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Port Washington History

The following is taken from "Histories of Washington and Ozaukee Counties", Western Publishing, 1881. It is copied exactly from the book except that I have capitalized surnames.

The natural beauties of Port Washington, the county seat of Ozaukee County, are unsurpassed by any of the lake-shore towns. The village is built in a recess formed by Nature, in the shape of the letter U.

Two bluffs, three-quarters of a mile apart from north to south, and with an elevation of a hundred feet at the lake, recede westward a distance of half a mile, where they are joined by a bluff, running north and south, forming walls on three sides, from the base of which the land takes a gradual slope to the lake, thus shaping a natural basin. Through the west bluff is an aperture, by which Sauk Creek finds its way to Lake Michigan. Back of this hill are a number of smaller elevations, extending along the banks of Sauk Creek; resting on these knolls are handsome residences, many of them having terraces fringed with shade trees and flower-beds.

To the wet of Sauk Creek is a large opening or ravine, which extends back to the forest beyond. A small tributary of the creek winds through the ravine, and is fed by a number of springs along its banks. The rivulet cuts its way through two embankments, a short distance from Sauk Creek; by walling the channel of the stream level with the banks, an artificial lake could be formed, which would extend back to a beautiful forest about a mile beyond.

This lake would have an average width of a quarter of a mile, while its widest point would be about three-quarters of a mile. When this plan is carried to completion, with a good summer hotel erected near the grove, on the shore of the artificial lake, a more inviting place for tourists cannot be found in the State.

The numerous mounds which exist in and around the vicinity of the village, lead many to suppose that this quiet retreat was resorted to by the Indians as a favorite burying-ground. There is no doubt that the Jesuits of the seventeenth century made this one of their stopping points, while endeavoring to teach the noble red men of the forest to comprehend the infinite greatness of their God.


The first white settlers were a company of land speculators and traders let by Wooster HARRISON, familiarly known as Gen. HARRISON. This company landed at Port Washington, September 7, 1835, and during the fall laid out the town at the mouth of Sauk Creek. The first name given was that of Wisconsin City; but there being another place of the same name in the State, it was changed to Washington City. The first post office was established as Washington, receiving its present name of Port Washington from George C. DANIELS, in 1844. The founders of Wisconsin City carried on a brisk trade for a period of two years. Extortionate prices were asked and paid for all kinds of produce. Lands quadrupled in value in a fortnight; money was plenty; speculators wild.

Everybody seemed to swim in a sea of excitement; intoxicated with success, they rushed blindly into a whirlpool of inflation, only to be swallowed up by the great financial crash caused by the panic of 1837. The high prices which had been paid could not be sustained, and the little colony of fortune-hunters were compelled to succumb to the stern reality of a contracted currency. They were buried in the general ruin.

The actors who had taken part in this peculative drama soon abandoned the scene, leaving Waubeka, an old Indian chief and his tribe, in full possession of the little harbor, where, in their dreams of prosperity, they had pictured a flourishing city.

A year later, Aurora ADAMS and Asa CASE came to brood over the wreck of the once proud Wisconsin City. No traces of their predecessors remained, with the exception of one or two houses, which had been left standing, and a fresh mound of earth with two plain boards, which marked the last resting place of Gen. HARRISON's wife. Hers was the first death; she died October 10, 1835.

Aurora ADAMS took possession of one of the deserted houses and opened a hotel for the accommodation of travelers on their way to Sheboygan, Port Washington being the half-way point on the trail then used between that city and Milwaukee.

Asa CASE built him a little store-house near the lake. He was an oddity in his way, but managed to do a fair trade in supplying the men who traversed the trail with tobacco and provisions. His first invoice consisted of one barrel sugar, one sack coffee, one gross matches, on jug molasses, ten pounds tobacco, one keg nails, two boxes crackers, one hoop cheese. When the settlements of 1843 began, eh seemed to realize that his best days were over. Subsequently, he sold his store and started on foot for Sheboygan, when he was discovered by a peddler about ten miles north of Port Washington, lying on the road with a severe gash in his throat. The old man was brought back to the village, when he stated that he had been waylaid by two men who had robbed him of all his money. He wound was dressed, but neither by persuasion or force could he be induced to eat. He died from sheer starvation.

The first dwelling house built in the village was erected by Gen. HARRISON in 1835. It is still standing apparently in a good state of preservation. it is a little story-and-a-half frame building, gable end, the sills resting on the ground. A partition divides the first floor into two apartments, and also the upper or half story. It was at this house that the first votes of the town were polled. This old and time-worn structure has become one of the sacred relics of the past, commanding a prominent place in the history of the town of Port Washington, not only on account of the relation it bears to the first white settler of the village, but because it once served as a shelter to one of America's greatest statesmen. It may be of interest to mention the fact that the great and martyred President, Abraham Lincoln, during his days of roughing it, once walked from Milwaukee to Sheboygan, and stopped a night in this old house. After the defeat of the Merrimac by the Monitor, Mr. Lincoln, in company with some of his Cabinet officers, visited Fortress Monroe to get a practical knowledge of the fort. While viewing the works, desiring some information, he approached an officer, who proved to be Capt. BEGER, from Port Washington. "Well, my man," said Lincoln, "where are you from?" "Port Washington," replied the Captain. "Port Washington - let me see: that is in Wisconsin, about twenty-five miles north of Milwaukee, is it not?" The Captain answered that it was. "I stopped there over night once," said the President; "just name over some of the men who lived there in the early days." The Captain proceeded to name over quite a number, finally mentioning that of HARRISON. "Harrison, that is the man!" said Mr. Lincoln, "I remember him well." He then walked off to join his escort, leaving Capt. BEGER very much elated to think that his town had been honored by the presence of so great a man.

In 1843, Wooster HARRISON returned in company with Orman COE, Ira C. LOOMIS, Solon JOHNSON, O.A. WATROUS, Col. TEALL and others, and began to make permanent improvements. As there was no pier built at that time, they were compelled to wade quite a distance before they could effect a landing, and when on shore rough crafts were built on which to convey the women and children. Houses were speedily erected, and the establishing of a town began in earnest. A pier was built out to a point in the lake where boats could land their passengers and cargoes, after which the vessels touched regularly.

During the three years which followed, there was quite an influx into the town of people from the Eastern States. Aurora ADAMS was superseded in the hotel business by a man named THOMAS, and had taken up quarters in one of the old houses which had been left standing from 1835. It had been built by one of Col. TEALL's agents, and wishing to take possession of is property, the Colonel notified ADAMS to vacate, which he refused to do. TEALL then procured a writ of restitution, and in company with the Constable, proceeded to the house. On being refused admittance, the officer attempted to force an entrance, when the report of a rifle and the whiz of a bullet compelled them to beat a hasty retreat. The shot was supposed to have been fired by ADAMS's wife. She was immediately arrested and taken to Milwaukee, where she was tried for the offense, but acquitted for lack of evidence.

O.A. WATROUS was appointed the first Postmaster of the village. HANSEN & REYMERT kept the first store after the 1843 settlement. James D. REYMERT is now the recognized Scandinavian lawyer of New York City. The early settlers experience numerous hardships in getting provisions and lumber. The nearest grist-mill was that of DEISNER's, near Waukesha, a distance of thirty eight miles.


The first town meeting was held in the schoolhouse, in the month of April, 1846, when the following town officers were elected: Board of Supervisors, Solon JOHNSON, William TEALL and John McLEAN; Commissioners of Highways, Allen C. DANIELS; Assessors, Wooster HARRISON, Alva CUNNINGHAM and William HUDSON; Collector, Isaac N. LOOMIS; School Commissioners, Sylvester P. WATSON, Abram BATES and Jerome B. YOUNG; Constables, Sylvester P. WATSON and L.D. CUNNINGHAM; Justices of the Peace, George C. DANIELS and George W. FOSTER; Sealer of Weights, Orlando N. WATROUS; Town Clerk, F.W. MERRITT.

The town of Port Washington was incorporated January 21, 1846, and comprised towns 11 and 12, Ranges 21 and 22, comprising the present towns of Fredonia, Saukville and Belgium.

The poll-list for 1846 of the town of Port Washington was as follows:

Abram Bates
Abram Ingersoll
Wooster Harrison
William Teale
A. Cunningham
John Barrett, Jr.
R.B. Freeman
O.A. Watrous
Barney S. Kelly
A.C. Klinglen
Jonathan Loomis
Jacob Anderson
John Chion
Charles Lunderborg
John Thomas
Andrew Wetterstrom
William Rice
Orman Coe
Hugh Owen
Nicholas Watrey
S. Tallakson
J. Duigl
Benjamin Safford
Hilgen Allendorf*
John Bourtow
Charles Bourtow
Joseph Allendorf*
John Schole*
M. Persow
John Suell
Martin Mix
John P. Watrey
Peter Wolf
A.E. Boesswater
I.N. Loomis
Joseph Poucely
Jean Weycher
Thomas Micheal
Soln Johnson
Harvey Moore
Henry Schmidt
Francis Opladen
Theodore Stemper
William Mix
William S. Coe
Nicholas Poncely
John Ditz
Pierre Holtigen
P. Bievier
John Virland
George C. Daniels
Stephen Mix
N. Riding
R. Griswold
David Acker
E. Sloutenborg
Theodore Corman
Clark Bourtow*
Lemuel Hyde
Jacob Pors
Lewis Jones
Loring D. Cunningham
Isaac C. Loomis
Allen C. Daniels
John McLean
W.P. Thomas
S.P. Watson
J.B. Young
F.W. Merritt
Washington Leonard
Harry Williams
John Longly
B.F. Pidge
George W. Foster
J.P. De Contres

The foregoing is the poll-list kep by me at the town election, held at Port Washington on the first Tuesday of April, 1846. -- George W. FOSTER, Clerk of said Election. I certify that the above is a true copy. -- F.W. MERRITT, Town Clerk.

*A descendant of this gentleman has informed me the correct spelling should be Clark Boughton
*A descendant of these gentlemen has informed me the correct spelling of their names should be: Helger Altendorf, Joseph Altendorf, and John Scholl.


This terrible and malignant disease made its first appearance in Port Washington during the summer of 1849, when, in the space of two weeks, it ravaged almost every home in the village. In many cases whole families were prostrated by its direful influence. The exact number of deaths caused by the disease during its reign of that year is not given. Some of those who passed through the trying ordeal claim that the mortality would range somewhere in the fifties. In the spring of 1854, it again made its appearance in the village, this time with more fatal results, the number of deaths in ten days being sixty-five. There was scarcely a family in the town but was deprived of a member. Its victims were selected from all ages, from the babe in the cradle to the aged sire. The old settlers who still remain say that they sincerely hope that it may never be their lot to witness another such sight as that caused by the dreadful devastation made by the cholera of 1849 and 1854.


The early steamboat days of Port Washington, and their happy reminiscences, are recalled with much pleasure by the old settlers when relating their past experiences. Before the railroads came to displace the majestic palaces of the lake, steamboat captains were happy Vessels touched regularly at the pier two and three times a day to land and take on passenger. Things were a lively aspect along the shore, friends greeting friends, a general bustle and commotion and noise could be heard the stentorian voice of the captain giving command. The whistles sound, the bells chime in, the wheels splash, and the boat recedes majestically into the blue waters amid a general shout from those left on shore. These pleasures, however, were not to be enjoyed without risk and the danger of accidents. Disasters were of frequent occurrence, the most fatal of which was the burning of the Niagara, a passenger steamer of the Collingwood line, which took place in the latter part of the month of August, 1856. The Niagara caught fire about 1 o'clock p.m., when she was within four miles of Port Washington pier, on her southward course. She had on board at the time some two hundred passengers, Capt. MILLER at the helm. She was first discovered by L. TOWSLEY, who was then in charge of the pier. Her time being overdue for landing, Mr. TOWSLEY leveled his field glass in the direction from which she was expected to arrive, when he realized at once her terrible plight. The steamer Traveler and propeller Illinois, then within a short distance of Port Washington, had also seen the fire, and were making all possible speed to reach the ill-fated vessel. Of the two hundred lives on board, only about one-half were saved. Among those who were lost was John B. MACY, the member of Congress from this Congressional District. Following this frightful disaster, came that of the wreck of the Toledo, a large propeller of the Western Transportation Company of Buffalo, N.Y. When within twenty rods of the pier at Port Washington she three out her anchor. The sea was the highest ever known at this point. The chain of the Toledo became entangled, and all efforts to disengage it proved fruitless, leaving her to the mercy of the waves which lashed against her sides with such terrific force that it was but the work of a few minutes for them to tear her asunder. She had about eighty lives on board, including the crew, and of this number only two were saved. There, in sight of the shore, men, women and children struggled only to be washed out of sight by the furious waves. One man was thrown by the force of the waters on to the pier, and was rescued by the people on shore. Strenuous efforts were made to reach the unfortunate passengers from land, but all to no avail. To launch a boat in that boisterous sea would have been certain death.


Murders are of rare occurrence in a community where the pursuits of the people are largely agricultural. The men who seek to subdue forests, build homes and cultivate the land, find little time for contention or brawls; much less to steep their hands in the blood of their fellowman. With them union means strength. They are bound by common interests to stand by and protect each other. They become linked together by the chain of sympathy, so that what becomes the burden of one, becomes the burden of all. It is to this willingness to assist each other in the struggles that ensue among early settlers, in their strife against the stubborn opposition met with in subduing the wilds of Nature, that the grand principles of right and justice, so early engendered by the pioneers, may be attributed. Crime, of whatever degree, when discovered is soon rooted out, and the culprit, be he high or low, speedily brought to justice.


The man to first cause an entry on the criminal docket of Port Washington, was Maurice O’CONNELL, charged with the murder of a fellow sailor, Michael DOYLE. Up to the time of the murder, these two men had been the best of friends. They were employed on a flat-boat which was anchored a short distance from the pier. For several days previous to the fatal occurrence they had been indulging in a spree, which led to an altercation between them, while they were making their debauched rounds of the village. They were separated, when they returned to the boat, where the quarrel was renewed and brought to a sudden ending by O’CONNELL seizing a large knife and stabbing DOYLE in the neck, killing him almost instantly. This occurred on the 20th of October, 1853. O’CONNELL was immediately arrested and conducted to the county jail, where he was held to await the action of the grand jury. An indictment was found against him for murder in the first degree. He was tried at the November term of court, under Judge LARRABEE, Eugene S. TURNER appearing for the State. The jury, after being out several hours, failed to agree, and O’CONNELL was subsequently remanded to jail. He was tried at the next term of court, the jury this time finding him guilty of murder in the first degree. He was sentenced to imprisonment for life in the State Penitentiary, that being the extreme penalty for murder, under the laws of Wisconsin. He remained in confinement until July, 1863, when he was pardoned out by Gov. SALOMON.


The best of axioms will at times fail of verification, and the old saying “murder will out” does not seem to prove an exception to the common rule. Although this old adage has been thwarted time and again, by the agents of crime, it loses none of its importance, and still holds a high place in the category of aphorisms. That it fails in many instances is due, in a great measure to the indifference shown towards the victim in the neighborhood in which he resided.

Such seemed to be the spirit manifested over the untimely death of Jacob LENO, an old German, who was murdered in the most barbarous manner, in Port Washington, sometime during the spring of 1853. Although the old man had lived in the village nearly three years prior to his tragical death, but few people seemed to know him, further than that he was of a very quiet and easy-going nature. As far as can be ascertained, LENO was a widower, and alone in the world. He had emigrated to this country in company with a family by the name of DOSE, who settled in Port Washington sometime during the year 1850. John DOSE, the head of the family, was a fellow-countryman of LENO, and lived next-door neighbor to him at the time the murder was committed. He, however, on being questioned, refused to divulge anything, either in regard to LENO’s early history, or his brief career in Port Washington. It is thought by some that were he disposed, he might dispel the mystery which still envelopes the old man’s death. As before stated, the old man LENO was alone in the world, and had rented a little house in close proximity to the DOSES, where he kept bachelor’s hall. He was naturally of quiet disposition, and made few acquaintances. He was inclined to be miserly, which led to the supposition that he had large sums of money hoarded away. The rumor soon circulated, and magnified by repetition, from hundreds it increased to thousands. Gossip had paved the way to his destruction. The unsolicited reputation he had gained cost him his life. How or by whom the deed was done, no one has yet discovered. LENO had been seen by quite a number of men the day before the fatal night, at some of his old familiar haunts. He was seen to depart for home, but no one seems to recollect whose company he was in last. He was supposed to have been murdered about midnight, but his body was not discovered until about 3 o'clock the next day. The old man had been missed from his accustomed places of resort by those who were wont to notice his peculiar traits.

Wooster HARRISON then kept a jewelry and repair shop on Pier street, which served as a favorite rendezvous for the gentlemen of leisure in those days, to crack their jokes and discuss the general topics. On this particular day, in looking over the little assembly, HARRISON discovered that LENO was among the missing. As the old man had never been known to absent himself from these gatherings without some good cause, conjectures arose as to what had become of him, when some one suggested that perhaps he might be sick, and living as he did alone, it would be well to look after the old man. Wooster HARRISON volunteered to serve in this mission. On his way he met L. TOWSLEY, whom he prevailed upon to accompany him, and, being joined by one or two others, they proceeded to the bachelor quarters. On arriving at the house, Gen. HARRISON knocked several times on the door, but receiving no answer, went to a window at the side of the house, and called to the old man with the same result. He then beckoned to the others to come to his assistance. The window was raised and two of the men crawled into the house, but had not proceeded far when a most horrible sight met their eyes. There lying on the floor was the object of their search, with his head half severed from his body. The old man had been dragged from his bed and his throat cut, after which the murderer had forced his victim's head into a wooden pail, presenting a scene which for fiendish cruelty, is unsurpassed in the history of crime. A Coroner's inquest was held, which lasted for two days, but as no clue to the criminal could be found, the jury were compelled to abandon their fruitless task. Suspicions were rife, but suspicion does not convict. it is supposed that LENO had in his possession from $300 to $400, which sum his murderer secured.

When the excitement of the LENO murder had subsided, and the authorities had given up all hopes of discovering the culprit, there appeared in Port Washington, a woman, Frances SCHAFFNER by name, who made complaint against one Henry WIST, a resident of the village, to the effect that he (WIST) had several years previous made an assault on her in the night, armed with a rifle, with intent to rob her of certain valuables and money which she had in her possession. She stated that she was then living in a room furnished by herself in the Arcade Building, during which time, WIST was a frequent visitor. When he discovered that she had money in her possession, he endeavored to persuade her to make him a loan, which she refused to do, as she had serious doubts of his honesty. WIST finding that all attempts in the persuasive line would be useless, began to threaten her, but the plucky little woman refused to be frightened, when WIST withdrew from the scene in disgust. She saw nothing more of him until the night of the assault, when the would-be robber was again foiled in his attempt to get possession of her money. Mrs. SCHAFFNER, however, failed to expose his villainy through fear of being murdered by him if she did. Rather than be subjected to further annoyance and persecution, she concluded to leave the village, and subsequently moved to Milwaukee. This took place about three years before the murder of old man LENO. WIST had always been looked upon by the people of Port Washington as a suspicious character, and while the Coroner's jury were sifting the case, many pointed to WIST as the murderer, but no proofs could be found against him. Eugene TURNER was Prosecuting Attorney at the time, and on being informed of WIST's attempt to rob Mrs. SCHAFFNER, immediately opened correspondence with her in Milwaukee. Mrs. SCHAFFNER was brought before the Justice and sworn, when a warrant was issued for WIST's arrest. The Grand Jury found a true bill of indictment against him, and he was held for trial at the next term of court. Mrs. SCHAFFNER was retained as a witness, and took up her abode in the house of Lyon SILVERMAN, who was then Sheriff of the county. The case was called, Judge LARRABEE on the bench, Eugene TURNER appearing for the State, and W.A. PORS as counsel for the defendant. Witnesses were called by the State to testify as to the defendant's mysterious actions and ugliness of character. Mrs. SCHAFFNER being reserved until the last. On the night of the first days’ trial, Mrs. SCHAFFNER left her room about 9 o'clock in the evening to go to the post office. The night was extremely dark, the sky being obscured by dense clouds. She emerged into the street and darkness to complete her errand, and had proceeded about half a block when she was stunned by a severe blow, dealt by some one from behind, who followed the blow with a wicked thrust from a large knife, and then threw her off the sidewalk into the street, where she was found by her friends in an insensible condition. She was unable to appear in court the next day, and the trial was postponed to await her recovery. In three days from the time of her fright, the woman was sufficiently recovered to make her appearance in court. On her testimony, the jury found WIST guilty, and he was sentenced by Judge LARRABEE to the penitentiary for the term of six years. Many think that the whole affair was a put-up job, and that WIST was innocent of the charge. But a great crime had been committed. No one as yet had been punished for the brutal murder of Jacob LENO. WIST was suspected of being implicated in the terrible deed. Suspicion cost him six years’ confinement and hard labor.

After serving his time, he moved to the State of Michigan, where he shortly afterward died. On his death-bed he was questioned as to the LENO murder, when he denied having any connection or knowledge of who murdered the old man.


Prominent among the early characters of Port Washington, and a man much sought after by the old veterans because of the enticing nature of his business, was an old Englishman by the name of ARNET, who had built a little cabin, and started on a small scale the manufacture of malt liquors. ARNO’s brewery consisted of some half dozen posts driving into the ground, on these rested several cross-beams to which clamp-hooks were fastened, upon which were suspended two large iron kettles, in which he brewed his hops and other ingredients necessary to the manufacture of the foaming beverage. The old man carried on quite a profitable business, and was very liberally patronized by the old settlers from all parts of the county, as his was the only establishment of the kind then known outside of Milwaukee. Those who remember the circumstances, state that the quality of beer made by ARNET was far superior to anything manufactured to-day. The pioneer brewer sold his beer for 3 cents a pint, and did a thriving business.


The manufacturing interests of Port Washington were developed as early as 1847. During that year Harvey MOORE and his brother, S.A. MOORE, erected a saw-mill on the west bank of Sauk Creek. Excellent power was obtained by damming the stream, from which a race was transferred to the mill. The enterprise proved a profitable one, their business increasing every year until the great flood of 1865 came and swept mill, improvements, and everything before it, after which the enterprise was abandoned. In 1848, George and Julius TOMLINSON erected the first grist-mill, which was run for a number of years by water-power obtained from Sauk Creek. The mill is now owned by R. STELLING, who has made several improvements. Steam-power was attached in 1858. The building is a substantial stone structure, and has a capacity for 12,000 barrels of flour per annum, besides the home and custom work.

In 1856, Lyman Morgan & Co., engaged in the manufacture of smut and separating machines for elevators and breweries. They are constantly adding to their business, and employ regularly from eight to ten men. The buildings and machinery were erected at a cost of $15,000.

The early settlers soon discovered that a superior quality of clay could be obtained from the bluffs on the lake shore for the manufacture of brick, the clay being of the same nature as that found in the vicinity of Milwaukee. WOODRUFF & RICHARDS were the first to embark in this enterprise, and started what was known as the North Brick-Yard in 1846. William RICHARDS, the junior member of the firm, continued in the business until the breaking-out of the war, when he enlisted in the Wisconsin volunteers. On the close of the war, he removed to the famous Yazoo County of Mississippi, where he now ranks as one among the wealthiest planters in that section. The North Brick-Yard is under the management of Nicholas WILTZIUS, who is doing a profitable business. The clay in the vicinity of Port Washington is easy of access, while an excellent quality of sand used for the manufacture of brick lies in abundance in close proximity to the clay. With the enlarged facilities afforded by the harbor for shipping, the brick manufacturing interests of Port Washington bid fair to rank second to none in the State.

This enterprise was first started under the management of Theodore GILSON and John MAAS in 1850. At the end of two years, MAAS withdrew from the partnership, when C. CRITZNER
took his place. CRITZNER was afterward succeeded, first by Nicholas MARTIN in 1864, and then by John TOSSAULT in 1866. TOSSAULT remained in the firm until 1868, when Mr. GILSON bought out his interest, and started the business anew under the firm name of GILSON & Sons. The estimated cost of building and machinery is $15,000.

There are three good lumber-yards in the village, the principal one being that of O.A. BJORKQUIST & Co. This firm handles from 3,000,000 to 4,000,000 feet of lumber annually, and employ on an average about thirty men. E.R. BLAKE and R.C. KANN are also engaged in the lumber trade, and handle each about 2,000,000 feet every year. There is a large planing-mill in the town owned by N.G. ELLENBECKER, which does a good business, and affords employment to quite a number of men and boys.

E. SCHUMACHER, an enterprising Milwaukeean, visited Port Washington in 1872, to look up a site upon which to erect a foundry. The village people, anxious to encourage him in the undertaking, offered to subscribe $16,000 in money and lots free, provided SCHUMACHER would agree to employ one hundred and forty men, and run the works for ten years before claiming a permanent title to the property, a proposition which he readily assented to, and immediately proceeded to execute his plans. The buildings were completed the following year, at a cost of $20,000, and the business was started under the firm name of E. SCHUMACHER & Sons, and styled the "Novelty Iron Works." The SCHUMACHERS, however, did not fulfill their part of the contract, as to the number of men to be employed, claiming that the business would not warrant a force of over one hundred men. The people of Port Washington not wishing to hamper them in any way, released them from their contract, and, at the end of three years, gave them a clear title to the buildings. In the spring of 1881, the SCHUMACHERS became embarrassed financially, when they turned over the works to James. W. VAIL, the banker, of Port Washington, who is now running them on a large scale. The establishment still bears the name of the "Novelty Iron Works," and is one of the finest of the kind in the West.

Holding a prominent place among the interests of the village are the two marble yards, one bearing the name of Michael TIBOR, and the other that of Jacob SCHUMACHER. The cemeteries dotted over with delicately carved stones and monuments, bear evidence of Messrs. TIBOR and SCHUMACHER's skill and genius.

The brewing interests are taken care of by Mrs. WITTMAN and Messrs. DIX and DEMP and the Port Washington Malt Company. The last named company have erected a new malthouse near the depot 100 x 120 feet, two stories high. The building is built of brick manufactured in the village, and was completed October 1, 1881, at a cost of $16,000. E.R. BLAKE, in connection with his store and lumber business, has two good warehouses near the harbor for storing grain and produce. The village contains some fifty business houses, the majority of which are substantial buildings, of brick and stone.

The first hardware business of the town still thrives under the management of August MEYER. In addition to these the town contains two flourishing cheese factories, two wagonshops, three blacksmith shops and a cooper shop for the manufacture of shakes for sugar hogsheads. Fish are caught in great quantities. Fine specimens of trout, whitefish and perch are shipped to other markets, the revenue amounting to from $15,000 to $20,000 annually.


The work of improving this harbor began in 1870, the first appropriation having been made by the Government in that year. the total amount of appropriations made b the Government were $181,527.17. In addition to these the town voted $15,000, making the total expenditures $196,527.17.

The piers extend to a depth of 14 feet of water, and dredging to 13 feet depth in the basins. The piers extend into the lake from the shore a distance of 800 feet, and are 200 feet apart, while a channel 180 wide has been dredged 1,500 feet back from the shore east and west, and the same distance north and south. This is 15 feet deep inside the bar, which has 12 feet of water. The harbor is one of the finest on the lake shore north of Milwaukee. The following report for shipments made during the year of 1879, from Port Washington, was obtained from the Merchants and Manufacturers Association:


Beer, barrels


Flour, barrels


Plows, number


Brick, number


General merchandise, tons


Pork barrels, number


Butter, tons


Hay, tons


Smut machines, number


Castings, tons


Hides, number


Wheat, bushels


Cheese, pounds


Leather, sides


Stone, cords


Cattle, number


Lime, barrels


Wood, cords


Eggs, barrels


Malt, bushels


Wood, pounds


Fish, packages


Oats, bushels





Barley, bushels


Land plaster, tons


Seeders, number


Coal, tons


Lath, number


Shingles, number


Coke, tons


Lumber, feet, b.m.


Tan bark, cords


Corn, bushels


Pig iron


General merchandise, tons


Reapers, number




Immediately after the organization of Ozaukee County and the permanent location of the county seat at Port Washington, James W. VAIL started an individual exchange, which he carried on successfully until the spring of 1856. He was then joined by S.A. WHITE and Lyman DOUD, when a partnership was formed and a general banking business established under its present name, Ozaukee County Bank. This partnership continued until the fall of 1857, when both WHITE and DOUD became alarmed at the stringency of the money market and withdrew their interests. A number of heavy failures ensued, of which that of the Ohio Trust Company, of New York, proved the most serious. Mr. VAIL continued the business alone until 1873, with the exception of a brief period, when William H. RAMSEY was admitted as a partner. In 1873, William H. LANDOLT joined Mr. VAIL as a partner in the bank, the business being transacted under the firm name of James W. VAIL & Co.


With the pioneers of the West the prairie-breaker and schoolhouse are one and inseparable. Side by side with their humble dwellings, the early founders of Port Washington Village erected their first schoolhouse. Permanent settlements were not begun until the year 1844. George W. FOSTER, a native of New York, taught the first school, in 1845.

"Oh ye who each the ingenious youth of nations,
Holland, France, England, German or Spain,
I pray ye flog them upon all occasions;
It mends their morals - never mind the pain."

Schoolmasters, as they were called in those days, generally considered it a high bounden duty and moral privilege, especially bestowed by the rights with which they were invested, to carry out Byron's injunction by assiduously applying the birch. Young FOSTER, however, at the risk of gaining for himself the everlasting displeasure of his older and more experienced brothers in the profession, concluded to brave the blunt of public opinion and introduce the more modern idea of moral suasion, a plan which he carried to success. Mr. FOSTER soon after took up the study of law, a profession for which he was peculiarly fitted, as his success as a lawyer has demonstrated. He was succeeded in the public school by L. TOWSLEY, who taught for a number of years, when he also sought to measure his eloquence before the bar of justice. In the year 1846, there were two school districts in the town of Port Washington. The number of children enrolled, 135.

The first School Commissioners were Abram DECKER, Ira M. LOOMIS and W.S. COE. Flavius J. MILLS first held the office of Town Superintendent of Schools, in 1849. During the same year, School District No. 3 was added. District N. 4 was added in 1850, and No. 5 in 1852. The following is the enrollment of scholars for the several districts for the year 1852:

District No. 1


District No. 2


District No. 3


District No. 4


District No. 5




District No. 6 was formed in 1854, No. 7 in 1855, and No. 8 in 1860. Number of scholars enrolled for 1860:

District No. 1


District No. 2


District No. 3


District No. 4


District No. 5


District No. 6


District No. 7


District No. 8




The scholars enrolled, in 1865, for the eight districts, were 1,078; for 1870, 1,162; for 1875, 1,249, and for 1880, 1,081. That the report for 1880, shows a less number of scholars enrolled than that of 1875, is due to the fact that a large number of children were withdrawn from the public schools by their parents, and sent to the Catholic school, which is allowed $800 per year from the public funds. Of this, the Advertiser says, in regard to the District Clerk's (H.B. SCHWINS) report: "There is one beautiful feature in the report, which has agitated this whole country from the Atlantic to the Pacific time and again, it cannot be discovered by the naked eye in the report, but it is there nevertheless, and is a happy solution of the whole vexed question, which still remains unsettled in all other places in the United States but Port Washington. No other town as yet, has ever been known to consent to the paying out of the public school moneys for the support of a Catholic school. The whole affair is contrary to law; but as it seems to be a sort of family agreement all around, no one feels disposed to make objections." For a period of some twenty years, very irregular reports were given of the schools in District No. 1, so that it is found impossible to give anything like a full history of the progress made, the exact number of scholars attending, or the amount of money expended for school purposes. H.B. SCHWINS, the present District Clerk, makes the following report for 1881 of the village school: "There are two departments in this school, German and English. Mr. S.A. HOOPER has entire charge. His assistants are (English branches), Miss Ella HARRINGTON, Mary O'MAEA and Katie HENDELL; German, Miss Caroline EVERS and Mary MINTEN. Mr. HOOPER, the Principal, reports the school in a flourishing condition in all its departments. The highest number of scholars in attendance for the year 1881 was 432; amount of money collected for the same year - county, $242.78; district, $2,500; for grass sold on school lot, $1.25; tuition money from outside scholars, $115.58; money appropriated from State taxes $219.53; total $3,079.44."

The village schoolhouse is a handsome brick structure, and is surrounded by beautiful grounds, which form one of the principal attractions of the town.


Catholic Church. -- The first services of the Catholic Church of Port Washington were held at the house of John GENGLER, in 1847, the church then numbering only three families. In 1849, it had increased to twelve families, when a little frame church was erected on light-house bluff, on two lots which were given to the church by Hiram JOHNSON, one of the oldest settlers in the county. The church was first visited by Father FABIAN, Rev. F. GLENBAUER and Rev. BRADY. The first resident priest was Father F.X. SAILER, who came to Port Washington on the 9th of October, 1853. The church had then increased to twenty-five families. Father SAILER, soon after his arrival, established a Catholic school, and called Adolph HEIDCAMP, then teacher in New York, to take charge of the school. HEIDCAMP remained as teachers until 1856, when he resigned to take charge of a public office to which he had been elected. The priest then called Sisters from the Notre Dame, of Milwaukee, to conduct the school. Father Sailer remained as leader of the church until 1857, when he was succeeded by Rev. WEIKMANN, who remained but a short time, when Rev. F. TUSSEDER took his place, and began to make preparations for the building of a new church. On the 1st of July, 1860, the corner-stone of the present church edifice was laid, the building being completed the same year at a cost of $7,000. it is a handsome, stone structure, 40 x 80 feet. Rev. TUSSEDER remained in charge until the 6th of September, 1862, when he resigned to go as Chaplain to the Twenty-fourth Wisconsin Regiment, when Father SAILER returned to the pastorate of the church from 1862 to 1867, during which time he laid out the plan of a new schoolhouse, which was completed by his successor, Rev. A. DURST, who took charge October 13, 1867. Rev. DURST remained until the 17th of May, 1870, when he was succeeded by Rev. Henry WILLMES, the present Father, who is now raising money for the erection of a new church edifice, which will be built on the improved plan, and will have a seating capacity of 1,200. The church now numbers 250 families, or about 1,100 communicants. The new building, when completed, will be one of the finest in the State. The school, now under the direction of the church, is conducted by three Sisters of the order of Notre Dame of Milwaukee. Both the German and English languages are taught. There is, at present, an average attendance of 220 scholars. The schoolhouse is a two-story, brick building 33 x 60 feet. The Sisters are allowed $800 per year from the public-school fund. This seems to have been brought about by a mutual understanding on both sides.

Methodist Episcopal. -- This denomination was the first to hold religious services in the town of Port Washington. The congregation met as early as 1843 at private houses for worship. A few years later, they occupied the public schoolhouse. The first Pastor, Rev. LEWIS, like all pioneer ministers, had quite a number of churches under his charge scattered throughout different portions of the county. To visit these he was subjected to severe hardships, often-times being obliged to ride on horseback for a distance of twenty miles through the dense forests which existed in those days, facing all kinds of weather in order that he might make good his appointments. His successors have been Y.L. LeDUE, R.C. PARSONS, J. MILLER, William P. STOWE, G.C. HADDOCH, C.W. BROOKS, A.R. BISHOP, R.W. BEACH, L.S. MAULSHROP, C.D. COOK, D. BROWN, E.L. EATON, S.A. WANLESS, R.J. JUDD, George PARSONS, J. H. BROOKS, W.F. DALE, and the present Pastor, G.S. NEWCOMB. The first meeting-house was erected in 1851 and rebuilt in 1877. The building, as it now stands, is a cosy brick structure, 40 x 60 feet with one auditorium-room for public services, and a basement used for Sabbath school purposes. It is the only English-speaking church now in organization in the village; it has at present forty members, but also derives a large support and attendance from members of other denominations, who are too few in numbers to support a church of their own.

Presbyterian. -- This denomination held its first services in the public schoolhouse as early as 1845, under the directions of Rev. Thomas FRAZER, Jr. The church was regularly organized in the fall of 1846. Some eight years later, a frame building was erected as a place of worship on a lot deeded by Barnum BLAKE, a prominent merchant of Port Washington. The congregation continued to hold services until sometime in 1864, at which time many of the influential members moved from the village, when the organization was dissolved. Rev. James MERRILL was the last Pastor to preside. The meeting-house is still standing, but in a dilapidated condition.

Protestant Episcopal. -- This religious body started under rather unfavorable auspices. A number of ladies headed by Mrs. O.A. WATROUS, interested themselves in obtaining subscriptions toward building a church edifice; when they had succeeded in raising several hundred dollars, they turned the fruits of their labor over to the proprietor of a brick-hard, who failed to furnish them the bricks contracted for and they were unfortunate enough to lose their money. Services were held in the upper story of the Exchange Block, now used for hotel purposes and designated as the Union House. Rev. S.K. MILLER was the first Pastor. The church was regularly organized October 29, 1849, by the following vestrymen: O.A. WATROUS, Bostwick O'CONNOR, Mason WOODFRUFF, Gideon M. WAUGH and S.H. ALCOX. This organization continued only for a few years.

Baptist. -- Services were held by this denomination in the old Arcade Building, but they were of so short duration, that no special records were kept of the meetings. Rev. MULHERN came first to look after the interests of the church; he remained but a short time, when he was succeeded by Rev. DELANEY. The church was organized sometime during the year 1848.

German Evangelical Lutheran Church. -- This church was organized pursuant to a call of the Trustees January 17, 1853, Rev. J. JOHNSON first officiating Pastor. The success of the church is largely attributable to the energies of Jacob ECKLE, one of the oldest Trustees, who was instrumental in raising funds to erect the church buildings. The Rev. JOHNSON's successors were Rev. STARK, William DARMAN, Samuel HAUSERVITZ, Rev. BART, Rev. KLYNARD and Rev. A. FRANK, the present Pastor. The first services of the church were held in the public school-house until the completion of the church edifice, which was finished in 1856, and consecrated by the Rev. John KANDISS. The bell, one of the largest in the village, was presented to the church by lady members, who raised the money by subscription. The church now numbers over 200 members.

German Methodist Church. -- The members of this church, like many others, were obliged to fall back on the schoolhouse as a place of worship until they had become sufficiently strong to build a house of their own. The first services were conducted by Rev. C.A. SCHWAKE during the spring of 1852. In 1862, they repaired to their new church edifice, since which time the church has been presided over by the following ministers: Rev. H. HULSTER, Rev. SCHUK, Rev. HALLACHER, and the present Pastor, the Rev. J. HEINHAUS.


Port Washington Gesang Verein. -- This association has now nearly one hundred members, of which one-half are singers. Its origin was due to the exertions of Maj. John C. SCHROELING, under whose directions it was organized December 3, 1859. The first officers were elected as follows: President, Conrad HORNEFFER; Vice President, Phil. G. KUHN; Director, John C. SCHROELING; Secretary, Leopold EGHART; Treasurer, Theopold RUBLY. The society was incorporated by an act of the Legislature April 11, 1861, with the following members: Leopold EGHART, Charles BEGER, John C. SCHROELING, Louis F. MUELLER, Robert TETZOLD, Conrad HORNEFFER, Jacob MORITZ, Ulrich LANDOLT, Robert JAENICKE, Jean ADAM, Edward NUENDORFF, Franz ZIMMERMAN, Hermann VANDERBOSCH, William LANDOLT, Paul WOLFF, Theopold RUBLY, G.P. KUHN, G. MOCKLY, Jacob WERLE, Gottfried BENTEL, William SCHROEDER, Frederick SCHMIDT, Peter KUHN, Frederick MUELLER, Henry C. HORNEFFER, George TETZOLD, Charles G. MEYER, John NEUENS, T. TETZOLD, E. FRANCKENBERG, J. GOLDSMITH, John R. BOHAN, Louis TOESER, Robert F. MARTINNI, Carl MENZE, Jr., Carl RABE, Carl MUELLER, J. WERSCHING, Peter WOLFF, F. WIFFMAN, J.B. SCHEIBLE, William A. PORS, Edward PANZER, Gustav GOETZE, Phillip RUNKLE, John SIMON, Nicholas JOHANN, Thomas HOYT, John DIEDRICH, Carl MENZE, Sr., Charles BESCH, D. KEMP, J.W. VAIL and David VAIL. Since the incorporation took place, great enterprise has been manifested, each member proving himself a practical worker toward advancing the interests of the society. During the winter season, farmers have been known to come through all kinds of weather eight and ten miles to attend the regular meetings of the Gesang Verein. This earnest solicitation on the part of members has been maintained throughout, and to this vigorous and enterprising spirit may be attributed the grand success of the organization. The society has given quite a number of concerts, mostly for charitable purposes. In 1872, a new hall, 50 x 88 feet, was built by the association at a cost of $4,000; the formation is so arranged that a brick wall can be raised to enclose the present frame structure; this can be done at an additional cost of $3,000. The auditorium is handsomely furnished throughout, and has a seating capacity of 800. The stage is neatly fitted up, with all the necessary accommodations, such as scenery, dressing-rooms and stage properties in general.

Turn Verein. -- The Turner Society was organized by Jam. John C. SCHROELING May 14, 1860, with the following members: G.P. KUHN, Robert TETZOLD, Robert JAENICKE, Charles TETZOLD, Louis MUELLER, Charles BEGER, Peter KUHN, Robert MARTINNI, Henry SCHUTZ, Frederick BARTELS, Frederick BIEL, L. SCHMIDT, John MICHEL, John C. SCHROELING, W.H. LANDOLT and John ADAM. The first officers were - President, John C. SCHROELING; Vice President, J.P. KUHN; First Master, Robert JAENICKE; Second Master, Charles TETZOLD; Secretary, Louis MUELLER; Treasurer, Charles BEGER. On May 15, 1861, Maj. SCHROELING, who had then a reputation as a skillful swordsman, received a call from the Turner Society of Milwaukee to give an exhibition drill. Maj. SCHROLEING accepted the invitation, when he afterwards was made First Lieutenant of Company C of the Fifth Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry. He was joined by the following members of his own society from Port Washington: W.H. LANDOLT, Louis MUELLER, Frederick BARTELS, Henry SCHUTZ and John Michel.

Ozaukee Lodge, No. 17, A., F. & A.M. -- Was organized December 6, 1847, and charter granted by Grand Lodge of Wisconsin, January 15, 1848. The charter members were Isaac C. LOOMIS, Bostwick O'CONNOR, Mason WOODRUFF, William PAYNE, Orlando FOSTER, Joseph FISHBEIN and S.A. WHITE. First officers: Isaac C. LOOMIS, W.M.; Bostwick O'CONNOR, S.W.; Joseph FISHBEIN, J.W.; William PAYNE, Treas.; John A. BROWN, Sec.; Orlando FOSTER, S.D.; S.A. WHITE, J.D. Present officers: W.A. PORS, W.M.; John J. RACE, S.W.; E.R. BLAKE, J.W.; Ulrich LANDOLT, Sec.; J.B. PEFFER, Treas.

I.O.O.F. -- This order preceded the Masons in their organization about one year, and continued their regular meetings until the year 1854, when the building in which they held their lodge was destroyed by fire, after which disaster the organization was dissolved.

Sons of Hermann. -- Held their first meeting December 13, 1875. The society has increased in numbers yearly, and is well supported by the Germans in the village and town. The officers are R. STELLING, Pres.; Gustav GAUER, Vice Pres.; N. YOUNG, Sec.


The first move toward the organization of a regular system of defense against fires was originated by August MEYER, who proposed the forming of a hook and ladder company, which plan was carried into effect in 1864, and was styled the Port Washington Fire Company. Mr. MEYER was unanimously elected Chief, which position he still retains. In 1876, an engine and hose company were added. Fire plugs or cisterns are conveniently located throughout the village, and although the company is purely volunteer, a corps of some fifty men hold themselves in readiness to respond to any alarm which may be given. The men are thoroughly equipped with the regular fireman's paraphernalia, caps, rubber coats and boots. Their parade uniforms consist of plain red shirts with white belts and caps. The promptness adhered to by the members of the company reflects great credit on the management, while the people of Port Washington may rest secure as to the efficiency of the department as a protection against fire. They may also feel proud of an organization in which so much enterprise and thorough discipline is manifested. The oldest inhabitant of the village fails to call to mind the date of the first blaze. Some say that a small frame dwelling house was burned as early as 1846. The first fire of any importance, however, was that of HEIGHAN, KERN & BOSS's flouring mill, a four-story frame building which was entirely consumed by the flames. The mill was run by steampower and was full of grain and flour at the time, all of which was destroyed. The loss occasioned by this fire is placed at $20,000. During the same year, 1851, the Powers House, a frame hotel, was burned; estimated loss, $5,000. In 1852 came the destruction of the Wisconsin House, and in 1854 M.M. WHEDON's store. Since that time no very serious damage has been done by the flames.


For a number of years past Port Washington has had several parts of bands, but not until 1879 could the village lay claim to a thoroughly organized band. The great drawback in the past seemed to be the want of a good leader. This deficiency was met and the difficulties overcome in the person of Martin ZIMMERMAN, who, in the summer of 1879, undertook the arduous task of organizing a brass and string band. Mr. ZIMMERMAN had many obstacles to contend with, the greatest being the lack of experienced players. Nothing daunted, he set to work, made his selections from the raw material, after which he kept them in constant practice, so that now Port Washington has a band that will compare favorably with those of larger towns. The members are: Brass - Martin ZIMMERMAN, leader, first E flat; M. FREY, second E flat; N. GILSON, piccolo; Louis FIDDLER, first alto; Mat MARMER, second alto; W. SHULENBERG, first tenor; B. NOTTING, second tenor; John GILSON, trombone; George ZIMMERMAN, bass; Gilbert GERMINSON, tenor drum, A. BOSS, bass drum. String -- Martin ZIMMERMAN, first violin; Theodore UERLE, second violin; Mat FREY, flute; W. SHULENBERG, B. cornet; N. GILSON, trombone, and John GILSON, bass violin.


Thomas MOONEY, an educated Irishman, who came to this country in 1846, wrote a history of Ireland and also contributed articles to the Boston Pilot, which were the means of inducing many of his countrymen to emigrate to this country, most of them locating in Ozaukee and Washington Counties. Mr. MOONEY was also a poet, and wrote several poems on America which were remarkable for their originality and strong patriotism.

"Literary Gems," handsomely set in artistically-designed covers, and carefully preserved as mementos to the essayists of Port Washington, found a place in the regard of the young people.

The first of these to greet is neighbors and friends was a spicy little journal called the Literary Chip Basket which made its appearance February 17, 1858, under the following motto:

A wise man scorneth nothing,
Be it ever so humble;
For he knoweth not the secret laws
That may bind it to great effects."

Henry L. COE and Nettie E. WILMOT, editors. The Chip Basket soon became popular and had for its contributors some of the best talent in the village. The editors were changed quite frequently. Volume II appeared with the names of J.W. VAIL and Nettie WILMOT. Miss Mary VAIL, daughter of James W. VAIL, has preserved several numbers of the paper, in delicately-worked covers. The Chip Basket created quite a stir among Dame Society's subjects and awakened literary propensities to such an extent that it was but a short time until there were a number of contemporaries in the field. First came the Society Journal, edited by Haney L. COE and Inez TURNER; motto: "Where there's a will there's a way." The What Not soon followed, edited by Nettie E. COE, James W. VAIL and William A. PORS; preface: "O, eyes sublime, that have tears and laughter for all times." The contributors to the What Not were: Ladies -- Mrs. H.L. COE, Mrs. W.H. WRIGHT, Mrs. C.E. CHAMBERLIN, Mrs. E.S. TURNER, Mrs. J.M. BOSTWICK, Mrs. W.A. PORS, Mrs. P.M. BUTLER, Mrs. Annie E. SCOTT, Mrs. M.J. TOWSLEY, Mrs. A.W. BOLDS, Miss Lulu M. WHEDON, Miss Mary B. VAIL, Miss Inez TURNER. Gentlemen -- H.L. COE, W.H. WRIGHT, R.C. KANN, C.E. CHAMBERLIN, L.H. CLARK, E. PORS, O. P. MELIN, G.W. FOSTER, Rev. R.C. PARSONS, William A. PORS, George PARSONS, James P. WHEDON.

The Whimsical Mirror. -- "Reflecting the whims of women and the follies of men." "You shall not budge until I have set you up a glass wherein you may see the inmost part of you." This journal was kept before the society for a short time when it was succeeded by the Allspice, edited by Harvey L. COE and Mrs. E.S. TURNER, under the following motto:

"Of all those arts in which the wise excel,
Nature's chief masterpiece is writing well."

The contributors to the Allspice were: Ladies -- Mrs. I.G. DANIELS, Mrs. A.W. BOLDS, Mrs. IONE WRIGHT, Mrs. Nettie E. COE, Miss Lottie MOORE, Miss Inez TURNER. Gentlemen -- Rev. BROOKS, George W. FOSTER.

The Star was among the first to appear, but was of so short a duration that sample copies were not preserved. These literary journals have been the means of adding materially to society enjoyments, besides creating a desire for knowledge and advancing the people both morally and intellectually, some of the productions are worthy of publication, and would no doubt command a place in the periodicals of the day.


The first newspaper published in the village of Port Washington was the Washington County Democrat, established by Flavius J. MILLS in the summer of 1847. At that time, the Democratic party was divided as to county politics. Mills took sides with the predominant faction in order to control the county printing. The opposition then set on foot a project for the establishing of a new paper, which was carried into effect in the month of June, 1849, when the Washington County Blade made its appearance under the management of Rhenodyne A. BIRD, who had been induced to come from Madison and embark in the enterprise. James W. VAIL was soon afterward admitted as a partner, the Blade being published under the names of BIRD & VAIL. The paper gained prestige rapidly, and in less than one year succeeded in making a clean sweep of its contemporary, and the Democrat was subsequently emerged into the Blade.

When the question of dividing the county came before the people, BIRD was inclined to favor the division, while VAIL vigorously opposed it, taking the ground that the people, as a majority, were against it, and would not sustain them in such a course. Failing to convince BIRD by his manner of reasoning, VAIL sold out his interest. BIRD then continued to publish the paper alone, but, as VAIL had predicted, met with such a serious loss of patronage, on account of his advocating a division of the county,m that, at the end of one year, he was compelled to abandon the enterprise. BIRD then moved his type to Horicon, Dodge Co., where he published a paper in support of C.H. LARRABEE, at that time prominent in State politics. The Port Washington Zeitung (German), was established January 1, 1855, by A. HEIDKAMP, and has since been continuously published. A full sketch of its founder, who died during the month of July, 1881, can be found in the county history of this book. The Advertiser, edited by John R. BOHAN, was removed to Port Washington from Grafton in 1859, and has ever since maintained its place as the official paper of Ozaukee County. During the same year, G.W. FOSTER started the Port Washington Republican, but as the political food of Ozaukee County was not of the kind on which a Republican paper was wont to thrive, at the end of eighteen months Mr. FOSTER was obliged to abandon the enterprise. The Weekly Star, edited by Hon. E.B. BOLENS, first made its appearance in Port Washington November 1, 1879. The paper is ably edited and is fast gaining in patronage and the support it justly deserves. Mr. BOLENS also runs a job office in connection with his paper. His office is equipped with new type, and the work turned out compares favorably with that of larger cities.


The light-house was established at Port Washington in 1849. The building is situated on "North Bluff" on a lot which was donated to the Government by Solon JOHNSON. The building and natural elevation, have together, an altitude of 200 feet. The first keepers was Capt. WORTH, father-in-law of A.M. BLAIR. In politics, the Captain was a staunch Whig. After WORTH, came Capt. TUTHILL, bearing all the characteristics of Dicken's Captain Cuttle, with the exceptions of a lame arm and pot-hook. TUTHILL's successors were Bernard SHUMER, who died in office; F.L. HOYT, P. KEHOE, and Capt. LEWIS who held it until the time of his death. The house is now in charge of his widow. The salary was first set at $350 per year. The present salary is $540. The light-house is built of brick. The basement story is set off into apartments for the family of the keeper.


The pioneer doctor of Port Washington was Dr. P.H. CLARK, who came to the village in 1847. He kept the first drug store on Franklin street, where Maj. John C. SCHROELING now lives. The pioneer dentist was Dr. POWERS, afterward proprietor of the POWERS House, which was destroyed by fire shortly after the county was organized. Dr. CLARK's successors were Drs. OSGOOD, STILLMAN and FISHER. The present doctors are Messrs. SCHOLL and SMITH.


The first post office in the village was established sometime during the year 1843. O.A. WATROUS was the first Postmaster. The office was kept in a frame building which stood on the ground where the court house now stands. WATROUS was succeeded by Dr. POWERS, Walter LYON, S.A. WHITE, Lyon SILVERMAN, R.L. GOVE and Norman S. TURNER. When the name of the office was changed from Ozaukee to that of Port Washington, Harvey L. COE, the present incumbent, was appointed to the place.


The early lawyers were Henry ALLEN, G.M. WAUGH, G.W. FOSTER, Hopewell COX, Leland STANFORD and L. TOWSLEY. The pioneer judges were Andrew MILLER and Charles H. LARRABEE. The present lawyers are W.A. PORS, James HEDDING, Eugene S. TURNER, D.M. JACKSON, G.W. FOSTER, L. TOWSLEY and Harvey L. COE.

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