Haplogroup G is defined by the SNP marker M201 and considered to be about 14,300 years old. It is observed in high frequency (~30%) and diversity in Georgia within and south of the Caucasus Mountains which would suggest an origin. This haplogroup also has a strong linguistic affiliation to the northwest Caucasian languages, with their paucity of phonemic vowels and rich consonantal sounds. Additionally we detect high frequencies north of the Caucasus in North Ossetia although as there is less haplotype diversity in this northern region it would suggest that only a few founding lineages entered and became successful over time. Upper Paleolithic inhabitants of Weasel Cave in North Ossetia may well have fallen into this haplogroup. This haplogroup is also seen south into Iraq and into Southeastern Europe but almost entirely absent from the rest of Europe.
The haplogroup of G2 (defined by the SNP marker P15) is thought to have developed about 12,500 years ago is seen in decreasing frequency from Turkey through to the Mediterranean. Haplogroup G2 is observed at 9% in Turkey and an average of 5% in Italy and Greece. An interesting note is the high occurrence (19%) within the Druze, a small and distinct religious community residing mainly in Lebanon and Israel.
Credit: Definitions for haplogroups is borrowed from both
Family Tree DNA