IRASBURGH.                                                              239


        Names.                       Rank.       Co.        Mustered in.                                            Remarks.

Smith, James                            B         Feb. 12, '63.                Trans. to invalid Corps Feb. 27, '64.

Wheeler, Allen M.         Priv.       I          Dec. 18, '61.               Re-en. Jan 5, '64; deserted May 18, '64.

Wheeler, Charles            "           B         Feb. 18, '62.                Mustered out of service June 22, '64.

Woodward, William F.     "           "            "                             Discharged Oct. 19, '62.

McGee, Thomas             "           "            "                             Re-en. June 5, '64; deserted May 18, '64.

Robinson, John R.          "           "            "                                "             "                "              "

Judd, Charles                "                     Feb. 17, '65.                Discharged June 14, '65.

Carpenter, Isaac             "           "            "                                "             "               


      Veteran Corps.

      Ferrin, Charles

      Morgan, John


      First Battery — Vols. for three years.

Yates, Stephen                                        Jan. 6, '64.                 Died April 9, '64.


      Second Battery.

McLennon, Norman                                           Jan. 6, '64.       Died Oct. 5, '64.


      Second Battery—Vols. for one year.

Ames, Marshall L.                                            Aug. 8, '64.                    Mustered out of service July 31, '65.

Bishop, Leon                                           Aug. 16, '64.               "

Ewens, Alonzo                                         Aug. 10, '64.       Trans. to 1st Co. Heavy Art. Nov. 1, '65, must. out of service July 28, 65.


      Volunteers for nine months.

Ames, Marshall L.                    Priv.         E      Oct. 22, '62.       Mustered out of service Aug. 5, '63.

Bryant, Charles                          "             "          "                       "                          "              "

Bryant, George W.                      "             "          "                       "                          "              "

Fisk, John G.    "                     "              Nov. 29, '62.           "                     "              "

Graves, Myron M.                       "             "          "                       "                          "              "

Hall, Joshua R.                          "             "          "                       "                          "              "

Hill, Aaron Jr.    "                     "                 "                        "                     "              "

Pillsbury, Alphonzo C.               Corp.        "          "                       "                          "              "

Pillsbury, Joseph H.                 Priv.         "       Oct. 22, '62.       Discharged April 17, '63.







                                                           BY E. P. COLTON.


The township of Irasburgh was granted to Ira Allen and his associates, by the General Assem­bly of Vermont on the 23d day of Feb. 1781. His associates were Roger Enos, Roger Enos jr., Jerusha Enos, Jerusha Enos. jr., and Sybil Enos—a family living in Hartland in this State,—then followed the names of Nathan Allen, Nancy Allen, and Betsey Allen, who were his relatives. The 43 others whose names appear as his asso­ciates, were the names of individuals living at a distance or, were fictitious. When the Allens wanted a new township granted they merely obtained a few bona fide proprietors, and filled up the required number of grantees with assumed names from some at that time distant point, paid the first grantee dues, and afterwards professed­ly brought up these claims. When parties peti­tioned for a grant of land, it was the custom to present the papers at any time during the year; the petitions were placed in the hands of the secre­tary who usually presented them to the assem­bly at its following session. The unappropriated lands in Vermont, at this time were claimed by New Hampshire and New York, and the Continental Congress had ordered the Assembly of the "So called State of Vermont," not to grant any more lands within its jurisdiction, until the con­troversy between the inhabitants of the "So called State of Vermont," and New York and New Hampshire should be settled. The Legisla­ture at this time was what would now be called bogus, that is, it was so considered by a large portion of the people in the United Colonies. The Assembly of Vermont paid no attention to the order of Congress, nor to the threats of New York, but granted lands as long as there was an acre unappropriated. The people were demo­cratic, and were opposed to there being large landed proprietors within the bounds of the State, so the townships were granted to from 40 to 70 individuals, conditioned that each propri­etor should make inprovements on his individual right within a specified time.

There was reserved, for public and pious uses forever, five equal rights, viz. One right for the use of a college within this State; one for the benefit of the first settled minister; one for the use and support of the ministry in said township; one for the support of County gram­mar schools; and one for the support of an



240                                     VERMONT HISTORICAL MAGAZINE.


English School or Schools in said township forever. These rights contained according to the allotment, three lots each, or 351 acres.

The township was granted 6 miles square, bounded N. by Coventry, S. by Lutterloh. The lands on the east and west sides were at this time unappropriated and unnamed.

There were in the grant the following reserva­tions, and conditions that each proprietor, his heirs or assigns, should plant and cultivate 5 acres of land, and build a house at least 18 feet square, or have one family settled on each respective right within 4 years from the time of establishing the outlines of said township, on penalty of the forfeiture of each respective right not so settled and improved, as aforesaid, and the same to revert to the freemen of this State, to be, by their representatives, regranted to such persons as shall appear to settle and cultivate the same. The grant was signed by Thomas Chittenden who was at that time governor, and by Joseph Fay, secretary. The signature of Gov. Chittenden was written in the old fashioned round style, with a firm hand. Previous to 1789, Ira Allen had received conveyances from all of the origin­al proprietors, so that the whole township, except the public rights, belonged to him, sub­ject to the conditions of the grant, and Sept. 13, 1789, Ira Allen conveyed all his rights in the township of Irasburgh to Jerusha Enos jr., of Hartland, as a marriage dower. In 1792, Mr. Allen employed James Whitlaw Esq., to survey the township. Surveyor Whitlaw com­menced the survey but did not complete it till the Summer of 1793. The township was surveyed into 210 lots, each lot containing, according to the plan of the survey 117 acres. The surveyor marked the quality of the lands upon his plan, g standing for good lands, m for middling, and b for bad lands. Some lots that were marked middling at that time, are now considered as good as any in town, while others that were marked good are now known as mid­dling or poor land. The township should have been settled, or there should have been a family upon each respective right in the Summer of 1797, in order to have had the titles good under the grant. Nothing appears to have been done toward making a settlement, or to com­ply with the requirements of the grant until Autumn of 1801, when a notice appeared in the Rutland Herald, warning the proprietors to meet at the dwelling house of Ralph Parker in Glover on the 12th day of November. This notice also appeared in the columns of Spooner's Ver­mont Journal and those of the Green Mountain Patriot, and was signed by Ralph Parker, justice of the peace. The business for which the meet­ing was called was as follows: 1st To choose a moderator, 2nd proprietors clerk and treasurer, 3d To see if the proprietors will establish the former surveys made of the lands in said town­ship, and divide the same into severalty; "4th To see if the proprietors will vote to settlers the lots they now live on, in lieu of their drafts; 5th To see if the proprietors will vote a tax to defray the expense of surveying and allotting said town."

When the time arrived for holding the meet­ing, Esq., Parker called the meeting to order, elected himself moderator, chose Heman Allen proprietors' clerk, and then adjourned the meeting to the last Monday in December to meet at the same place. It does not appear that any persons were present except Heman Allen and Ralph Parker, who probably voted for Jerusha Allen as proxy.

Dec. 28, 1801, the meeting was opened agree­able to adjournment, Mr. Parker in the chair.

Voted—that the proprietors have met, and do accept of the survey, and that the same be established as the permanent survey of said town of Irasburgh." "Voted —To divide the lands of said town into severalty by draft, and that three lots be drawn to each proprietor's right."

Voted., that Roger Enos jr., be appointed to draw the numbers, as the rights are called by the clerk; Heman Allen read the proprietors' names. Roger Enos drew the numbers from the hat, in the presence of Esq., Parker, who was the meeting.

Three lots were drawn for each original pro­prietor, and three for each of the public rights. This draft left three lots undrawn and undivided. (At a meeting of the proprietors held on the first Monday in June 1806, at the house of Amos Conant, Samuel Huntington and Aaron Shepherd of Greensboro were appointed a committee to survey the undivided lands in town into lots of equal size, one for each original proprietor. Lots Nos, 36, 69, and 118 were surveyed into 69 lots of 4 acres and 78 hundredths each. This survey was accepted by the proprietors at a meeting held Feb. 9, 1807.) At the meeting held in Glover Dec. 28, 1801, the proprietors voted that the account of James Whitelaw for surveying, be allowed principal and interest, and that a tax of $6.25 be assessed on each propri­etor's share in said town. Roger Enos jr., was elected to collect said tax. None of the pro‑



                                                              IRASBURGH.                                                              241


prietors appeared to pay the tax, and Dec. 25, 1802, Mr. Enos advertised the lands for sale, the vendue to come off March 4, 1803, at Glover. At that time all the lands in Iras­burgh (public rights excepted) were sold at auction to pay the tax assessed for the purpose of paying the expense of surveying the town. These lands were deeded to Heman Allen who bought all the lots by Roger Enos jr., the collec­tor, March 14, 1804. The Legislature of the State, at their session in 1797, assessed a tax of three cents per acre on all lands in Irasburgh (public rights excepted) for the purpose of re­pairing roads and building bridges, Joseph Scott, collector, advertised the lands in Irasburgh to be sold at public auction on the March 9, 1803, at the house of Royal Corbin in Craftsbury. The lands were all sold, and again bid off by Heman Allen, who became owner by virtue of vendue deeds from two collectors, authorized to convey them by statute laws, Ira, and Jerusha Allen had, previous to these sales leased several lots in town to various individuals, some of whom were occupying them at this time. Sev­eral of these leases bear date Aug. 4, 1802; and several on Oct. 25, of the same year. The leases were perpetual, conditioned that the lessee pay, after 5 years, a rent, of 5 cents per acre, in­creasing each year 3 cents per acre, until the sum amounted to 17 cents per acre which should he the annual rent payable to Elijah Paine and Heman Allen on the first day of January of each year. All minerals and mill-priveliges were excepted and the right to erect mills and mill­dams with all the priveliges of passing and repassing with teams for any and all such pur­posses were reserved.

The leases were forfeited in case any taxes were unpaid, or if the annual rents were six months in arrears. Heman Allen was one of the trustees who collected the rents for Jerusha Allen; and, after be became legal owner of the town, by virtue of vendue deeds, he caused the occupants of lands, who held them under leases from Ira and Jerusha Allen, to quit-claim their lots to him, who again leased to thorn in his own name.

The following persons quit-claimed their lands to Heman Allen, many of the deeds bearing date the 22d and 23d of April, 1805: Caleb Leach, James Leach, Simon French, Amos Co­nant, Levi Utley, Sargent Morrell, Seneca Thom­as, Moses Bailey, Willard C. Gleason, Jacob Bay­ley, Daniel Galusha, Selim Freeman, Peter Thatcher, John Brewster, Joseph Skinner, Jon­athan Thompson, Jacob Burton, Benj. Burton, Sam'l Warner, Enoch Rowell, Reuben Willey, Benj. Hardy, Elisha Utley, Ezekiel Currier, Andrew Whicher, Ezra Rood, Richard Currier, Wm. Fisher, Eli Fletcher, and Jeremiah Mor­rell, making 34 individuals who held claims from the original lessors. After the vendue sales in 1803, some doubt as to the legality of the proceedings of the previous proprietors' meetings existed in minds of those interested, and they succeeded in getting a special enabling act passed at the session of the general assembly in October 1804. This act reads as follows; That the proprietors of Irasburgh be, and they are hereby empowered at any future proprietors' meeting, legally warned and holden for that purpose, to ratify and confirm their harmer pro­ceedings, and the same shall be as good and valid in law, to all intents and purposes as though the survey, allotment, and division had been previously made in the manner prescribed by Statute law of this State in that case made and provided—any law usage or custom to the con­trary notwithstanding.''

At a meeting of the legal voters held at the house of Amos Conant June 2, 1806, the survey and allotment accepted by the proprietors at a meeting held in Glover, Dec. 28, 1801, was again accepted by the resident proprietors which made all the proceedings of the previous proprietors' meetings legal and valid.

Those residents, who were in town at that time could probably hold their lands against all the Allens, had they known how the business had been transacted, but Heman Allen, Roger Enos jr, and Esq. Ralph Parker managed the business for Jerusha Allen so that in the end she became the sole owner of the whole town except the public rights. Settlers held their lands under leases, and it was not till Ira H. Allen became a resident of the town that any lands were conveyed by deed. Roger Enos jr., Jerusha Enos and Jerusha Enos jr., the wife of Ira Allen were the only three of the original proprietors named in the grant who ever resided in town.




The first settlement made in town (or the first settler recognised as such by Heman Allen) was made by Caleb Leach on lot No. 108, now own­ed by Mr. John L. Dodge. This lot is in the east part of the town and lies on the Barton line. Mr. Leach erected a log house a little west of where Mr. Dodge's orchard now stands, and brought his family here in 1798. James Leach came soon after and commenced on Lot 109 now occupied by Mr. Jesse Alden, Levi Sylves­ter was here when found is 1799, on lot No.



242                                     VERMONT HISTORICAL MAGAZINE.


162, now owned by Mr. Leach and known as the brick-house-farm.

It was the custom in those days for landed proprietors to give the first settlers a lot of land in consideration of the hardships which the first pioneer must endure. Mr. Caleb Leach received a deed of the Easterly half of lot No. 108, as compensation for the privations which he and his family endured for the sake of being the first settlers. Mr. Leach's and Mr. Levi Sylvester's were the only families here when the census was taken in 1800, the population at that time being 15. During this year Foster Page, Simon French, Orlander Bowley, Amos Conant and his son Samuel made settlements in town. Foster Page commenced on lot No. 180, which was the first settlement in the part of the town known as Burton hill Simon French settled on lot No. 109, which was the first lot west of Caleb Leach's, and is now owned by Mr. J. L. Dodge, and is known as the back lot. Amos Conant settled on lots No. 83, and 86, being the two lots north of the one occupied by Simon French. The Conant farm is now owned by Mr. Wm. Edmunds.

It is not known how many men moved into town during the years 1801 and 1802, the only records showing that any intended to settle are the dates of leases from Ira and Jerusha Allen to various individuals, some of whom settled here in 1803-4 and 5. Nearly every lot in the east and north-east part of the town was leased during these years. It appears that the propri­etors leased lots to men who had never seen them, because several of the lots leased in 1802 are wild and unimproved at this time. Among those who took leases during the years, 1802 and '03 were the Burtons, Morrells, Baileys, Curriers. Utleys and Peter Thatcher, and some others who became residents of the town for many years.

Feb. 13, 1803, Foster Page, Caleb Leach, Levi Sylvester, James Leach and Simon French, signed a petition directed to Amos Conant, a justice of the peace, requesting him to issue his warrant, and notify all the inhabitants who were legal voters to meet and organize the town. The meeting was duly warned to meet at the dwelling-house of Caleb Leach, on Monday the 21st day of March. Foster Page was chosen moderator; Amos Conant, clerk; Caleb Leach, Levi Sylvester and Foster Page, selectmen, and Samuel Conant, constable. This year Ralph Parker, Esq., of Glover built a grist and saw­mill on the site of the present flouring

These mills were both under one roof—the saw­mill extending up towards the dam occupying the site of the present flume. The original dam, erected by Esquire Parker, is now standing and, is in a good state of preservation. These mills were built by Parker for the Allens, and the property has always been in the family till the present month, September, 1869, when it was conveyed by Charles P. Allen to Sumner Chilson.

Aug. 12, 1803, Mr. Constable Conant warned the first meeting of the freeman to give in their votes for State officers; also for a man to repre­sent them in the General Assembly, to be holden at Westminister. At this meeting the freeman voted not to proceed to the choice of said officers. Seneca Thomas and Thomas Brown took the freeman's oath, making an addition of two to the legal voters.

This year Capt. James Richardson settled on lot No. 80, now owned by Daniel Houghton. His buildings were a hundred rods farther up the hill than Mr. Houghton's dwelling. A few years after, roads were opened by his place— one over from Amos Conant's, northwesterly by Richardson's to Troy—and one from Burton hill, by the Allen place, northerly, to Morrell hill, thence to Coventry and Derby. His buildings stood at four corners, and he kept the first tavern opened in town. An old resident tells us, that he has known as many as 20 teams to put up at Richardson's in a single night. The house was located on one of the great highways, leading north through the County. What was one of the important points from 1804 to 1812, is now an old pasture with no road within half a mile.

Seneca Thomas came this year and settled on lot No. 62, now owned by Simon K. Lock. Mr. Thomas was the first individual who took the freeman's oath in the town.

In the autumn of this year Benj. Burton set­tled on lot No. 179, which gave the name to that part of the town now known as Burton hill. Sargent Morrell located his family on lot No. 32, now owned by Mr. Post, and his son Jeremiah selected lot No. 41, adjoining. These men gave the name of Morrell hill to that part of the town. Peter Thatcher came this year and settled on lot 182, on Burton hill where Sol. Eaton now resides. Moses Bailey made a settlement this year on Morrell hill, Jacob Burton located him­self and family on lot No. 158, now owned by Mark Drew. Daniel Galusha built a house and moved into town during the year, and his house stood on the knoll west of the brook which the road crosses going towards Burton hill. The



                                                              IRASBURGH.                                                              243


present highway leads directly over the site occupied by Mr. Galusha's house. A portion of the field now occupied by Moses White is land that was cleared by him. The settlements made this year were in the easterly part of the town—except Galusha's, which was one mile south of the mills. Previous to this year the grain was carried to Barton and Glover to be ground, the settlements, with two exceptions, were in the east part, and the only road lead­ing westerly was the one which led to Parker's mills, where it terminated.

Levi Utley settled on Lot No. 33, in the east part of the town, situated on the Barton line. This lot is in that part of the town between the Burton hill-road and where Caleb Leach lived, in an out-of-the-way place, Mr. Utley lived there many years—cleared up a respectable farm. The place is known as the Utley lot, and is used as a pasture.

1804. At a town meeting held on March 26, Capt. Benj. Burton was chosen moderator, Amos Conant, clerk, and James Leach constable. A tax of 4 days work upon each legal voter, to be laid out upon the highways, was voted. The same day the selectmen issued a warrant to James Leach, Constable, directing him to summon Joseph Barrows and Mary Barrows to depart from Irasburgh. This was the custom in those times, nearly every family that came here were warned out of town. If this duty was properly attended to, the town did not con­sider that they were under any obligation to render assistance in case the family became destitute. The first highways in town were laid out this year by the selectmen. The first one commenced on the Barton line, near James Leach's, on lot 109, and passed the dwellings of Caleb Leach and Amon Conant — thence across lots No. 82 and 81 to Capt. Richardson's, on lot No. 80—now owned by Daniel Houghton. Only about 50 rods of this road is now used as a highway, and that is where it passes the old Co­nant buildings, now owned by Wm. Edmonds. This road was laid 4 rods wide, and it was sup­posed that it would always remain one of the great thoroughfares through the town. The next road laid was one commencing on Coventry line on lot No. 8, thence, in a southerly direc­tion, across Morrell hill, to Capt. Richardson's, on lot No. 80. This road has not been discon­tinued and runs nearly its entire distance on the old survey. Another road was laid out and opened from Lutterloh (now Albany) line to R. Parker's mills. This road commenced on what is known as the Chamberlin hill, and ran along on the high ground between the river and the creek, and crossed the village plot a little west of the common. This road was used but a few years—one having been built down the river west of it, in 1808, which took the travel.

A man by the name of McFarland located on lot No. 113, now known as the Allen farm, hav­ing been the home-place of Ira H. Allen for many years.

Roads were opened from Caleb Leech's to Parker's mills, passing McFarland's; also one from Burton hill to Capt. Richardson's, pass­ing this place, and another from Amos Conant's to McFarland's, making five corners.

This place was thought, at that time, to be the spot on which the village would be located — Town and religious meetings were held here in 1810, when Eber Burton built a large frame-house near the common.

A burying-ground was established on the hard, gravelly knoll on the top of the hill north of the road. The militia of the town held their annual June trainings at this place, for several years. This was the business centre till the old court-house was completed in 1816.

At a freemen's meeting held in September of this year, James Leach was elected represent­ative to the general assembly, to be holden at Rutland. The whole number of votes cast for governor was 19: of these 16 were cast for Jonathan Robinson, and 3 for Isaac Tiche­nor. At this meeting, Eber Burton, Erastus Smith, Jacob Burton, Levi Utley, Joseph Bar­rows, Eli Thatcher and James Mackintosh, took the freemen's oath. Erastus Smith settled on Burton Hill, on the place now owned by Geo Ordway.

James McIntosh commenced on lot No. 61, near Barton Landing. Sargent Morrell, with his son, Jeremiah Morrell, located on lots No. 32 and 41, now owned by Mr. Post. Ezra Rood settled on lot No. 59, now owned by George Norton. Jonathan Thompson settled on lot No. 155, on Burton hill.

This year was as hard as any experienced by the first settlers, much of their time having been spent in cutting new roads and building causways over low and muddy places. There were no settlements on the west side of the river, and those on the east side were on Burton and Morrell hills, and in the Conant neighborhood.

A vote was taken in town-meeting to divide the town into two school-districts, and a com­mittee was appointed to make such division; but nothing was done till the next year.



244                                     VERMONT HISTORICAL MAGAZINE.


The cost of running the government of the town this year was $5.25, to meet which the freemen voted a tax of one cent on the dollar of the grand list.

In 1805, Ezekiel Currier, Moses Rood, Joseph Skinner, Enoch Rowell, Wm. Sargent, Thomas Crown and Walter Kittredge moved into town.

In 1806, there was a great increase in the pop­ulation by immigration. Several men of stam­ina and influence located here, which gave the settlement an impetus, and the town a charac­ter, which it very much needed. Among those who came this year were Benj. Walker, Reuben Willey, Nath'l and John Kellam, Benj. Hardy, Diocletian Wright, Andrew Whicher and Dan­iel Rowe.

This year the town was divided into two school districts, called the north and south dis­tricts. The north district comprised all that part of the town north of Caleb Leach's, and the south district comprised Burton hill and all the town west. There were reported March 30, 1807, 60 scholars in the north district, and 33 in the south district. Miss Fanny Kellam, daughter of Dea. Kellam, taught the first school. This school was taught in a barn on Burton hill. John Burton, now living, was one of her scholars, and says she was the best teacher he ever saw.

1807. This year Simon French, Robert Munn, John Smith, Abner Smith, Joshua John­son, Ezra Record, William Fisher, John Brown, Joseph Hyde, Samuel Tilton, Doctor Tabor, Samuel Warner, Isaac Waldron, Thomas Bach­ellor and John Brewster, settled in town.—These men do not appear to have been men of that moral worth that characterised those who came in 1806.

Of the descendants of those who came this year, there are only two now living in town—a son and daughter of Robert Munn.

1808. In March of this year Joseph Kidder, Esq., made the first settlement on the west side of the river, locating on lot No. 70, where Amos Metcalf now resides.

About this time a road was opened from Capt. Richardson's, by Mr. Kidder's, to Troy. This was in embargo times, when much of the pearlash made in the State was drawn, in win­ter, through the wilderness to Montreal. This road to Troy was cut in the Fall of 1807, by parties from Danville and Peacham, who trans­ported hundreds of tons of salts and pearlashes through to Canada. In the spring of 1808, a large quantity remained in the country, and Barton river was cleared cut, the casks put on to rafts and barges, and transported by water to Quebec. This circumstance gave the name of "the landing" to that part of Barton near Iras­burgh line where the merchandize was put on board the boats. The principal business of the inhabitants, at this time, was the making of salts and pearl-ashes, which were taken, in winter, on ox-sleds to Missisquoi Bay and Montreal.— Those portions of the town which which were timbered with maple and elm were first settled because those kinds of wood yield more ashes, and will burn with less trouble than many oth­er kinds. These times also encouraged smug­gling, which was carried on by residents of the town to considerable extent. Abram Gale, Asaph Wilkins, Daniel Rowell and Andrew Slyfield settled hero this year.

In 1809, came Ebenezer Broughton, Joseph. Woodman, Joshua Taylor, Alexander Benton, Timothy Blood and Bezer Thompson, and made settlements on the west side of the river. Al­exander Benton located on lot No. 115, now owned by Perly Hill—Ebenezer Broughton on lot No. 116. Levi Sylvester had moved over on to lot No. 100—Bezer Thompson settled on 94, Joshua Taylor on 95, and Joseph Woodman on 102—Timothy Blood on 101.

During this year a road was cut from Parker's mills, through the woods, on the west side of the river, past Broughton's, Sylvester's and Thompson's, to Kidder's. The west part of the town settled more slowly than the other parts, because there was more dark timber in that section, which always frightened the early settlers.

In 1810, the population had increased to 392, which was nearly all on the east side of the river.

Something was done at manufacturing about this time. Ezekiel Currier had erected a distillery on lot No. 88, now owned by Moses Leano. Potato whisky used to sell, at the still, at 50 cents per gallon. Abraham Gale made fanning-mills, and Samuel Wells ran a spinning-jenny. John Adams was the first car­penter who worked by the square rule. Walter Derby was the first blacksmith, and had a shop on the top of what was called the mill hill, where Mr. Pearsons now has a garden.

Eber Burton opened a small store in a build­ing that stood where Dr. Parkhurst now resides. There was a store on the Sol. Eaton place on Burton hill when goods were sold in exchange for salts and pearlash.



                                                              IRASBURGH.                                                              245


The war of 1812, was declared while the peo­ple of Irasburgh were making salts and whiskey and smuggling goods from Canada. An associ­ation had formed consisting of a dozen or more men who gave a joint and several note to Wm. Baxter of Brownington for funds which they used in the smuggling business.

This ring was not broken up till 1814, when an association of anti-smugglers, who worked for their own interest, frustratred all their plans and overpowered them. During this year the first framed house was put up in what is now the village, by Eber Burton. This house is still standing and in a good state of preservation. It was used many years as a hotel, and was occupied as such by Jesse Rolf, Ezekiel Little and George Nye.

In 1812, the Legislature of the State passed an act constituting Irasburgh the Shiretown of Orleans County, provided the inhabitants of Irasburgh would erect a court-house and jail at their own expense. Nothing appears to have been done towards erecting buildings, till after Ira H. Allen came here in 1814. The buildings were put up in 1815, and completed so that the courts were held here 1816. The old court-house was moved in 1847, and a new one erected upon the site, which cost nearly $4000, which was also built by the town at no expense to the County. The first jail was built of logs or hewn timber, ceiled with three-inch hardwood plank. This structure stood till 1838, when it was taken down and a stone structure erected on its site. This jail was 18 feet square on the ground, two stories high. It was found to be too small, at many times, and was not considered safe for desperate characters; so, upon recommendation of the members from Orleans County, the Legis­lature of 1861 authorized the County judges to borrow $3000 for the purpose of erecting a new jail. Harry Hinman, Jonathan Elkins and E. P. Colton, were appointed a committee by the legis­lature to rebuild. The new jail was erected in 1862, and is one of the safest, best constructed buildings of the kind in the country. It is 26 by 36 ft on the ground, two stories high, and built of the best of granite.

When the news of the declaration of war by the United States against Great Britain reached this town, a meeting was called, and Nath'l Kellam, John Adams, Roger Enos, Benj. Hardy and Caleb Leach, were appointed a committee of safety. This committee bought some powder and lead, but we have not been able to learn that they performed any other duty. Several citizens of the town served in the army, among whom were Capt. James Richardson. Capt. Oliver Burton, James Leach, Alexander Benton, Amos Stafford, John Little, Joshua Taylor, John Kellam and many others.

The principal business of the inhabitants, during the war, seems to have been, one party taking cattle and contraband goods from the other party. Roger Enos, Ezekiel Little and Jos. Kidder were deputy collectors of customs, and with their friends and retainers, were continually alert for smugglers. The government party became strongest, and many of those who en­gaged in smuggling became bankrupt and left the town. Some families went away during the war, and never returned; many went West during the decade from 1810 to '20; so that there were but an increase of 40 inhabitants in the 19 years. From 1820 to 1830, the popula­tion more than doubled; it was a decade of great prosperity for the town. Ezekiel Little built a saw-mill on the river above the old mills, and Sylvester Howard put in a tannery at that place. Roger Enos erected a factory for the manufacture of woolens, which stood opposite the grist-mill. A foundry was also built here, and a company formed for the purpose of man­ufacturing scales. They infringed upon the rights of E. & T. Fairbanks & Co., who com­pelled them to stop business. The foundry was used, for many years, for the manufac­ture of stoves and plows.


                                             CALEB LEACH,


who made the first settlement in the east part of the town, was very much respected by his townsmen, and was a very industrious, hard­working man. He cleared up a large farm, built a good set of buildings; and, in 1812, had every­thing comfortable around him. He was elected the first representative from the town, and was re-elected for the following 4 years—serving 5 years in all. He was one of the first board of selectmen, and held many offices in town. He was the first settler, the first representative, and the first man in town in point of wealth, intelli­gence and location. He was a resident till the summer of 1816, when he sold his property and moved to the West.


                                              JAMES LEACH


was a younger brother, who settled on lot No. 109—lived here till the war of 1812, when he went into the army where he was promoted to a captaincy. I have not been able to learn whether he resided here after the war.



246                                     VERMONT HISTORICAL MAGAZINE.


                                              FOSTER PAGE


who settled on lot No. 180, was the first settler on Burton hill. He was moderator of the first town-meeting, and held some town-offices after the organization of the town. It does not ap­pear that he had any title to the land he occupied was merely a squatter. Mr. Page was a great talker, and was described by a man who remem­bers him well, "as a pettifogging kind of a chap, rather portly looking." Seneca Page, the great counterfeit money-dealer of Dunham, Canada, was his son and came here with his father when he was a lad. Every one has heard of Seneca Page. He was considered the greatest devil in all the Canadas, Stephen Burroughs not excep­ted. He was the controlling spirit and head-manager of the company that manufactured snags, or counterfeit money, at Dunham. This same Seneca Page was a good neighbor, and brought up as fine a family as ever was raised in the Province. He was a proud man, and made a fine personal appearance—owned the best horses and carriages to be found in all that vicin­ity. He is said to have accumulated an ample fortune, while engaged in the snag business.


                                                          LEVI SYLVESTER


erected his cabin on lot No. 174. His was the first house erected on Black river, in the town of Irasburgh. He was a hunter by profession and practice. In the summer of 1800, James Leach and Orlander Bowley found his cabin, while fishing up the river. They had no knowl­edge that there were any inhabitants, except those known to them in the east part of the town. Mrs. Sylvester was an Indian, and liked the wil­derness as well as any of her race. When Leach and Bowley found the cabin with the family in it, they were no more astonished than were the inmates, who supposed that they were the only residents in the town. Mr. Sylvester had cleared a dry knoll, near the river, on which was growing a crop of corn and potatoes. Mr. Sylvester was one of the residents who signed the petition to Esquire Conant, asking for the organization of the town. He was one of the first board of selectmen, holding the place be­cause he was elected, and not because he wanted the position. He did not visit the early settlers, and saw them only when they called on him. After a few years he moved over the river and located on lot No, 100, and remained there till the road from Parker's mills to Kidder's was cut out, which let in too much sunshine to suit him, so he packed up and went off north, into some Canadian wilderness, where he probably ended his days. Two of his sons came out of Canada and served in the army during the war of 1812. To the early settlers of the town Levi Sylvester was an enigma; his reticence, and his solitary habits, were the theme of the settlers. The only woman who ever visited at the house, while the family lived on the river, was Mrs. Burton; who, after her arrival in town, heard of the family living alone on the river. Mrs. Burton come from Burton hill on horseback, one of her boys walking by her side through the woods. At the time of the visit Mrs. Sylvester had not seen a woman's face for 4 years. Much might be written in relation to this man and his family; but we will only say, that one reason known to us, sufficiently accounts for his pecul­iarities. He had been a tory and British spy, during the Revolutionary war, and he had been the leading spirit at the sack of Royalton—a guide to Capt. Prichard, who surprised the fort at Newbury—had captured the Baileys and El­kinses at Peacham, and carried them into cap­tivity—had been with the notorious Sir John Johnson, when he made his descent from his rendezvous, on an Island in lake Ontario, upon the defenceless inhabitants of the State of New York. His antecedents had been such, that he had good reason for preferring the wilderness as his home.


                                         ORLANDER BOWLEY


came here in the Summer of 1810, and made his home at Caleb Leach's. He selected a lot of land and made some improvements on it, when he was taken sick; and, after lingering several weeks, died on the 23d of Nov. His was the first death in town. He was a young man of promise, and his death cast a gloom over the little settlement. They buried him down near the Barton line, under the shade of the beeches where his remains now lie.


                                             AMOS CONANT


settled on lot No. 83, now owned by William Edmonds.—He came from Glover—was a justice of the peace—a man who had some means, and in a few years, cleared up a large farm, erected a good set of buildings, and was always indepen­dent in a pecuniary point of view. He was the first town clerk, and held the office till Benj. Walker was elected to succeed him. He per­formed the first marriage ceremony—the bride was Bulah Conant of Irasburgh,—the bridegroom Peter Brown of Barton. Esquire Conant was a short, thick-set dumpy individual—always busy and good natured—his eyes were small but con­tinually sparkling with good humor—his nose



                                                              IRASBURGH.                                                              247


turned up at the end, like those of all his descendants. He lived to extreme old age—had all the comforts of life around him, and died 1847, at the age of 94,


                                           SAMUEL CONANT


came with his father, and at the organization of the town was chosen the first constable. His, was the second marriage ceremony solemnized in town. He resided here till 1857, when he went west with his son Samuel, who located at Janes­ville, Wisconsin. While a resident of this town Mr. Conant held many offices of honor and trust, and was considered a man of more than ordinary intelligence and ability. He was rep­resentative in 1816, and at one time colonel in the militia, by which title he was generally known throughout the county. He died at Janesville, a few years since, at the age of 80.


                                       JAMES RICHARDSON,


who settled on the farm now owned by Daniel Boughton, opened his house to the public, and kept the first hotel. He had a family of six daughters, all beauties, and said to have been the smartest family of sisters in Vermont.

The second marriage in town was that of Samuel Conant to Sally Richardson, the oldest of these girls. This ceremony was performed by Dr. Peleg Redfield, the father of Judge Isaac F. and Timothy P. These sisters were the pride of the town. It was here that Ira H. Allen, in his younger days, put on the amorous swain and worshiped at the shrine of Betsey Richardson. He had begun to flatter himself, after a course of delicate attentions, that he was gradually fanning up a gentle flame in her heart, when she suddenly accepted the hand of a boisterous fox-hunting New Yorker, without either riches or sentiments, who carried her by storm, after a fortnight's courtship. We once had the pleasure of seeing this coy beauty of olden times, and looked in vain for those witching influences of beauty which once commanded such respect and veneration. She was a dapper little old woman, with a face that looked like an apple that had dried with the bloom on. Captain Richardson served in the army during the war of 1812, and died in the service.


                                    CAPT. BENJAMIN BURTON


came from Norwich with his family of six sons and some daughters, and settled on what has since been called Burton hill, Benjamin Bur­ton was a man that was very much respected by his townsmen. He and his family were always very kindly treated by the late Ira H. Allen, who allowed them to live on the land they first selected, without paying rent or tribute. Mr. Burton held many town offices during his life—was a kind neighbor and zealous Christian. He died in 1847, at the age of 92. Mrs. Burton lived several years after her husband died—was a sprightly little woman, who retained her mental faculties to extreme old age, and died in 1852, at the age of 94. Oliver Burton, the oldest son, was the first surveyer who lived in town, and surveyed many of the roads which were laid out previous to 1810. He remained here till the war of 1812 commenced, when he went into the army as a captain, and served under Hull at the West, and was surrendered with his troops. Af­ter he was exchanged he served under Harrison till the close of the war. After the peace was established, he was appointed military store­keeper at West Point, which position he filled for several years, much to the satisfaction of the government. His health failing, his physicians recommended the climate or the West Indies for his benefit. He went to Cuba, where he died in a few weeks after his arrival. He was one of the most courteous and gentlemanly men that ever lived in Vermont. A portrait in possession of the widow Skinner, at Barton, shows him to have been a man who made a fine personal appearance. John Burton, another son of Ben­jamin Burton, has always resided in town, and has been a resident longer than any other indi­vidual now living.


                                         SARGENT MORRELL


settled on Morrell hill. He was a man past middle life when he came here—he had been the first settler, and felled the first tree in Dan­ville. Jeremiah Morrell, his son, came with him and is well remembered by all old residents. He was a bear-hunter, and killed hundreds while he lived here. He would sometimes follow bears for days, until he fairly tuckered them out. He is said to have known every bear in the county by their tracks. Jerre Morrell was a resident of the town until 1837 or '38 when he moved to the West, where he resided till 1865, when he again came to this county and lived with his daughter at Troy, where he died the follow­ing year.


                                           PETER THATCHER


lived on Burton hill, was a man 6 feet 4 inches tall—a great wit and the comical genius of the town. When the militia was first organized, in 1807, he was elected 1st Lieutenant, and afterwards served as captain.



248                                     VERMONT HISTORICAL MAGAZINE.


                                            JACOB BURTON,


brother of Capt. Benj. Burton settled on the hill where Mark Drew now lives. He was a justice of the peace for the several years that he was a resident. He was a smart business man, but unfortunately for the town he did not remain many years. He and Heman Allen were great friends, and Mr. Allen always made his home there when here on business.


                                          DANIEL GALUSHA,


a brother of Gov. Galusha, was a smart wiry, little man, not afraid of mortal or brute. He was commonly called Galoosh by the early set­tlers. He was always ready for a bear-fight, and went in as soon as he saw the game. On one occasion while fishing in the Creek in company with Capt. Burton, he killed a bear and two cubs, with a club, Capt. Burton standing by and enjoying the sport. Upon another occasion as Foster Page was returning home from Parker's mills, in the dusk of the evening, he heard a screaming in the woods, near the road, loud enough to frighten a whole tribe of Indians, Hurrying to the spot, he found that Galoosh had just laid out a bear with a stout stick. Mr. Galusha was elected grand juror at a meeting held in March 1804, which was the only office he held while in town.


                                                EZRA ROOD


lived in the east part of the town, on lot No. 59, now owned by George Norton. Mr. Rood was a large, powerful man, somewhat quarrelsome, and given to imbibing spiritous liquors rather freely. He was fond of wrestling, which was in fact the only amusement the early settlers took much pride in, Large and powerful men are usually very good-natured and clever, but Rood was an exception to the general rule and loved a regular knock-down as well as any Hiber­nian who ever swung a shillalah. He once met Eber Burton alone in the wood, and exercised his muscle upon him merely for his own amusement. Being asked why he made the assault, he replied "that he wanted to find out what kind of stuff was in him". He brought the first tame bees into town, and guarded his hives so vigilantly, that the boys determined to have a taste of his sweets just to let him know that they could do it. After several attempts, a hive was purloined and brought over through the woods and placed in the cellar under the house where Eber Burton lived. Here they used to meet and ask in their friends to drink a mug of flip which was always sealed with a luscious plate of honey. Rood was not idle, but took the dimensions of the tracks made by the boys when they took his honey, and on one occasion after they had been regaling themselves with his sweets, he appear­ed with a constable,—turned up their feet, measured the soles of their boots, and then had the whole party arrested. The next day they were tried before a justice of the peace, but there being no other proof than the size of their boots, they were discharged. Not long after—Rood met one of the suspected parties and so fright­ened him that he told the whole story, who were his accomplices—where they ate the honey and who helped eat it. The parties were again arrested, and the full vigor of the law applied to them. Alexander Benton Esq., now of Barton, when speaking of the affair a few years since said, "It took a fine yoke of red oxen to pay for my share of the fun." This was the first law­suit in town. A man by the soubriquet of Shark Thompson defended the boys, and William Bax­ter Esq., of Brownington was employed by Mr. Rood. Mr. Rood was one of the listers elected in 1806, which was the only office he held in town.


                                          EZEKIEL CURRIER


erected a distillery and manufactured potatoe-whiskey which he sold for about 50 cents per gallon. At his place, the early settlers used to revel in whiskey, and a man was not considered much who could not carry a quart without stag­gering. One old man says that the whiskey that Zeek Currier used to make did not hurt people, that he could get boozy on it every night and feel the better for it the next day.

Mr. Currier resided here till 1815, when he moved to Troy and erected a distillery there.


                                           JOSEPH SKINNER


settled on Burton hill, where Mr. Jerome now resides. Mr. Skinner was a very industrious, and hard working man. At the same time, he was always ready for a frolic, and liked fun as well as any of the boys. He, and his neighbor, Jon­athan Thompson, were capable of keeping a continual stream of good humor running longer than any other two men extant. He was one of those men that enjoyed all manner of athletic exercise, was always ready to run, jump, wrestle or pull sticks. He prided himself upon his ability to out-do almost every one in performing gymnastic feats, requiring physical strength and elasticity of muscle. He has been called a boyish man, because he never grew old. Mr. Skin­ner was a good farmer and fatted more pork than any other man in town. Some years he killed as many as 50 hogs—these he usually



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carried to Boston, where he bought what gro­ceries were needed in his family, which was always a large one. He usually attended meet­ings on the Sabbath, and would bring every one in his neighborhood that he could persuade to ride. Sometimes there would be 25 or 30 piled on his sleigh or wagon—the more the better, to suit him: and, on such occasions, he would always drive his horses into the village on the run. He attended meetings more for the sake of having a good time, going and returning, than from any spiritual consolation derived from bearing the sermons. He was the means of doing great good, because all his family, and most of his neighbors, made professions of religion, and ever after lived good exemplary Christian lives. Mr. Skinner stood high in the estimation of his townsmen as a good moral man. He died in 1839, at the age of 62, having lived in town 34 years.


                                         BENJAMIN WALKER


bought the improvements that Levi Sylvester had made on the river. Mr. Walker was a smart business man, had a good education, and was capable of doing any business which might be required of him. He was chosen town clerk at the meeting in lurch, 1807; clerk, selectman and constable in 1808 and '09. He was elected captain of the first company of militia organized in town. At the first June training one Kittredge, who lived in the east part of the town, some way got excited and bit off a man's thumb. He was after known as cannibal Kittredge. Mr. Walk­er buried his wife in 1808: her remains lie on the little knoll west of the road, and north of Mr. Leach's present residence. He lived here 3 years. When he went away the town lost an estimable citizen and worthy man.


                                            REUBEN WILLEY


settled on lot No. 151, now owned by John and Elijah Willey. Esq. Willey, as he was usually called, was a capable man, and one who was very much respected by his townsmen.—He came here in company with Benj. Walker. and they selected farms adjoining. Mr. Willey was the second representative, having succeeded Mr. Leach, and represented the town in 1808 —'09 and '10—was treasurer from 1808 to '12, also town clerk and lister three of these years. He was a strong, athletic man, very fond of wrestling; when he and Walker, Rood, Kiser and Brewster met, they usually tried strength and skill before they separated. Mr. Willey remained here till the war of 1813; went into the army, and never returned.


                                        DIOCLESIAN WRIGHT


settled on the river south of Benjamin Walker. He came from Barre soon after Walker and Willey, to which town he returned in a few years.


                                          BENJAMIN HARDY


selected lot No. 58, now owned by Henry Som­ers. Mr. Hardy was a man of stamina and worth; one that commanded respect wherever he went. He held the office of selectman 21 years previous to 1833, and was elected several times in after-years, but refused to serve. He held the office longer than any other man since the organization of the town, which is the very best evidence of his wisdom and skill as a town officer. He was one of the committee of safety appointed by the town during the war of 1812; was a justice of the peace many years, and as such did a large proportion of the business which comes before those officers. He had been a soldier during the Revolutionary war, and drew a pension from the government while in old age. He was the father of Asa Hardy, Esq., who died here in 1842, and the grandfather of George W. Hardy, who represented this town in 1852. Mr. Hardy was truly one of the fathers of the town—one that was always ready to serve them and would never take any compensation for his time while doing business for the town. He died in 1851, at the age of 90.


                                   CAPT. NATHANIEL KELLAM


came from Barre, and settled on lot No. 187, lying on the river. Deacon Kellam was in mid­dle life when he moved here, having grown up children who came with him. Mr. Kellam had been a member of' tho legislature several times, previous to his making this town his residence. He was representative from this town in 1813. The first religious meetings appointed on the Sabbath were by his direction—and he is said to have been the most powerful man in prayer ever heard in northern Vermont. On one occa­sion when the militia from Irasburgh were called to the frontier, during the war of 1812, a bet of two gallons of whisky was made, that a militia­man from Irasburgh could make a better prayer than the chaplain of the regiment. The officers were to be the judges, and when an occasion presented a proper time, the chaplain was re­quested to make a prayer, and as soon as he had closed, Dea. Kellam was called upon to follow, which he did in such a manner that his friends won the whisky. Sept. 11, 1814, the people were assembled for public worship at the house of James Mackintosh, which stood on the



250                                     VERMONT HISTORICAL MAGAZINE.


Allen farm, just at the top of the hill, and with­in the limits of the present highway. Zadock Bloss, a Federalist, had used language in his prayer which wounded the feelings of Deacon Kellam, who, as soon as Deacon Bloss had fin­ished his prayer, fell upon his knees and invoked the Divine blessing upon the country, the army and navy in a strain of patriotic eloquence, so noble and grand that the Deacon Federalist sank into insignificant nothingness in the esti­mation of all present. During the time that Dea. Kellam was supplicating the throne of grace a sound like distant thunder reverberating over the hills, a fitting accompaniment to the eloquent and solid appeals of the Deacon. As soon as the prayer was concluded, the congregation by common consent left the house and seated themselves on the sward and silently listened to the booming of McDonough's guns which gave him the victory on Lake Champlain. It was a time of terrible anxiety and suspense for the people here; but the next day a solitary horseman rode through the town and shouted the news of McDonough's victory on the Lake. Deacon Kellam was the father of John Kellam Esq., who represented the town in 1815, and of the Hon. Sabin Kellam, who was representative in 1836, and now a resident of Topeka, Kansas; of Hiram Kellam, Esq., now of Brownington, and grandfather of the Hon. John H. Kellam now of Chicago Ill.

Deacon Kellam died in 1839, at the age of 84.


                                          JOSHUA JOHNSON


settled on Morrell hill where Mr. Connor now resides. Mr Johnson had been a soldier in the war for independenee and was commonly called Lieutenant Johnson, a title brought from the army of the Revolution. He was a jolly old character and enjoyed a joke as well as any of the first settlers, and they were a mirth-provok­ing, fun-loving, comically disposed set of fellows. Mr. Johnson was a man very much respected by his townsmen; one that had the entire con­fidence of the people as an upright man. He was constable and collector for the town several years, representative in 1814-17 and 25; mem­ber of the constitutional conventions held in 1814 & 22, and held many other offices in town. He was a resident of this town many years, but died in Albany a few years since at the ad­vanced age of 98. We remember him as a venerable old man, and one that was reverenced as one of that hand of patriots who had fought by the side of Washington and Wayne at Bran­dywine and Stony Point, one that had marched barefoot over the frozen ground to Valley Forge —lived through the dark days of the Revolution and united his voice to the clarion ring of that joyous hurrah which ran along the American lines at Yorktown. Mr. Johnson had a very retentive memory, and was a walking encyclo­pedia of historical facts.


                                            JOSEPH KIDDER


settled on lot No. 70, and was the first settler on the west side of the river. He was an en­terprising man—was considered one of the first men in town, having held many offices during his life. He was the father of Jonas Kidder, Esq., who died in 1868. Mr. Kidder held the position of deputy collector of cus­tom for many years.


                                              ROGER ENOS


the only one of the original proprietors (ex­cept his mother and sister) who ever lived in town, moved here in 1810, though he had been here occasionally since the first settle­ment. He was associated with Heman Allen in nearly all the transactions of the proprietors during the first years of the settlement. Mr. Enos was a justice of the peace for Chittenden county, and the leases executed in 1802, were acknowledged before him. His first residence in town was on the Caleb Leach farm. He held the position of deputy collec­tor of customs, during Madison's administra­tion; was representative in 1812, '21 and '24; was a member of the constitutional convention held in 1828, and died in 1841 at the age of 73.


                                              HEMAN ALLEN


was a nephew of Ira Allen, and was adopted into his uncle's family after the death of his father, Heber Allen. He was chosen propri­etor's clerk at the first meeting of the propri­etors of Irasburgh. After the settlement of the town, he bought all the rights when they were sold at public vendue for the payment of taxes. He spent most of his time here dur­ing the years 1805 and '6, arranging the titles so that all who occupied lands could hold them unmolested.

Mr. Allen was sheriff of the County of Chit­tenden in 1808 and '09; chief judge of the County court for 4 years; Marshal of the State during the first term of Mr. Monroe's administration, and in 1823 was appointed Minister Plenipotentiary to the Government of Chili, where he remained through the suc­ceeding administration of John Quincy Adams. After his return from Chili, he was



                                                              IRASBURGH,                                                              251


commonly known by the name of "Chili Al­len," which distinguished him from the Hon. Heman Allen of Milton. He died in High­gate in 1852.*


                                               IRA H. ALLEN


came to this town in 1814, and remained here till his death which took place in April 1866. The lands in the town belonged to his mother, and at her decease in 1838, they came to him as the only surviving heir. In the management of the estate, which had for years pre­vious to his mother's decease, devolved upon him, Mr. Allen exhibited those excellent traits of character which made him so popu­lar. His mildness of manner, courteous and gentlemanly deportment, made him accessible to the humble, and honored and respected by the exalted. Always ready to grant a re­quest if within his power, but if he could not consistently comply with the requirements of an individual, his refusal was couched in such language that on no occasion was any offence given. A man of that sterling integ­rity, who during his long life never swerved from what he had promised and when he had given his word, his reputation was such that no man ever had a suspicion that it would not be as he had said. In all his business transactions, he never gave any man reason to doubt his word, and oftentimes when he had promised to convey real estate for a stip­ulated sum, other parties would offer more for the property, his reply would always be that he had promised that to Mr. So or So, and if he claimed it he must have it, if some other party was willing to double the amount. A large proportion of the farms in town were held by leases, subject to an annual rent in the collection of which Mr. Allen always dis­played a lenity easy and liberal for all in­terested. In all his transactions whether of a public or private character, he won the es­teem of all who made his acquaintance. Mr. Allen was often chosen to fill honorable stations, and had he been ambitious of polit­ical honor, could have held the highest posi­tions within the gift of the people of the State. He was one of the greatest men ever produced in the State, at the same time one of the most unassuming and popular where best known. He was always ready to give an opinion upon men or upon political or civil questions, and such opinions always proved that he had drawn them from a source, which had reason for its capital, and massive sense for its base. Mr, Allen was a man whose presence commanded respect, which, upon acquaintance changed to rever­ence, which is always the case when great ability is combined with real virtue. His ability was respected by those who knew him in public, but it was in private life where his virtues shone like a reflector, because there was no guile in the man. A sermon delivered on the occasion of his death, by Rev. Thomas Bayne, gives many particulars of interest in relation to him.


                                               GEORGE NYE


was a resident of Irasburgh for 50 years, and was as well known throughout the County as any citizen of the town. Mr. Nye was highly esteemed by his townsmen an a busi­ness man—had kept a hotel from 1828 for several years, after which he engaged in trade in which he continued till 1842 or '43. He was best known throughout the County as "Judge Nye," a title he received from having been judge of probate for Orleans county for many years.

He was the son of the Hon. George Nye, who was assistant judge of Orleans County court from 1810 to 1814, and judge of probate from 1823 to 1825. The Hon. Salmon Nye, who held the office of judge of probate from 1825 to 1827, was a brother. Mr. Nye had been an invalid for many years, his health be­ing so poor that he engaged in no active bus­iness. He died of consumption, Sept. 24, 1867, at the age of 66.


                                            BUSINESS MEN.


Those who have figured as business men in Irasburgh, have been Thomas Jameson, Eze­kiel Little, Theodore Parsons, Nathan B. Dodge, George Worthington and William W. Little.


                                          THOMAS JAMESON


opened a store in 1815, and drove a success­ful business for many years. After going out of trade, Mr. Jameson was a member of the company who carried on the business at the foundry, where the principal business was the manufacture of stoves and plows. As a bus­iness man, Mr. Jameson was one who had the confidence of the community, one whose word, when given, was sufficient guarantee for any purpose for which it was pledged. He was one whose sphere led him for many years to transact business with a very large


*For further notice, see Vol. I. pp. 602-608.



252                                     VERMONT HISTORICAL MAGAZINE.


proportion of the people of this vicinity, and his manners were so courteous, that during his long and useful life he had not an enemy. Mr. Jameson was sheriff of the County of Orleans for 9 years in succession ; clerk of Irasburgh for 19 years ; was one of those whose characters gave the town a recommen­dation for moral worth. He was the father of John A. Jameson, who graduated at the University of Vt. in 1845, and now of Chi­cago, Illinois, Judge of the Superior Court of that city, and eminent throughout the United States as a jurist. Mr. Jameson died in October 1868, at the age of 71, and was buried with Masonic honors.


                                                           EZEKIEL LITTLE


came from Hinsdale, N. H. in 1810, and first lived in the old mill-house. His next resi­dence was the house which had been built by Eben Barton, in which Mr. Little kept a hotel. He was one of those driving go-a-head men, who are always into some business, which he always drove a-head with a reck­less dare-devil kind of manner. From 1812 to 1836, he was the principal man of the town for any hard job, like the building of a bridge, or structure of any kind—the clearing of land, or the making of a new road. He had built mills on the river; made brick; cleared up the largest farm, built the best set of build­ings for his own use and kept more hands in his employ than all of the rest of the men in town. He made pearlash, owned a mill for getting out clover-seed, and in all his busi­ness he exhibited an indomitable will and perseverance rarely to be met with. Mr. Little died at Barre, in this State, where he was visiting a son, in the winter of 1850.


                                                     THEODORE PEARSONS


came from Haverhill, Mass. He commenced business here as a merchant, nearly the same time that Nathan B. Dodge went into trade. Mr. Dodge was in the brick store, which stood on the site of the present Worthington store. Mr. Pearsons built and traded in the store now occupied by J. D. Worthington. Be­tween these two men there grew up a great opposition and competition, each striving to undersell the other. Mr. Pearsons had erect­ed the dwelling where Mrs. Worthington now lives. Mr. Dodge had erected the dwelling and buildings now owned by George Nye, and these two merchants were, to appearance, as comfortably situated as mortals could ask to be, when the strife to undersell commenced. The consequence was, that they had custom­ers from all parts of the County, and, for a time, did a very extensive business, but in the end both were ruined. Mr. Dodge went to Buffalo, N. Y., Mr. Pearsons went into other business and lived here many years. He was in the foundry business with West and Pren­tiss, till the dissolution of that firm, when the business was carried on by Pearsons and Burnabee. Theodore Pearsons was the man­aging agent and the man who made the sales away from home. It is said that he would sell a stove or plow to any man who asked or requested to buy, never asking a question as to their ability or disposition to pay. He would also take any kind of property, no matter what, in exchange for his wares. His business acquaintances extended through Orleans and Essex Counties also the eastern town ships in Canada. He was a great lover of horseflesh and usually had a drove on hand. His teams, which he kept on the road, were notorious for being poorly matched, and for their skeleton-like appearance. All his business was done with a rush, at the same time, he drove sharp bargains, and probably the paper and figure look of the business was extra large, so that a credit was always at­tainable on the strength of the paper exhibit. Mr. Pearsons built no less than seven dwell­ing-houses with outbuildings in the village, which is more than any other one man has done towards building up the place. He was also what has been termed a "red-hot Methodist," and did as much as any one man towards the erection of a church edifice for that denominatian. Mr. Pearsons went West in 1855, where he died several years since.


                                                    GEORGE WORTHINGTON


commenced the mercantile business in the Dodge store, in the year 1834, and carried on business at that place till a short time before his death, which occurred in September, 1867, at the age of 58. Mr. Worthington was identified with the business relations of the town, for a period of nearly 30 years. In all his business relations he had the entire confi­dence of the community, and the respect of a very large circle of acquaintances throughout northern Vermont. His courteous demeanor and kindness of disposition won the affections of a large number of the influential men of the State, who were proud to call him their friend. In all enterprises for the good of the



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town, which required private aid, Mr. Wor­thington contributed his share with a gene­rosity and nobleness of nature rarely excelled. He was frequently elected to fill some office in town, when it appeared to his townsmen that an emergency would come which required a man of more than ordinary ability to dis­charge the duties. He was representative from the town 2 years; sheriff of the County 2 years; member of the State Senate 2 years; and at the time of his death had been court auditor for several years. His death was occasioned by an apoplectic fit, while tempo­rarily stopping at the Magog House, Newport.


                                         WILLIAM W. LITTLE,


son of Ezekiel Little, was a man who carried on the lumber and building business for a period of 20 years, in this place. During the time that he was in the business, from 1832 to 1852, more building was done in the village than at any other time since its establishment. Mr. Little was always ready to take hold of any job—no matter how hard it was to ac­complish. He thought he was the man for the place, and always took hold as though he had a better right to a hard job than any one else. He had the reputation of doing all his work in a very substantial manner, and his long experience gave him the position of community engineer and general adviser for all who contemplated moving, repairing, or erecting buildings. He was, in his business, what would be denominated a "tearer," that is, one who drove business with a hurricane rush, Mr. Little died in October, 1852, at the age of 42.




"The Bank of Orleans" was chartered in 1830, and went into operation soon after that time. The presidents have been Ira H. Allen, Elijah Cleveland and Hiram McLellan; the cashiers George C. West, Henry M. Bates, Isaac N. Cushman and Wm. B. Denison. The Bank is now "The Irasburgh Bank of Orleans." The Bank of Orleans was the first Bank established in the County, and is the only one at the present time, except "The Peoples' Bank," at Derby Line.




The physicians who have practiced in Irasburgh have been Doctors Tabor, Brown, Cleveland, Metcalf, Haynes, Pierce, Tucker, Hayes, Case, Adgate, Scott, Taylor, Kelsey and Parkhurst. L. W. Adgate, M. D. located here in 1850, and has been in practice since that time. C. B. Parkhurst located in 1865, and is practicing at the present time. Only one of the above named gentlemen died in this town, that was Cephas R. Taylor in 1865.




In 1815, Mr. E. Rawson established THE YEOMAN'S RECORD, which was the first paper published in the County. Efforts were made by the friends of the enterprise to get a list of subscribers which would pay for publish­ing, and about 150 subscribers were obtained during the first year, which was about the average number during the 5 years of the life of the paper.* The sheet was neutral in politics, and its columns were open to all parties; and Whigs, Democrats and Liberty men used it for the expression of their vari­ous opinions. In 1848, Mr. Rawson sold his interest in the paper to Mr. A. G. Conant, who published it for a few months and then resold to Mr. Rawson, who published till 1850, when it died for want of sufficient support.†

During the year 1850, the Messrs. L. B. & J. L. Jameson commenced the publication of the ORLEANS COUNTY GAZETTE, which was Whig in politics. The Messrs. Jamesons dis­posed of their interest to Mr. Jas. M. Dana, who published about 2 years, and sold to Mr. George H. Hartshorn, who published 1 year, and then sold one half the interest to Sylvester Howard. Hartshorn and How­ard were the owners a few months, when the firm was changed to Earle and Howard. After 3 months another change put the names of Howard and Morris at the head of the columns. This firm was of short duration. Mr. Morris sold his interest to Mr Howard, who in the Fall of 1855, sold out the whole concern to the proprietors of "THE NORTH UNION," a paper then published at West Charleston.

In January, 1856, Mr. Earle commenced the publication of THE INDEPENDENT STAN­DARD, which he published in this place for 10 years, when he moved to Barton where he is now located.


* In Irasburgh, probably, as the publisher informs us that he had about 500 subscribers in the county.—Ed.

† Or was discontinued, as Mr. Rawson informs us, because a Whig party paper was started, and he did not regard the field sufficient to sustaiu two newapa­pers.—Ed.



254                                     VERMONT HISTORICAL MAGAZINE.


In 1861, THE GREEN MOUNTAIN EXPRESS was started by H. & G. H. Bradford, who published for nearly 1 year, when they aban­doned the enterprise. To Mr. Earle, is the County indebted, more than to any other man or men, for the size and value of the County papers at this time.

THE ORLEANS COUNTY INDEPENDENT STAND­ARD now published at Barton, by Mr. Earle, is in point of ability and size second to no weekly periodical in the State. He is the father of journalism in this County.


                         REPRESENTATIVES FROM IRASBURGH.


Caleb Leach, 1804 to '08; Reuben Willey, 1809 to '11; Roger Enos, 1812; Nathaniel Kellam, 1813; Joshua Johnson, 1814; Sam'l Conant, 1815; John Kellam, 1816; Joshua Johnson, 1817; Ira H. Allen, 1818 to '20; Roger Enos, 1821; Ira H. Allen, 1822, '23; Roger Enos, 1824; Joshua Johnson, 1825; Ira H. Allen, 1826, '27; Elisha H. Starkweather, 1828 to '31; Joseph Higgins, 1832; Moody B. Kimball, 1833, '34; Ira H. Allen, 1835; Sabin Kellam, 1836; Ira H. Allen, 1837, '38; Timothy P. Redfield, 1839; Ira H. Allen, 1840; C. W. Prentiss, 1841, '42; Alexander Jameson, 1843; George Bryant, 1844, '45; Henry M. Bates, 1846 to '49; George Worth­ington, 1850, '51; George W. Hardy, 1852; W. H. Rand, 1853; William L. Locke, 1854; Spencer D. Howard, 1855, '56; John H. Kel­lum, 1857, '58; E. P. Colton, 1859. '60; Isaac N. Cushman, 1861, '62; Silas G. Bean, 1863, '64; Henry Somers, 1865, '66; C. P. Allen, 1867, '68; George B. Brewster, 1869.




Joshua Johnson, 1814, '22; Roger Enos, 1828; John Kellam, 1836; Geo. Nye, 1843; Thomas Jameson, 1850.


                                  MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL.


Ira H. Allen, 1828 to '31; Elisha H. Stark­weather, 1835. In 1836, the State Senate succeeded the Council.


                             MEMBERS OF THE STATE SENATE.


Augustus Young, 1836 to '39; Timothy P. Redfield, 1848; Henry M. Bates, 1850, '51; George Worthington, 1855, '56; John H. Kellam, 1863, '64.


Citizens of Irasburgh who have held County offices:




Sabin Kellam, 1855, '57.


                              CLERKS OF THE COUNTY COURT.


Ira H. Allen, 1816 to '35; Henry M. Bates, 1839 to '49; Hubbard Hastings, 1850 to '53; William H. Hartshorn, 1854; Norman W. Bingham, 1855 to '62; Isaac N. Cushman, 1862; the present incumbent.




Thomas Jameson, 1826 to '35; Sabin Kel­lam, 1839; George Worthington, 1842, '43; Hubbard Hastings, 1848, '49; Silas G. Bean, 1855, '56.




Elisha H. Starkweather, 1828, '29, '35; Geo. C. Wist, 1830, '31; Jesse Cooper, 1839, '42.


                                       JUDGES OF PROBATE.


Ira H. Allen, 1821, '22; Geo. Nye, 1823, '24; Salmon Nye, 1825, '26, '27; Joseph Hig­gins, 1836, '37, '38; George Nye, 1839 to '45; Isaac N. Cushman, 1849 to '52; Milton R. Tyler, 1862 to '65.




                                                  BY DEACON JAMES CLEMENT.


On the 18th day of Jan. 1818, the Rev. James Hobart, of Berlin, Vt. and Rev. Lu­ther Leland of Derby organized the Congre­gational church in Irasburg, according to usage, consisting of 3 male and 5 female members, viz. Zadock Bloss, John Skinner, Sam'l Warner, Hannah Burton, Lois Brough­ton, Eunice Hardy, Mrs. Cole and Mary Kellam. These persons, although coming from different localities, were similar in their opinions and practices, and immediately felt the importance of Christian union. We have no record of additions to their numbers until about 1825, when 12 were added, some by profession, and some by letter. For the next 3 years they were without a minister, except occasionally a missionary lectured or preach­ed on the Sabbath. One of them, a Mr. Worcester, delivered a lecture on March Meeting day at the court-house. About the middle of his discourse a man started for the door exclaiming, "I do not believe a word of that." Mr. W. stopped a moment and said, "If there is another indecent person in the room, I wish they would leave," but no one else left. Among the number that preached here occasionally during this time, were the Rev. Messrs. David Sutherland of Bath, N. H., Leland of Derby, Hobart of Berlin, and Parker. A Mr. Rockwell preached a number of times in the Summer of 1828. About the year 1828, the church nearly, or quite doubled its membership, many of whom are now living and active members. In the Fall of 1828, the church employed a young



                                                              IRASBURGH.                                                              255


man by the name of Otis F. Curtiss, to preach regularly, who was ordained as an evangelist during the Winter, and remained about 2 years, was an earnest worker and genial friend. The church had no house for wor­ship at that time, but held their meetings in the court house and village school-house. At this time there was each a Baptist and Methodist church here. After Mr. Curtiss, the Rev. Mr. Brown preached a while, after which, the Rev. Buel W. Smith, a graduate of Andover Seminary, preached one year. During his labors the church grew strong, and increased in members. During the time above mentioned, when without preaching, worship was maintained on Sundays by read­ing sermons and attending the Baptist and Methodist meetings. In 1839, the Congrega­tional society built their present meeting-house, which was dedicated in January, 1840. In 1839, the first minister, Rev. James John­son, was installed; installation at the Metho­dist meeting-house, sermon by Rev. Chester Wright of Hardwick. The church prospered for some time under the labors of Mr. John­son, but during the latter part of his ministry peculiar cases of discipline made his labors less profitable. He was dismissed January, 1849. For the next 5 years Rev. Joel Fisk was their pastor, and was much loved by his people; after which the church employed Rev. J. H. Beckwith for about 3 years as stated supply, and a few months after, Rev. Thomas Bayne, for between 3 and 4 years, as supply, under whose labors the church received some valuable additions. In 1864, the Rev. J. H. Woodward, now of Milton, became their pastor, and served them faith­fully until about the first of June, 1869. Under his charge the church received many additions in numbers, and increased in vital­ity. Since his dismission they have had preaching but four Sabbaths to the present time, Sept. 1, 1869. The church is now able, with the help of those that attend worship with them, to well support a good minister, has about 120 members, a good Sabbath-school, organ and choir. Of the many differ­ent ministers, only one, Rev. Mr. Peck, Meth­odist. has been buried in town.




Salmon Nye, from about 1820 to '28; E. H. Starkweather, 1827—'36; Augustus Young, 1837 — '38; Charles W. Prentiss. 1838—'46; Geo. Mason, 1829—'31; Gustavus G. Cush­man, 1830, '31; Jessie Cooper, 1830—'60; Timo P. Redfield, 1840—'48; T. N. Cushman, from 1849 to '69 —not now in practice; J. H. Prentiss,** 1847—'69; Amasa Bartlett, 1860—'63; Leavitt Bartlett, 1859—'63; Don A. Bartlett, 1854—'60; Milton R. Tyler, 1860—'65; Charles J. Vail,** 1862—'69; Wm. D. Tyler, 1865—'69.


                                             TOWN CLERKS.


Amos Conant, 1804 to '06; Benj. Walker, 1806—'10; Reuben Willey, 1810—'13; Zad­ock Bloss, 1813—'16; Ira H. Allen, 1816—'18; Zadock Bloss,† 1818, '19; Salmon Nye, 1819—'28; Norman Cleveland, 1828, '29; Thomas Jameson, 1829—'31; George Nye, 1831, '32; Thomas Jameson, 1832 '39; S. S. Clark, 1839—'41; Henry M. Bates, 1841 —'50; I. N. Cushman, 1850—'54; Thomas Jameson,‡ 1854—'68; Wm. D. Tyler, 1868 '69.


                                             AMOS CONANT,


aged 94, died in Irasburgh, June 21, 1847. He was one of the first settlers of this town—a specimen of the hardy pioneers of the Coun­ty—he aided to open the communication by roads through the forests to neighboring settlements and form a rallying point for the new comers; aiding in the organization of the town, he was permitted to see great changes and improvements as the wilderness gave place to luxuriant fields; receiving the suffrages of his fellow-townsmen, he dischar­ged the duties of the various offices to which he was called, with fidelity. He lived to see sons and grandsons in the discharge of the active duties of life; and, from the spot which he had occupied for nearly half a century, has gone to his grave like a. shock of corn fully ripe.— Yeoman's Record.




in Milford. Mich. Mar. 21, 1848, Mrs. Cynthia Harlow, wife of Capt. Abner Harlow, and daughter of the late Amos Conant, of this town, aged 58 years. Yeoman's Record.



                             Delivered at the Congregational Church, May 2,1866.

                                         IRA HAYDEN ALLEN,


son of General Ira and Jerusha ( Enos) Allen, was born in Colchester, Vt. July 19, 1790. The history of his ancestry forms a prominent and important chapter, in the annals


* Robert Mann.

** Now in practice.

† Zadock Bloss, 4 years in all.

‡ Thomas Jameson, 23 years in all.



256                                     VERMONT HISTORICAL MAGAZINE.


of this commonwealth. The Allens were amongst the principal founders of the State of Vermont, and contributed much towards the independence of the United States. The neces­sary limits of this sketch furnish no space for an outline of the energetic, bold, and uncom­promising career of Gen. Ira Allen, and his services, self-denials, and sufferings in the public cause. He took a very conspicuous and efficient part in the early settlement of Vermont, and during the period of the Rev­olutionary war, rendered to the nation signal aid. As member and secretary of the council of safety in 1777 he concerted and by his in­vincible energy carried out the measures which resulted in the triumph of the federal arms at Bennington, the capture of Mount Defiance, and Lake George Landing. These achievements led to the defeat and surrender of General Burgoyne and the consequent negotiation with France, of the important treaty of February, 1778. In consequence of these and like services to the national cause in the war of the Revolution and the fresh duties pertaining to the military inter­ests of the State intrusted to him, he became the object of most tyrannical, unrighteous, and, in respect of property, ruinous prosecu­tion, on the part of the British government. In the year 1795, General Allen, intending to take a voyage to Europe, was commission­ed by the governor of the commonwealth—Thomas Chittenden—to endeaver to procure a supply of arms for the militia of the State. There was at that time a scarcity of arms. None could be purchased in the United States or borrowed from the government for the equipment of the militia. General Allen effected a very advantageous contract at Paris, with the French minister of war, for 20.000 stands of arms furnished with bayonets, and 24 brass four pounder field-pieces, with uten­sils for their use. "This contract in France was equally consistent with the laws of na­tions and treaties, as if it had been made in England. The advantage in the contracts determined the place of purchase." These were shipped on board the "Olive Branch," then lying in the port of Ostend, whence she sailed on Nov. 12, 1796. This vessel, sailing on the high seas, was, in defiance of express stipulation in the treaty of 1794, between Great Britain and the United States, and in defiance of all international law, captured Nov. 19, 1796, by captain Gould, of the ship Audacious, an English seventy-four, and carried into Portsmouth, in England. The cargo was condemned as a lawful prize Oct. 8, 1797, but, on appeal, the court of admirality decreed the restoration of said cargo, Feb. 9, 1804, thereby acknowledging the injustice and unlawfulness of the seizure and condem­nation. In these proceedings of the British government, there was not only great wrong done to the rights and dignity of this nation; there was also the infliction of grievous injury to General Allen's personal interest and property. While the case dragged its slow length along in the British courts of admiral­ty, the property, for want of proper care, depreciated to worthlessness, and his bail, to whom, by virtue of an order of court, it had been consigned, although perfectly solvent for a considerable period after they had be­come his security, were bankrupts when the restoration of the cargo was decreed. Gen. Allen was also adjudged, by decision of the court, to pay costs and charges! But this was the smallest part of his vexation and loss. When he sailed for Europe, the titles of more than 200,000 acres of lands, with many buildings and extensive improvements, were vested in him, in fee simple, in his own right and that of the heirs of deceased friends, on whose estates he had acted as executor, and some of the heirs were not of age and the estates were not settled at the time of his departure. But on his return, scarce an acre of these lands could be found, without another possessor, by vendue titles, or others obtained while he was, by intrigue, detained in Europe. When he returned to this continent, he was virtually and unjustly made an exile from his family and home, since, in order to avail himself of immunities which his own State failed to give him, he took up his residence in Philadelphia, where he died, and, in con­sequence of the events above narrated, leav­ing his family nearly destitute of means other than a home at Colchester, Vt.

These particulars I have outlined as neces­sary to a just idea of the circumstances and situation of our deceased friend, at the outset of his career.

Of the incidents of his earlier years I am not informed. He pursued collegiate studies at the University of Vermont. I have just read some of his college compositions written in the year 1808-9, which I find among his papers. They exhibit great maturity of re‑



                                                              IRASBURGH.                                                              257


flection and observation for a youth of eigh­teen or nineteen. Their subjects are of grave and serious character. The titles are such as these: Liberty; Religion; Mortality; Tyranny; Happiness. They are thoughtful essays, marked by sound judgment, enlivened by fancy, and pervaded by generous emotions and aspirations. He was obliged to relin­quish collegiate studies at the close of his sophomore year, 1810, on account of ophthal­mic weakness, which had become seriously aggravated by his application to study. This weakness of the ayes continued to afflict him, to some extent, in subsequent years. His only brother, Zimri E. Allen, also studied at Burlington, during the same years, after­wards read law with the Hon. Charles Marsh of Woodstock, Vt., and completed his curric­ulum of professional study at the famous law school in Litchfield, Ct., but died just as he was ready to enter upon his profession. An only sister had died some years before. To Mr. Allen's sole care therefore were commit­ted his widowed mother and aged grand­mother. The duties and responsibilities, in­volved in this relationship and trust, extend­ing over many succeeding years, he dischar­ged with devoted affection and exemplary fidelity, deferring his own settlement in domestic relations, that he might give his undivided assiduity and care to the guardian­ship and happiness of his venerated mother.

After the cessation of his studies in Bur­lington, he was clerk in Swanton, for, probably, about 2 years, where he had an opportunity, in some degree, to verify the words of the prophet: "It is good for a man that he bear the yoke in his youth." He next assisted his cousin, Heman Allen, Esq., in his business at Highgate. Subsequently followed his removal to Irasburgh, which was ever afterwards his permanent, life-long residence. His removal to this town was the result of circumstances connected with his mother's estate. When Jerusha, eldest daughter of Gen. Roger Enos, engaged herself in marriage to Gen. Ira Allen, the father of the affianced bride required, in accordance with the usages of those days, a marriage settlement for his daughter. Very much as a matter of form and honorable custom, the township of Irasburgh, then a primeval wil­derness, was deeded to her as such settlement. As to actual value, to use Mrs. Allen's own words, she did not, at that time, consider it worth a rush. In 1814, Mr. Ira H. Allen proposed to his mother to visit this town and ascertain whether it was worth any thing; designing to be absent from home but for a few days. On his arrival, he found some two or three families occupying land under a lease from the agent of Mrs. Gen. Allen, and a dozen or more who had located themselves on lands, irrespective of any right or title. A Mr. Parker had erected a set of cheap mills, where the grist-mill now stands. The saw-mill had been used for sawing up pine lumber, cut down by squatters from Mrs. Allen's lands. A large quantity of the boards thus manufactured and appropriated, Mr. Ira H. Allen found piled up in the mill-yard. His first step was to claim these boards, in behalf of his mother. Instead, however, of enforcing legal rights, which could have been easily sustained, he conclud­ed his settlement of the matter, by allowing the parties an equitable compensation for their labor in procuring the lumber from the forest. After a stay here of three months, instead of a few days, he returned to Colches­ter, informed his mother that the property in Irasburgh was worth taking care of, and that if she would give him a portion of it, he would come here and himself manage the estate. In this, he displayed a sagacious, far­seeing judgment, as well as a filial regard for his mother's rights and interests. His offer was accepted. He with his mother's family, therefore, removed thither. These events I assume to have occurred in 1814; as Mr. Allen's first vote on record in this town is dated in September of said year. He was, thus, about 24 years of age when he became an inhabitant of Irasburgh. At this date, his entire property or capital consisted of a horse and single sleigh, a respectable ward­robe, his library, a silver watch, $40 in money, and—what was best of all—his edu­cation and his principles.

From the time Mr. Allen decided on mak­ing Irasburgh his permanent residence and home, he gave his earnest attention and most strenuous endeavors to the interests of the town. The lands were leased for the annual interest on 17s. per acre. Mainly through his exertions, the legislature passed an act constituting this the shire town, on condition that the inhabitants would within a specified time, erect a court-house and jail, to the acceptance of a committee appointed under



258                                     VERMONT HISTORICAL MAGAZINE.


direction of the State. The buildings were erected chiefly at the expense of Mr. Allen and his mother, and this, for his means, in that early period of his history, involved considerable effort and sacrifice. The village was laid out, and alterations and improve ments effected in the roads, to correspond with the rising prospects of the town. The court held its first session in August, 1816. Mr. Allen was appointed its clerk, which office he held from 1816 to 1835, inclusive; when he resigned in favor of governor Crafts, to whom, in his reduced circumstances, its emoluments had become an object of impor­tance.

When the town had been duly constituted the County seat, the interested opposition of rival towns started and urged into currency objections and prejudices against the system of leasing lands. To counteract the opposi­tion thus stimulated and give to all a chance to own their lands in fee, Mr. Allen issued hand-bills, notifying the public that all per­sons desiring a deed of their lends could have one, by paying, within 10 years, the estab­lished price of 17s. per acre. Unoccupied lands were to be leased on the same terms. The system of lease-lands has been the sub­ject of much unthinking and ungenerous censure. It has been with some a frequent and fertile theme of abusive declamation. I am persuaded that the system, in its admin­istration by Mr. Allen, eminently favored the original and early settlers. It enabled many to hold on to their lands and improve­ments and ultimately acquire a title to them, who, had they purchased their farms in fee simple, would, in their inability to make their payments, have been dispossessed of their lands, and lost the fruits of the toil and industry of years. That was the sorrowful experience of multitudes of the first settlers in all parts of the State. When, some years ago, there was a loud clamor on this topic, an investigation was made by several compe­tent and responsible parties, and it was found, that the farms were much less encumbered in this than in other towns, so that it cannot be reasonably affirmed that the system has shown itself adverse to the interests and prosperity of the town.

The want of the commercial facilities af­forded by a bank, had been heavily felt, for some years, throughout the County. Here, again, Mr. Allen took a leading part, in the procuring of a charter, which was granted by the legislature in 1832, and in the organiza­tion of the Orleans County Bank. He was for years a large stockholder at considerable pecuniary sacrifice. For, in the first years of its existence, when the business of the county was limited, it did not pay its stock­holders six per cent. He was one of its board of directors, and the most prominent and efficient, from its organization to the time of his death; and was its first president, holding the office from 1833 to 1847, inclu­sive, 15 years, and again in 1863, '64, '65, and to the date of his decease. He served the bank without compensation, and in both his official relations managed its affairs with a financial ability and success, that gave the institution an honorable and established rep­utation for soundness and stability, main­tained, inviolate and undisturbed, the public confidence in its solvency, through all the suc­cessive commercial crises which have swept over the nation, carrying financial disaster and ruin to corporations and individuals ; and its bills never suffered any discount from the value expressed on the face of them.

The large measure in which, by his invest­ments, he contributed to the building of the Irasburgh House, not from the expectation of rich dividends, but for the sake of its estimated benefits and advantage to the town, as being a more recent example of his public zeal, is well known to you all.

His townsmen honored him with every office in their gift; or, to speak more justly, honored the offices, by choosing him to fill them. He was town clerk in 1816 and 1817; selectman from 1820 to 1826, inclusive; town representative in 1818, '19, '20, '22, '23, '27, '35, '37, '38 and '40.

The esteemed friend, to whose obliging and pains-taking search of the town records for some four hours, I am indebted for these and other dates, adds: "the records shew that he was frequently town treasurer, and contin­ually appointed on committees indicative of the unbounded confidence of his townsmen in his integrity and ability"

He held the office of judge of probate in 1822, for the accommodation of a friend—a brother of the Hon. George Nye, who was disqualified from holding it by the possession of a United States' appointment; and, on the expiration thereof, Mr. Allen resigned the probateship in his favor.



                                                              IRASBURGH.                                                              259


He represented the County in the council in 1828, '29, '30, '31 and '32. He was elected to the council of censors in 1848. He was appointed governor's aid-de-camp with the title of colonel; in what year I have not at hand the means of ascertaining. It was by his title of colonel he was most generally known throughout the State.

In his public life and as a legislator, he not only won the golden opinions of his friends by his high-toned principles and his abilities; but, also, in those periods when political and party feeling ran high, he dis­armed, by his incorruptibility, moderation, and sound sense, the passions of political opponents and constrained their respect and confidence. Had he been ambitious of the distinctions of public life, he might have en­joyed them to a still larger extent. When the offer to put him in nomination as repre­sentative to congress for this district, was tendered him, and in circumstances which seemed to render certain his nomination and subsequent election, he unqualifiedly declined.

I have mentioned these facts thus fully, because, since the date of most of them, a new generation has come upon the scene, who are very much strangers to an acquaint­ance with them.

A word, further, as to the incidents of his personal history, and we hasten on to a delineation of the chief features of his char­acter,

Jan. 13, 1842, he married Sarah C. T. Par­sons, of Highgate, a lady of great amiable­ness, benevolence and worth. She died Feb. 29, 1844. July 8, 1848, he married her sis­ter, Frances Eliza, who survives him. The growing up of his children to maturity; the watching the development of their mind and character; the direction of their education; plans for their future career; and the inva­sion of sickness and death in his family, gave him to know human life, in its various phases of joy and sorrow—of hope, anxiety, and care.

And, at length, his turn came to die. For some months past, we observed that age was beginning to write, very sensibly, its impres­sion upon his form. Still, we hoped the months of summer were for him. But "man knoweth not his time." On Saturday after­noon, the 21st of April, he took to his couch. He had been out of his usual health for some days before. Medical skill was utterly unavailing for his restoration. On Sunday at the stroke of three, he died without a pang. The gentleness of his disease and the peace­fulness of his death were in meet harmony with the placid and tranquil tenor of his life. He was in his 76th year.

His character needs no eulogy. His claims upon our appreciation and esteem will be even more deeply felt and recognized, when his memory and name have been hallowed by his decease and by the lapse of time. The fair fame of his manhood was unsul­lied by youthful improvidences, vices, or follies. He was marked by singular correct­ness of manners. His filial piety was most tender and faithful and endearing. In domestic relations he was an affectionate husband and loving father. When, in the middle or later periods of his life, he had accumulated a large amount of wealth, he gave no outward manifestations at least, of the faults which are usually found associated with affluence. He was eminently free from haughtiness, and the spirit of dictation or oppression. He exacted from none the ex­pressions of homage to himself, or of con­formity to his opinions. An obsequious reverence and sycophancy would, if offered to him, have been contemptible in his eyes and repulsive to his feelings. In his personal intercourse with others he was uniformly courteous, respectful and conciliatory. He was easily accessible to the poorest. In his business transactions he was eminently trust­worthy and scrupulously just. Implicit confidence was invariably and universally reposed in him. His integrity was never questioned. His book-accounts were kept with an exact and faultless accuracy; thereby precluding misunderstandings, difficulties and strifes. No poor or honest person was ever harassed by him for payment of his dues. A man who was striving and struggling to make headway in the world, had, practically, an unlimited pay-day, and was allowed to discharge his payments in the mode most convenient for him. In his remarks concern­ing the absent or the calumniated, Mr. Allen was very careful and considerate. He indul­ged in no acerbities of censure or severity of criticism. Opprobious and vituperative ep­ithets never fell from his lips. The severest remark, which one who was his intimate friend for half a century, overheard him make, was: "I don't think much of him."



260                                      VERMONT HISTORICAL MAGAZINE


That seemed to be the habitual, characteristic expression of his disapproval and dislike. He had naturally a kind and symphathizing heart, which had not lost its tenderness of sensibility by contact with the world or by the rude experiences of life. He was very reticent and reserved in his utterances about himself. When he did a benevolent or char­itable act, he never blazoned it abroad. We knew it not from him. His performances, his abilities, his honors, in any department, were never recited, rarely, if ever, mentioned by him. To his friends, who sought his ad­vice, he was a valuable and safe counselor, because, in his replies, he offered not those views and suggestions, which he might sup­pose would most probably or surely harmo­nize with the wishes and aims of those solicit­ing his council; but expressed the sentiments and convictions of his own independent and unbiased judgment. To ostentation, extrav­agance, prodigality and waste, he had a native and cherished aversion. His own expenditures, though he was possessed of abundant means, were characterized by mod­eration and economy. His influence and example, in this, as in so many respects, were eminently salutary upon this community. His contributions to the advancement and prosperity of the town will be more highly appreciated and more justly recognized at a later date. Of its taxes, his wealth has always borne ungrudgingly a heavy part. To the ordinances and offices of religion he ever yielded the reverence and homage of his spirit. Its ministers he held in honor for honor for their work's sake. He was con­stant and punctual in his attendance upon public worship. Under all ordinary circum­stances, he calculated to be present in the sanctuary. At an early date in the history of our town, when there was no frequent or stated ministry, he read sermons on the sab­bath, to the assemblies of the people, in the court-house. He took a great interest in and contributed largely to, the erection of the church edifice, in which we are met to-day; and willingly gave what he considered his proportion, to the maintenance of the gospel ministry, and the support of public worship. Yet, his preferences and those of his family, were for the Episcopal forms of worship. He read his prayer-book, and used it in family devotions. And persons calling upon him, about the hours of morning prayer, have found him engaged in the perusal of the scriptures, when, had you gone into the houses of many professing Christians, the bible would not have been any where within sight. Of his actual personal relations to­wards God, it falls not within my province to speak. He, like myself, must receive his award from his Maker's hands, who is a just and merciful God.


                              THE SEVENTH DAY ADVENTISTS.


                                                     BY ELD. A. C. BOURDEAU.


The subject of the observance of the Bible Sabbath, in connection with the doctrine of the second advent of Christ, was first present­ed in Irasburgh and adjoining towns, by Eld. Joseph Bates in 1849—50. Subsequent to that time till 1861, labors were bestowed there at different times by Elders James White, J. Bates, J. N. Andrews, H. Edson, F. Wheeler, W. S. Ingraham, C. W. Sperry and A. S. Hutchins.

The S. D. Adventist church of Irasburgh was organized by Eld. A. S. Hutchins, Nov. 8, 1861, the following persons uniting togeth­er in church fellowship at that time: Jesse Barrows, Lydia Barrows, Enoch Colby, Cyn­thia Colby, John F. Colby, Mary Ann Colby, Samuel N. Smith, Lucy Smith, Alfred S. Hutchins, Abbie D. Hutchins, Ebenezer Scribner and Asa Loveland. Systematic be­nevolence was organized amounting to about $100.00 per year; J. Barrows was appointed local elder and S. B. treasurer, and A. B. Hutchins church clerk.

Since then a goodly number have been added to this church, and, notwithstanding their frequent losses by death and removal of families, their membership now stand 22 who pay on S. B. $187.22 per year.

Elder A. S. Hutchins, formerly a Freewill Baptist minister of West Fairlee. Vt., em­braced the views of the Seventh-day Advent­ists in 1852. He was married to Esther M. Barrows, of Irasburgh, Nov. 11, 1855, from which time he considered his place of resi­dence to be in that town till April, 1866. During this period he labored as a S. D. Ad­ventist minister in Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, Mich­igan and Illinois. Since 1866, E. W. Hutch­ins has resided in Wolcott, Vt. The church at Irasburgh have shared largely of his labors during the past conference year.

Sept. 14, 1870.



                                                              IRASBURGH.                                                              261


                     IRASBURGH SOLDIERS' RECORD, 1861—'65.


                                                          BY WM. B. TYLER.*


Names.                                Rank.        Co.          Reg.                Enlisted.       Remarks.

Adams, Norman F.          Priv.      F          11         Aug. 1, '62.   Pris. June 23, '64; took rebel oath.

Ash, Benj. Jr.                      "      "           "           July 22, '62.  Died Sept. 29, '62,

Badger, Willard                    "      Cav. E 1            Jan. 4, '62.   Trans, to Inv. corps, Sept. 1, '63.

Bailey, Hollis H.                   "      F          11         Aug. 4, '62.   Pro. corp. March 8, '63; serg't Jan. 23, '64; 2d lieut. June 4, '65; Q. M. serg't, Jan. 4, '64; must, out June, 24, '65.

Bartlett, Amasa              Capt.      E          9          June 25, '62.  Pro. Maj. Dec. 21, '63; died Mar. 16, '64 of disease.

Beaman, Henry E.           Priv.      B          3          June 1, '61.   Discharged Oct. 8, '63.

Belknap, Lewis                    "      "           4          Aug. 13, '61. Mustered out July 13, '65.

Bemis, Geo. N.                     "      E          9          June 14, '62. Deserted Oct. 25, '62.

Bean, Curtis P.                    "      B          3          June 1, '61.   Re-en. Dec. 21, '63; dis. May 16, '65.

Bean, Rufus                        "      Cav. I                Sept. 26, '61. Drowned Feb. 20, '63.

Berry, Elias W.                    "      "           "           Oct. 7, '61.   Mustered out Nov. 18, '64.

Brown, Chas. J.                   "      M          11         Sept. 9, '63.   Pro. corp. Feb. 21, '64; 1st lieut. col'd reg. Dec., '64; capt. and maj. May, '65.

Burroughs, Hiram                "      F          "           July 8, '62.   Pris. June 25, '64; died at Andersonville Sept. 10, '64.

Bush, George                      "      I           15         Sept, 3, '62.   Pro. corp. Jan. 1, '63; must. out  Aug 5, '63.

Caples, Thomas                    "      F          11         July 17, '62. Dis. Mar. 16, '63; re-en, in Co. F, 9th reg.; died Nov. 1, '64.

Clark. Nelson A.                   "      "           "           Aug. 8, '62.   Deserted May 16, '62 ; arrested Feb. 6, '65.

Clough, John D.                   "      "           "           Aug. 28, '63. Pris. June 23, '64; died at Andersonville July 24, '64.

Colton, George                     "      "           "           Aug. 8, '62.   Pro. prin. music., May 18, '63; 2d lieut., June 4, '65; must. out June 24, '65.

Carter, Joseph                     "      D          "           Dec. 3, '63.   Discharged June 23, '65.

Diggins, Patrick F.                "      B          3          June 1, '61.      "         Nov. 10, '63.

Donnivan, Wm. J.                "      "           "           "            Dropped July 20, '63.

Doying, Francis N.                "      F          11         Aug. 8, '62.   Pris. June 23, '64; died at Andersonville Aug. 13, '64.

Drew, Ira S.                        "      Cav. I                Sept. 30, '61. Discharged June 18, '62.

Eaton, Solomon W.               "      "           "           Oct. 7, '61.      "         Oct. 31, '62.

Emery, George                     "      F          11         Aug. 6, '62.   Pris. June 23. '64; took rebel oath.

Fairchilds, Henry C.              "      B          3          June 1, '61.   Re-en. Dec. 21, '63.

Field, Frederick M.               "      F          11         July 14, '62.  W'd G. H., Aug. 31, '64; must. out June 9, '65,

Flint, Henry C.             1st L't      Cav. I                Oct. 21, '61. Pro. capt. Apr. 25, '62; killed Apr. 1, '63, at Broad Run, Va.

Foster, Wm. W.              Priv.      "           "           Sept. 26, '61. Pro. corp. Nov. 19, '61; serg't, Dec. 10, '62; re-en. Dec. 28, '63; pro. 2d lieut. Nov. 19, '64; 1st lieut. Feb. 9, '65; trans. to Co. B, June 21, '65; must. out Aug. 9, '65.

Goin, James F.                    "      "           "           Sept. 29, '61. Mustered out Nov. 18, '64.

Grant, Eben                        "      "           "           Sept. 30, '61. Pro. serg't Nov, 19, '61; 1st serg't and 2d lieut., Oct. 30, '62; 1st lieut., Apr. 1, '63; capt., Oct. 2,'63; must. out June 21,'65.

Griswold, Geo. A.                 "      A          10         June 28, '62   Sick in G. H. Aug. 31, '64.

Healey, John                       "      F          11         Aug. 11, '62. Pro. corp. Apr. 22, '65; must. out June 24, '65.

Healey, Samuel                    "      "           "           "            Sick in G. H., Aug. 31, '64; des. Oct. 5, '64.

Hill, Henry A.                      "      L          "           May 16, '63. Discharged Apr. 15, '64.

Hopkins, Amos C.                "      B          3          June 1, '61.      "        Sept. 16, '62.

Hopkins, Chas. E.                "      Cav I                 Oct 8, '61       " Oct 23, '62: re-en in inv corps.

Hopkins, Hiland                   "      F          11         Aug. 8, '62.   W'd G. H. Aug. 31, '64; must. out June 24, '65.

Howard, Albert W.         Corp.      "           "           July 12, '62. Pro. serg't Dec. 14, '63; died June 3, '64; of wound of June 1.

Howard, Elbridge G.        Priv.      "           "           Aug. 29, '63. Trans. to Co. C, June 24, '65, must. out Aug. 25, '65.

Hure, John A.               Corp.      "           "           July 12, '62. Pro. serg't; must out June 24, '65.

Keeler, Geo. P.               Priv.      "           "           July 16, '62. W'd G. H. Aug. 31, '64; must. out May 13, '65.

Kennison, Henry M.              "      Q.S S.E Aug. 5, '64.             Trans. to Co. G, 4th reg. Feb. 25, '65; must, out June 19, '65.

Kidder, Joseph                    "      F          11         Aug. 8, '62.   Pris. June 23, '64; died Sept. 23, '64; at Florence S. C. pris.


* Also lawyers and town clerks, furnished by Mr. Tyler—town clerk.—Ed.



262                                     VERMONT HISTORICAL MAGAZINE.


                Names.                Rank.        Co.          Reg.                 Enlisted.       Remarks.

Kidder, Oliver A.            Serg't      B          3          June 1,'61.    Died Aug. 22, '61.

Loveland, James             Priv.      G          4          Aug. 28, '63. Died Nov. 23, '63; drafted.

Larabee, J. B. H.                C      "           "              "            Died of w'ds reed May 12, '64; drafted.

Leet, David A.                      "      F          11         Aug. 6, '62.   W'd G. H. Aug. 31, '64 ; died .Nov. 21,'64.

Madden, Daniel                    "      H          3          Mar. 26, '62. Died June 15, '62.

Mason, Marvin M.                 "      Cav. I                Sept. 28, '61. Serg't Nov. 19, '61 ; die. Nov. 5,'62; re-en. in Vet. Res corps, June 26, '63; trans. to Co. I, Feb. 21, '64; re-en. Mar. 29, '64 ; 1st serg't Nov. 19, '64 ; 2d lieut. Feb. 9, '65; let lieut. Co. M, June 4, '65 ; trans. to Co. F, as 2d lieut. June 21, '65 ; must. out Aug. 9, '65.

McNeil, John                       "      B          3          June 3, '61.   Died July 31, '62.

Head, Egbert H.                   "      F          11         July 19, '62. Pro. our', Dpo '‘'11 ; pro sorg't. April 22, '65; must. out June 24, '65.

Mead, Frank N.                    "      Cav. I                Oct. 4, '61.   Mustered out Nov. 18, '64.

Mitchell, Simeon                   "      "           "           Jan. 1, '62.   Re-en. Jan. 1, '64 ; trans. to Co. F June 21, '05—not accounted fot.

Miles, Abner, Jr.                  "      D          5          Aug. 9, '62.   Discharged San. 28, '63:'

Morey, Willard                     "      B          3          Mar. 4, '62.   Died Oct. 14, '62.

Mott, Langdon                      "      E          9          June 23, '62.  Discharged Jan. 15, '63.

Needham, Edw'd C.              "

Nye, Edward                        "      B          3          Apr. 12, '62. Died June 22, '61, w'ds received in action.

Nye, Lucius S.                     "      "           "           "            Pro. corp. must. out April 12, '65.

Owen, Charles                     "      D          17         Feb. 8, '64.   Sick in O. H. Aug. 31, '64; Pro. corp. July 8, '65 ; must. out July 14, '65.

Page, Austin                        "      Cav. I                June 4, '62.   Discharged Dec. 21, '62.

Pearson, Solon D.                 "      B          3          June 3, '61.   Discharged Feb. 8, '63.

Perry, Willard J.                   "      D          4          Aug. 28, '61. Died .Mv. 17, '61.

Pope, Frank E.                     "      B          3          Feb. 28, '62. Discharged Dec. 1, '62

Preston John                       "      G          4          Aug. 28, '63. Trans. to 'Co. B, Feb. 25, '65; trans. to Vet. Res. comps Nov. 25, '64; must. out July 19. '65.

Priest, Samuel J.                  "      Cav. E               Jan. 4, '62.   Must. out Jan. 4, '65.

Ranger, Geo. R.             Serg't      F          11         Aug. 8, '62.   Died Feb. 20, '65, at Charleston S. C.

Ranger, Wm. S.              Priv.      F          11         "            Pro. corp. July 30, '63; Pro. serg't. April 10, 64; Died June 19, '65.

Santy, Edward W.          Corp.      B          3          June 1, '61.   Pro. serg't.; must. out July 27, '64.

Sargent, Alonzo B.            Priv      F          11         Aug. 8, '62.   Must. out June 24, '65.

Semineau, Abram                 "      3 Bat.                Aug. 4, '64.   Must. out June 15, '65.

Shaw, Napoleon B.                "      H          17

Spear, Hiram                       "      B          3          June 1, '61.   G. H. Wash'n July 27, '64.

Sterling, Geo. W.                  "      Cav. C   Aug. 7, '62.             Pro. corp. Nov. 19, '64; pro. serg't.; must. out June 21, '65.

Stone, Samuel A.                  "      E          9          June 6, '62.   Must. out June 13, '65.

Sunbury, Jackson                "      B 3 Mar. 4, '62. Dropped April 10, '63.

Tallman, Wm. C. Corp. F 11 July 17, '62. Pro. serg't. July 30, '63; pris. June 23,

'64; died Andersonville Aug. 15, '64.

Taplin, Geo. O.               Priv.      " " July 21, '62. W'd. G. IL Aug. 31, '64 ; corp. April 224

'05 ; must. out June 21, '65.

Taylor, Herman S.       " 1 Bat.      Dec. 25, '61. Mustered out Aug. 10, '64.

Tenney, Wm. W.                  "      F 11 Aug. 9, '62. Pro. corp. Jan. 23, '64 ; died March 5,'64:

Tisdell, Geo. H.                    "      " " Aug. 29, '62. W'd. in G. H. Aug. 31,'64 ; dis. May 22,'65.

Tucker, Perley                     "      I 15 Sept. 3, '6'2. Must. out Aug. 0, '63.

Woodbury, Jos. P.                "      G 4 Aug. 28, 63. Died June 16, '64, w'ds rec'd in action.

Williamson,ThCis. A. " F 11 Mar. 27, '64. Deserted April 6, '64.

Wells, Hollis                        "      " " Dec. 3, '63. Trans. to Co. C June 24, '65; must. out

Sept. 7, '65.

Ware, Alonzo                       "      " " Aug. 11, '62. Died Sept. 6, '62.

Waterman,Freeman " M " Sept. 21, '63. Sick G. H. Aug. 31, '64; must. out June

23, '65.

Webster, Albert                    "      " " Sept. 9, '63. Mustered out June 22, '65.

Webster, Ellory H.                "      F " Aug. 9, '62. Pro. corp. Jan. 23, '64 ' . pris. June 23,'641 pro. serg't. April 22:65 ; must. out' 65.

Wells, George                      "      "           "           Aug. 8, '62    Dis. Oct. 23, '62.

White Moses W.                   "      E          9          June 25, '62. Must, out June 13, '65.



                                                              IRASBURGH.                                                              263


                Names.                Rank.        Co.          Reg.                 Enlisted.       Remarks.

            Wilshier, Wm.     Priv.      F          11         Aug. 8, '62.   Pro. corp. April 22, '65; must. out June 24, '65.

            Young, Peter            "      "           "           Aug. 3, '63.   Pro. corp.; pro. serg't. Jan, 23, '64; sick June 24, '65.


94 enlisted men,—5 men not credited by name; 1 substitute furnished by William B. Denison; 4 paid commutation, viz. John D. Edmonds, Wm. S. Foster, Zuar E. Jameson and Wm. L. Locke Jr. Total, 104.

Died in service, 24; Deserted 6; took Rebel oath, 2; not accounted for, 1; drafted 2


            MY JENNY BAY.


               BY N. W. BINGHAM.


The sky is bright, the day is fair,

               Bring out my gentle Morgan bay;

The ice upon the lake is glare,

               And we will try its strength to-day.

Then with thee, my Jenny bay,

O'er the lake to glide away—

               The deer is fleet,

               The wind is fleet,

But thou art fleeter than they, my bay.


Ah! Jenny bay, my Morgan mare.

               Her neck is arched, her eye is bold,

Her mane a torrent in the air,

               Her lofty step a pride untold—

Then come my darling Jenny bay.

O'er the lake we'll haste away.

               The ship is fleet,

               The eagle fleet,

But thou art fleeter than they, my bay.


And as upon the lake we go,

               Tread firmly on your iron heel;

You need not fear the depths below,

               The ice is thick and strong as steel.

Oh! swiftly on, my Jenny bay,

Swiftly on, away! away!

               The deer is fleet,

               The wind is fleet,

But thou art fleeter than they, my bay.


But see, she stops, she will not go!

               We're at the current of the lake,

Why do you start and tremble so?

               The ice is strong, it will not break.

Then swiftly on, my Jenny bay,

Swiftly on, away! away!

               The ice is strong,

               The tide is strong,

And thou art strong as they, my bay.


But ha! a crash, on, do not stay!

               On, on, my mare; She will not heed.

The crackling ice will soon give way;

               It bends, It breaks, alas, my steed,

Oh my bay, my drowning bay.

Wo betide this evil day.

               The lake is cold,

               The ice is cold,

And thou wilt soon be cold as they.


She rises but to sink again,

               The water rises o'er the way,

In vain I madly seize the rein,

               The groaning ice forbids my stay,

The waters close above my bay,

A ripple shows the darksome way,

               Alas, for thee,

               Alas, for me,

That I should mourn thee, Jenny bay.


And thou shalt champ the bit no more,

               Nor beat impatiently the earth;

Above thee shall the dark wave roar,

               Unheeded in its boisterous mirth,

Farewell, a long farewell, my bay.

The saddened year will roll away;

               Spring will return,

               The birds return,

But thou will not return, my bay.






               BY N. W. BINGHAM.


Where the rays of golden sunlight

Glimmer o'er the joyous sea,

Near my happy home of childhood,

Emma oft has strayed with me.

Where the dusky shades of twilight

Deepen o'er the sighing sea,

Sleeps in death the gentle Emma,

Never more to stray with me,

               Never more, ah, never more,

               When the summer blades are green,

               May I wander by the shore

               With the gentle Emma Dean.


Bright her eyes were ever beaming,

Like the sunlight from her soul,

While a witchery of dreaming

Through their drooping lashes stole;

But those eyes are closed forever,

Joyless, soulless, sightless, still,

Every heart with wild adoring

Never more, alas! to fill.

               Never more, ah, never more,

               When the slimmer blades are green,

               May I wander by the shore

With the gentle Emma Dean.


How I loved her, fondly lov'd her,

In those happy days of yore;

When her cheek my own was pressing,

And my cup of bliss ran o'er;

Cold and pale those cheeks so lovely,

Mould'ring by the solemn shore,

And the soul that woke their beauty

Now shall wake it never more.

               Never more, ah, never more,

               When the summer blades are green,

               May I wander by the shore

               With the gentle Emma Dean.



264                                     VERMONT HISTORICAL MAGAZINE.


          MY BEST FRIEND.


            (Lines to my wife.)




Above all others there's one friend

            Whom I delight to honor;

O, could I weave an angel's robe,

            I'd place that, robe upon her!

I'd spin such fair and golden threads

            As ne'er were spun before,

From the most choice material

            In Heaven's ample store!

Threads of angelic purity,

            And threads of radiant joy;

Threads of majestic loveliness

            Should all my skill employ!

I'd clothe her in a robe of light,

            Such as the angels wear:

Of pearls of truth I'd weave a band

            To bind her shining hair!

I'd place upon her innocent head

            A crown of dazzling gold

With wisdom's diamonds studded round,

            All glorious to behold I

In safety would I clothe her feet—

            With honor grace her hand;

In some deserved exalted place,

            'T were joy to see her stand!

Dear friend,—"if thou art good and pure,"—

            As I believe thou art

If just and honest be thy mind,

            And upright be thy heart,

That crown of glory on thy head

            One day shall brightly shine

That post of honor, and that robe,

            And peace and joy be thine!




          MAD MATH.


            BY LAURA HEARTON.


O, the winter cold, bleak whiter,

            Shutting out prayers of spring-time,

Stilling all the songs of summer

            And the autumn's written rhyme.


On the beech-boughs hung the snow-flakes,

            And the snow-flakes filled the lanes,

Piled in masses along the hedge-row

            And against the window panes.


And as morning woke in heaven,

            From the cottage doorway low,

Looked Mad Math with dim brown eyes

            O'er the meadow white with snow.


Beyond the cloud-rifts she could see

            The brightness of the sky-land,

And she laughed as the sunshine fell

            On her trembling, withered hand.


Through her shrunken lips she muttered

            "I must on my journey go,

'Ere the storm-winds walk the valley

            And across the heather blow."


Full twenty years she had wandered

            On this journey up and down,

Ever waiting, ever searching,

            For a treasure never found.


Every morning, hood and blanket

            She had taken from the wall,

Every morning on the high-way

            There was sound of her foot-fall.


And now as ever forth she went

            Through the snow smooth and even,

Never heeding all the warnings

            Of the cold and clearless heaven.


Never heeding all the voices

            Of the good folks at the farm,

Who often pitied crazy Math,

            Fearing she would come to harm.


Fearing as they saw her foot-prints

            Wavering across the plain,

That within their cheerful dwelling

            She would never come again.


All that day through the chilling air

            Mad Math heard voices calling,

Heard then, calling from the sky-land

            And she answered "I am coming."


"I am coming," wild winds heard it

            And they colder, colder blew,

"I am coming," and all the shadows

            Closer, closer round her drew.


Closer, closer wove the dimness

            Over Mad Math's weary eyes,

Till on the drifted snow she sank

            Never more in life to rise.


And as the western sky grew red

            With blood of the dying day,

And misty clouds like crimson sails

            Slow waved o'er a crimson bay,

"Look!" she cried, "see all the fires

            They've kindled for my welcome;

See them burning blazing upward

            To guide my footsteps home."


How the forests moaned and shuddered

            How the air moved with sighing,

Yet there came a blessing to her

            To that lone hour of dying.


For, from her darkly buried soul

            "Angels rolled the stone away,"

Crazy Math was she no longer,

            But sweet voiced Marion Grey.


Very near her came the voices

            Which had called her all the day,

And about her were the visions

            Of her old home far away.


She heard how the forest shuddered,

            But said "it is the sounding

Of the voice of our home-river,

            As down the rocks 'tis bounding."


Dreamed she of the olden mansion,

            Of the budding apple-trees,

Of the birds among the branches

            Singing all their spring-time glees.


Dreamed she of the joy and gladness

            She had felt in other days.

When all who knew lovely Marion

            Only knew to sing her praise.


* A native of Irasburgh.



                                                                     JAY.                                                                    265


Over her stole the death warmth

            And her soul left our valleys,

As the sunset lifted

            From winding forest-alleys,


With her snow-shroud angel-woven,

            With sunshine lying round her,

With the pine tree for her headstone

            On the morrow there they found her.


Tenderly they brushed the snow-wreaths

            From her wrinkled face away,

Carefully raised her, knowing not

            She was fair Marion Gray.


Only saying, "It is Mad Math

            Who has wandered up and down,

Long time waiting, long time searching

            For a treasure never found.


They lifted lip her staff and basket,

            Showing relics strange and old,

Faded flowers, withered spring-leaves

            And a shell-frame edged with gold.


In the frame were two fair pictures

            Which might have been two lovers,

One might have been Marion's face

            Or might have been another's.


Reverently they folded them

            In her hands grown dark and thin,

Knowing nothing: asking, wondering

            Only what they might have been.


Gently in her grave they laid her;

            Then the "gude men" went their way,

Carving "MAD MATH" on the pine tree,

            But it should be "MARION GREY."


Now they tell us of the pine tree

            How the tassels bow and whisper,

When the sun is low in heaven

            And winds are on the heather.


How adown the firey sunset

            Come evening echoes calling,

And the waving pine tree-tassles

            Answer back "I am coming."


So they tell us but we know not,

            And we heed not what they tell,

Only know that—at last, at last

            Weary Math is resting well.






                                                  BY THE REV. PLINY H. WHITE.


The territory constituting the town of Jay was originally granted, as a township, by the name of Carthage, March 13, 1780. No settlements were made under that grant, nor was the township surveyed till 1789, when it was surveyed by James Whitelaw. The con­ditions of the grant not being complied with, the land reverted to the State; and the leg­islature, by a resolution, adopted Nov. 7, 1792, which recited,


"That the tract called Carthage is found to be an uncommonly good one," and that 7,000 acres of it had been granted to Thomas Chit­tenden, requested the Governor to issue a charter to John Jay for fourteen sixteenths of two thirds of it, and to John Cozine for the other two sixteenths, and "that the same should be erected into a townnship by the name of Jay."

That part of the township which was granted to Gov. Chittenden was described as follows: "Beginning at a Stake and Stones being the South-West Corner of Carthage thence South 82 Degrees and 20 Minutes East six Miles in the North Line of Westfield to a Birch Tree Standing in the North East Corner thereof marked Carthage Westfield 1789, thence North Two miles to a Stake 16 Links North West from a Spruce Tree Marked 2 1789 thence North 82 Degrees and 20 Min­utes West six Miles to a Fir Tree standing on the West side of a Mountain Marked M 4 1789 thence South to the first bound con­taining 4600 acres of land."


By a charter issued Nov. 28, 1792, the remainder of the township was described as follows: —


"Beginning at the North East Corner of a Tract heretofore called Carthage being a Stake and Stones standing in the North line of said State 15 links North from a Beech Tree marked Carthage 1789 and running thence North Eighty-Two Degrees and Twen­ty Minutes West Six Miles in the North line of the State to a Beech Tree Marked Richford Carthage October 17th 1789—thence South four Miles in the East line of Richford to a pine or fir tree on the West ride of a small mountain marked M 4 1789 then South 82 degrees and 20 minutes East to a Stake 16 links North West from a spruce Tree marked M 2 1789 thence North in the East line of the said Tract to the place of beginning con­taining 15,367 acres statute measure."


Deming, in his Gazetteer, inquires:— "As the east part of the town is good land and the west part all mountain, would a shrewd Yankee be at a loss to guess which way the division line ran?" Our fathers, however, were honest, as well as shrewd; and the di­vision line between the tract granted to Gov. Chittenden and that granted to Messrs. Jay and Cozine, did not run north and south, as Deming suggests, but east and west, giving Gov. Chittenden his full proportion of the mountain, no less than of the low lands.

John Jay, to whom a large part of the town was granted, and in honor of whom it was named, was an eminent lawyer and statesman of New York, and, not long before the grant, had been appointed, by Washing­ton, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. During the protracted controversy between New York and Vermont.