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Indian Tribes that lived in Idaho, Washington, and/or in Oregon.

KOOTENAI: Kootenai elders who keep tribal history say that the Kootenai people were created by Quilxka Nupika, the supreme being, and placed on earth to keep the Creator-Spirit’s Covenant, to guard and keep the land forever. The Kootenai people lived in peace until the arrival of strangers who spoke a strange language. They wanted the Native Americans to sign a treaty and move to the reservations. The Kootenai people kept the Covenant, and no Kootenai ever signed the treaty. The U.S. and Canadian border split the people into seven communities, and despite promises that the lands along the Kootenai River would always belong to the tribe, land kept being taken away. New diseases killed many tribal members, but the struggle for their homeland went on. On September 20, 1974, following years of loss of their aboriginal lands, the 67 remaining Kootenais declared war on the United States. Although it was a peaceful war, the publicity got the nation’s attention and at long last the Kootenais were deeded 12.5 acres of land. In 1986, the Kootenai Tribe of Idaho celebrated the first major step in their economic independence, the Kootenai River Inn. The Inn is wholly owned by the Kootenai Tribe, which is very proud of the fine facility. The tribal elders hand down the skills and traditions of the ancestors, and many tribal members still speak the Kootenai language. Tribal customs and culture are preserved for future generations. During all those terrible years, the Kootenais never lost sight of their original purpose,to be the guardians of the land forever. They continue to work to that purpose. I have created you Kootenai people to look after this beautiful land, to honor and guard and celebrate my Creation here.

 

BANNOCK: The Bannock or Banate are a Native American people who lived in southeastern Oregon and Southern Idaho.They speak the Northern Paiute language and are closely related to the Northern Paiute people. Some anthropologists consider the Bannock to be simply the northern-most bands of the Northern Paiute. The degree to which the Bannock considered themselves separate from the Northern Paiute at the time of contact is unclear. The Bannock developed a horse culture and associated closely with the Northern Shoshone. The Bannock are prominent in American history due to the Bannock War of 1878. After the war, the Bannock moved onto the Fort Hall Indian Reservation with the Northern Shoshone and gradually their tribes merged. Today they are called the Shoshone-Bannock. The Bannock live on the Fort Hall Indian Reservation, 544,000 acres in Southeastern Idaho. Lemhi and Northern Shoshone live with the Bannock Indians.

 

COEUR d' ALENE: The Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation, located south of the resort town of Coeur d'Alene in Idaho's panhandle, occupies a fraction of the tribe's original territories. An arrowhead-shaped piece of land, the reservation includes the edge of the western Rockies, half of Lake Coeur d'Alene, and portions of the fertile Palouse country. French fur traders named the tribe Coeur d'Alene--"heart of an awl"--saying they were the finest traders in the world. The tribe's trade involved year-long trips to the Pacific coast as well as to the Great Plains to exchange goods. They called themselves Schee chu'umsch, which, in their native Salish language, means "those who are found here." The Coeur d'Alene Indians lived in large permanent villages along the Spokane and St. Joe Rivers, near Lake Coeur d'Alene and Hayden Lake and on parts of the large prairie known today as the Palouse country, an area of about 5 million acres. They enjoyed a close relationship with the inland tribes of Canada and the Northwest, sharing a common language and fishing grounds, intermarrying, and attending big trade gatherings and celebrations. Silver was discovered in the Idaho panhandle in the 1870s, setting off a frenzy of mining activity. The Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation, established in 1873, originally included all of Lake Coeur d'Alene. By a series of treaty agreements, the reservation was reduced to its present size. One of the first Catholic missions in the West, the Cataldo Mission was established on the St. Joe River in the early 1840s. Because of flooding, it was moved to a bluff overlooking the Coeur d'Alene River in 1848. A new church and parish house were erected there and still stand today, both part of Old Mission State Park. Every August 15, the Coeur d'Alene Tribe sets up tepees on the mission grounds to celebrate the annual Feast of the Assumption. Adjacent to the Reservation is Steptoe Butte, the highest point in the Palouse (towering more than 1,000 feet above the valley floor) and one of the most important sacred sites of the Coeur d'Alene. Its peak was a site of meditation, prayer, and ceremony for centuries. The butte, covered with downy grass, is solid rock, 500 million years old. A Coeur d'Alene Indian Story, by Thomas E. Connolly, Ye Galleon Press (Fairfield, WA), 1990. This is a centennial publication of the Coeur d'Alene tribe, and doesn't have an ISBN number. A fun history story written from the perspective of a fourth-grade boy talking to his grandma :-) Manners & Customs of the Coeur d'Alene Indians, by Jerome Peltier, Peltier Publications, 1975. This book is available on interlibrary loan from Washington State University. This is only meant to be a sampling of the literature available.

 

NEZ PERCE: The Nez Perce, the largest ethnic group in the Columbia Plateau, were closely related to the Cayuse, Tenino and Umatilla tribes to their west. Their languages are closely related, all part of the Sahaptian branch of the Penutian language phylum. The Nez Perce were also heavily influenced by their Plains neighbors to the east. They acquired horses in the mid 1700's and quickly became known for outstanding horsemanship. They maintained a traditional friendship with the Americans, and allied themselves closely with the other Penutian speakers, trading and hunting with them on generally good terms. They were much less friendly with the tribes to the south and east, especially the Shoshonis, Bannocks and Blackfeet. The relatively peaceful relations with the white people came to an end in the 1870's when the United States withdrew the reservation status of the Wallowa valley in northeastern Oregon in 1875. Chief Joseph (Hin-ma-toe-yah-laht-khit) led his band in the Nez Perce War. In 1877, his band was forced to retreat from the Wallowas, traveling 1,800 miles with U.S. Army in pursuit. The army caught up with the band in Montana, and Chief Joseph surrendered. In a speech that has become famous, he concludes with "Hear me, my chiefs. I am tired; my heart is sick and sad. From where the sun now stands I will fight no more, forever."

 

THE SHOSHONE INDIANS The historic Shoshone Indians, of the Uto-Aztecan linguistic stock, occupied territory in California, Idaho, Nevada, Utah, and Wyoming, although most of them seemed to be settled in the Snake river area in Idaho. Historical documents from the Lewis & Clark expedition often refer to the Shoshone as the "Snake Indians"; the actual name "Shoshone" means "The Valley People" . The name means inland, or "in the valley". The Shoshone were few in numbers, their total population being somewhere in the area of 8000. In 1875, resident Ulysses S. Grant established a 100 square mile executive order reservation for the Lemhi Valley Shoshone, establishing the Lemhi Valley Indian Reservation for use by the Shoshone, Bannock, and Sheepeater tribes. In 1905, nearly one hundred years after their first contact with the white man, the Lemhi Shoshone began their "Trail of Tears", being forcibly removed from their ancestral homelands to the Fort Hall Indian Reservation. An article by Professor Orlan J. Svingen of the History Department at Washington State University sites injustices suffered by the Lemhi Shoshone. Prof. Svingen writes: "But perhaps the ultimate act of dispossession was the Indian Claims Commission settlement involving the Lemhi people. During the 1960s, the ICC and the federal government determined that the Lemhi Claim to aboriginal lands would have to be submitted as part of the larger Shoshone-Bannock Claim. The Lemhis were prohibited from filing their own independent claim. When their claim, Docket #326-1, came before the ICC, the Lemhi claim to their land 200 miles north of Fort Hall totaled $4.5 million. Based on pressure from the federal government, the ICC, the Sho-Bans, and the Sho-Bans attorneys, the $4.5 million was assigned to the Shoshone Bannock general fund. Rather than dividing the 1971 Lemhi settlement among the approximately 500 Lemhis living at Fort Hall, it was, essentially, divided among as many as 3000 people living at Fort Hall--the overwhelming majority of whom had no direct or indirect tie to Lemhi lands. Opposition to the settlement was widespread among the Lemhi, but their dissatisfaction fell on the deaf ears of the Shoshone-Bannock majority and the Sho-Ban attorneys from the firm of Wilkinson, Cragun & Barker. Udale Simmer Tendoy, a Lemhi descendant, typified Lemhi opposition with his assessment of the ICC decision in 1971." Today, the Shoshone are still waiting to become a Federally recognized tribe, along with over 200 other Native American tribes such as the California Chumash and the North-Eastern Abenakis. There has been much controversy surrounding the U.S. Government's plans to commemorate the bicentennial of the Lewis & Clark expedition. Prof. Svingen comments on the proposed bicentennial celebration: "...as the nation prepares to celebrate the bicentennial of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, it is difficult to consider how the country can celebrate the Corps of Discovery while such a debt to Sacajawea and her people remains such a scandal." The above sketch will show enough of the history of most of the tribes in this area, though some details have been added in certain cases (i. e., in connection with the Cayuse, Chilluckittequaw, Chimakum, Chinook, Klickitat, and Yakima. (See Ray, 1932, and Spier and Sapir, 1930.)

 

CATHLAMET: Also called: Guasámas, or Guithlamethl, by the Clackamas. Kathlamet, own name. Kwillu'chini, by the Chinook. Connections. The Cathlamet belonged to the Chinookan stock. The dialect to which they have given their name was spoken as far up the Columbia River as Ranier. Location. On the south bank of Columbia River near its mouth, claiming the territory between Tongue Point and the neighborhood of Puget Island, and on the north bank from the mouth of Grays Bay to a little east of Oak Point. Villages: Ika'naiak, on the north side of the Columbia River at the mouth of Coal Creek Slough just east of Oak Point. Ilo'humin, on the north side of Columbia River opposite Puget Island and near the mouth of Alockman Creek. Kathla'amat, on the south side of Columbia River about 4 miles below Puget Island. Ta'nas ilu', on Tanas Ilahee Island on the south side of the Columbia River. Wa'kaiyakam, across Alockman Creek opposite Ilo'humin. Population. Mooney (1928) estimated 450 Cathlamet in 1780. In 1805-6 Lewis and Clark gave 300. In 1849 Lane reported 58. They are now extinct as a separate group. Connection in which they have become noted. The capital of Wahkiakum County, Washington, perpetuates the name of the Cathlamet.

 

CATHLAPOTLE: Meaning "people of Lewis (Na'p!oLx.) River." Connections. The Cathlapotle belonged to the Chinookan linguistic stock and were placed by Spier (1936) in the Clackamas division of Upper Chinook but by Berreman (1937) apparently with the Multnomah. Location. On the lower part of Lewis River and the southeast side of the Columbia River, in Clarke County. Villages. The main village of the Cathlapotle was Nahpooitle, at the mouth of Lewis River, but to this should perhaps be added Wakanasisi, opposite the mouth of Willamette River. Population. Mooney (1928) estimated 1,300 Cathlapotle in 1780; Lewis and Clark, 900 in 1806. Connection in which they have become noted. Lewis River was once known by the name of Cathlapotle.

 

CAYUSE: The Cayuse were located about the heads of Wallawalla, Umatilla, and Grande Ronde Rivers, extending from the Blue Mountains to Deschutes River, Washington and Oregon. (See Oregon.) The Cayuse murdered the Whitman group who were founders of the first christian mission in the Oregon Territory.

 

CHEHALIS: Chehalis. Meaning "sand," the name derived originally, according to Gibbs (1877), from a village at the entrance of Grays Harbor. Also called: Atchi?e'lish, Calapooya name. Ilga't, Nestucca name. Lower Chehalis, name used by Spier (1927). Staq-tûbc, Puyallup name. Connections. The Chehalis belonged to the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic family, being most intimately related to the Humptulips, Wynoochee, and Quinault. Location. On the lower course of Chehalis River, especially on the south side, and on the south side of Grays Bay. In later times the Chehalis occupied territory to and about Willapa Bay that had formerly been held by the Chinook. Villages Chehalis (Gibbs, 1877), on the south side of Grays Harbor near Westport, in country earlier occupied by the Chinook. Chiklisilkh (Gibbs), at Point Leadbetter, Willapa Bay, in territory earlier occupied by Chinook. Hlakwun (Curtis, 1907-9), near Willapa on Willapa River in territory earlier occupied by the Chinook. Kaulhlak (Curtis), at the head of Palux River, earlier in Chinook country. Klumaitumsh (Gibbs and Boas personal information), given doubtfully as the name of a former band or village on the south side of Grays Harbor at its entrance. Nai'yasap (Curtis), on Willapa River in territory earlier occupied by Chinook. Nickomin (Swan 1857 and Boas, personal information), on North River which flows into Willapa Bay, in territory earlier occupied by the Chinook. Noohooultch (Gibbs), on the south side of Grays Harbor. Noosiatsks (Gibbs), on the south side of Grays Harbor. Nooskoh (Gibbs), on a creek opposite Whishkah River. Qyan (Gairdner, 1841), on the north point of Grays Harbor. Talal (Gibbs), at Ford's Prairie on the Chehalis River near Centralia, and therefore far outside of the Chehalis territory proper.

 

WILLAPA: Willapa, on Willapa River and in earlier Chinook country. The following villages were originally occupied by Chinook but seem to have shifted in population or language or both so as to become Chehalis: Hwa'hots, Nutskwethlso'k, Quela'ptonlilt, Quer'quelin, Tske'lsos. Population. Mooney (1928) estimated a population of 1,000 in the year 1780 for the Lower and Upper Chehalis, the Cowlitz, the Humptulips, and related tribes, but the number had sunk to 170 by 1907. However, the census of 1910 gives 282 for the same group exclusive of the Cowlitz. In 1923 the United States Indian Office returned 89, and in 1937, 131. Connections in which they have become noted. A river, county, and city in Washington preserve the name of the Chehalis. There is a Chehalis in Minnesota but its name probably has no connection with that of the Washington tribe.

 

CHELAN: Chelan. The name is derived from Chelan Lake. Connections. An interior Salish tribe speaking the Wenachee dialect and separated tentatively from that tribe by Spier (1927). Location. At the outlet of Lake Chelan. Population. No data. Connections in which they have become noted. The name Chelan is shared not only by the lake above mentioned but by Chelan Falls, a range of mountains, a county, and two post villages, Chelan and Chelan Falls.

 

CHILLUCK/LITTEQUAW: Chilluckittequaw. Significance unknown. Connections. The Chilluckittequaw belonged to the Chinookan linguistic stock. Location. As reported by Lewis and Clark, the Chilluckittequaw lay along the north side of Columbia River, in the present Klickitat and Skamania Counties, from about 10 miles below the Dalles to the neighborhood of the Cascades. Spier (1936) thinks they may have been identical with the White Salmon or Hood River group of Indians and perhaps both. In the latter case we must suppose that they extended to the south side of the Columbia. Subdivisions and Villages. Itkilak or Ithlkilak (occupied jointly with Klickitat), at White Salmon Landing. Nanshuit (occupied jointly with Klickitat), at the present Underwood. Smackshop, a band of Chilluckittequaw extending from the River Labiche (Hood River ?) to the Cascades. Tgasgutcu (occupied jointly with Klickitat), said to be about ½ mile west of a long, high mountain opposite Mosier, Oreg., and at the same time about a mile above White Salmon Landing, an apparent inconsistency:

 

THULMIEKSOK: Thlmieksok or Thlmuyaksok, ½ mile from the last; in 1905 the site of the Burket Ranch. Historical Note. According to Mooney (1928), a remnant of the Chilluckittequaw lived near the mouth of the White Salmon River until 1880 when they removed to the Cascades, where a few still resided in 1895. Population. Mooney (1928) estimated 3,000 for this tribe in 1780. In 1806 Lewis and Clark placed the figure at 1,400, besides 800 Smackshop, or a total of 2,200.

 

CHICKMAKUM: Chimakum. Significance of the name is unknown. Also called: Aqokdlo, own name. Port Townsend Indians, popular name. Connections. The Chimakum, the Quileute, and the Hoh (q. v.) together constituted the Chimakuan linguistic stock, which in turn was probably connected with the Salishan stock. Location. On the peninsula between Hood's Canal and Port Townsend. History. The Chimakum were constantly at war with the Clallam and other Salish tribes and, being inferior in numbers, suffered very much at their hands. They were included in the Point-no-Point Treaty of 1855 and placed on the Skokomish Reservation, where they gradually diminished in numbers until, in 1890, Boas was able to find only three individuals who could speak their language, and then but imperfectly. Population. Mooney (1928) estimates 400 Chimakum in 1780, and Gibbs (1877), 90 in 1855. The census of 1910 enumerated 3. Connection in which they have become noted. Attention was called to the Chimakum in early days by their warlike character and the uniqueness of their language.

 

CLACKAMAS: Clackamas. Placed on both sides of the Columbia, but I prefer to follow Berreman (1937) in limiting the term to groups living on the Oregon side. (See Oregon.) CLALLAM : Clallam. Meaning "strong people." Also spelled Nu-sklaim, S'Klallam, Tla'lem. Connections. The Clallam were a tribe of the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic stock most closely connected with the Songish. Location. On the south side of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, between Port Discovery and Hoko River. Later the Clallam occupied the Chimakum territory also and a small number lived on the lower end of Vancouver Island. Villages.

ELWAH: Elwah, at the mouth of Elwah River. Hoko, at the mouth of Hoko Creek. Huiauulch, on the site of modern Jamestown, 5 miles east of Dungeness. Hunnint or Hungi'ngit, on the east side of Clallam Bay; this town and Klatlawas together were called Xainañt by Erna Gunther (1927). Kahtai, at Port Townsend, occupied after the destruction of the Chimakum. Kaquaith (or Skakwiyel), at Port Discovery. Klatlawas, the Tlatlawai'is of Curtis (1907-9), on the west side of Clallam Bay; see Hunnint. Kwahamish, a fishing village on the Lyre River. Mekoös, on Beecher Bay, Vancouver Island, B. C Pistchin, on Pysht Bay.' Sequim or Suktcikwiiñ, on Sequim Bay or Washington Harbor. Sestietl, Upper Elwah. Stehtlum, at new Dungeness. Tclanuk, on Beecher Bay, Vancouver Island, B. C. Tsako, at the former mouth of Dungeness River. Tsewhitzen, on Port Angeles Spit, 2 or 3 miles west of the old town of Stehtlum. Yennis, at Port Angeles or False Dungeness. Population. Mooney (1928) estimated 2,000 Clallam in 1780. In 1854 Gibbs estimated 800. In 1855, 926 were reported. In 1862 Eells estimated 1,300 but gave 597 in 1878. In 1881 he reduced this to 485. In 1904, 336 were returned. By the census of 1910, 398 were reported; by the United States Indian Office in 1923, 535, and in 1937, 764. Connections in which they have become noted. The name Clallam is perpetuated by its application to a bay, a county, a river, and a precinct in the State of Washington.

 

CLALSKANIE: Clalskanie. (See Oregon.) COLUMBIA: Columbia or Sinkiuse-Columbia. So called because of their former prominent association with Columbia River, where some of the most important bands had their homes. Also called: Bo'tcaced, by the Nez Percé, probably, meaning "arrows" or "arrow people." Isle-de-Pierre, a traders' name, perhaps from a place in their country or for a band of the tribe. Middle Columbia Salish, so called by Teit (1928) and Spier (1930 b). Papspê'lu, Nez Perce name, meaning "firs," or "fir-tree people." Sa'ladebc, probably the Snohomish name. Sinkiuse, the name applied to themselves and most other neighboring Salish tribes, and said to have belonged originally and properly to a band which once inhabited Umatilla Valley. Suwa'dabc, Snohomish name for all interior Indians, meaning "inland people," or "interior people." .swa'dab.c, Twana name for all interior Indians, meaning "inland people." .swa'namc, Nootsak name for all interior Indians, meaning "inland people." Ti'attluxa, Wasco Chinook name. .tskowa'xtsEnux or .skowa'xtsEnEx, applied by themselves, meaning has something to do with "main valley." Connections. The Sinkiuse-Columbia belonged to the inland division of the Salishan linguistic stock, their nearest relatives being the Wenatchee and Methow. Subdivisions or Bands (According to Teit, 1930) .nkee'us or .s.nkeie'usox (Umatilla Valley). Stata'ketux, around White Bluffs on the Columbia. .tskowa'xtsEnux or .skowa'xtsFnEx, also called Moses-Columbia or Moses Band after a famous chief (Priest's Rapids and neighboring country). Curtis (1907-9) gives the following: "Near the mouth of the sink of Crab Creek were the Sinkumkunatkuh, and above them the SinkolkolumInuh. Then came in succession the Stapi'sknuh, the Skukulat'kuh, the Skoáhchnuh, the Skihlkintnuh, and, finally, the Skultagchi'mh, a little above the mouth of Wenatchee River." Spier (1927) adds that the Sinkowarsin met by Thompson in 1811 might have been a band of this tribe. Location and History. The Sinkiuse-Columbia lived on the east side of Columbia River from Fort Okanogan to- the neighborhood of Point Eaton. Later a reservation was created for them known as Columbia Reservation. In 1870 Winans placed them "on the east and south sides of the Columbia River from the Grand Coulee down to Priest's Rapids." They are now under the jurisdiction of Colville Agency and one band, the Moses-Columbia Band, is in the southern part of Colville Reservation. Population. The Sinkiuse-Columbia are estimated by Mooney (1928) to have numbered 800 in 1780, but were probably considerably more numerous as Teit (1927) considers that this tribe and the Pisquow together must have totaled something like 10,000 before the smallpox reached them. In 1905, 355 were reported; in 1908, 299; and in 1909, perhaps including some others, 540 were returned. The census of 1910 gave 52.

 

COLVILLE: Colville. The name is derived from Fort Colville, a post of the Hudson's Bay Company at Kettle Falls, which was in turn named for the London governor of the company at the time when the post was founded, i. e., in 1825. Also called: Basket People, by Hale (1846). Chaudière, French name derived from the popular term applied to them, Kettle Falls Indians. Kettle Falls Indians, as above. Salsxuyilp, Okanagon name. Skuyelpi, by other Salish tribes. Whe-el-po, by Lewis and Clark, shortened from above. Connections. The Colville belonged to the inland division of the Salishan linguistic stock and to that branch of the latter which included the Okanagon, Sanpoil, and Senijextee. Location. On Colville River and that part of the Columbia between Kettle Falls and Hunters. Villages and Subdivisions. (From Ray, 1932) KAKALAPIA: Kakalapia, home of the Skakalapiak (across from the present town of Harvey, at the point where the ferry now crosses).

 

KILUMAAK: Kilumaak, home of the Skilumaak (opposite the present town of Kettle Falls, about 1½ miles above Nchumutastum).

 

NCHALIAM: Nchaliam, home of the Snchalik (about 1½ miles above the present town of Inchelium).

 

NCHUMUTASTUM: Nchumutastum, home of the chumutast (about 6 miles above Nilamin).

 

NILAMIN: Nilamin, home of the Snilaminak (about 15 miles above Kakalapia).

 

NKUASIAM: Nkuasiam, home of the Snkuasik (slightly above the present town of Daisy, on the opposite side of the river).

 

SMICHUNULAU: Smichunulau, home of the Smichunulauk (at the site of the present State bridge at Kettle Falls). History. The history of the Colville was similar to that of the neighboring tribes except that Kettle Falls was early fixed upon as the site of an important post by the Hudson Bay Company and brought with it the usual advantages and disadvantages of White contact. Population. Mooney (1928) estimated the number of the Colville at 1,000 as of 1780, but Lewis and Clark placed it at 2,500, a figure also fixed upon by Teit (1930). In 1904 there were 321; in 1907, 334; and in 1937, 322. Connections in which they have become noted. The name Colville was applied to an important Indian Reservation and later to a town, the county seat of Stevens County, Wash., but the original, of course, was not Indian.

 

COPALIS: Copalis. Significance unknown. Connections. The Copalis belonged to the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic family. Location. Copalis River and the Pacific Coast between the mouth of Joe Creek and Grays Harbor. Population. Lewis and Clark in 1805 estimated a population of 200 Copalis in 10 houses. The 5 individuals assigned to a "Chepalis" tribe in an enumeration given by Olson of the year 1888 probably refers to them. Connections in which they have become noted. The name Copalis is perpetuated in that of Copalis River, and in the post villages of Copalis Beach and Copalis Crossing, Grays Harbor County, Wash.

 

COWLITZ: Cowlitz. Significance unknown. Also called: Nu-so-lupsh, name given by Indians not on the Sound to Upper Cowlitz and Upper Chehalis. Connections. The Cowlitz belonged to the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic family, yet shared some peculiarities with the inland tribes. Location. Most of the lower and all the middle course of Cowlitz River. Later they were divided between Chehalis and Puyallup Reservations. Towns. Ray (1932) gives: Awi'mani, at the mouth of Coweman River, south of Kelso, and Manse'la, on site of Longiew. (See Curtis, 1907-9.) Population. Mooney (1928) estimated the number of the Cowlitz, along with the Chehalis, Humptulips, and some other tribes, at 1,000 in 1780. In 1853 Gibbs stated that they and the Upper Chehalis counted not more than 165. About 1887 there were 127 on Puyallup Reservation. The census of 1910 returned 105. The United States Indian Office Report of 1923 gives 490, probably including other tribes. Connections in which they have become noted. The name Cowlitz is perpetuated by Cowlitz River and Cowlitz Pass; by Cowlitz Glacier, which radiates from Mount Ranier; and by Cowlitz County, Cowlitz Park, Cowlitz Chimney, Cowlitz Cleaver, and some small towns in the same region.

 

DUWAMISH: Duwamish (See Duwamish) Hoh. Significance unknown. Connections. The Hoh spoke the Quileute language and were often considered part of the same tribe, constituting one division of the Chimakuan linguistic stock and more remotely connected with the Salishan family. Location. On Hoh River on the west coast of Washington. Population. Mooney (1928) estimates 500 in the Hoh and the Quileute together in 1780. In 1905 the Hoh numbered 62. Connection in which they have become noted.-The name Hoh is preserved in that of the Hoh River.

 

HUMPTULIPS: Humptulips. Said to signify "chilly region." Connections. The Humptulips belonged to the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic stock, being connected most closely with the Chehalis. Location. On the Humptulips River, and part of Grays Harbor, including also Hoquiam Creek and Whiskam River. Villages Hli'mtimi (Curtis, 1907-9), near North Cove. Hoquiam, on Hoquiam Creek. Hooshkal (Gibbs), on the north shore of Grays Harbor. Kishkallen (Gibbs), on the north shore of Grays Harbor. Klimmim (Gibbs), 1877). Kplelch (Curtis), at the mouth of North River. Kwapks (Curtis, 1907-9), at the mouth of North River. Mo'niltimsh (Curtis), at Georgetown. Nooachhummik (Gibbs), on the coast north of Grays Harbor. Nookalthu (Gibbs), north of Grays Harbor. Nu'moihanhl (Curtis), at Tokeland. Whishkah, on Whishkah River. These are placed under the Humptulips only on account of their locations as described. Population. See Chehalis. In 1888 according to Olsen 18 Humptulips were reported. In 1904 there were 21. Connection in which they have become noted. Humptulips River and a village in Grays Harbor County preserve the name of the Humptulips Indians.

 

KALISPEL: Kalispel. The Kalispel extended over into the eastern edge of the State from Idaho.

 

KLICKITAT: Klickitat. From a Chinook term meaning "beyond" and having reference to the Cascade Mountains. Also called: Awi-adshi, Molala name. Lûk'-a-tatt, Puyallup name. Máhane, Umpqua name. Mi-Çlauq'-tcu-wûn'-ti, Alsea name, meaning "scalpers." Mûn-an'-né-qu' tûnne, Naltunnetunne name, meaning "inland people." Qwû'lh-hwai-pûm, own name, meaning "prairie people." Tlakäï'tat, Okanagon name. Tse la'kayat amím, Kalapuya name. T!uwanxa-ikc, Clatsop name. Wahnookt, Cowlitz name. Connections. The Klickitat belonged to the Shahaptian division of the Shapwailutan linguistic family. Subdivisions and Villages. Possibly the Atanum or Atanumlema should be added to the Klickitat. Mooney (1928) reports that their language was distinct from, though related to, both Klickitat and Yakima. The following villages are mentioned: Itkilak or Ithlkilak, at White Salmon Landing, which they occupied jointly with the Chilluckquittequaw. Nanshuit (occupied jointly with the Chilluckquittequaw), at Underwood. Shgwaliksh, not far below Memaloose Island. Tgasgutcu (occupied jointly with the Chilluckquittequaw), said to be about 34 mile west of a long high mountain opposite Mosier, Oreg., and about 1 mile above White Salmon Landing but the exact location seems to be in doubt. Wiltkun (exact location unknown). History. The original home of the Klickitat was somewhere south of the Columbia, and they invaded their later territory after the Yakima crossed the river. In 1805 Lewis and Clark found them wintering on Yakima and Klickitat Rivers. Taking advantage of the weakness of the Willamette tribes following upon an epidemic of fever between 1820 and 1830, the Klickitat crossed the Columbia and forced their way as far south as the valley of the Umpqua but were soon compelled to retire to their old seats. They were active and enterprising traders, profiting by their favorable location to become middlemen between the coast tribes and those living east of the Cascades. They joined in the Yakima treaty at Camp Stevens, June 9, 1855, by which they ceded their lands to the United States, and most of them settled upon the Yakima Reservation. Population. Mooney (1928) estimated that the Klickitat, including the Taitinapam, numbered 600 in 1780. In 1805 Lewis and Clark placed their total population at about 700. The census of 1910 returned 405 Connections in which they have become noted. The Klickitat were early distinguished from other tribes of central Washington owing to their propensity for trading. The name is perpetuated in that of a small affluent of the Columbia and in the name of the county, and a post village in the county.

 

KWAIAILK: Kwaiailk. Meaning unknown. Also called: Kwû-teh-ni, Kwalhioqua name. Nu-so-lupsh, by Sound Indians, referring to the rapids of their stream. Stak-ta-mish, a name for this and other inland tribes, meaning "forest people." Upper Chehalis, common name. Connections. The Kwaiailk belonged to the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic family but a part of them were associated with the inland tribes by certain peculiarities of speech. Their nearest relatives seem to have been the Cowlitz and Chehalis. Location. On the upper course of Chehalis River. Subdivisions and Villages Cloquallum, on Cloquallum River. Population. In 1855, according to Gibbs (1877), the Kwaiailk numbered 216 but were becoming amalgamated with the Cowlitz. (See Chehalis.)

 

KWALHIOQUA: Kwalhioqua. From their Chinook designation, meaning "a lonely place in the woods." Also called Axwe'lapc, "people of the Willapa," by the Chinook and Quinault Indians. Gila'q!ulawas, from the name of the place where they usually lived. Owhillapsh or W illapa, applied to this tribe erroneously. Tkulhiyogoa'ikc, Chinook name. Connections.-The Kwalhioqua belonged to the Athapascan linguistic stock. Location. On the upper course of Willopah River, and the southern and western headwaters of the Chehalis. Gibbs (1877) extends their territory eastward of the Cascades, but Boas (1892) doubts the correctness of this. Subdivisions. Suwal, on headwaters of the Chehalis. Wela'pakote'li, on Willapa River. Population. Mooney (1928) estimated 200 in 1780; Hale (1846) gives about 100, but in 1850 it is said that only 2 males and several females survived, which indicates that an error had been made by one or the other. Connection in which they have become noted. The Kwalhioqua were distinguished almost solely by the fact that they belonged to the great Athapascan group yet were the only tribe of that stock in the State of Washington in historic times, having become entirely isolated from their relatives.

 

LUMMI: Lummi. Significance unknown. Also spelled Há-lum-mi, Nuh-lummi, and Qtlumi. Also called: Nukhlésh, by the Skagit, who also included the Clallam in the designation. Connections.-The Lummi belonged to the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic family and spoke, according to Boas (1911), the same dialect as the Songish of Vancouver Island. Location. On the upper part of Bellingham Bay and about the mouth of Nooksack River. Formerly the Lummi are said to have resorted at times to a group of islands east of Vancouver Island. They were finally placed on Lummi Reservation. Villages (According to Stern, 1934) ELEK: Elek, near the upper end of Bellingham Bay.

 

HWETLKIEM: Hwetlkiem, near the upper end of Bellingham Bay west of Nooksack River. Kwakas, on the north side of Nooksack River. Momli, near the mouth of Nooksack River. Skalisan, north of Point Francis and opposite Lummi Island. The following fishing stations are also cited:

 

HOHOLOS: Hoholos, a point on Orcas Island south of Freeman Island. Hwiteosang, in Upright Channel south of Shaw Island. Hwtcihom or Bee Station, north of Sandy Point. Skalekushan or Village Point, on Lummi Island. Skolete, on Lopez Island opposite Lopez. Tceltenem, Point Roberts. Tlkwoloks, on Orcas Island. Population. Mooney (1928) estimates the number of Lummi at 1,000 in 1780, including the Samish and Nooksack. In 1905 there were 412; according to the census of 1910, 353; according to the United States Indian Office Report for 1923, 505; and according to that for 1937, 661. Connection in which they have become noted. Lummi River, Washington, preserves the name. MAKAH: Makah. Meaning "cape people." Also called: Ba-qa-o, Puyallup name. Cape Flattery Indians, from their location. Classet, Nootka name, meaning" outsiders." Kwe-net-the-chat, own name, meaning "cape people." Tla'asath, Nootka name, meaning "outside people." Connections. The Makah belonged to the Nootka branch of the Wakashan linguistic family. Location. About Cape Flattery, claiming the coast east as far as Hoko River and south to Flattery Rocks, besides Tatoosh Island. Later they were confined to the Makah Reservation. Winter towns: Baada, on Neah Bay. Neah, on the site of the old Spanish fort, Port Nunez Gaona, Neah Bay. Waatch, at the mouth of Waatch Creek, 4 miles from Neah Bay. Summer villages: Ahchawat, at Cape Flattery. Kehsidatsoos, location unknown. Kiddekubbut, 3 miles from Neah Bay. Tatooche, on Tatoosh Island, off Cape Flattery. Population. Together with the Ozette, the Makah were estimated by Mooney (1928) to number 2,000 in 1780, a figure evidently based on that given by Lewis and Clark in 1805. In 1905 there were 435; the census of 1910 gave 360, and the United States Indian Office Report for 1923 gave 425, including the people of Ozette. In 1937, 407 were returned besides the Ozette Indians. Connection in which they have become noted. The Makah and the Ozette are peculiar as the only tribes of the Nootka group and the Wakashan stock in the United States.

 

METHOW: Methow. Meaning unknown. The Battle-le-mule-emauch of Ross (1847, p. 290). Connections. The Methow spoke a dialect belonging to the interior division of the Salishan linguistic stock. Location. On Methow River. A detached band called Chilowhist wintered on the Okanogan River between Sand Point and Malott. Population. Mooney (1928) estimated that this band and the Columbia Indians, or rather Moses' band of Columbia Indians, numbered 800 in 1780. In 1907 there were 324. Connection in which they have become noted. Methow River and Valley and a post village perpetuate the name of the Methow Indians.

 

MICAL: Mical. Significance unreported. Connections. The Mical were a branch of the Shahaptian tribe called Pshwanwapam. Location. On the upper course of Nisqually River. Population.-No separate data.

 

MUCKLESHOOT: Muckleshoot. From the native word o'kelcul, significance unknown. Connections. The Muckleshoot belonged to the Nisqually dialectic group of the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic family. Location. On White River, their territory extending from Kent eastward to the mountains, but it seems also to have included Green River. Subdivisions. The following names appear applied to bands in their territory: Sekamish, on White River. Skopamish, on upper Green River. Smulkamish, on upper White River Smith (1940) adds Dothliuk, at South Prairie below where Cole Creek enters South Prairie Creek, an affluent of Carbon River. Population. The Muckleshoot are probably included in the 1,200 "Nisqually, Puyallup, etc." estimated by Mooney (1928) as in existence in 1780. The Skopamish numbered 222 in 1863 and the Smulkamish about 183 in 1870. Mooney estimated a total of 780 in 1907 for the group above given. In 1937 the United States Office of Indian Affairs reported 194 Indians of this tribe. Connection in which they have become noted. The name of the Muckleshoot is preserved in that of Muckleshoot Indian Reservation.

 

NEKETEMEUK: Neketemeuk. A supposed Salishan tribe placed by Teit's informants at an early period near and above the Dalles. Ray (1932), however, discredits the existence of an independent tribe of this name.

 

NESPELEM: Nespelem, a division of the Sanpoil.

 

NEZ PERCE: Nez Perce. The Nez Perce occupied territory in the extreme southeastern part of the state. (See Idaho.) NISQUALLY: Nisqually. From Skwale'absh, the native name of Nisqually River. Also spelled Quallyamish, and Skwalliahmish. Also called: Askwalli, Calapooya name. Lts?e'als, Nestucca name. Suketi'kenuk, Sukoti'kenuk, by Columbia Indians along with all other coast people, meaning "people of the other side," with reference to the Cascades. Tse Skua'lli ami'm, Luckamiut Kalapooian name. Connections. They gave their name to one dialectic division of the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic stock. Location. On Nisqually River above its mouth and on the middle and upper courses of Puyallup River. Subdivisions and Villages Basha'labsh, on Mashell Creek and neighboring Nisqually River, the town on a highland below Eatonville on Mashell Creek. Sakwi'absh, Clear Creek and neighboring Nisqually River, the main settlement on a hill near the junction of Clear Creek and the Nisqually River. Sigwa'letcabsh, on Segualitcu River, the main settlement where Dupont Creek enters the Sgwualiteu River. Tsakwe'kwabah, on Clarks Creek and neighboring Puyallup River, the main settlement where Clarks Creek empties into Puyallup River, but seems to have included also Skwa'dabsh, at the mouth of a creek entering Wappato Creek above the Wappato Creek village. Sta'habsh, where the Stuck River enters the Puyallup. Tsuwa'diabsh, on what is now the Puyallup River above its junction with the Carbon, and just below the site of the Soldiers' Home. Tuwha'khabsh, above Ortig where Vogt Creek enters the Carbon River. Yisha'ktcabsh, on Nisqually Lake, the principal settlement being at the mouth of a sizable creek. Yokwa'lsshabsh, on Muck Creek and the neighboring parts of Nisqually River, the main settlement located where Muck Creek enters Nisqually River, and a division on Clover Creek. Population. Mooney (1928) estimated that in 1780 there were about 3,600 Nisqually of whom, in 1907, between 1,100 and 1,200 survived. About 1,100 were returned in the census of 1910, but the Indian Office Report for 1937 gives only 62, evidently a minor tribe which gave its name to the larger body. Connection in which they have become noted. The memory of the Nisqually tribe, or cluster of bands, has been preserved in the name of Nesqually or Nisqually River, and in the post village of Nisqually in Thurston County.

 

NOOKSACK: Nooksack. Meaning "mountain men." Also spelled Nooksak and Nooksak. Connections. The Nooksack belonged to the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic family. Hill-Tout (1902) says they separated from the Squawmish of British Columbia and speak the same dialect. Location. On Nooksack River, Whatcom County. (See also Canada.) Population. In 1906, 200 Nooksack were officially returned, but Hill-Tout (1902) states that in 1902 there were only about 6 true male members of the tribe. The census of 1910 gives 85 under this name, and the Report of the United States Office of Indian Affairs for 1937 returned 239. (See Lummi.) Connection in which they have become noted. Nooksack River and Nooksack town in Whatcom County, Washington, preserve the name.

 

NTLAKYAPAMUK: Ntlakyapamuk. The southern bands of this tribe hunted over in the territory now embraced in Washington. (See Canada.) OZETTE: Ozette. Significance unknown. Connections. The Ozette were a southern branch of the Makah and belonged to the Nootka branch of the Wakashan linguistic family. Location. On the Ozette Lake and Ozette River in Clallam County. Villages. Ozette, at Flattery Rocks. Sooes, 4 miles south of the Makah village of Waatch. Population. (See Makah.) A single Ozette Indian was reported in 1937. Connections in which they have become noted. An island, a lake, a river, and a village are named Ozette after them.

 

PALOUSE: Palouse. Significance unknown. Also called: Pallotepellows, by Lewis and Clark in 1806. .spalu'.sox?, so called by Sinkiuse, said to be from a place name. Connections. The Palouse belonged to the Shahaptian division of the Shapwailutan linguistic stock, and were most closely connected with the Nez Perce. Location. In the valley of Palouse River in Washington and Idaho and on a small section of Snake River, extending eastward to the camas grounds near Moscow, Idaho. The Palouse were included in the Yakima treaty of 1855 but have never recognized the treaty obligations and have declined to lead a reservation life.

Subdivisions and Villages Almotu, on the north bank of Snake River about 30 miles above the mouth of Palouse River. Chimnapum, on the northwest side of Columbia River near the mouth of Snake River and on lower Yakima River. Kasispa, at Ainsworth, at the junction of Snake and Columbia Rivers, Wash. Palus, on the north bank of Snake River just below its junction with the Palouse. Sokulk or Wanapum, on Columbia River above the mouth of Snake River. Tasawiks, on the north bank of Snake River, about 15 miles above its mouth. History. The Palouse are said to have separated from the Yakima. Population.-Estimated by Mooney (1928) at 5,400 in 1780. In 1805 Lewis and Clark gave 1,600. In 1854 they were said to number 500. The census of 1910 returned 82. Connection in which they have become noted. Palouse or Pelouse River, in Idaho and Washington, and the city of Palouse in Whitman County, Washington, preserve the name of the Palouse Indians.

 

PSHWANWAPAM: Pshwanwapam. Meaning "the stony ground." Also called Upper Yakima. Connections. The Pshwanwapam belonged to the Shahaptian division of the Shapwailutan linguistic family, and probably were most closely connected with the Yakima. Location. On the upper course of Yakima River.

 

PUYALLUP: Puyallup. From Pwiya'lap, the native name of Puyallup River. Connections.-The Puyallup belonged to the Nisqually dialectic group of the Coastal division of the Salishan linguistic family. Location. At the mouth of Puyallup River and the neighboring coast, including Carr Inlet and the southern part of Vashon Island. Subdivisions and Villages Esha'ktlabsh, on Hylebos Waterway. Kalka'lak, at the mouth of Wappato Creek. Kibalt, at Glencove. Puyallup or Spwiya'laphabsh, on Commencement Bay and Puyallup River as far up as the mouth of Clarks Creek, including the main settlement of the same name at the mouth of Puyallup River. Sha'tekad, where Clay Creek empties into the Puyallup River. Sko'tlbabsh, on Carr Inlet, including a Sko'tlbabsh settlement on Carr Inlet above the town of Minter. Skwapa'bsh, on the south part of Vashon Island and the land west of the Narrows, including a town of the same name at the mouth of a stream at Gig Harbor. Skwlo'tsid, at the head of Wollochet Bay. Steilacoom, on Steilacoom Creek and the neighboring beach, the main village on the present site of Steilacoom. Tsugwa'lethl, at Quartermaster Harbor. Tule'lakle, at the head of Burley Lagoon, Carr Inlet. Twa'debshab, at the mouth of a creek formerly entering Commencement Bay and now covered by Tacoma. Population. (See Nisqually.) The report of the United States Office of Indian Affairs for 1937 gave 322 Puyallup. Connections in which they have become noted. The name Puyallup is preserved by a river, an Indian reservation, a glacier, an important town in Pierce County, and in the ridge called Puyallup Cleaver.

 

QUEETS: Queets or Quaitso. Significance unknown. Connections. The Queets belonged to the Coastal division of the Salishan linguistic family and were most intimately related to their neighbors to the south, the Quinault. Location. On Queets River and its branches. Population. Lewis and Clark in 1805 estimated that the Queets numbered 250. They then occupied 18 houses. Mooney (1928) estimated that in 1780 they and the Quinault together numbered 1,500, but Olson (1936) regards this figure as too high. Olson prints an estimate of 82 as their present population, including 23 males over 18, 32 females over 14, and 16 children between 6 and 16. In 1909 there were 62. Connection in which they have become noted. The name of the Queets is perpetuated in that of Queets River.

 

QUILEUTE: Quileute. Meaning unknown. Connections. Together with the Hoh and Chimakum, the Quileute constituted the Chimakuan linguistic family which is possibly more remotely related to Wakashan and Salishan. Location. On Quilayute River, on the west coast of Washington. They are now on the Quileutc and Makah Reservations. Population (including the Hoh).-Mooney (1928) estimates that in 1780 there were of the Quileute and the Hoh 500 Indians. Olson (1936) quotes a figure of 64 in 1888. The census of 1910 returned 303 and the United States Office of Indian Affairs in 1937 gave 284. Connections in which they have become noted. The town of Quillayute in Clallam County, preserves the name of the Quileute and it was formerly that of Soleduck River. Otherwise the tribe is particularly noted on account of the uniqueness of its language, which was spoken by no other known tribes except the Hoh and Chimakum.

 

SAHEHWAMISH: Sahehwamish. Meaning unknown but evidently that of a locality. Connections. The Sahehwamish belonged to the Nisqually dialectic group of the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic stock. Location. On the innermost inlets of Puget Sound as indicated by the positions of the subdivisions given below. Subdivisions Elo'sedabsh, on Medicine Creek and the lower reaches of Nisqually River, including a main settlement at the mouth of Nisqually River and Tuda'dab, at the mouth of McAllister or Medicine Creek. Sahehwamish or Sahe'wabsh, on Shelton Inlet, including the main settlement of Sahe'wabsh, at Arcadia, and a village opposite the town of Shelton. Skwayaithlhabsh, on Mud Bay or Eld Inlet. Statca'sabsh, on Budd Inlet, with its principal settlement at Tumwater. Tapi'ksdabsh, with its main settlement on Oyster Bay or Totten Inlet below the town of Oyster Bay. Tutse'tcakl, on South Bay or Henderson Inlet, between the creek at the head and that on the south. Population. The group to which this tribe belonged is estimated by Mooney (1928) to have numbered 1,200 in 1780, and he gives 780 for the year 1907.

 

SAMISH: Samish. Signification unknown. Connections. The Samish belonged to the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic family. Location. On Samish Bay and Samish Island, Guemes Island, and the northwest portion of Fidalgo Island. The Samish were later placed on Lummi Reservation. Villages Atse'ked, on the south side of the slough at Edison on Samish Bay. Dikwi'bthl. Gunguna'la, on Guemes Island facing west toward Cypress Island. Hwaibathl, at Anacortes. Kwalo'l, at Summit Park on Fidalgo Bay. Nukhwhaiimikhl, on the southwest side of Guemes Island. The name of the last village listed above is from Gibbs (1877) and may be another name for Gunguna'la, and Gibbs' Aseakum is perhaps Atse'ked. Population. Mooney (1928) estimates the Samish tribe, together with the Lummi and Nooksack, at 1,000 in 1780. No later estimate is given. Connection in which they have become noted. Samish River, Samish Bay, Samish Island, and a post hamlet on Bellingham Bay perpetuate the name of the Samish Indians.

 

SATSOP: Satsop. Significance unknown. Connections. The Satsop belonged to the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic family, and have usually been classed with the Lower Chehalis. Location. On Satsop River, a branch of the Chehalis. Population. The population of the Satsop is usually given with that of the Chehalis, but in 1888 a census of the Satsop alone, obtained by Olson (1936), gave 12. Connections in which they have become noted. Satsop River and a village called Satsop in Grays Harbor County preserve the name of the Satsop. Semiahmoo. Significance unknown. Also called: Birch Bay Indians, from a place occupied by them. Connections. The Semiahmoo belonged to the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic stock. Location. About Semiahmoo Bay in northwest Washington and southwest British Columbia. Population. In 1843 the Semiahmoo numbered 300; in 1909 there were 38 in British Columbia; none were enumerated on the American side of the line. Connections in which they have become noted. The name of the Semiahmoo is preserved in Semiahmoo Bay and a township in Whatcom County, Wash.

 

SENIJEXTEE: Senijextee. Significance unknown. Also called: Lake Indians, a popular name for them because they lived on the Arrow Lakes. Connections. The Senijextee belonged to the inland division of the Salishan linguistic stock, and were most closely connected with the Sanpoil. Location. On both sides of the Columbia River from Kettle Falls to the Canadian boundary, the valley of Kettle River, Kootenay River from its mouth to the first falls, and the region of the Arrow Lakes, B. C. The Lake Indians on the American side were placed on Colville Reservation. Population. Mooney (1928) estimates their numbers at 500 in 1780. In 1909 the United States Office of Indian Affairs reported 342 on Colville Reservation. The census of 1910 identifies them with the Colville and returns 785. SINKAIETK: Sinkaietk. Significance unknown; an Anglicized form of their own name. Connections. The Sinkaietk are sometimes classed with the Okanagon, and called Lower Okanagon, both constituting a dialectic group of interior Salishan Indians. Location. Okanagan River from its mouth nearly to the mouth of the Similkameen. Subdivisions Kartar, from the foot of Lake Omak to the Columbia River. Konkonelp, winter sites, from about 3 miles above Malott to the turn of the Okanagan River at Omak. Tonasket, from Riverside upstream to Tonasket. Tukoratum, winter sites, from Condon's Ferry on the Columbia to the mouth of the Okanagan River and up the latter to about 4 miles above Monse, Wash. Ray (1932) mentions four villages belonging to the Kartar and Tukoratum Bands. Population. Included with the Okanagon.

 

SINKAKAIUS: Sinkakaius. Meaning "between people." Connections. The Sinkakaius belonged to the interior division of the Salishan linguistic stock and were composed largely of people from the Tukoratum Band of Sinkaietk and the Moses Columbia people. Location. Between Columbia River and the Grand Coulee in the latitude of Waterville.

 

SKAGIT: Skagit. Significance unknown. Also called: Hum-a-luh, own name, meaning "the people." Connections. The Skagit belonged to the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic stock. Location. On Skagit and Stillaguamish Rivers except about their mouths. Subdivisions and Villages (Smith, 1941) Base'lelotsed, on Skagit River from Van Horn to roughly 3 miles above Rockport and Sauk River almost to the mouth of Suiattle, including the village of Tca'gwalk, at the mouth of Sauk River. Baska'dsadsiuk, on the south bank of Skagit River from Hamilton to Birdsview, including a village opposite Hamilton. Baske'kwiuk, on Skagit River above Rockport, including a village at Marble Mount at the mouth of the Cascade River. Baslo'halok, on the north bank of the Skagit from Hamilton to Birdsview, including a settlement at Hamilton. Duwa'ha, on the mainland drainages from South Bellingham to Bayview including part of Lake Whatcom, Lake Samish and Samish River, including the village of Batsla'thllaos, at Bayview on Padilla Bay. Nookachamps, on Skagit River from Mount Vernon to Sedro Woolley and Nookachamps River drainage including Big Lake, including a village back of Mount Vernon just below the concrete bridge, and Tsla'tlabsh on Big Lake. Sauk, on Sauk River above the confluence of the Suiattle River, including a settlement on Sauk prairie above Darrington. Sba'leuk, on Skagit River from above Birdsview to above Concrete, including a village at Concrete. Sikwigwi'lts, on Skagit River from Sedro Woolley to below Lyman, including a village on the flats near Sedro Woolley. Stillaguamish, on Stillaguamish River from Arlington up, including villages at Arlington and Trafton. Suiattle, on Suiattle River, including a village not far about the mouth of Suiattle River. Tcubaa'bish, on Skagit River from Lyman to below Hamilton, including Day Creek drainage, and including a village at the mouth of Dry Creek. Population. The Skagit population is given by Mooney (1928) with the Swinomish and some other tribes, as 1,200 in 1780. Gibbs (1877) estimated there were 300 Skagit proper in 1853. The census of 1910 returned 56 under this name. In 1923 the United States Indian Office entered 221 "Swinomish" in their returns, including evidently the Skagit and some other tribes; in 1937 it gave an estimate of 200 Skagit. Connection in which they have become noted. Skagit River, which flows into Puget Sound, Skagit County, and a post hamlet preserve the name of the Skagit Indians.

 

SKILLOOT: Skilloot. Significance unknown. Connections. The Skilloot belonged to the Clackamas dialectic division of the Chinookan linguistic family. Location. On both sides of Columbia River above and below the mouth of Cowlitz River. (See also Oregon.)

Subdivisions and Villages. Cooniac (at Oak Point on the south side of Columbia River, below the mouth of the Cowlitz, in the present Columbia County, Oregon) was their principal village in later times. The Hullooetell, reported to Lewis and Clark as a numerous nation north of Columbia River on Cowlitz and Lewis Rivers, may have been a subdivision, although perhaps Salishan. The Seamysty, at the mouth of Cowlitz River before 1835, were undoubtedly a Skilloot band, and the Thlakalama and Tlakatlala of Boas 1(1901, and personal information 1905), at the mouth of Kalama River, about 3 miles above Oak Point, had best be added. Population. Mooney (1928) estimates the number of Skilloot at 3,250 in 1780 including 250 Tlakalama. In 1806 Lewis and Clark give 2,500 and in 1850 Lane places the Skilloot population at 200. They have now entirely disappeared as an independent group.

 

SKIN: Skin. Taken from a town name. Connections. The Skin belonged to the Shahaptian division of the Shapwailutan linguistic stock. Location. On Columbia River from The Dalles to a point about 75 miles above. Villages Ka'sawi, on the Columbia opposite the mouth of Umatilla River. Skin, opposite the mouth of Deschutes River. Uchi'chol, on the north bank of the Columbia in Klickitat County. Waiya'mpam, about Celilo. Eneeshur is used by Lewis and Clark for part of the above people, perhaps all of them. Population. Mooney (1928) includes the Skin in a group under the general name Tapanash, which he estimates to have numbered 2,200 in 1780.

 

SNOHOMISH: Snohomish. Meaning unknown but evidently the name of a place. Also called: Ashnuhumsh, Kalapuya name. Connections. The Snohomish belonged to the Nisqually dialectic group of the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic stock. Location. On the lower course of Snohomish River and on the southern end of Whidbey Island. Subdivisions and Villages Sdugwadskabsh, the south portion of Whidbey Island, including villages opposite Mukilteo on Whidbey (Negua'sx) Island and at Newell on Useless Bay. Skwilsi'diabsh, from Preston Point, above Everett, to the southern tip of Camano Island, including a village at Marysville and Tcatcthlks opposite Tulalip on Tulalip Bay. Snohomish, Port Gardner Bay and Snohomish River as far up as Snohomish, including Tctlaks at Everett on the south side of the mouth of Snohomish River and Hibolb on the north side of its mouth. Tukwetlbabsh, on Snohomish River from Snohomish to Monroe, including villages at Snohomish at the mouth of Pilchuck Creek and below Monroe 2 miles from the confluence of the Skykomish and the Snoqualmie. Population. Mooney (1928) estimated the population of the Snohomish, the Snoqualmie, the Tulalip, and some others at 1,200 in 1780. In 1850 there were 350 Snohomish. The census of 1910 gives 664, evidently including other bands, and the United States Office of Indian Affairs, 667 in 1937. Connections in which they have become noted. The name of the Snohomish is perpetuated in Snohomish River, Snohomish County, and a city in that county.

 

SNOQUALMIE: Snoqualmie. From the native word sdo'kwalbiuqu. Connections. The Snoqualmie belonged to the Nisqually branch of the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic family. Location. On Snoqualmie and Skykomish Rivers. Subdivisions and Villages Skykomish, on Skykomish River above Sultan, and on the same below Goldbar. Snoqualmie, on Snoqualmie River, including villages at Cherry Valley, on Snoqualmie River opposite the mouth of Tolt River; at Fall City; and below Snoqualmie Falls. Stakta'ledjabsh, on Skykomish River as far up as Sultan, including Sultan Creek, including villages above Monroe at the mouth of Sultan Creek and on Sultan Creek 4 miles above its mouth. Population.-(See Snohomish.) Tho population of the Snoqualmie alone was reported as 225 in 1857. Connections in which they have become noted. The name of the Snoqualmie is perpetuated by Snoqualmie River and a town upon it in King County. Spokan. Phonetically Spoke'.n or Spo.qe'in); said by some to signify "Sun (people," though this origin is doubtful. Also called: LêcLê'cuks, Wasco name probably intended for this tribe. Lar-ti-e-lo, by Lewis and Clerk in 1806. SEnoxami'naEx, by the Okanagon, from their principal division. SEntutu' or SEnox?ma'n, by the Upper Kutenai from the Salish names for the Middle and Little Spokan respectively. Connections. The Spokan belonged to the inland division of the Salishan linguistic stock, and were most closely connected with the Kalispel, Pend d'Oreilles, Sematuse, and Salish. Location. On the Spokane and Little Spokane Rivers, southward to, and perhaps including, Cow Creek, and northward to include all of the northern feeders of the Spokane. (See also Idaho and Montana.) Subdivisions. The Lower Spokan (about the mouth and on the lower part of Spokane River, including the present Spokane Indian reserve), the Upper Spokan or Little Spokan (occupying the valley of the Little Spokane River and all the country east of the lower Spokane to within the borders of Idaho), the South or Middle Spokan (occupying at least the lower part of Hangmans Creek, extending south along the borders of the Skitswish).

History. Like so many other tribes of the Columbia region, the Spokan enter the arena of history with the appearance of Lewis and Clark in their territory in 1805. Teit (1930) thinks it possible that the several bands were once so many distinct tribes which have become fused in course of time, but of this there is no certainty. The Lower and most of the Middle Spokan, and part of the Upper Spokan, were finally placed under the Colville Agency; the rest are on the Flathead Reservation in Montana. Population. Mooney (1928) estimated that about 1780 there might have been 1,400 Spokan, but Teit's figures would raise this to something like 2,500. In 1806 Lewis and Clark thought there were 600 but they may have included only one of the three divisions. In 1905 the United States Indian Office gave 277 Lower Spokan and 177 Middle and Upper Spokan under the Colville Agency and 135 on the Flathead Reservation; in 1909 it gave 509 all together under the Colville Agency and 138 on the Flathead Reservation. The United States Census of 1910 returned 643 all told; the Indian Office Report for 1923, 669; and the Indian Office Report for 1937, 847. Connections in which they have become noted. The fame of the Spokan will rest in the future mainly upon the importance of the Washington city of Spokane. Their name is also attached to a river in Idaho and Washington, and to the county of which Spokane is the metropolis. It has also been applied to post hamlets in Custer County, S. Dak.; in Christian County, Mo.; and in Trumbull County, Ohio; also to Spokane Bridge, Spokane County, Wash.

 

SQUAXON: Squaxon or Squakson. Their own name. Connections. The Squaxon belonged to the Nisqually branch of the coast division of the Salishan linguistic family. Location. On North Bay, Puget Sound. Villages. On North Bay at the mouth of Coulter Creek and at Allyn at the mouth of Mason Creek. Population. With the Skokomish and Toanho (Twana), Mooney (1928) estimated that there were 1,000 Squaxon in 1780. In 1909 there were 98 under this name, and in 1937, 32.

 

SUQUAMISH: YSuquamish. From a native place name. Connections. They belonged to the Nisqually branch of the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic stock, their closest connections being with the Duwamish. The famous Seattle was chief of both tribes. Location. On the west side of Puget Sound, according to Paige (1857) claiming the territory from Applegate Cove to Gig Harbor. Subdivisions and Villages Saktabsh, on Sinclair Inlet, Dyes Inlet, and southern Blakely, Blakely Island, with villages at Bremerton and on Eagle Harbor. Suquamish, on Liberty Bay, at Port Madison, and on the northern part of Blakely Island, with villages at. Suquamish, above Poulsbo, and at Point Monroe. Population. (See Duwamish.) The Suquamish numbered 441 in 1857, 180 in 1909, and 307 in 1910, according to the census of that year. The United States Indian Office returned 204 "Susquamish" Indians in 1910, probably meaning this tribe. In 1937 it returned 168 "Suquamish." Connection in which they have become noted. The name Suquamish is applied to a town in Kitsap County, Wash.

 

SWALLAH: Swallah. A name applied by Eells (1889). Also called: Swalash, by Mallet (in Ind. Aff. Rep., 1877, p. 198). Connections. The Swallah belonged to the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic family. Location. On Orcas Island and San Juan Island and the group to which they belong. Villages Hutta'tchl, on the southeast end of Orcas Island. Klala'kamish, on the east side of San Juan Island. Lemaltcha, on Waldron Island. Stashum, on Waldron Island.

 

SWINOMISH: Swinomish. A place name. Connections. The Swinomish belonged to the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic family, and are sometimes called a subdivision of the Skagit. Location. On the northern part of Whidbey Island and about the mouth of Skagit River. Subdivisions and Villages Ho'baks, on the upper end of Penn's Cove, not far from San de Fuca, Batsa'dsali at Coupeville, Ba'asats between Coupeville and Snaklem Point west of Long Point, and Tcubaa'ltced on the north side of Snaklem Point about 4 miles from Coupeville. Kikia'los, on Skagit Bay from the South Fork of Skagit River to the north tip of Camano Island, with a village at the mouth of Carpenter Creek between Conway and Fir, and another called Atsala'di at Utsalady on Camano Island. Kwa'dsakbiuk, on the lower reaches of Stillaguamish River and Port Susan, with a village at the mouth of the Stillaguamish. Skagit, on Whidbey Island, from Oak Harbor south to Snaklem Point, with a village at Oak Harbor. Skwada'bsh, on the North Fork of the Skagit River and the eastern part of Whidbey Island lying north of Oak Harbor, with Skwi'kwikwab at the mouth of the North Fork of the Skagit, and Tcotab on a point across Skagit Bay. Swinomish (on southern Padilla Bay, Swinomish Slough which joins Padilla Bay and Skagit Bay, Skagit Bay from Sullivan Slough north, and the southeast portion of Fidalgo Island), with the following villages: Kale'kut (not far from Whitney at the highway bridge), Sde'os (near Lone Tree Point, Shuptada'tci (on Swinomish Slough 3 miles from La Conner), and another village (on Sullivan Slough just east of La Conner). Population. The Swinomish are usually enumerated with the Skagit (q. v.). The Skagit and Swinomish together numbered 268 in 1909. In 1937 there were 285 Swinomish reported.

 

TAIDNAPAM: Taidnapam. Also called Upper Cowlitz. Connections. The Taidnapam belonged to the Shahaptian division of the Shapwailutan linguistic family. Location. On the headwaters of Cowlitz River and perhaps extending over into the headwaters of the Lewis River. Population. Mooney estimates the population of the Taidnapam and the Klickitat. together at 600 in 1780, but extinct as independent tribes by 1907. Twana. Said to signify "a portage," referring to that between the upper end of Hoods Canal and the headwaters of Puget Sound. Also called: Tu-a'd-hu, own name. Skokomish, from the name of a principal division. Wi'lfa Ampa'fa ami'm, Luckiamute-Kalapuya name. Connections. The Twana constituted one dialectic group of the coastal division of the Salishan stock. Location. On both sides of Hoods Canal. Later they were placed on Skokomish Reservation. Subdivisions and Villages Eels (1877) gave the following: Kolsid, on Quilcene and Dabop Bays. Skokomish, around Annas Bay and the drainage area of Skokomish River. Soatlkobsh, on both sides of the canal from Seabeck and Oak Head to Port Gamble and Squamish Harbor opposite. Smith (1941) lists the following villages: Habha'b, at Eldon on the Canal at the mouth of the Hammerhammer River. Li'liwap, at Lilliwap on the Canal. Skoko'bsh, at the mouth of the Skokomish River. Tule'lalap, at the east branch of the Canal at the mouth of Mission Creek. Two towns at Duckabush and Brinnon. Population. Mooney (1928) gives the Twana, Skokomish, and Squaxon together a population of 1,000 in 1780. In 1853 they were estimated to total about 265. The census of 1910 gave 61 Twana and 195 Skokomish, and the United States Office of Indian Affairs returned 206 Skokomish in 1937.

 

WALLAWALLA: Wallawalla. Meaning "little river"; called Walula by Spier (1936). Connections. The Wallawalla language belongs to the Shahaptian division of the Shapwailutan linguistic stock and is very closely related to the Nez Perch. Location. On the lower Wallawalla River, except perhaps for an area around Whitman occupied by Cayuse, and a short span along the Columbia and Snake Rivers near their junction, in Washington and Oregon. They are now on Umatilla Reservation, Oregon. Population. Mooney (1928) gives 1,500 for the Wallawalla and the Umatilla together in 1780. In 1805 Lewis and Clark estimated 1,600 but they included other bands now known to be independent. The census of 1910 gave 397, the Report of the United States Office of Indian Affairs for 1923, 628, and that for 1937, 631, the two last evidently including some other peoples. Connections in which they have become noted. The name Wallawalla is perpetuated in that of the city of Walla Walla, Wash.; Walla Walla County; Walla Walla River, which flows through Oregon and Washington; and appears in the name of a small place in Illinois.

 

WANAPAM: Wanapam. Significance unknown. Connections. The Wanapam belonged to the Shahaptian division of the Shapwailutan linguistic stock and were connected closely with the Palouse. Location. In the bend of Columbia River between Priest Rapids and a point some distance below the mouth of Umatilla River, and extending east of the Columbia north of Pasco. Subdivisions. They seem to have included two branches, the Chamnapum and Wanapam proper. Population. Mooney (1928) estimates their population as 1,800 in 1780. WATLALA: Watlala. The Watlala occupied. the north side of Columbia River from the Cascades to Skamania and perhaps to Cape Horn, but a larger territory on the south side. (See under Oregon.)

 

WAUYUKMA: Wauyukma. Significance unknown. Connections. They belonged to the Shahaptian division of the Shapwailutan linguistic family and were very closely related to the Palouse. Location. On Snake River below the mouth of the Palouse. Population. Unknown but probably included with the Palouse, which Mooney (1928) estimates to have numbered 1,800 in 1780.

 

WENATCHEE: Wenatchee (Wina't ca). So called by the Wasco, and it has become a popular name for them. Also called: Awena'tchela, by the Klickitat, meaning "people at the coming-out or source," said to refer to the fact that they occupied the country at the heads of the rivers or above the Yakima. Pisquow, from .s.npeskwau'zux, their own name, variants of which appear in the appelations given them by other Salish tribes in the neighborhood. Tso'kwob.c, by the Snohomish. Connections. The Wenatchee belonged to the inland division of the Salishan linguistic family, their nearest relations being the SinkiuseColumbia Indians. Subdivisions (From Curtis (1907-9) and Ray (1932)) Sinia'lkumuk, on the Columbia between Entiat Creek and Wenatchee River. Sinkumchi'muk, at the mouth of the Wenatchee. Sinpusko'isok, at the forks of the Wenatchee, where the town of Leavenworth now stands. Sintia'tkumuk, along Entiat Creek. Stske'tamihu, 6 miles down river from the present town of Wenatchee. Minor divisions mentioned are the following: Camiltpaw, on the east side of Columbia River. Shanwappom, on the headwaters of Cataract (Klickitat) and Tapteel Rivers. Siapkat, at a place of this name on the east bank of Columbia River, about Bishop Rock and Milk Creek, below Wenatchee River. Skaddal, originally on Cataract (Klickitat) River, on the west bank of Yakima River and later opposite the entrance to Selah Creek. Location. On Methow and Wenatchee Rivers and Chelan Lake. The Wenatchee are now under the Colville Agency. Population. Mooney (1928) estimated there were 1,400 Wenatchee in 1780, but Teit (1928) considers this considerably too low. The four bands of this tribe mentioned by Lewis and Clark in 1805 totaled 820. The census of 1910 gave 52. Connection in which they have become noted. Wenatchee River, Lake Wenatchee, and Wenatchee Mountain preserve the name, as also the town of Wenatchee, county seat of Chelan County. WISHRAM: Wishram. From Wu'cxam, the name given them by the Yakima and Klickitat Indians. Also called: E-che-loot, by Lewis and Clark in 1806, from their own name. Ila'xluit, their own name and from this called Tlakluit. Connections. They belonged to the Chinookan stock, and spoke the same dialect as the Wasco. Location. On the north side of Columbia River in Klickitat County. Villages Atatathlia itcagitkok, on a small island near Celilo Falls, or more likely Ten-Mile Rapids. Chalaitgelit, a short distance east of The Dalles. Gawilapchk, a winter village below The Dalles. Gawishila, a fishing station above The Dalles. Hladakhat, about 10 miles below The Dalles. Hliluseltshlikh, below Big Eddy. Kwalasints, opposite The Dalles. Nayakkhachikh, a winter village below Gawilapchk. Niukhtash, at Big Eddy. Shabanahksh, 1 mile below Wishram (?). Shgwaliksh, perhaps Klickitat, about 12 miles (?) below The Dalles. Shikeldaptikh, about a half mile below The Dalles. Shkagech, below Crate's Point. Shkonana, opposite Crate's Point. Shkukskhat, below The Dalles. Tsapkhadidlit, a wintering place below Nayakkhachikh. Waginkhak, below The Dalles and the lowest Tlakluit town on the river. Wakemap, above Wishram. Wasnaniks, below Skukskhat. Wayagwa, above The Dalles, the easternmost town. Wishram (properly called Nixlúidix'), about 5 miles above The Dalles. Population. Mooney (1928) estimated that in 1780 there were about 1,500 Wishram, but Spier and Sapir (1930) suggest 1,000 about 1800. The latter figure is the one given by Lewis and Clark in 1806. The census of 1910 returned 274, and in 1937, under the designation "Upper Chinook," the United States Office of Indian Affairs gave 124. Connection in which they have become noted. A town in Klickitat County preserves the name of the Wishram.

 

WYNOOCHEE: Wynoochee. Significance of word is unreported. Connections. The Wynoochee were closely connected with the Chehalis Indians and belonged to the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic stock. Location. On the Wynoochee, an affluent of Chehalis River.

 

YAKIMA: Yakima. Meaning "runaway." Also called: Cuts-sah-nem, by Clark in 1805 in Lewis and Clark Journals (1904-5). Pa' kiut`1ema, own name, "people of the gap." Shanwappoms, from Lewis and Clark in 1805. Stobshaddat, by the Puget Sound tribes, meaning "robbers." Waptai'lmln, own name, "people of the narrow river." Both of their names for themselves refer to the narrows in Yakima River at Union Gap where their chief village was formerly situated. Connections. The Yakima belonged to the Shahaptian division of the Shapwailutan linguistic family. Location. On the lower course of Yakima River. Subdivisions (As given by Spier (1936), quoting Mooney and Curtis) Atanum-lema, on Atanum Creek. Nakchi'sh-hlama, on Naches River, and hence possibly Pshwa'nwapam. Pisko, about the mouth of Toppenish Creek. Se'tas-lema, on Satus Creek. Si'-hlama, on Yakima River above the mouth of Toppenish Creek. Si'la-hlama, on Yakima River between Wenas and Umtanum Creeks. Si'mkoe-hlama, on Simcoe Creek. Tkai'waichash-hlama, on Cowiche Creek. Topinish, on Toppenish Creek. Waptailmin, at or below Union Gap. It is quite possible that under the term Yakima several distinct tribes were included. History and location. The Yakima are mentioned by Lewis and Clark under the name of Cutsahnim, but it is not known how many and what bands were included under that term. In 1855 the United States made a treaty with the Yakima and 13 other tribes of Shapwailutan, Salishan, and Chinookan stocks, by which these Indians ceded the territory from the Cascade Mountains to Palouse and Snake Rivers and from Lake Chelan to the Columbia. The Yakima Reservation was established at the same time and upon it all the participating tribes and bands were to be confederated as the Yakima Nation under the leadership of Kamaiakan, a distinguished Yakima chief. Before this treaty could be ratified, however, the Yakima War broke out, and it was not until 1859 that its provisions were carried into effect. The Palouse and certain other tribes have never recognized the treaty or come on the reservation. Since the establishment of the reservation, the term Yakima has been generally used in a comprehensive sense to include all the tribes within its limits, so that it is now impossible to estimate the number of true Yakima. Population. Mooney (1928) estimated the Yakima proper at 3,000 in 1780. In 1806 Lewis and Clark give an estimated population of 1,200 to their Cutsahnim (see above). The census of 1910 gives 1,362 "Yakima," and the Report of the United States Indian Office for 1923, 2,939, but as already stated, this name now covers many people beside the true Yakima tribe. In 1937 the population of the same body of Indians was given as 2,933. Connections in which they have become noted. The Yakima first attained prominence on account of the extension of their name over a number of related, and some unrelated, peoples as above mentioned, and its use to designate the Yakima Reservation. It has attained greater permanence as the designation of a branch of Columbia River, a county in Washington, and a town in the same County and State.

 

SHOSHONE:

The historic Shoshone Indians, of the Uto-Aztecan linguistic stock, occupied territory in California, Idaho, Nevada, Utah, and Wyoming, although most of them seemed to be settled in the Snake river area in Idaho. Historical documents from the Lewis & Clark expedition often refer to the Shoshone as the "Snake Indians"; the actual name "Shoshone" means "The Valley People" . The name means inland, or "in the valley". The Shoshone were few in numbers, their total population being somewhere in the area of 8000.

In 1875, resident Ulysses S. Grant established a 100 square mile executive order reservation for the Lemhi Valley Shoshone, establishing the Lemhi Valley Indian Reservation for use by the Shoshone, Bannock, and Sheepeater tribes. In 1905, nearly one hundred years after their first contact with the white man, the Lemhi Shoshone began their "Trail of Tears", being forcibly removed from their ancestral homelands to the Fort Hall Indian Reservation. An article by Professor Orlan J. Svingen of the History Department at Washington State University sites injustices suffered by the Lemhi Shoshone. Prof. Svingen writes: "But perhaps the ultimate act of dispossession was the Indian Claims Commission settlement involving the Lemhi people. During the 1960s, the ICC and the federal government determined that the Lemhi Claim to aboriginal lands would have to be submitted as part of the larger Shoshone-Bannock Claim. The Lemhis were prohibited from filing their own independent claim. When their claim, Docket #326-1, came before the ICC, the Lemhi claim to their land 200 miles north of Fort Hall totaled $4.5 million. Based on pressure from the federal government, the ICC, the Sho-Bans, and the Sho-Bans attorneys, the $4.5 million was assigned to the Shoshone Bannock general fund. Rather than dividing the 1971 Lemhi settlement among the approximately 500 Lemhis living at Fort Hall, it was, essentially, divided among as many as 3000 people living at Fort Hall--the overwhelming majority of whom had no direct or indirect tie to Lemhi lands. Opposition to the settlement was widespread among the Lemhi, but their dissatisfaction fell on the deaf ears of the Shoshone-Bannock majority and the Sho-Ban attorneys from the firm of Wilkinson, Cragun & Barker. Udale Simmer Tendoy, a Lemhi descendant, typified Lemhi opposition with his assessment of the ICC decision in 1971." Today, the Shoshone are still waiting to become a Federally recognized tribe, along with over 200 other Native American tribes such as the California Chumash and the North-Eastern Abenakis. There has been much controversy surrounding the U.S. Government's plans to commemorate the bicentennial of the Lewis & Clark expedition. Prof. Svingen comments on the proposed bicentennial celebration: "...as the nation prepares to celebrate the bicentennial of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, it is difficult to consider how the country can celebrate the Corps of Discovery while such a debt to Sacajawea and her people remains such a scandal." The above sketch will show enough of the history of most of the tribes in this area, though some details have been added in certain cases (i. e., in connection with the Cayuse, Chilluckittequaw, Chimakum, Chinook, Klickitat, and Yakima. (See Ray, 1932, and Spier and Sapir, 1930.) CATHLAMET: Also called: Guasámas, or Guithlamethl, by the Clackamas. Kathlamet, own name. Kwillu'chini, by the Chinook. Connections. The Cathlamet belonged to the Chinookan stock. The dialect to which they have given their name was spoken as far up the Columbia River as Ranier. Location. On the south bank of Columbia River near its mouth, claiming the territory between Tongue Point and the neighborhood of Puget Island, and on the north bank from the mouth of Grays Bay to a little east of Oak Point. Villages: Ika'naiak, on the north side of the Columbia River at the mouth of Coal Creek Slough just east of Oak Point. Ilo'humin, on the north side of Columbia River opposite Puget Island and near the mouth of Alockman Creek. Kathla'amat, on the south side of Columbia River about 4 miles below Puget Island. Ta'nas ilu', on Tanas Ilahee Island on the south side of the Columbia River. Wa'kaiyakam, across Alockman Creek opposite Ilo'humin. Population. Mooney (1928) estimated 450 Cathlamet in 1780. In 1805-6 Lewis and Clark gave 300. In 1849 Lane reported 58. They are now extinct as a separate group. Connection in which they have become noted. The capital of Wahkiakum County, Washington, perpetuates the name of the Cathlamet.

 

CATHLAPOTLE: Meaning "people of Lewis (Na'p!oLx.) River." Connections. The Cathlapotle belonged to the Chinookan linguistic stock and were placed by Spier (1936) in the Clackamas division of Upper Chinook but by Berreman (1937) apparently with the Multnomah. Location. On the lower part of Lewis River and the southeast side of the Columbia River, in Clarke County. Villages. The main village of the Cathlapotle was Nahpooitle, at the mouth of Lewis River, but to this should perhaps be added Wakanasisi, opposite the mouth of Willamette River. Population. Mooney (1928) estimated 1,300 Cathlapotle in 1780; Lewis and Clark, 900 in 1806. Connection in which they have become noted. Lewis River was once known by the name of Cathlapotle. CAYUSE: The Cayuse were located about the heads of Wallawalla, Umatilla, and Grande Ronde Rivers, extending from the Blue Mountains to Deschutes River, Washington and Oregon. (See Oregon.) The Cayuse murdered the Whitman group who were founders of the first christian mission in the Oregon Territory.

 

CHEHALIS: Chehalis. Meaning "sand," the name derived originally, according to Gibbs (1877), from a village at the entrance of Grays Harbor. Also called: Atchi?e'lish, Calapooya name. Ilga't, Nestucca name. Lower Chehalis, name used by Spier (1927). Staq-tûbc, Puyallup name. Connections. The Chehalis belonged to the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic family, being most intimately related to the Humptulips, Wynoochee, and Quinault. Location. On the lower course of Chehalis River, especially on the south side, and on the south side of Grays Bay. In later times the Chehalis occupied territory to and about Willapa Bay that had formerly been held by the Chinook. Villages Chehalis (Gibbs, 1877), on the south side of Grays Harbor near Westport, in country earlier occupied by the Chinook. Chiklisilkh (Gibbs), at Point Leadbetter, Willapa Bay, in territory earlier occupied by Chinook. Hlakwun (Curtis, 1907-9), near Willapa on Willapa River in territory earlier occupied by the Chinook. Kaulhlak (Curtis), at the head of Palux River, earlier in Chinook country. Klumaitumsh (Gibbs and Boas personal information), given doubtfully as the name of a former band or village on the south side of Grays Harbor at its entrance. Nai'yasap (Curtis), on Willapa River in territory earlier occupied by Chinook. Nickomin (Swan 1857 and Boas, personal information), on North River which flows into Willapa Bay, in territory earlier occupied by the Chinook. Noohooultch (Gibbs), on the south side of Grays Harbor. Noosiatsks (Gibbs), on the south side of Grays Harbor. Nooskoh (Gibbs), on a creek opposite Whishkah River. Qyan (Gairdner, 1841), on the north point of Grays Harbor. Talal (Gibbs), at Ford's Prairie on the Chehalis River near Centralia, and therefore far outside of the Chehalis territory proper. WILLAPA: Willapa, on Willapa River and in earlier Chinook country. The following villages were originally occupied by Chinook but seem to have shifted in population or language or both so as to become Chehalis: Hwa'hots, Nutskwethlso'k, Quela'ptonlilt, Quer'quelin, Tske'lsos. Population. Mooney (1928) estimated a population of 1,000 in the year 1780 for the Lower and Upper Chehalis, the Cowlitz, the Humptulips, and related tribes, but the number had sunk to 170 by 1907. However, the census of 1910 gives 282 for the same group exclusive of the Cowlitz. In 1923 the United States Indian Office returned 89, and in 1937, 131. Connections in which they have become noted. A river, county, and city in Washington preserve the name of the Chehalis. There is a Chehalis in Minnesota but its name probably has no connection with that of the Washington tribe. CHELAN: Chelan. The name is derived from Chelan Lake. Connections. An interior Salish tribe speaking the Wenachee dialect and separated tentatively from that tribe by Spier (1927). Location. At the outlet of Lake Chelan. Population. No data. Connections in which they have become noted. The name Chelan is shared not only by the lake above mentioned but by Chelan Falls, a range of mountains, a county, and two post villages, Chelan and Chelan Falls.

 

CHILLUCKLITTEQUAW: Chilluckittequaw. Significance unknown. Connections. The Chilluckittequaw belonged to the Chinookan linguistic stock. Location. As reported by Lewis and Clark, the Chilluckittequaw lay along the north side of Columbia River, in the present Klickitat and Skamania Counties, from about 10 miles below the Dalles to the neighborhood of the Cascades. Spier (1936) thinks they may have been identical with the White Salmon or Hood River group of Indians and perhaps both. In the latter case we must suppose that they extended to the south side of the Columbia. Subdivisions and Villages. Itkilak or Ithlkilak (occupied jointly with Klickitat), at White Salmon Landing. Nanshuit (occupied jointly with Klickitat), at the present Underwood. Smackshop, a band of Chilluckittequaw extending from the River Labiche (Hood River ?) to the Cascades. Tgasgutcu (occupied jointly with Klickitat), said to be about ½ mile west of a long, high mountain opposite Mosier, Oreg., and at the same time about a mile above White Salmon Landing, an apparent inconsistency:

 

THULMIEKSOK: Thlmieksok or Thlmuyaksok, ½ mile from the last; in 1905 the site of the Burket Ranch. Historical Note. According to Mooney (1928), a remnant of the Chilluckittequaw lived near the mouth of the White Salmon River until 1880 when they removed to the Cascades, where a few still resided in 1895. Population. Mooney (1928) estimated 3,000 for this tribe in 1780. In 1806 Lewis and Clark placed the figure at 1,400, besides 800 Smackshop, or a total of 2,200.

 

CHICKMAKUM: Chimakum. Significance of the name is unknown. Also called: Aqokdlo, own name. Port Townsend Indians, popular name. Connections. The Chimakum, the Quileute, and the Hoh (q. v.) together constituted the Chimakuan linguistic stock, which in turn was probably connected with the Salishan stock. Location. On the peninsula between Hood's Canal and Port Townsend. History. The Chimakum were constantly at war with the Clallam and other Salish tribes and, being inferior in numbers, suffered very much at their hands. They were included in the Point-no-Point Treaty of 1855 and placed on the Skokomish Reservation, where they gradually diminished in numbers until, in 1890, Boas was able to find only three individuals who could speak their language, and then but imperfectly. Population. Mooney (1928) estimates 400 Chimakum in 1780, and Gibbs (1877), 90 in 1855. The census of 1910 enumerated 3. Connection in which they have become noted. Attention was called to the Chimakum in early days by their warlike character and the uniqueness of their language.

 

CLACKAMAS: Clackamas. Placed on both sides of the Columbia, but I prefer to follow Berreman (1937) in limiting the term to groups living on the Oregon side. (See Oregon.)

 

CLALLAM : Clallam. Meaning "strong people." Also spelled Nu-sklaim, S'Klallam, Tla'lem. Connections. The Clallam were a tribe of the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic stock most closely connected with the Songish. Location. On the south side of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, between Port Discovery and Hoko River. Later the Clallam occupied the Chimakum territory also and a small number lived on the lower end of Vancouver Island. Villages.

 

ELWAH: Elwah, at the mouth of Elwah River. Hoko, at the mouth of Hoko Creek. Huiauulch, on the site of modern Jamestown, 5 miles east of Dungeness. Hunnint or Hungi'ngit, on the east side of Clallam Bay; this town and Klatlawas together were called Xainañt by Erna Gunther (1927). Kahtai, at Port Townsend, occupied after the destruction of the Chimakum. Kaquaith (or Skakwiyel), at Port Discovery. Klatlawas, the Tlatlawai'is of Curtis (1907-9), on the west side of Clallam Bay; see Hunnint. Kwahamish, a fishing village on the Lyre River. Mekoös, on Beecher Bay, Vancouver Island, B. C Pistchin, on Pysht Bay.' Sequim or Suktcikwiiñ, on Sequim Bay or Washington Harbor. Sestietl, Upper Elwah. Stehtlum, at new Dungeness. Tclanuk, on Beecher Bay, Vancouver Island, B. C. Tsako, at the former mouth of Dungeness River. Tsewhitzen, on Port Angeles Spit, 2 or 3 miles west of the old town of Stehtlum. Yennis, at Port Angeles or False Dungeness. Population. Mooney (1928) estimated 2,000 Clallam in 1780. In 1854 Gibbs estimated 800. In 1855, 926 were reported. In 1862 Eells estimated 1,300 but gave 597 in 1878. In 1881 he reduced this to 485. In 1904, 336 were returned. By the census of 1910, 398 were reported; by the United States Indian Office in 1923, 535, and in 1937, 764. Connections in which they have become noted. The name Clallam is perpetuated by its application to a bay, a county, a river, and a precinct in the State of Washington.

 

CLALSKANIE: Clalskanie. (See Oregon.) COLUMBIA: Columbia or Sinkiuse-Columbia. So called because of their former prominent association with Columbia River, where some of the most important bands had their homes. Also called: Bo'tcaced, by the Nez Percé, probably, meaning "arrows" or "arrow people." Isle-de-Pierre, a traders' name, perhaps from a place in their country or for a band of the tribe. Middle Columbia Salish, so called by Teit (1928) and Spier (1930 b). Papspê'lu, Nez Perce name, meaning "firs," or "fir-tree people." Sa'ladebc, probably the Snohomish name. Sinkiuse, the name applied to themselves and most other neighboring Salish tribes, and said to have belonged originally and properly to a band which once inhabited Umatilla Valley. Suwa'dabc, Snohomish name for all interior Indians, meaning "inland people," or "interior people." .swa'dab.c, Twana name for all interior Indians, meaning "inland people." .swa'namc, Nootsak name for all interior Indians, meaning "inland people." Ti'attluxa, Wasco Chinook name. .tskowa'xtsEnux or .skowa'xtsEnEx, applied by themselves, meaning has something to do with "main valley." Connections. The Sinkiuse-Columbia belonged to the inland division of the Salishan linguistic stock, their nearest relatives being the Wenatchee and Methow. Subdivisions or Bands (According to Teit, 1930) .nkee'us or .s.nkeie'usox (Umatilla Valley). Stata'ketux, around White Bluffs on the Columbia. .tskowa'xtsEnux or .skowa'xtsFnEx, also called Moses-Columbia or Moses Band after a famous chief (Priest's Rapids and neighboring country). Curtis (1907-9) gives the following: "Near the mouth of the sink of Crab Creek were the Sinkumkunatkuh, and above them the SinkolkolumInuh. Then came in succession the Stapi'sknuh, the Skukulat'kuh, the Skoáhchnuh, the Skihlkintnuh, and, finally, the Skultagchi'mh, a little above the mouth of Wenatchee River." Spier (1927) adds that the Sinkowarsin met by Thompson in 1811 might have been a band of this tribe. Location and History. The Sinkiuse-Columbia lived on the east side of Columbia River from Fort Okanogan to- the neighborhood of Point Eaton. Later a reservation was created for them known as Columbia Reservation. In 1870 Winans placed them "on the east and south sides of the Columbia River from the Grand Coulee down to Priest's Rapids." They are now under the jurisdiction of Colville Agency and one band, the Moses-Columbia Band, is in the southern part of Colville Reservation. Population. The Sinkiuse-Columbia are estimated by Mooney (1928) to have numbered 800 in 1780, but were probably considerably more numerous as Teit (1927) considers that this tribe and the Pisquow together must have totaled something like 10,000 before the smallpox reached them. In 1905, 355 were reported; in 1908, 299; and in 1909, perhaps including some others, 540 were returned. The census of 1910 gave 52. COLVILLE: Colville. The name is derived from Fort Colville, a post of the Hudson's Bay Company at Kettle Falls, which was in turn named for the London governor of the company at the time when the post was founded, i. e., in 1825. Also called: Basket People, by Hale (1846). Chaudière, French name derived from the popular term applied to them, Kettle Falls Indians. Kettle Falls Indians, as above. Salsxuyilp, Okanagon name. Skuyelpi, by other Salish tribes. Whe-el-po, by Lewis and Clark, shortened from above. Connections. The Colville belonged to the inland division of the Salishan linguistic stock and to that branch of the latter which included the Okanagon, Sanpoil, and Senijextee. Location. On Colville River and that part of the Columbia between Kettle Falls and Hunters. Villages and Subdivisions. (From Ray, 1932)

 

KAKALAPIA: Kakalapia, home of the Skakalapiak (across from the present town of Harvey, at the point where the ferry now crosses). KILUMAAK: Kilumaak, home of the Skilumaak (opposite the present town of Kettle Falls, about 1½ miles above Nchumutastum). NCHALIAM: Nchaliam, home of the Snchalik (about 1½ miles above the present town of Inchelium).

 

NCHUMUTASTUM: Nchumutastum, home of the Snchumutast (about 6 miles above Nilamin). NILAMIN: Nilamin, home of the Snilaminak (about 15 miles above Kakalapia). NKUASIAM: Nkuasiam, home of the Snkuasik (slightly above the present town of Daisy, on the opposite side of the river).

 

SMICHUNULAU: Smichunulau, home of the Smichunulauk (at the site of the present State bridge at Kettle Falls). History. The history of the Colville was similar to that of the neighboring tribes except that Kettle Falls was early fixed upon as the site of an important post by the Hudson Bay Company and brought with it the usual advantages and disadvantages of White contact. Population. Mooney (1928) estimated the number of the Colville at 1,000 as of 1780, but Lewis and Clark placed it at 2,500, a figure also fixed upon by Teit (1930). In 1904 there were 321; in 1907, 334; and in 1937, 322. Connections in which they have become noted. The name Colville was applied to an important Indian Reservation and later to a town, the county seat of Stevens County, Wash., but the original, of course, was not Indian. COPALIS: Copalis. Significance unknown. Connections. The Copalis belonged to the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic family. Location. Copalis River and the Pacific Coast between the mouth of Joe Creek and Grays Harbor. Population. Lewis and Clark in 1805 estimated a population of 200 Copalis in 10 houses. The 5 individuals assigned to a "Chepalis" tribe in an enumeration given by Olson of the year 1888 probably refers to them. Connections in which they have become noted. The name Copalis is perpetuated in that of Copalis River, and in the post villages of Copalis Beach and Copalis Crossing, Grays Harbor County, Wash. COWLITZ: Cowlitz. Significance unknown. Also called: Nu-so-lupsh, name given by Indians not on the Sound to Upper Cowlitz and Upper Chehalis. Connections. The Cowlitz belonged to the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic family, yet shared some peculiarities with the inland tribes. Location. Most of the lower and all the middle course of Cowlitz River. Later they were divided between Chehalis and Puyallup Reservations. Towns. Ray (1932) gives: Awi'mani, at the mouth of Coweman River, south of Kelso, and Manse'la, on site of Longiew. (See Curtis, 1907-9.) Population. Mooney (1928) estimated the number of the Cowlitz, along with the Chehalis, Humptulips, and some other tribes, at 1,000 in 1780. In 1853 Gibbs stated that they and the Upper Chehalis counted not more than 165. About 1887 there were 127 on Puyallup Reservation. The census of 1910 returned 105. The United States Indian Office Report of 1923 gives 490, probably including other tribes. Connections in which they have become noted. The name Cowlitz is perpetuated by Cowlitz River and Cowlitz Pass; by Cowlitz Glacier, which radiates from Mount Ranier; and by Cowlitz County, Cowlitz Park, Cowlitz Chimney, Cowlitz Cleaver, and some small towns in the same region.

 

SENIJEXTEE: Senijextee. Significance unknown. Also called: Lake Indians, a popular name for them because they lived on the Arrow Lakes. Connections. The Senijextee belonged to the inland division of the Salishan linguistic stock, and were most closely connected with the Sanpoil. Location. On both sides of the Columbia River from Kettle Falls to the Canadian boundary, the valley of Kettle River, Kootenay River from its mouth to the first falls, and the region of the Arrow Lakes, B. C. The Lake Indians on the American side were placed on Colville Reservation. Population. Mooney (1928) estimates their numbers at 500 in 1780. In 1909 the United States Office of Indian Affairs reported 342 on Colville Reservation. The census of 1910 identifies them with the Colville and returns 785.

 

SINKAIETK: Sinkaietk. Significance unknown; an Anglicized form of their own name. Connections. The Sinkaietk are sometimes classed with the Okanagon, and called Lower Okanagon, both constituting a dialectic group of interior Salishan Indians. Location. Okanagan River from its mouth nearly to the mouth of the Similkameen. Subdivisions Kartar, from the foot of Lake Omak to the Columbia River. Konkonelp, winter sites, from about 3 miles above Malott to the turn of the Okanagan River at Omak. Tonasket, from Riverside upstream to Tonasket. Tukoratum, winter sites, from Condon's Ferry on the Columbia to the mouth of the Okanagan River and up the latter to about 4 miles above Monse, Wash. Ray (1932) mentions four villages belonging to the Kartar and Tukoratum Bands. Population. Included with the Okanagon.

 

SINKAKAIUS: Sinkakaius. Meaning "between people." Connections. The Sinkakaius belonged to the interior division of the Salishan linguistic stock and were composed largely of people from the Tukoratum Band of Sinkaietk and the Moses Columbia people. Location. Between Columbia River and the Grand Coulee in the latitude of Waterville. SKAGIT: Skagit. Significance unknown. Also called: Hum-a-luh, own name, meaning "the people." Connections. The Skagit belonged to the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic stock. Location. On Skagit and Stillaguamish Rivers except about their mouths. Subdivisions and Villages (Smith, 1941) Base'lelotsed, on Skagit River from Van Horn to roughly 3 miles above Rockport and Sauk River almost to the mouth of Suiattle, including the village of Tca'gwalk, at the mouth of Sauk River. Baska'dsadsiuk, on the south bank of Skagit River from Hamilton to Birdsview, including a village opposite Hamilton. Baske'kwiuk, on Skagit River above Rockport, including a village at Marble Mount at the mouth of the Cascade River. Baslo'halok, on the north bank of the Skagit from Hamilton to Birdsview, including a settlement at Hamilton. Duwa'ha, on the mainland drainages from South Bellingham to Bayview including part of Lake Whatcom, Lake Samish and Samish River, including the village of Batsla'thllaos, at Bayview on Padilla Bay. Nookachamps, on Skagit River from Mount Vernon to Sedro Woolley and Nookachamps River drainage including Big Lake, including a village back of Mount Vernon just below the concrete bridge, and Tsla'tlabsh on Big Lake. Sauk, on Sauk River above the confluence of the Suiattle River, including a settlement on Sauk prairie above Darrington. Sba'leuk, on Skagit River from above Birdsview to above Concrete, including a village at Concrete. Sikwigwi'lts, on Skagit River from Sedro Woolley to below Lyman, including a village on the flats near Sedro Woolley. Stillaguamish, on Stillaguamish River from Arlington up, including villages at Arlington and Trafton. Suiattle, on Suiattle River, including a village not far about the mouth of Suiattle River. Tcubaa'bish, on Skagit River from Lyman to below Hamilton, including Day Creek drainage, and including a village at the mouth of Dry Creek. Population. The Skagit population is given by Mooney (1928) with the Swinomish and some other tribes, as 1,200 in 1780. Gibbs (1877) estimated there were 300 Skagit proper in 1853. The census of 1910 returned 56 under this name. In 1923 the United States Indian Office entered 221 "Swinomish" in their returns, including evidently the Skagit and some other tribes; in 1937 it gave an estimate of 200 Skagit. Connection in which they have become noted. Skagit River, which flows into Puget Sound, Skagit County, and a post hamlet preserve the name of the Skagit Indians.

 

SKILLOOT: Skilloot. Significance unknown. Connections. The Skilloot belonged to the Clackamas dialectic division of the Chinookan linguistic family. Location. On both sides of Columbia River above and below the mouth of Cowlitz River. (See also Oregon.) Subdivisions and Villages. Cooniac (at Oak Point on the south side of Columbia River, below the mouth of the Cowlitz, in the present Columbia County, Oregon) was their principal village in later times. The Hullooetell, reported to Lewis and Clark as a numerous nation north of Columbia River on Cowlitz and Lewis Rivers, may have been a subdivision, although perhaps Salishan. The Seamysty, at the mouth of Cowlitz River before 1835, were undoubtedly a Skilloot band, and the Thlakalama and Tlakatlala of Boas 1(1901, and personal information 1905), at the mouth of Kalama River, about 3 miles above Oak Point, had best be added. Population. Mooney (1928) estimates the number of Skilloot at 3,250 in 1780 including 250 Tlakalama. In 1806 Lewis and Clark give 2,500 and in 1850 Lane places the Skilloot population at 200. They have now entirely disappeared as an independent group. SKIN: Skin. Taken from a town name. Connections. The Skin belonged to the Shahaptian division of the Shapwailutan linguistic stock. Location. On Columbia River from The Dalles to a point about 75 miles above. Villages Ka'sawi, on the Columbia opposite the mouth of Umatilla River. Skin, opposite the mouth of Deschutes River. Uchi'chol, on the north bank of the Columbia in Klickitat County. Waiya'mpam, about Celilo. Eneeshur is used by Lewis and Clark for part of the above people, perhaps all of them. Population. Mooney (1928) includes the Skin in a group under the general name Tapanash, which he estimates to have numbered 2,200 in 1780.

 

SNOHOMISH: Snohomish. Meaning unknown but evidently the name of a place. Also called: Ashnuhumsh, Kalapuya name. Connections. The Snohomish belonged to the Nisqually dialectic group of the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic stock. Location. On the lower course of Snohomish River and on the southern end of Whidbey Island. Subdivisions and Villages Sdugwadskabsh, the south portion of Whidbey Island, including villages opposite Mukilteo on Whidbey (Negua'sx) Island and at Newell on Useless Bay. Skwilsi'diabsh, from Preston Point, above Everett, to the southern tip of Camano Island, including a village at Marysville and Tcatcthlks opposite Tulalip on Tulalip Bay. Snohomish, Port Gardner Bay and Snohomish River as far up as Snohomish, including Tctlaks at Everett on the south side of the mouth of Snohomish River and Hibolb on the north side of its mouth. Tukwetlbabsh, on Snohomish River from Snohomish to Monroe, including villages at Snohomish at the mouth of Pilchuck Creek and below Monroe 2 miles from the confluence of the Skykomish and the Snoqualmie. Population. Mooney (1928) estimated the population of the Snohomish, the Snoqualmie, the Tulalip, and some others at 1,200 in 1780. In 1850 there were 350 Snohomish. The census of 1910 gives 664, evidently including other bands, and the United States Office of Indian Affairs, 667 in 1937. Connections in which they have become noted. The name of the Snohomish is perpetuated in Snohomish River, Snohomish County, and a city in that county.

 

SNOQUALMIE: Snoqualmie. From the native word sdo'kwalbiuqu. Connections. The Snoqualmie belonged to the Nisqually branch of the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic family. Location. On Snoqualmie and Skykomish Rivers. Subdivisions and Villages Skykomish, on Skykomish River above Sultan, and on the same below Goldbar. Snoqualmie, on Snoqualmie River, including villages at Cherry Valley, on Snoqualmie River opposite the mouth of Tolt River; at Fall City; and below Snoqualmie Falls. Stakta'ledjabsh, on Skykomish River as far up as Sultan, including Sultan Creek, including villages above Monroe at the mouth of Sultan Creek and on Sultan Creek 4 miles above its mouth. Population.-(See Snohomish.) Tho population of the Snoqualmie alone was reported as 225 in 1857. Connections in which they have become noted. The name of the Snoqualmie is perpetuated by Snoqualmie River and a town upon it in King County. Spokan. Phonetically Spoke'.n or Spo.qe'in); said by some to signify "Sun (people," though this origin is doubtful. Also called: LêcLê'cuks, Wasco name probably intended for this tribe. Lar-ti-e-lo, by Lewis and Clerk in 1806. SEnoxami'naEx, by the Okanagon, from their principal division. SEntutu' or SEnox?ma'n, by the Upper Kutenai from the Salish names for the Middle and Little Spokan respectively. Connections. The Spokan belonged to the inland division of the Salishan linguistic stock, and were most closely connected with the Kalispel, Pend d'Oreilles, Sematuse, and Salish. Location. On the Spokane and Little Spokane Rivers, southward to, and perhaps including, Cow Creek, and northward to include all of the northern feeders of the Spokane. (See also Idaho and Montana.) Subdivisions. The Lower Spokan (about the mouth and on the lower part of Spokane River, including the present Spokane Indian reserve), the Upper Spokan or Little Spokan (occupying the valley of the Little Spokane River and all the country east of the lower Spokane to within the borders of Idaho), the South or Middle Spokan (occupying at least the lower part of Hangmans Creek, extending south along the borders of the Skitswish). History. Like so many other tribes of the Columbia region, the Spokan enter the arena of history with the appearance of Lewis and Clark in their territory in 1805. Teit (1930) thinks it possible that the several bands were once so many distinct tribes which have become fused in course of time, but of this there is no certainty. The Lower and most of the Middle Spokan, and part of the Upper Spokan, were finally placed under the Colville Agency; the rest are on the Flathead Reservation in Montana. Population. Mooney (1928) estimated that about 1780 there might have been 1,400 Spokan, but Teit's figures would raise this to something like 2,500. In 1806 Lewis and Clark thought there were 600 but they may have included only one of the three divisions. In 1905 the United States Indian Office gave 277 Lower Spokan and 177 Middle and Upper Spokan under the Colville Agency and 135 on the Flathead Reservation; in 1909 it gave 509 all together under the Colville Agency and 138 on the Flathead Reservation. The United States Census of 1910 returned 643 all told; the Indian Office Report for 1923, 669; and the Indian Office Report for 1937, 847. Connections in which they have become noted. The fame of the Spokan will rest in the future mainly upon the importance of the Washington city of Spokane. Their name is also attached to a river in Idaho and Washington, and to the county of which Spokane is the metropolis. It has also been applied to post hamlets in Custer County, S. Dak.; in Christian County, Mo.; and in Trumbull County, Ohio; also to Spokane Bridge, Spokane County, Wash.

 

SQUAXON: Squaxon or Squakson. Their own name. Connections. The Squaxon belonged to the Nisqually branch of the coast division of the Salishan linguistic family. Location. On North Bay, Puget Sound. Villages. On North Bay at the mouth of Coulter Creek and at Allyn at the mouth of Mason Creek. Population. With the Skokomish and Toanho (Twana), Mooney (1928) estimated that there were 1,000 Squaxon in 1780. In 1909 there were 98 under this name, and in 1937, 32.

 

SUQUAMISH: YSuquamish. From a native place name. Connections. They belonged to the Nisqually branch of the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic stock, their closest connections being with the Duwamish. The famous Seattle was chief of both tribes. Location. On the west side of Puget Sound, according to Paige (1857) claiming the territory from Applegate Cove to Gig Harbor. Subdivisions and Villages Saktabsh, on Sinclair Inlet, Dyes Inlet, and southern Blakely, Blakely Island, with villages at Bremerton and on Eagle Harbor. Suquamish, on Liberty Bay, at Port Madison, and on the northern part of Blakely Island, with villages at. Suquamish, above Poulsbo, and at Point Monroe. Population. (See Duwamish.) The Suquamish numbered 441 in 1857, 180 in 1909, and 307 in 1910, according to the census of that year. The United States Indian Office returned 204 "Susquamish" Indians in 1910, probably meaning this tribe. In 1937 it returned 168 "Suquamish." Connection in which they have become noted. The name Suquamish is applied to a town in Kitsap County, Wash.

 

SWALLAH: Swallah. A name applied by Eells (1889). Also called: Swalash, by Mallet (in Ind. Aff. Rep., 1877, p. 198). Connections. The Swallah belonged to the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic family. Location. On Orcas Island and San Juan Island and the group to which they belong. Villages Hutta'tchl, on the southeast end of Orcas Island. Klala'kamish, on the east side of San Juan Island. Lemaltcha, on Waldron Island. Stashum, on Waldron Island.

 

SWINOMISH: Swinomish. A place name. Connections. The Swinomish belonged to the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic family, and are sometimes called a subdivision of the Skagit. Location. On the northern part of Whidbey Island and about the mouth of Skagit River. Subdivisions and Villages Ho'baks, on the upper end of Penn's Cove, not far from San de Fuca, Batsa'dsali at Coupeville, Ba'asats between Coupeville and Snaklem Point west of Long Point, and Tcubaa'ltced on the north side of Snaklem Point about 4 miles from Coupeville. Kikia'los, on Skagit Bay from the South Fork of Skagit River to the north tip of Camano Island, with a village at the mouth of Carpenter Creek between Conway and Fir, and another called Atsala'di at Utsalady on Camano Island. Kwa'dsakbiuk, on the lower reaches of Stillaguamish River and Port Susan, with a village at the mouth of the Stillaguamish. Skagit, on Whidbey Island, from Oak Harbor south to Snaklem Point, with a village at Oak Harbor. Skwada'bsh, on the North Fork of the Skagit River and the eastern part of Whidbey Island lying north of Oak Harbor, with Skwi'kwikwab at the mouth of the North Fork of the Skagit, and Tcotab on a point across Skagit Bay. Swinomish (on southern Padilla Bay, Swinomish Slough which joins Padilla Bay and Skagit Bay, Skagit Bay from Sullivan Slough north, and the southeast portion of Fidalgo Island), with the following villages: Kale'kut (not far from Whitney at the highway bridge), Sde'os (near Lone Tree Point, Shuptada'tci (on Swinomish Slough 3 miles from La Conner), and another village (on Sullivan Slough just east of La Conner). Population. The Swinomish are usually enumerated with the Skagit (q. v.). The Skagit and Swinomish together numbered 268 in 1909. In 1937 there were 285 Swinomish reported.

 

TAIDNAPAM: Taidnapam. Also called Upper Cowlitz. Connections. The Taidnapam belonged to the Shahaptian division of the Shapwailutan linguistic family. Location. On the headwaters of Cowlitz River and perhaps extending over into the headwaters of the Lewis River. Population. Mooney estimates the population of the Taidnapam and the Klickitat. together at 600 in 1780, but extinct as independent tribes by 1907. Twana. Said to signify "a portage," referring to that between the upper end of Hoods Canal and the headwaters of Puget Sound.