The  Oconto County WIGenWeb Project
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BOHEMIA

 The Bohemian immigration to North America began to pick up in the 1840's. Social unrest and economic hardship left few jobs for the occupied people of the once great country. Leadership and rule had been in the hands of other nations for centuries and Bohemia was used as a source of agriculture income in foreign coffers and manpower for the army of other nations. There was no effective local government or legislature of the Bohemian people. For generations their safety and future was in the hands of others. Jobs were often scarce, so income was almost always limited; not including for the ownership of land or the finances to move.  The advent of  more available means of travel in the 1800's brought with it some opportunity for new prospects, even for those with small resources.

Most who came to Oconto County were from agricultural backgrounds. It was not unusual for a man to immigrate first, earning the money which brought his family to him, in small groups, over the following years. While settling homesteads, often in close knit communities, the men and older boys added to the family income with work in the woods for lumber companies and in the local saw mills. Many men and women would be described as "Jack-of-all-trades"  in their approaches to life. They built their own homes, cleared their own fields, brought their produce to market, sewed their clothing and often for others as extra income,  worked as "handymen" when that opportunity for employment presented itself,  black smithed to maintain and repair their hard earned equipment, were skilled at preparing foods for winter storage, hunted for table meat, pelts  and market, raised families and helped each other. Whatever skill was needed in everyday life and for income, they learned and used it. Life had always meant hard work, but here they had the opportunity for employment,  to own land and make their life's decisions.

The original inhabitants of what became Bohemia were known as the "Boii". These people were a tribe of the ancient Celts who lived in small groups throughout central Europe. Their culture has been found at archaeological site as far back as 3000 B.C.  Hunter/gatherer forms of existence for these early Bohemians had been gradually replaced by farming which began it's spread from  the "futile triangle" of the middle east some 10,000 years ago. Agriculture brought with it crops, domesticated  food animals for food sources and horses as well  as a settlement way of life that replaced the nomadic following of wild animal migration. Settling land brought with it developing the skills necessary to protect these settlements and the earliest Bohemians excelled as warriors on foot, on horseback, and eventually using chariots.

 Over the following centuries B.C.  Germanic tribes and powerful Slavic Cechove tribes (now Czechs) moved into the area after battles or during regular migration. Many of the original Celts were pushed westward, yet others integrated into these newer tribes. The high spirited Celt  traditions found their way as part of the Bohemian population of the time. 

As with many nations in Europe, Bohemia has had a long history of  fighting for it's independence against other neighboring countries. The area became part of the Roman Empire. After the fall of that dynasty in about 400 A.D., Moravia, then Poland took turns as rulers. The Bohemian people became part of the Holy Roman Empire (Germanic rulers) in the 900's A.D. and became a partially independent  Duchy of Bohemia ruled by a Dukes and became a formal kingdom in 1212.  

King Wenceslaus I  was originally crowned as co-ruler of the Kingdom of Bohemia with his father Ottokar I in 1228 and became sole ruler after the death of his father. His first main concern was the threat to the country's independence by Frederick II, Duke of Austria. Once that threat was settled with the help of Bavaria, the next major threat came from the east. An estimated 20,000 Mongols, lead by Baidar, Kadan and Orda Khan (grandsons of the famous Mongolian Gingus Khan)  attacked and devastated several European nations during their ruthless raids.  The Bohemian people felt the attacks and Wenceslaus I, after several setbacks, the Bohemian cavalry was able to repel the forces of the two Mongol brothers Baidar and Kadan, who turned south in 1241 to meet their brother's forces and invade Hungary. Next, Ottokar II, his own son, lead a revolt that he crushed. Wenceslaus then led a successful invasion of Austria, let his son Ottokad II out of prison and placed him as regent of Moravia to keep him occupied.

Perhaps the greatest achievement of Wenceslaus was bringing the then modern Gothic lifestyle and culture to Bohemia.  Stone replaced wood in major structures, education, poetry and music were enjoyed and practiced by the general population. Craftsmanship, trade and urban development took a strong hold in the traditionally farming Bohemian culture. Bohemian government was reorganized and made one of the strongest in Europe during that time. 

King Ottokar II (known as The Great and The Iron and Golden King) who ruled over Austria and added neighboring duchies of Styria, Carinthia and Carniola also inherited Bohemia from his father  Wenceslaus II.  However, during his reign, Austria was restored to independence and Ottokar II had to give up the neighboring Duchies, leaving him only Bohemia and Moravia. He attempted to takeover of his lost lands two years later. He was defeated and killed during battle in 1278. However, Bohemia maintained a strong independence for  nearly 300 years until it was incorporated into the Hapsburg lands in 1526. It saw the rampages and destruction of the religious 30 Years War starting in 1618 and the end of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806 as part of the Austrian Empire.  From 1867, it was part of Austria-Hungary. The independent Republic of Czechoslovakia was formed in 1918, made up of Bohemia, Moravia and part of Czech Silesia. at the end of World War I (1918) .  Bohemia became part of the Soviet Union after World War II and increasing dissatisfaction with the Communist government  led to revolt and a clamp down by government. With the collapse of the Soviet Union , in 1993 Bohemia went from being part of Czechoslovakia to part of present day Czech Republic along with Moravia.

Bohemian Born in Oconto County
Wisconsin

1870 Census for Oconto County

Ausroge Henry; Oconto ,   born 1843     
Ausroge
 Augusta;   Oconto ,   born 1850    
Babloe
 Frank; Little Suamico,   born 1845    
Barman
 Antone; Little Suamico,   born 1849     
Bartol
Frank; Marinette,   born 1851    
Bennish
 Jas;; Marinette,   born 1852    
Bodge 
 Kithren; Oconto ,   born 1851    
Bonekralg
 Frank;   South Ward,   born 1846     
Bosweck
 John; Little Suamico,   born 1850     
Burns
 Wm ; Little Suamico,   born 1846    
Busres  Joseph; Pensaukee,   born 1842     
Bussia
 Albert; Little Suamico,   born 1842    
Cheska
 Rose; Marinette,   born 1848     
Cialey
 Mike; Pensaukee,   born 1848     
Clutcke
 Leman ; Little Suamico,   born 1835    
Clutcke
 Anna ; Little Suamico,   born 1847     
Cobesh
 Paul ;  Oconto ,   born 1846    
Conop
 Andrew ; Little Suamico,   born 1846    
Copp
 Mary ;  Oconto ,   born 1850    
Crope
 Joseph ; Little Suamico,   born 1844    
Cresal
John ; Little Suamico,   born 1848     
Crumbers
 Joseph ;  Oconto ,   born 1850     
Dessel
 Joseph;  Little Suamico,   born 1854    
Elster
 Joseph ; Marinette,   born 1840    
Erbeck
 Joseph ; Little Suamico,   born 1832    
Erbern
 Albert;  Oconto ,   born 1852    
Estmer
 John; Little Suamico,   born 1845    
Fisher
 Frank ;  Oconto ,   born 1825    
Fisher
 Joseph ;  Oconto ,   born 1840    
Fisher
 Anna ;  Oconto ,   born 1845    
Fisher
 Anna;  Oconto ,   born 1845    
Flock
 Frank ; Little Suamico,   born 1852    
Friltey
 James ; Little Suamico,   born 1850     
Friltey
 Mikel ; Little Suamico,   born 1859     
Folks
 Anna ; Little Suamico,   born 1855    
Foncen
 Josephine ;  Oconto ,   born 1851    
Frederley
 Thomas ; Little Suamico,   born 1849    
German
 Martin ;  Little Suamico,   born 1842    
Gertte
 Geo ; Little Suamico,   born 1848    
Halsten
 John ; Little Suamico,   born 1829    
Hazen
 John ; Little Suamico,   born 1832    
Hazen
 Vencle ; Little Suamico,   born 1840     
Honelock
 Frank ; Little Suamico,   born 1854    
Kaellie
 Vence ;  Oconto ,   born 1851  
Lanil
 Frank; Little Suamico,   born 1851    
Laule
 Jim ; Marinette,   born 1848    
Merrick Joseph ;  Oconto ,   born 1849    
Newberry
 Jas ; Marinette,   born 1845    
Nowejisk
Jas ;Marinette,   born 1853     
Prueher
 Peter ;  Oconto ,   born 1834    
Prueher
Barbrey ;  Oconto ,   born 1843    
Restle
 Charles ; Little Suamico,   born 1850     
Rogorae
 Frank ; Little Suamico,   born 1846    
Saull  Frank ; Marinette,   born 1842 
Seonat
 John ; Little Suamico,   born 1847   
Shaper
 Frank ; Little Suamico,   born 1855 
Since  Juv; Marinette,   born 1845    
Sitehamer
 Mary ;  Oconto ,   born 1851    
Smok
 Mary ;  Oconto ,   born 1852
Sowle
 Lewis ; Little Suamico,   born 1844    
Stass
 Isare ;  South Ward,   born 1848     
Stephan
Cathrine ;  Oconto ,   born 1841    
Swan
 Mary ;  Oconto ,   born 1848    
Swender
 Thedore ; Marinette,   born 1854     
Symack
 Jno ; Marinette,   born 1852    
Tape
 Rosie ;  Oconto ,   born 1842    
Tape
 Fannie ;  Oconto ,   born 1864    
Wilkman
 Frank ; Little Suamico,   born 1835     
William
s Anna; Little Suamico,   born 1854    
Woopey
 John ;  Oconto ,   born 1843        
   

Other Bohemian Born Surnames In Oconto County 


Ablony
Babka
Bech
Benesh
Bevonka
Blacek
Blazek
Blucher/Blutcher
Bobjek
Borazek
Bosjeck
Bourboom
Brumtek
Brunkretz
Burck
Burack
Carban
Ceihota
Cervene
Cisar
Coplic/Koplek
Deimer
Echtner
Fait
Fakan
Falarsh
Fischer/Fisher
Florian
Fores
Gelnen
Gervin
George
Gorlic
Grizzel
Grussow
Halupnick
Hamesek
Hanah
Hanek
Hasso
Hausner
Havik
Hermonek
Heller
Hoffman
Hoida
Hollop
Hopich
Hoska
Houska
Housner
Hubush
Huebner
Jaka
Janowsky
Jaros
Jicha/Jicka
Kadlek
Kelsick/Kelsek
Kersheck
Klozatorsky
Klimpt
Knoida
Kobes/ Kobis
Kolick
Kovarik
Krumpis
Krumper
Kucera
Kujar
Kunk
Kustda
Lav
Ledwiner
Lejohnsky
Liska
Mareck/Marek/ Marik
Marzth
Mlarnik/Mlarnek
Miratshy
Moak
Molnarik
Mottis
Mras
Myrick

Neistorf
Nemetz/Nemitz
Nimitz
Novy
Nowordny
Nykoden
Nykisky
Oleverius
Opichka
Otradovec/Otrodovec
Pacer
Paitel
Panosh
Pardak
Parleck
Parlin
Pasek
Pashek
Peshek
Pafrick
Pakas
Pasch
Pasheck
Pevonka/Podestate
Pordk
Poradek
Presl
Prokaske
Prokoski
Prusha
Rabart
Regal
Roit
Rushek
Scarbon
Scarda
Scarvan
Schmilik
Scotschburn
Sednichradsky
Seizler
Sepl
Shepel
Shooda
Skadda
Skarda
Sladky
Slotky
Sloup
Slupe
Smazel
Snitch
Stibek
Stocklin
Stoffel
Sokol
Soukup
StaubuStieber
Stefls, Stefels. Steffels
Strnad
Suckan
Suhorski
Sveyda
Svobodoa
Swarda
Tajsarek
Teteak
Teterk
Ticky
Tisher
Urbanick/Urbanek
Urbouick
Valedka
Valecka
Valitchk/Valitchka
Viteck
Wachel
Walesky
Walledchek
Wardcheka
Warrek
Wartruba
Weise
Weritzel
Wondrash
Zemanek
Zoube


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