A. Leach, Irasburg, and Geo. Nelson, Craftsbury.
Notwithstanding the popular feeling in favor of red color, there were a few persons who, from time to time, tried to introduce the Durhams.— Levi Brigham and brother, of Lowel, have had this stock for about 20 years, but have not sought especial notoriety. In 1858 Hon. E. Cleveland obtained of this blood three heifers from Kentucky and two from Canada, from which, with judicious breeding, a fine herd has been produced, and as this breed has continued to gain in public favor, the investment has financially resulted favorably, purchasers being ready to take all surplus stock at a good price. Whenever this herd has been exhibited at fairs, either State or county, it has received the favorable consideration of spectators and awarding committees. Its present high standing is as much due to the personal care of H. C. Cleveland, as to the natural excellencies of the breed for beef and milk.
Half-bloods, with good care, seem to grow to a large size and mature young. A few others are commencing herds of Durhams, but whether for experiment or permanency it is impossible to say.
The Dutch cattle are only represented by animals owned by T. Baker, of Barton, and A. M. Ripley, Coventry. They are recommended as superior milking stock; but the present indications are that their chief value will be in crossing with the common stock. Half-bloods sired by a Dutch bull, are produced of large frames, strong digestive organs, quietness and docility in feeding and management.
The Jersey cattle have been kept several years by N. T. Sheafe, Esq., Derby Line, with great satisfaction. They seem to sustain their usual reputation as good milkers.
There may have been occasional specimens of the Hereford, Ayrshire, Galloways, &c., but no herd of any of these breeds. The tendency for
46 VERMONT HISTORICAL MAGAZINE.
several years has been, among large farmers, to devote their chief attention to dairying. Sometimes cows and team are all the stock kept; no young heifers growing up to take the places of failing cows. The income of a good dairy has often been from $75 to $100 per cow.
The sheep kept probably number 20,000.—Most of the large flocks are high grade merinos, a healthy, hardy sheep, well covered with excellent wool, yielding in fleece and lambs a satisfactory return for the shepherd's care.
To improve these flocks the best bred bucks have been obtained, at prices from $50 to $500. There are some good tine sheep in nearly every town; but there seems to have been the most attention paid to them in Coventry, where there are several large and choice flocks. Through the north-eastern towns there are many small flocks of large sheep kept for raising lambs for market, and the steadily increasing demand for these lambs has called more attention to their production, and a desire to increase their size by breeding with the choice English bucks, South Devon, Leicester and Coltswolds.
This branch of farming has proved highly remunerative, and will, doubtless, be more extensively followed. A. B. Mathewson, of Barton, has kept, according to report, about 100 large ewes, from which 100 lambs were produced at $5 each, and a fleece at $2, making an income of $700 from the flock. Small flocks are occasionally reported that give an income of $10, $12, and even $15 to each sheep wintered.
The surplus produce of the county is nearly all shipped at the depots in the county on the Connecticut & Passumpsic road, although some of the eastern towns occasionally deliver produce at Island Pond, on the Grand Trunk R. R.—The main highways are usually kept in good condition, and follow streams or take the levelest route; and while all admit the value of railroads to the farmer, it is evident that extensive manufactories that would employ a large number of persons, who would use here what is now transported, would be of still greater advantage to the county and cause a greater degree of prosperity than has vet been attained.
There was an agricultural society in Orleans county about 1849 that held an annual fair about ten years in succession in different villages near the centre of the county. The premiums were paid by the help of a State appropriation and the sale of membership tickets—the fair being held in open ground free to all. Then a fair-ground company was formed, that prepared and fenced a ground near Barton Landing, made a good track, and charged an entrance fee. From some cause it became unpopular, and the idea of a "horse-trot" prevailed, therefore the show was discontinued 15 years.
In 1867 a county agricultural society was formed, and held a fair at Barton Landing on the old ground. It was very successful. There were 429 articles entered, and $766.26 received, and, after premiums were paid $444.89 was left in the treasury.
The officers in 1867 and 1868 were: Mark Nutter, Barton, president; Wm, J. Hastings, Craftsbury, J. B. Wheelock, Coventry, vice presidents; Z. E. Jameson, Irasburgh, D. F. Bisbee, Newport, secretaries; and one executive committee from each town in the county.
In 1868 the fair was held on a new fair-ground near Barton village—a beautiful place, and well prepared, by a company who furnish its use free to the society for 5 years. The number of entries at the fair were 510, of which 110 were horses and colts. There were specimens of Durham, Devon, Dutch, Ayrshire and Jersey cattle; but the first class were the most numerous, and the herd of H. C. Cleveland, of Coventry, attracted especial attention, also the Dutch of Thomas Baker, of Barton.
The officers for 1869 are M. M. Kelsey, Derby, president; A. M. Ripley, Coventry, Thomas Baker, Barton, vice presidents; Z. E. Jameson, Irasburg, Geo. W. True, Coventry, secretaries; $1200 offered in premiums.
BY NORRIS M. DARLING.
The charter of this township was granted to Col. Henry E. Lutherloh and Maj. Thomas Cogswell, and their associates, viz.:
Gen. Joseph Badger, Col. Ebenezer Smith, Col. Antipas Gilman, Noah Dow, Charles Clapham, Richard Sinclair, Gen. John Tyler, John Tyler, John Tyler, Jr., James Lord, Nathaniel Coit, Hezekiah Lord, John Mott, Nathan Geer, Joshua Stanton, Abiel Fellows, Andrew Lester, Noah Holcomb, Ruluff Dutcher, Nehemiah Lawrence, Rachel Fellows, Elisha Sheldon, Jr., Elijah Stanton, David Whitney, Correl Merrill, Samuel B. Sheldon, Calvin Ackley, Andrew Carney, Elisha Lee, Timothy O'Brien, Joshua Porter, Jr., Nergalsharezzer Rude, James Jordan, Frank Moore, Authur Frink, John Wheeler, Jacob Galusha, Samuel Moore, Jr., Ebenezer Fletcher, Jacob Vosburgh, Moses Rinesdale, Ebenezer Reed, Gabriel Dutcher, Isaac White, Andrew Frink, John Park, Samuel Hull, Gid‑