The first 200 years of Wisconsin's recorded history, starting with Jean Nicolet's visit to Green Bay in 1634, is dominated by French-Creoles, a mixture of French newcomers with the Indian natives. Here are some sample references to the Creoles made by historians over the years:
« "The young Creole, Charles de Langlade, had few white companions in his far-off frontier home in Old Mackinaw..." Publius V. Lawson: Bravest Of The Brave: Captain Charles De Langlade. George Banta Publishing Co., Menasha, Wis., 1904, p. 30.
« The sudden departure of the British garrison in 1763 "left the fur-trade at Green Bay once more in the hands of the French. The English traders had left their stocks with Creole clerks, and very soon the post settled down into a more or less perma-nent French trading village, the precursor of the Green Bay, Fort Howard and Depere of today." Reuben G. Thwaites: The Story Of Wisconsin. D. Lothrop Co., Boston, Mass., 1891, page 98.
« On 17 August 1778, a British medal was given to CHA WA NON, Grand Chief of the Menominee ;..... "this was the Chief known to the Creoles of Green Bay as Old King." Wisconsin Historical Collections. Vol. XVIII, p. 370.
« Prairie du Chien has....."about 1500 inhabitants, exclusive of the military, who are principally Creoles." Edward Tanner: Wisconsin In 1818.
« "200 Pirogues with Creoles" were headed for Fort Michillimackinac from the west for an attack on the fort. Source: Letter from Captain De Peyster, Fort Mackinac Commandant to Frederick Haldimond, Governor of Canada, dated 31 August 1780. Michigan Pioneer and Historic Collections. Vol. X., p. 423.
« "The fur trade..... The absorbing interest that dominated the French Creole life." Deborah Martin and Sophie Beaumont: Old Green Bay. Cheltenham Press, New York, 1899.
« "The Creoles were well-bred, observed Lent..." Source: General A.G. Ellis1 RECOLLECTIONS, 1822. Wisconsin Historical Collections. Vol. VII.
« "These Creole boatmen (of Wisconsin) were a reckless set." Reuben G. Thwaites: The Story Of Wisconsin. D. Lothrop Co., Boston, Mass., 1891, p. 132.
• A description of balls in the long dancing-hall at Fort Howard says that, "The pretty Creole girls from La Baye are there in full force..." Deborah Martin and Sophie Beaumont: Old Green Bay. Cheltenham Press, New York, 1899, p. 23.
• "I ought to tell you the tradition that exists among the French Creoles in Green Bay as to the naming of Ashwaubenon creek and town." Andrew Vieau's Narrative: Wisconsin Historical Collections. Vol. X, p. 234. (Andrew Vieau was himself a French Creole of Green Bay). (Andrew, in French, is Andre.)
• "The Creoles feared Indian uprisings." Louise Phelps Kellogg: The French Regime In Wisconsin And The Northwest. Wisconsin State Historical Society, 1925.
• "The American Fur Company..... could never rid itself of the necessity of employing the Creole and mixed-blood voyageurs, engages, and interpreters..." Reuben J. Thwaites: The Story Of Wisconsin. Published by Lothrop, Lee and Shepard, Boston, Mass., 1891, p. 155.
• Lockwood's Narrative states that in 1824, "Forty to fifty Creoles were permanent residents at Green Bay..." Wisconsin Historical Collections. Vol. II.
• The French Creoles (at Green Bay) are a brisk, lively people who dance, sing, drink and run horses..." Source: Colonel Whittlesey's RECOLLECTIONS, 1832: Wisconsin Historical Collec-tions. Vol. I.
• "The French Creoles influence the Indians" during the 1830 Indian Council at Green Bay. Source: McCall: Wisconsin Historical Collections. Vol. XII.
• "The French Creole women had musical intonation of their voices..." Juliette Kinzie: Wau-Bun, The Early Days In The Northwest. Published at Menasha, Wis., 1856, p. 10.
• "The principal French-Canadian settlements are in Bayfield, Crawford, Lincoln, St. Croix, and Taylor counties - not counting the French Creoles at Green Bay, Kaukauna and Prairie du Chien.." Source: Proceedings Of The Thirty-Seventh Annual Meeting, State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis., 1890, P. 62.
• "There was friction between American and Creole children in the early schools..." Source: Green Bay (Wisconsin) Press-Gazette. Tercentennial Edition, 1934.
• "There were very few French girls in the new colony and many of the coureur de bo is or wood rangers, and voyageurs or boatmen, the traders' men and the traders, took wives among the women of the savage nations about them. While this was fortunate for their business of dealing with the Indians and
for their partial safety from savage treachery, it made a new race of men, some good and some bad, who have been called creoles and mixed bloods." Publius V. Lawson: Bravest Of The Brave: Captain Charles De Langlade. George Banta Publishing Co. Menasha, Wis., 1904, p 22.
While most of the early settlers were of French mixed-blood, somne were descendants of the British and Americans who came later. For Purposes of this study, mixed-blood families who were living in Wisconsin previous to 1834 will be included.
Many of the Wisconsin mixed-bloods (Metis in French) males found employment as voyagers (boatmen), hired by the furtraders to help trandpost trade-good to the Indians in the Fall anbd bring the furs back to Mackinac in the Spring. The clothing that they wore was distictive: a toque (similar to a stocking cap ), blue pantaloons, leggings, colorful finger-woven sash around their waist, mocassins, a loose shirt, and in the Winter and overcoat (capote) made from a blanket, plus buckskin garments.
From the sash at their waist dangled their knife, a fire-starting kit, and awl and their ever-present pipe and tobacco.
Many of these swarthy, devil-may-care voyagers added Indian adornments to their costumes, such as fringed leggings, porcupine-quill patterns and necklaces of bear claws.
following explanatory notes are arranged
by chapter heading. Because they are used so often, the Wisconsin
Collections will be referred to as WHC, and the Michigan Pioneer and
Collections will be identified as MPHC.
1.The New Columbia Encyclopedia. Columbia University Press, New York and London, 1975. Fourth Edition, third printing.
2.Publius V. Lawson, Bravest of the Brave; Captain Charles de LANGLADE. George Banta Publishing Co., Menasha, Wisconsin, 1904. P 22.
3.Frederick J. Turner, The Character and Influence of the Indian Trade in Wisconsin. Burt Franklin, N.Y., 1891. Contains a scholarly examination of the trading post as an institution.
4.Reverend Pierre Charlevoix, Journal Historigue. Paris, France, 1944. PP 298, 299,
5.David A. Armour, editor. Attack at Michilimackinac 1763. Mackinac Island State Park Commission, Michigan, 1971. p 90.
6.Memories of Old Duck Greek by Jeanne and Les Rentmeester, Village of Howard, Wisconsin, 1982. pp 257-259.
7.The Congressional Record (June 20, 1984). Memorial entered by Senator William Proxmire of Wisconsin.
1.A History Of
Canada, Volume 3, by Gustave
Lanctot Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1965.
2.Hls Memoire Sur Les Moeurs, Coutumec; Et Religion Des Sauvages De L'Amerique Septentrionale by Nicolas Perrot, was published in 1864.
3.Jesuit Relations, Volumes 50 and 51. Several translations of Relations des Jesuites Paris La Nouvelle France are available including one by Reuben G. Thwaites.
4.The French Regime in Wisconsin and the Northwest by Louise Phelps Kellogg. Wisconsin State Historical Society, Madison 1925. .In 1670, when the Sulpician priest, Galinee, visited the Jesuit mission at Sault Ste Marie, he found more than twenty-five French fur-traders in the vicinity - see A History of Canada by Donald Creighton. Riverside Press, Cambridge Massachusetts, 1944. p 66.
5.As quoted in Old Green Bay by Deborah Martin and Sophie Beaumont. Chiltenham Press, New York, 1899.
6.This appears in Jesuit Relations, Volume 59
7.Nicolas Perrot, op. cit.
8.Indian Tribes of the Upper Mississippi Valley, by E.H. Blair
REFERENCE NOTES: BEAVER FEVER continued.
Jesuit Relations, Volume 51 for 1667-68.
10. A good description of these fairs can be found in Montreal by Kathleen Jenkins. Doubleday and Co., N.Y., 1966. pp 64-68. Other accounts of trading at fairs and through courier de bois appear in Le Jeune's Relation, 1633; Jesuit Relations, Volume 5, p 265; and, Lahontan's New Voyages, Volume 1, pp 92-94.
11. American's Fascinating Indian Heritage. Readers Digest Asso-ciation, Pleasantville, N.Y., 1978. pp 148, 180.
12. Wisconsin; A Story of Progress by William F. Raney. Perin Press, Appleton, Wisconsin, 1963. p 19.
13. Ibid. p 21.
14. The Fur Trade in Canada by Harold A. Innis. Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut, 1930. p 28.
15. Wisconsin by William F. Raney. Doubleday, 1940.
16. This was the 1804 price as shown in Malhoit's Journal, WHC, Volume XIX. p 221.
THE FOX WARS
Archives, C II A, Volume XXI.
2.The Fur Trade in Canada by Harold A. Innis. Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut, 1930. p 89.
3.A History of Canada by Gustav Lanctot. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1965. p 13.
4.France and England in North America, Volume 3, by Francis Parkman. Frederick Ungar Publishing Co.,
5.N.Y., 1874. p 258. Francis Parkman, ibid. p 258. Says that this rank was equiva-lent to a midshipman in the U.S. Navy. Ibid. pp 222-230.
6.Montreal by Kathleen Jenkins. Doubleday and Co., N.Y., 1966. p 126.
7. Ibid. pp 222-230
8.Memories of Old Duck Creek by Jeanne and Les Rentmeester, P A-3.
9.Montreal, op. cit. p 59.
10.WHC, Volume XVI. p 371.
11.Pierre F.X. Charlevoix, Histoire De La Nouvelle France 16 Volumes. Published in 1900.
A summary of Charlevoix's experi-ences in New France is given in the Dictionary of Canadian Biography. University of Toronto Press, Canada.
12.WHC, Volume XVI. p 371. Father Crespel's account of the expedition is in WHC, Volume X. pp 47-53.
13.Schmidt Collection. Chicago Historical Society, (#252).
14.La Hontan's New Voyages, Volume I. 1864. p 146.
Francis Parkman' s Moncalm
and Wolfe. Boston, `887. p. 81. There are accounts of this battle in
Journal of Captain William Trent, History of Ohio by Henry Howe,
Ohio 1891; History of th United States by George Bancroft,
22. See Mackinac Baptismal register, for 1750. Langlade's commission probably dates back to 1747, because cadets normally entered the service at the age of eighteen.
23. Captain Marin fathered a daughter by a Sauk Indian woman; the girl later became KEO KUK's wife. When Marin Jr. was the commandany at La Baye, the Fox and Sauk tribes had already been driven to Southeast Wisconsin.
24. WHC, Volume V. p 117.
25. Canadian Archives, Volume CLXXII. 1886.
26. The American Journals of Louis Antoine De
Bougainville 1750 - 1760. Captain Bougaincille was aide-de-camp to Montcalm.
27. WHC Volume VIII. pp 227-229.
28. Augustin Grignon, WHC, Volume III. pp 265-266.
29. WHC, Volume XXIII. PP 135-140.
30. WHC, Volume VIII. pp 210-211.
31. Louis Porlier in 1848 heard SHO NO NE (Silver) tell abouT Langlade's fame. WHC, Volume VIII. pp 227-231
32. WHC, Volume XIX. pp 382-385.
33. It is a tradition to this day in the Rioux family, that their ancestor's sword was a personal gift from King Louis XV. The sword passed to Jean Baptiste Grignon, then to his daughter Josette (Mrs. Lucas Rioux). Her daughter, Agathe Rioux (Mrs Joseph Perrault), donated the sword to the Wisconsin Historical Society around 1904; it is now in the Green Bay Neville Museum.
34.There have been many stories written in the history books about Braddock's defeat, but Washington Irving and Francis Parkman were the first to imagine the scene as it must have been. A modern portrayal of the event appears in Allan Eckert Wilderness Empire, op. cit; Eckert gives Charles de Langlade a major role in defeating Braddock.
35. General Thomas Gage became the Governor of Canada after the defeat of the French and wrote a highly commendatory letter to Charles de Langlade which secured him a military commission and assignment as Indian agent. Charlotte Bourassa refers to this letter during the Revolutionary War. General Gage was the commander of the British forces when the American Revolution started.
36. Augustin Grignon's Memoirs in WHC, Volume III
37. These orders are reproduced in their entirety in WHC, Volume III. pp 211-213.
38. Bougainville, in his journal for 11 July 1756, reports on Mann s arrival with a strange band of Indians from La Baye des Plants called Menominees. He also commented on the fact that Stinking Bay (La Baye des Puants) got its name
REFERENCE NOTES: LANGLADE AND THE FRENCH ERA continued.
WISCONSIN UNDER BRITISH RULE
Volume VIII. p 215.
2. See Sir Jeffrey Amherst Papers. Clements Library, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
3. There were stories that Pontiac was half-Ottawa and half-Huron. Some believe he was a Seneca Indian. Augustin Grignon stated, in WHC, Volume III, p 227, that he was told that Pontiac was a Chief of the Hurons.
4. WHC, Volume III. p 226.
5. WHC, Volume VIII. p 217.
6. Alexander Henry, Adventurers and Travels, published in 1804. This document reflects the personality conflict between Alexan-der Henry and Charles de Langlade. See Attack at Michilimackinac 1763, David Armour, ed. , Mackinac Island, Michigan, 1971.
REFERENCE NOTES: WISCONSIN UNDER BRITISH RULE continued.
REFERENCE NOTES: WISCONSIN UNDER BRITISH RULE continued.
25. Paul Grignon
related the story of his parent's
marriage in a Brown County court deposition on 26 March 1850. The
Grignon/Domitelle de Langlade marriage record is in the Mackinac
26. Robert G. Carron's "Milwaukee and the American Revolution" Historical Messenger. Milwaukee County Historical Society, Winter 1973, pp 118.
27. WHC, Volume VIII. pp 220-221.
28. A Stateof the Expedition From Canada, a report from Burgoyne to Lord Germaine, dated 11 July 1777. p. 38.
29. This story was told to the authors by Francis X. Rioux, descendent of Jean Baptiste Grignon and Charles de Langlade.
30. Parlimentary History of Engoand, Volume XIX. pp 1181-1185.
31. "Gautier's Journal of a Visit to the Mississippi, 1777-78," WHC, Volume XI. pp 100-111. Major De Peyster of Mackinac endorsed the journal with a justification of the estraordinary espenses incurred by Gautier.
32. A De Peyster letter to Governor Haldimand, Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections, Volume IX.
33. Armour and Widder, Michilimacklnac During the American Revolu-tion, op. cit. p 82. Langlade's daily pay would be about $8.00 in today's currency.
34. De Peyster letter to Governor Haldimand, Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections, Volume XIX. pp 425-426.
35. Armour and Widder, op. cit. pp 112-114.
36. Sinclair to Haldimand, 15 February 1780, MPHC, Volume IX. pp 545-546.
37. Augustin Grignon Memoirs, WHC, Volume III. p 226.
38. Madame Bourassa Langlade to a priest at Montreal, 16 January 1780. WHC, Volume XVIII. pp 403-404.
39. WHC, Volume VIII. p 221.
40. Memorandum of John Coates, Indian Department, MPHC, Volume XIX. pp 292-294.
41. WHC, Volume III, p 234, refers to the Langlade grant of land. The Morgan L. Martin papers in the Neville Public Museum at Green Bay has the Judge Doty letter referring to the docu-ments supporting claims to Green Bay property. The grants were also referred to in the 1820-1821 Detroit Commission on land claims.
42. WHC, Volume VIII. pp 221-222. On 20 June 1818, Madame Lang-lade had a true copy of the Pass made by Major Zachary Taylor, Commander at Fort Howard (later U.S. President); perhaps the reason was to verify her land claims to prevent the new U.S. government authorities from appropriating any of the Langlade/Grignon properties.
43. Lt. -Colonel Hope to Haldimand, MPHC, Volume X. pp 636, 656-657.
44. Augustin Grignon's Memoirs, WHC, Volume III. p 241.
45. This example can be found in the Fur trade Manuscripts, Archives of the Wisconsin State Historical Society, Madison, Wisconsin.
REFERENCE NOTES: WISCONSIN UNDER BRITISH RULE continued.
Frederick J. Turner, The Indian Trade
In Wisconsin, says that sometimes over a thousand attended the
at Grand Portage (where Northwest Wisconsin and Northeast Minne-sota
47. Armour and Widder, op. cit.. list the complete contents of a canoe loaded by William and John Kay of Montreal for David McCrae and Co. of Mackinac in 1777 - see Appendix of their book.
48. MPHC, Volume XXIII. p 662.
49. The story of the Grignon children's baptisms appears in Augus-tin Grignon's Memoirs and their baptismal records are in the Mackinac Register. Jean Baptiste Perrault has a descrip-tion of the Prairie du Chien Spring Fair in the Michigan Pioneer and Historical collections. Volume XXXVII. pp 542-545.
50. WHC, Volume III. Refers to the royal visitor as Louis Phillipe, the Due D'Orleans. This incident is also reported in Histor-ical Wisconsin's Tercentenary by Mrs. A.C. Neville.
51. WHC, Volume VIII. pp 222-223. Drummond is responding to a Captain de Langlade letter, dated 25 February 1800. Some authors state that Langlade served as Indian Agent for the United States, but we could find no evidence of it. He did visit Mackinac when it was under U.S. rule; for instance, in a July 9, 1799 affidavit at Michi 11 imackinac Post in the territory of the United States, he sold some of his property at Green Bay.
52. WHC, Volume XVIII. pp 462-464. The land was finally sold for $500.00 on September 10, 1823 in an indenture between Louise Langevin, heir-at-law of Charles Langlade, and Ramsey Crooks. Fourteen hundred acres was in Yarmouth Township in the County of Norfolk (near London, Ontario); the other 1600 acres were appropriated for Langlade under an Act of Parliament in 1791. Apparently, Langlade's fame and reputation remained undiminished in both Canada and England until his death.
53. WHC, Volume IX. p 145.
54. WHC, Volume XVIII. pp 464-469.
55. Inventory for Amable Roy estate, March 21, 1801, signed by the Sieur Charles de Langlade and Charlotte de Langlade, Wis. MSS, Volume 60, Box 5, Archives and Manuscript Division, State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Madison.
56. Madame de Langlade's inventory of goods was placed in the Mackinac County Court House, St. Ignace, Michigan.
57. This story appears in WHC, Volume VIII. pp 208-210.
THE GROWTH OF WIS- SETTLEMENTS
1. Captain Thomas Anderson, WHC, Volume IX. pp 144-146.
REFERENCE NOTES: THE GROWTH OF WISCONSIN SETTLEMENTS continued.
Volume IX. pp 282-284.
3. Andersen's memoir, WHC, Volume IX. p 148.
4. The French Regime in Wisconsin and the Northwest by Louise Phelps Kellogg.Wisconsin State Historical Society, Madison, 1925. p 387.
5. The early Portage settlers are described in Augustin Grignon s Memoirs, WHC, Volume III. p 288-290.
6. See History of Milwaukee. Western Historical Company, Chicago, Illinois, 1881.
7. The Menominees at Milwaukee were removed by the Treaty of 1831, and the Pottawatomi, Ottawa and Chippewa Indians by the Treaty of 1833, Indian Affairs, Laws and Treaties, Volume II. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 1903.
8. Old Green Bay by Deborah Beaumont Martin and Sophie Beaumont. Cheltenham Press, New York, 1899. pp 13-15. 9 "Prairie du Chien in 1811," WHC, Volume XI. pp 290-292.
10. Joseph Tasse's "Memoirs of Charles de Langlade," WHC, Volume VII.
11. WHC, Volume X. pp 90-93. Professor Robert Hall states that ACH 0 A BE ME, his ancestor, was named Augustin Grand Blanc by his French mother.
12. "Grignon's Recollections," WHC, Volume III. p 284 footnote.
13. "Biddle's Recollections," WHC, Volume I. pp 58-61.
14. Alice Smith's The History of Wisconsin, Volume I. State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Madison, 1973. p 86. The Fort Dearborn massacre is described in Alien Eckart's Gateway to the Empire.
15. Memories of Old Duck Creek by Jeanne and Les Rentmeester, 1982. p 30.
16. Historic Green Bay 1634-1840 by E.H. Neville, S.G. Martin and Deborah Beaumont, Green Bay, Wisconsin, 1893.
17. Prairie du Chien Documents, WHC, Volume IX. pp 262-265.
THE AMERICANIZATION OF WISCONSIN
Askin to John Lawe, WHC, Volume
X. pp 132-133.
2. "Biddle's Recollections," WHC, Volume I. p 58. Biddle puts TOMAH's death in 1817; John Lawe's monument shows July 8, 1818; and Augustin Grignon agrees with Biddle.
3. Ursula Grignon's Recollections, American Sketch Book by Bella French, Green Bay, Wisconsin. 1876.
4. See Attack at Michilimackinac 1763, edited by David Armour, Mackinac Island, Michigan, 1971. Lt. Jamet and an English trader, Tracy, were killed on the parade ground in front of the Langlade house.
5. These stories appear in greater detail in "Memoir of Charles de Langlade" by Joseph Tasse in WHC, Volume VII. pp 9-187.
REFERENCE NOTES: THE AMERICANIZATION OF WISCONSIN continued.
Address by Judge Morgan L. Martin
in 1851, reported in the Green Bay Historical Bulletin. Jan/Feb 1927,
3. No. 1.
7. in Furs By Astor by John Upton Terrell. Haddon Craftsmen, Scranton, Pennsylvania, 1963. The author says that Astor lent money to James Monroe in 1814, and that Governor Cass and the Secretary of War, Graham, were both on Astor's payroll Another critical book is Fist in the Wilderness by David Lavder. Garden City, N.Y... 1964.
8. Documents describing the operation of the factory system are in American State Papers, Indian Affairs, Volume II. in American State Papers, Indian State Papers, Indian Affairs, Volume II. P 1834.
9. Fourth Census of the United States, 1820. Michigan Population Schedules.
10. A Report to the Secretary of War of the U.S. on Indian Affairs by Jecidiah Morse. Scholarly Press, St. Clair Shores, Michi-gan, 1822.
11. See "French Land Claims at Green Bay," Green Bay Historical Bulletin, Nov/Dec 1926, Volume 2, No. 6, which traces the land titles from the Indians to the French to the English and finally the Detroit Commissioners' Office: also, Memories of Old Duck Creek by Jeanne and Les Rentmeester, pp. 104-113. The Act of Congress was initiated by Jacques Porlier and perhaps initially by Charlotte de Langlade; they started action on land claims in 1817.
12. Taken from American State Papers, Public Lands and Military, Volume IV.
13. James D. Doty by Alice E. Smith. State Historical Society, Madison, Wisconsin, 1954. pp 115-117.
14. WHC, Volume XX. pp. 277-278.
15. The Indian Trade in Wisconsin by Frederick J. Turner. Burt Franklin, N.Y., 1891. p 66.
16. Andre J. Vieau, WHC, Volume X. pp 230-234.
17. The diocese building in Detroit is named in his memory; there are several biographies of this interesting pioneer available.
18. Brown County Register of Deeds, Deeds and Mortgages, 23 Sept-ember 1823. See also, Robert Stuart's analysis of this event in the 1839 Winnebago Papers, National Archives, Washington, D.C.
19. The Character and Influence of the Indian Trade in Wisconsin, byFrederickT.Turner.BurtFranklin,NewYork,1891. P. 61.
20. American Indian Policy in the Formative Years 1780-1834 by Francis P. Prucha. Cambridge, 1962. pp. 130-138, 250-251.
21. Red Bird died in prison; his twofol lowers were sentenced to death by Judge Doty but pardoned by the President of the U.S. A little girl that was scalped (Marie Regis Gagnier), survived, and later raised a large family. See the Gagnier family sketch, p 249.
22. Indian Land Cessions in the United States, Charles Royce. House Documents,56th. Congress,1st. Session.
Durham boats were about 45 to 60
feet long, 10 to 12 feet wide, 2 and 1/2 feet deep, and drew 18 to 20
of water, with a pay load of 25 to 30 tons. See Matthew J.
The History of Brown County and De Pere, Wisconsin. St.
De Pere, Wisconsin, 1975. p 48; and, J.W. Arndt's The Early
of Green Bay and the Fox River Valley. Democrat Printing, De Pere,
24. An excellent treatise on this subject can be found in "With Alexis de Tocqueville in Green Bay" by Jerrold C. Rodesch, Voyageur,Summer 1986. pp 15-21.
25. Deposition by John Kinzie, Susan Gratiot and Joseph Brisbois, 1839 Winnebago Papers, Reel 236, National Archives, Washington D.C..
26. Sac and Fox Indians by William T. Hagen. Chicago, 1961. pp 195-197.
27. Wisconsin Fur Trade Manuscripts. John Lawe letter to Jacques Vieau, Madison, Wisconsin.
28. The Vieau and Paquette comments can be found in their memoirs in the WHC volumes. On the Chippewa Indians, see Henry School-craft. History of the Indian Tribes, Volume I. p 17; Volume VI. pp 571-572; History of the Ojibway Nation by William W. Warren, 1852; and Wisconsin Indians by Nancy 0. Lurie. Wisconsin State Historical Society, 1960.
29. Morgan L. Martin Papers. Neville Public Museum, Green Bay, Wisconsin.
30. The story of this payment appears in "Alfred Cope's Green Bay Diary," Wisconsin Magazine of History, Summer 1966, Spring 1967. pp 49-50. See also, Bruce K. Paulson's (Suring, Wisconsin) unpublished manuscript on this subject.
31. James L. Hansen "Mixed-Blood Sioux," Minnesota Genealogical Journal No. 6. Brooklyn Park, Minnesota. pp 523-530.
32. There is a discussion of tranferring land titles from the Indians to the Americans in Memories of Old Duck Creek by Jeanne and Les Rentmeester. pp. 104-112.
33. Article in Green Bay Press-Gazette, July 23, 1934.
American State Papers, Public Lands,
Volume 5, 1860. pp 303-304.
2. "Biddle's Recollections," WHC, Volume I. p 58.
3. Definitions of race and ethnic groups are found in sociology and anthropology texts, such as Sociology by lan Robertson. Worth Publishers, Inc., New York, 1977, Chapter 12; and, Introductory Sociology by Raymond W. Murray. Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York, 1946, Part III.
See Handbook of American Indians. Scholarly Press, Government Printing Office, Washington D.C., 1968. pp 913-915; and,
REFERENCE NOTES: CREOLE CHARACTERISTICS continued.
The People in
Between: Indian-White Marriage
and the Genesis of a Metis Society and Culture in the Great Lakes
1680-1830 by J.L. Peterson. University of Chicago, 1981.
5. WHC, Volume XVII. pp 325,326.
6. Memories of Old Duck Creek ibid. p 179.
7. W.J. Hoffman's 14th. Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, 1892-93, "The Menomini Indians," 1896: also WHC,Vol. XVI. p 432
8. WHC, Volume X. pp 47-53.
9. Ebenezer Childs, WHC, Volume IV.
10. W.J. Hoffman, op. cit. p 48. Detailed studies of the Menominee Indians are available, such as: W.J. Hoffman "The Menomini Indians," 14th. Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology. 1892-93. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, B.C., 1896; Alanson Skinner's anthropological studies, 1913-1915; Leonard Bloomfield, Menomoni Texts. American Ethnological Society, 1928; and, Felix M. Keesling, The Menomoni Indians of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, 1939 and 1987. The Menominee Indians are a good subject for ethnohistorical studies because they are one of the few Indian tribes in America still living in its original habitat.
11. Menominee Enrollment Papers, 1904-1957 compiled by Bruce K. Paulson of Suring, Wisconsin.
12. Augustin Grignon, WHC, Volume III. p 203.
13. The Character and Influence of the Indian Trade by Frederick J. Turner. Burt Franklin Publishing, New York, 1891. p 69.
14. Jedidiah Morse, A Report to the Secretary of War of the United States on Indian Affairs. Scholarly Press, St. Clair Shores, Michigan, 1822. p 50.
15. Melvin M. Robertson, "A Brief Story of the Menominee Indians," Journal of the Wisconsin Indians Research Institute, Volume 1, No. 1, March 1965. pp 4-7.
16. WAU-BUN, The Early Days in the Northwest by Juliette Kinzie. Natinal Society of Colonial Dames in Wisconsin, Menasha, Wisconsin, 1856. pp 9-10.
17. The early Creole women are described in several books, including Gustave Lanctot's History of Canada; Louise Kellogg's 1913 History of Brown County; and, Bella French's 1876 Ameri-can Sketchbook.
18. "Sociocultural and Psychological Processes in Menomini Acculturation, " University of California Publications in Culture and Society, Volume 5, by George G. Spindler, Berkely, California, 1955. pp 43,44.
19. Thomas Jefferson "Notes on the State of Virginia" quoted in Gary Wills' Inventing America. Doubleday and Co., Garden City, New York, 1978. pp 284-288.
20. Bella French's History of Brown County, Wisconsin. American Sketchbook Publishers, Green Bay, Wisconsin, 1876. pp 51-53.
21. The History of Wisconsin, Volume I, by Alice Smith. State Historical Society, Madison, Wisconsin, 1973.
22. WHC, Volume VII. pp 263-264.
REFERENCE NOTES: CREOLE CHARACTERISTICS continued.